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SPM SEMINAR 2014 SCIENCE Ms. Yap Made possible by

SPM SEMINAR 2014

SCIENCE

Ms. Yap

SPM SEMINAR 2014 SCIENCE Ms. Yap Made possible by
SPM SEMINAR 2014 SCIENCE Ms. Yap Made possible by
SPM SEMINAR 2014 SCIENCE Ms. Yap Made possible by

Aim:%To%purify%alcohol%from%a%mixture%of%alcohol%and%water%by%distillation.%

Material:%A%mixture%of%alcohol%and%water. %

Apparatus:%Distillation%flask,%thermometer,%Liebig%condenser,%wire%gauze,%beaker,%

Bunsen%burner,%retort%stand%and%clamp,%tripod%stand%

% % % % % % % % % % Figure%4.41%SetF up%of%the%apparatus% Method: %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%4.41%SetF up%of%the%apparatus%
Method: %

1. The%apparatus%as%shown%in%%Figure%4.41%is%set%up. %

2. The%Liebig%condenser%is%filled%with%running%tap%water. %

3. The%mixture%of%alcohol%and%water%in%the%flask%is%heated%up%slowly.% CAUTION:%ALCOHOL%IS%HIGHLY%INFLA MMABLE %

4. The%distillate%is%collected%at%78%%%%C.%

5. The%physical%characteristics%of%the%distillate%are%observed.%

% % Observation:% %

%

Observation:% %

Liquid%at%room%temperature,%volatile,%colourless%and%smells%like%alcohol . % (Physical% characteristics%of%the%distillate)%

Discussion: % %

1. Alcohol%boils%at%78° C%whereas%water%boils%at%100° C,%therefore%alcohol%and%water% have%different%boiling%points. %

2. When%the%mixture%is%heated%until%it%reaches%78° C,%only%alcohol%will%boil%and% change%to%vapour. %

3. The%alcohol%vapour%is%collected%and%cooled%in%the% Liebig%condenser.%

4. The%water,%which%boils%at%a%higher%temperature,%remains%in%the%distillation%flask.%

%

Conclusion:% %

A%mixture%of%alcohol%and%water%can%be%separated%by%distillation.%

%

% Figure%4.39%A%simple%distillation%process%

Figure%4.39%A%simple%distillation%process%

2.%During%simple%distillation. %

a) The%solution%is%heated%until%it%boils.%

b) Some%porcelain%chips%are%added%to%the%distillation%flask%to%ensure%even%boiling% and%to%prevent%excessive%bubbling%in%the%flask. %

c) The%vapour%is%then%collected%and%allowed%to%cool%and%condense%in%a%Liebig% condenser.%

d) This% condensed%liquid%is%pure%which%is%known%as%the%distillate.%

e) The%impurities%will%remain%in%the%distillation%flask. %

Below%is%the%comparison%of%the%3%types%of%radiation.%

Alpha%Particles%

Beta%Particles %

Gamma%Radiation %

Consist%of%helium%nuclei%

Consist%of% electrons%

Consist%of%electromagnetic% waves %

Positively%charged%

Negatively%charged%

Neutral%

Move%slowly %

Move%very%quickly %

Moves%at%the%speed%of%light %

Low%penetrating%power%

High%penetrating%power%

Very%high%penetrating%

power%

Attracted%by%negative%

Attracted%by%positive%

Not%affected%by%electric%

charges%

charges%

charges%

Slightly%deflected%by%a%

Easily%deflected%by%a% magnetic%field%(particles% are%very%light) %

Not%deflected%by%magnetic%

magnetic%field%(particle%

field%(has%no%charges)%

have%large%mass)%

%

Uses%of%Rad ioactive%Substances%

Medicine '

1.

Radioisotope'glucose% is%used%to%trace%cancerF cell%growth%in%the%body.% Radioisotope%glucose%is%injected%into%the%body%intravenously.%CancerF cells%

absorb%glucose%faster%than%normal%cells.%This%allows%doctors%to%do%a%scan%and% detect%areas%in%the%body%suspected%of%having%cancerF cells.%

2.

Sodium 324 % is%injected%into%the%body%intravenously%to%trace%the%circulation%of% blood%in%order%to%detect%any%blockage%in%the%blood%vessels. %

3.

Gamma%radiation%from% cobalt360 % is%used%for%treating%cancer. % The%radiation%

kills%cancer

F cells.%Gamma%radiation%is%also%used%for%sterilizing%surgical%

equipment.

4.

Iodine3131 % is%used%for%treating%diseases%connected%with%the%thyroid%gland% and%also%for%tracing%tumours%in%the%brain. %

5.

Plutonium 3238 % is%used%in%nuclear%batteries%for%regulating%the%heart%beats%of% heart%patients.%The%battery%is%embedded%in%the%chest.%

Agriculture'

1. Gamma'radiation'is%used%for%the%following%purposes: '

a) To%sterilize%insect%pests%in%order%to%control%their%populations. %

b) To%bring%about%mutation%in%plants% with%the%hope%of%getting%better%variables. %

2. Carbon314 % is%added%to%carbon%dioxide%for%plants%to%absorb%for%photosynthesis.% This%allows%the%scientists%to%trace%the%path%of%the%carbon%dioxide%and%its%functions% in%the%plant. %

3. Phosphorus332 % is%added%to%fertilizers%for%scientists%to%study%the%absorption%of% minerals%by%plants.%

Archaeology'

1. Carbon314 % is%used%in%carbon F dating%i.e.%determining%the%age%of%plant%and%animal% fossils. %

2. A%living%plant%or%animal%contains%specific%quantity%of%carbon F 14.%By%determining% the%amount%of% carbon314 % left%in%a%fossil,%archaeologists%can%estimate%the%age%of% the%fossil. %

Industry'

1. a )%Gamma%radiation%is%used%for%controlling%the%thickness%of%paper,%alumin ium% % sheets%and%plastic%sheets%during%manufacturing.%For%example%the%radiation% passing%through%paper%is%picked%up%by%a%Geiger%Muller%counter.%Any%variation%

%

in%the%thickness%of%the%paper%gives%a%change%in%the%reading%of%the%counte r. %

Figure%6.5)%

%

(See%
(See%
%%%%% %%% b )% Radiation%is%also%used%for%checking%whether%food% container%has%the%right% amount% food%stuff.% % % %
%%%%% %%% b )%
Radiation%is%also%used%for%checking%whether%food% container%has%the%right%
amount% food%stuff.%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%6.5%Controlling%the%thickness%of%aluminium%sheets%
%
% 2. Radioisotope%iron%is%used%to%determine%corrosion%in%a%machine.%The%radioactive%iron%
mixed%with%the%metal%used%in%making%the%machine.%The%amount%of%radioactive%iron%
found%
in%the%lubricant%used%for%the%machine%will%show%the%rate%of%corrosion.%%
%
3.
SodiumF 24%is%added%into%the%water%or%oil%in%underground%pipes.%In%this%way%any%%
water%or%oil%in%the%ground%can%be%traced%by%using%a%Geiger%Muller%counter.% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%6.6%Tracing%leakage%of%water%or%oil%in%an%underground%pipe%
%
Food'Preservation
'
' 1. Gamma%radiation%is%used%to%sterilize%food%and%to%preserve%certain%types%of%food%so%
that%they%last%longer. '
'
2. English%potatoes%treated%with%gamma%radiation%will%not%grow%shoots%while%being%
stored.'
%
3.
Radioactive%substances%must%be%handled%from%a%distance%using%appropriate%
equipment.% % '
%
4.
(a)%Workers%using%equipment%which%involves%% radiation%such%as%XF ray%machines% '
must%operate%them%behind%suitable%screens.
'
%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%% (b)%Alpha%and%beta%radiation%can%be%blocked%by%using%thick%cardboards%or%
%
%%%%%%%% aluminium%sheets.%
%
%
%%%% %
%
%
%% (c)%Gamma%radiation%can%only%be%blocked%by%a%thick%lead% or%concrete%screen%as%it%has% % %%%%%%%%
%% (c)%Gamma%radiation%can%only%be%blocked%by%a%thick%lead% or%concrete%screen%as%it%has% %
%%%%%%%% very%strong%penetrating%power.%%
%
5%%%%%%%%%%(a)%Workers%handling%equipment%using%radio F % active%substances%must%wear% %
%%%%% docimeters.' '
%
%%%%%%%%%%%% (b)%A%docimeter%has%a%photogrnphic%film.%The%film%will%be%developed%to%show%the%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% radiation%which%the%wearer%has%been%exposed%to.%%
%
%
6.%%%%%%%%Radioactive%waste%must%be%kept%in%lead%or%concrete%containers%and%be%thrown%
into%the%deep%sea.% %
'
'
NUCLEAR'ENERGY'AND'ITS'USES '
'
Production'of'Nuclear'Energy'
'
Nuclear%energy%can%be%produced%by%two%methods:%
a)
Nuclear%fission
%
b) Nuclear%fusion%
%
Nuclear'Fission'
'
1.
The%nucleus%in%the%atom%of%a%radioactive%substance%breaks%up%(decays)%
spontaneously%to%become%more%stable%and%releases%a%lot%of%energy.%%
%
2.
This%decay%or%breaking%up%of%the%nucleus%is%speeded%up % by%bombarding%the%
nucleus%with%a%neutron.% %
%
3.
This% process%of%breaking%up%the%nucleus%of%an%atom% by%a%neutron%to%get%nuclear%
energy%is%called% nuclear% fission.% %
%
4.
In% practice%a%radioisotope%with%a%large%nucleus,% such%as%radioisotope%with%a%
large%nucleus%such%as%radioisotope%uraniumF 235%is%used.%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%6.7%Nuclear%fission%of%uraniumF 235%
%
%
5.
The%process%of%producing%nuclear%energy%by%fission%of%uranium F 235%is%as%
follows:%%%
(a)%A%neutron%is%used%to%bombard%the%nucleus%of%an%atom%of%uranium F 23S.%This%
takes%place%in%a%controlled%way%in%a%reactor.% %
%
%
%
(b)%The%nucleus%absorbs%the%neutron%and%becomes%even%more%unstable.%Then%it%
divides%into%two%smaller%nuclei%of%two%elements%(nucleus%of%barium%and%
nucleus%of%krypton).%Thus%nuclear%fission%(fission%=% splitting)%has%taken%place.%%
%
%
6.
%
(c)%During%fission,%a%lot%of%nuclear%energy%and%three%neutrons%are%released.% %
7.
%
%
(d)%Each%neutron%can%then%proceed%to%bombard%nucleus%of%another%uraniumF
235%atom. %
Nuclear'Fusion' ' 1. Nuclear%energy%is%also%released%when%the%nuclei%of%atoms%of%a%light%element%combine%
Nuclear'Fusion'
'
1.
Nuclear%energy%is%also%released%when%the%nuclei%of%atoms%of%a%light%element%combine%
to%form%heavier%nuclei.% %
%
%
2.
This%process%is%called%nuclear%fusion%(fusion% =% combining).% %
%
%
3.
Nuclear%fusion%takes%place%in%the%Sun%and%in%the%stars%where%hydrogen%nuclei%
combine%to%form%helium%nuclei.% %
%
%
%
4.
This%fusion%of%nuclei%is%accompanied%by%the%release%of%a%tremendous%amount%of%
energy.% %
%
%
5.
The%core%of%the%Sun%where%nuclear%fusion%takes%place%reaches%a%temperature%of%is% %
15% 000% OOO°C.%%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
'
%
Figure%6.8%Nuclear%fusion%of%hydrogen%isotopes%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
'
'
SCATTERING'OF'LIGHT ' ' What'is'Light'Scattering' ' 1.
SCATTERING'OF'LIGHT
'
'
What'is'Light'Scattering'
'
1.
Light%scattering%takes%place%when%gas%molecules,%water%vapour%and%dust% in%the%
air%deflect%light%from% the%original%path%towards%all%directions.% %
%
2.
(a)%This%scattering%of%light%depends%on%the%colour%of% the%light.
%
%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%% (b)%Violet,%indigo% and% blue%are%scattered%particles%because%they%have%short%
wavelengths.%Violet%is%most%scattered.% %
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%% (c)%Yellow,%orange%and%red%are%scattered%less%by%particles%because%they%have%
long%wavelengths.%Red% is% least% scattered.%%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
'
Figure%7.30%Light%scattering%by%particles%
%
%
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
1.
%
%
%
Figure%7.31%Properties%of%the%colour%lights%in%the%spectrum%
%
%
'
Effects'of'Light'Scattering '
'
The%scattering%of%light%causes%the%following%phenomena:%
a) Blue% skies%
b) Red%sunsets
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%7.32%The%observer%sees%a%blue%sky%above%him
%
%%%%%%%%%%%% % Blue'Sunset ' % % % 1. Violet,%indigo%and%blue%in%sunlight%are%much%scattered%by% the%
%%%%%%%%%%%% % Blue'Sunset '
%
%
%
1.
Violet,%indigo%and%blue%in%sunlight%are%much%scattered%by%
the% particles%in%the%air%e.g.%gas%molecules,%water%vapour%
and%dust. %
%
2.
Most%of%the%violet%and%indigo%are%absorbed%by%the%Earth's%
atmosphere,%leaving%blue.% %
%
3.
An%observer%on%the%Earth%looking%upwards%in%the%afternoon%will%see%a%blue%sky.%%
%
Red'Sunset '
%
1.
Red%and%orange%are%least%scattered%by%particles%in%the%Earth's%atmosphere.%%
%
2.
Red%and%orange%travel%through%a%longer%distance%through%the%atmosphere%to%an%
observer%on%the%Earth.%
%
3.
The%observer%looking%towards%the%sun%in%the%evening%sees%more%red%and%orange.%
So%he%sees%a%reddish%orange%sunset.%
%
% % % % % % % % % % % % % % %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%7.33%The% observer%sees%a%red%sunset %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%7.34%Scattering%of%light%by%particles%in%the%water%
%
%
%
%
Action % Water%in%the%beaker % Light%on%the%screen % Before%adding%milk % Clear%and%colourless % White%light %
Action
%
Water%in%the%beaker %
Light%on%the%screen
%
Before%adding%milk %
Clear%and%colourless
%
White%light %
After%adding%milk %
Appears%blush
%
Reddish%F % orange
%
%
1.
The%milk%particles%in%the%water%scatter%from%the%projector.%
2.
Violet,%indigo%and%blue%are%much%scattered%in%all%directions. %
3.
Violet%and%indigo%are%absorbed%into%the%air.%The%blue%left%makes%the%water%appear%
blush. %
4.
Very%little%of%orange%is%scattered,% while%red%is%the%least%scattered.%As%a%result,%
orange%and%red%can%travel%far%to%the%screen%and%make%the%screen%look%reddishF
orange.%
%
Violet,%indigo%and%blue%are%much%more%scattered%while%orange%and%red%are%less%
scattered.
%
ADDITION'AND'SUBTRACTION'OF'COLOUR ED'LIGHTS
'
Addition'of'Coloured'Lights
'

1.

Colours%may%be%classified%into%two%groups,%namely:

a)

Primary%colours

 

b)

Secondary%colours

 

2.

a)%Red,%green%and%blue%are%primary%colours.%

 

%

%%%%%%%%%%%%% b)%A%primary%colour%cannot%be%obtained%by%mixing%other%colours.

%%%%%%% 3.% %%% a)%Yellow,%magen ta%and%cyan%are%secondary%colours.%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%% b)%%A%secondary%colour%is%obtained%by%mixing%two%primary%colours. %

Primary%colours %

 

Secondary%colours

Red%+%Green

 

Yellow

 

Red%+%Blue %

 

Magenta

 

Green%+%Blue %

 

Cyan %

 

Red%+%Green%+%Blue %

White

 

%

%

4.% % Complementary'colours % are%any%2%colours%which%when%mixed%produce%white.

Complementary%colours % Colours%obtained % Yellow%+%Blue % White % Magenta%+%Green % White % % White %
Complementary%colours %
Colours%obtained
%
Yellow%+%Blue %
White
%
Magenta%+%Green
%
White
%
%
White
%
%
'
'
Subtraction'of'Coloured'Lights'by'Coloured'Filters ' ' 1. A%
Subtraction'of'Coloured'Lights'by'Coloured'Filters '
' 1. A% filter%is%a%transparent%piece%of%glass,%plastic%or%gelatine%sheet%which%allows%some%
light%through%and%prevents%others. %
%
%
2.
The%action%of%a%filter%which%prevents%certain%colours%in%white%light%from%passing%
through%it%is% called%the%subtraction%of%coloured%ligh ts. %
%
%
3.
The%coloured%lights%which%can% pass%through% a%filter%depends%on%the%colour%of%the%
filter.% %
%
4.
a)%A%primary%filter%(coloured%red,%green%or%blue)%allows%only%its%own%colour%to%pass%
%
through%it;%all%other%colours%are%absorbed%by%it.% %
%
%%%%%%% b)%Example:%A% red%filter%allows%only%red%to%pass%through%it.%
%
5.
a)%A%secondary%filter%(coloured%yellow,%magenta,%or%cyan)%allows%its%own%colour%
and%its%component%colours%to%pass%through%it.%
b)%Example:%A%yellow%filter%allows%yellow,%red% and%green%to%pass%through%it.%
(yellow%is%composed% red%and%green)%
%
6.
a)%When%2%filters%are%held%together,%only%the%colour%common%to%both%filters%can%
pass%through%them.%
b)%Example:%When%a%red%filter%and%a%yellow%filter%are%held%together,%only%red% light%
can%pass%through%them.%(yellow% =%red%+%green).%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%7.38%Subtraction%of%coloured%lights%by%filters%
%
%
%
%
%
% Figure%7.37%(c)%When%two%filters%are%held%together,%only%the%colour%common%to%both% filters%can%pass%through%them% %
%
Figure%7.37%(c)%When%two%filters%are%held%together,%only%the%colour%common%to%both%
filters%can%pass%through%them%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
APPEARANCE'OF'COLOURED'OBJECTS ' ' Objects'in'primary'colours' ' (a)
APPEARANCE'OF'COLOURED'OBJECTS
'
'
Objects'in'primary'colours' '
(a)
An%objectin%a%primary%colour%(red,%g reen%and% blue)%reflects%its%own% colour.%%
(b)
A%red%rose%looks%red%in%white%light%or%red%li
ght%
because%it%reflects%red% light%and%
absorbs %
other%colours.% %
(c)
A%red%rose%looks%black%in%blue%light% because,%has%absorbed%the%blue % light.%%
%
%
%
%
Figure%7.40%An%object%in%primary%colour%under%different%lights%
%
%
%
Object'in'secondary'colours' '
(a)
An%object%in%a%secondary%colour%(yellow,%magenta%or%cyan)%reflects%its%own%colour%
and%%its%component%colours.% %
(b)
The% yellow%petals%of%a%flower%appear%yellow%in%white%light%or%yellow%light%because%
they % reflect%yellow%light.%
(c)
The%yellow%petals%appear%red%in%red%light%and%
green%in%green%light%because%they%
can%reflect%red%and%green%(yellow%=%red%+%green).%
(d)
The%yellow%petals%appear%black%in%blue%light%because%they%absorb%blue%light. %
%
% % %
% Figure%7.41%An%object%in%secondary%colour%under%different%lights% % % % %
%
Figure%7.41%An%object%in%secondary%colour%under%different%lights%
%
%
%
%
White'objects'and'black'objects ' % a)
White'objects'and'black'objects '
%
a)
A%white%object%looks%white%because%it%reflects%all%colours%in%white%light.%
b)
A%white%object% appears%red%in%red%light%because%it%reflects%red%light. %
c)
A%black%object%looks%black%because%it%absorbs%all%the%colours%in%white%light.%
d)
A%black%object%appears%black%in%green%light%because%it%absorbs%green%light.%
%
%
Figure%7.42%White%and%black%objects%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
'
'
FACTORS'WHICH'AFFECT'THE'GROWTH'OF'MICROORANISMS ' %
FACTORS'WHICH'AFFECT'THE'GROWTH'OF'MICROORANISMS
'
%
A'Factors'which'Affect'Microorganisms '
'
Factors%which%greatly%influence%growth%and%reproduction%of%microorganisms%are%given%
below . % %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%9.23
%
%
Nutrients'
'
1.
Microorganisms%require%nutrients%in%order%to%live.%
%
%
2.
Microorganisms%ob tain%their%nutrients%by%being: %
(a)%autotrophic;%
%
(b)%saprophytic;%%
(c)%parasitic.%%
%
3.
Algae%and% bacteria%with%chlorophyll%are% autotrophic.%They%make%their%own%food%by,%
photosynthesis%from%carbon%dioxide%and%water%with%the%help%of%sunlight. %
%
%
4.
Some%microorgan isms,%such%as%some%bacteria%and% fungi,%are%saprophytic.%They%
obtain%their% nutrients%from%decaying%organic%matter.% %
%
%
5.
Some%microorgan isms%such%as%some%bacteria%and% viruses,%are%parasitic.%They%obtain%
their%nutrients% from%their%living%hosts.% %
%
Humidity''
%
%
1.
Microorganisms%need%moisture%or%water% in%order%to%live.%They%will%die%if%they%do%not%get%
water%for%a%period%of%time.%
,%
%
%
2.
During,%drought,%some%bacteria%form%spores%to%survive.%Bacterial%spores%are%very%resistant%
to%.% %
adverse%conditions.% %
%
3.
Amoebae%form%cysts%(spores%with%an%outer%covering)%when%the%ponds%they%live%in%dry%up.%
%
%
%
4.
Microorganisms%in%air%are%most%active%with%an%air%humidity%of%25%% F % 40%. %
%
%
5.
This%water%requirement%explains%why%dry%food%keeps%longer%than%wet%food.
%
%
%
%

Light' '

 
 

1.

Except%for%algae%and%bacteria%which%have%chlorophyll%and%carry%out%photosynthesis.%

 

microorganisms%prefer%a%dim%or%dark%habitat.% %

2.

Strong%sunlight%(high%intensity%ultraviolet%light)%kills%most%microorganisms.% %

 

3. %

Moulds%and%most%bacteria%are%more%active%in%the%dark,%growing%and%reproducing%rapidly.%

Temperature' ' ' 1. The%most%suitable%temperature%for%the%growth%and%reproduction%of%microorganisms%
Temperature'
'
'
1.
The%most%suitable%temperature%for%the%growth%and%reproduction%of%microorganisms%
is%about%37°C. &
&
%
2.
High%temperatures%will%kill%microorganisms,%but%low % temperatures%only%hinder%
their% growth%an%reproduction.% % %
%
3. The%graph%below%shows%the%effect%of%temperature%on%bacteria.%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%9.24%The%effect%of%temperature%on%bacterial%growth%
'
'
pH'
%
1. Microorganisms%are%killed%by%strong%acids%and%alkalis. %
%
2.
Most%microorganisms%prefer%to%live%in%a%neutral%medium,%i.e.%pH%7. %
%
3.
Microorganisms%which%cause%decay% prefer%a%slightly%acidic%medium. %
%
4.
The%bacilli%which%turn%milk%sour%live%in%an%acidic%medium.
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

1.

Petri%dishes%and%agar%are%sterilized%so%that%they%do%not%contain%bacteria%at%the%beginning%

of%the% experiment %

 

2.

Petri%dishes%are%invented%for%incubation%so% that%any%extra%liquid%formed%will%not%fall%on%

 

the%surface%of%the%agar%and%spoil%it %

 

3.

The%white%dots%seen%are%colonies%of%bacteria %

 

4.

Bacillus%subtilis%is%used%because%it%is%harmless

 

5.

Bacteria%cannot%grow%without%nutrients%or%water.%They%also%need%dim%light,%a%su itable%

 

temperature%and%a%neutral%medium%to%grow%well. %

 

Aim:%To%study%the%effects%of%antibiotics%on%bacteria %

 

Problem:%Does%the%concentration%of%an%antibiotic%affect%the%growth%of%bacteria?%

 

Hypothesis:%A%more%concentrated%antibiotic%affects%the%growth%of%bacteria%more%than%a% less%concentrated%one. %

Variables:% Manipulated%Variables:%Concentration%of%antibiotic % Responding%Variables:%The%area%of%bacteriaF free%zone% Fixed%Variables:%The%nutrient%agar%used,%temperature,%pH%

 

Operational%definition:% % The%growth%of%the%bacterial%colonies%can%be%observed%clearly%as%cloudy%areas%%on%the% agar.%Areas%which%are%clear%indicate%that%there%is%no%growth%of%bacteria%in%those% particular%areas. %

Materials:%Nutrient%agar,%culture%of%Bacillus%subtilis,%penicillin%sol ution%of%

concentrations%5%%and%20%%distilled%water%

 

Apparatus:%Autoclave,%Petri%dish,%inoculation%loop,%discs%of%filter%paper,%cellophane%tape,%

labelling%paper%

 

Method: %

 
 

1.

Three%Petri%dishes%of%nutrient%agar%are%prepared%and%sterilized%in%an%autoclave.

 

2.

An% inoculation%loop%is%dipped%in%the%culture%of%Bacillus%subtilis%ba cteria.%Then%the%

loop%is%swabbed%across%the%nutrient%agar%in%a%series%of%zigF zag%pattern%as%shown% in%Figure%1.27%(a).%The%agar%is%then%covered. %

%

in%Figure%1.27%(a).%The%agar%is%then%covered. % % % (a) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% (a) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% (b) % %
%
(a)
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% (b)
%
%
Figure%1.27%SetF up%of%apparatus %
%
%
3.
The%edge%of%each%Petri%dish%is%sealed%with%cellophane%tape. %
%
4.
The%Petri%dishes%are%kept%in%a%cupboard%for%two%days%to%allow%bacteria%to%grow%
until%the%whole%surface%of%the%agar%appears%cloudy.%
%
5. The%Petri%dishes%are%labelled%A,%B%and%C. % % 6.
5.
The%Petri%dishes%are%labelled%A,%B%and%C.
%
%
6.
Two%discs%of%filter%paper%that%have%been%moistened%with%distilled%water%are%
placed%on%the%surface%of%nutrient%agar%in%Petri%dish%A%as%shown%in%Figure%1.27%(b)%
%
7.
For%Petri%dish%B ,%two%discs%that%have%been%moistened%with%5%%penicillin%are%
placed. %
%
8.
For%Petri%dish%C,%two%discs%that%have%been%moistened%with%20%%penicillin%are%
placed. %
%
9.
The%Petri%dishes%are%kept%in%the%cupboard%again. %
%
10.
After%two%days,%the%Petri%dishes%are%taken%out%and%observed.%
%
11.
All%the%observations%are%recorded.%
%
%
%
Discussion: %
1.
It%is%found%that%there%is%no%clear%zone%around%the%discs%of%filter%paper% moistened%
with%distilled%water. %
%
2.
The%areas%of%clear%zones%around%the%discs%moistened%with%20%%penicillin%
solution%are%larger%compared%to%those%moistened%with%5%%penicillin%solution.%
%

Conclusion: %

 

The%concentration%of%an%antibiotic%will%affect%the%growth%of%the%bacteria.%A%more% concentrated%antibiotic%effects%the%growth%of%bacteria%more%than%a%less%concentrated% one.%The%hyp othesis%is%accepted.% %

Cholera' '

   

1.

.%Method'of'infection' '

.%

   

(a)%Cholera%is%caused%by%a%type%of%bacteria%(called%Vibrio%cholera)%

 

(b)%Cholera%spreads%through%contaminated%water%and%food.% (c)% The%fa eces%of% cholera%patient%contains%the% cholera%bacteria.%These%bacteria%can%be%transmitted%by%flies%to%our%water%and%food.%

2.

Symptoms' '

 
   

(a)%The%patient%has%severe%diarrhoea% and:% %

 

(b)%His%body%becomes%dehydrated.% (c)& He%feels%giddy,%pain%in%the%abdomen%and%a%ringing%tone%in%the%ears. %

3.%%Treatment/'Prevention a) The% patient%may%die%due%to%dehydration.%So%the%patient%has%to%be%given%saline%
3.%%Treatment/'Prevention
a)
The% patient%may%die%due%to%dehydration.%So%the%patient%has%to%be%given%saline%
drip%and%antibiotic.%
b)
The%disease%spreads%very%fast.%
c)
We%must%take%the%following%precautions%during%a%cholera%outbreak:%
i.
Get%vaccinated%against%cholera%
ii.
Boil%all%drinking%water %
iii.
Cover%all % food%so%that%flies%cannot%settle%on%it%
iv.
Increase%the%chlorine% content%in%the%water%supply.%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure%9.34%How%cholera%is%transmitted%
%
Immunity %
%
1.
Immunity! is#the#ability#of#the#body#to#fight#diseases.%
2.
Immunity(is(due(to(the(presence(of(white( blood%cells%in%the%body. %
3.
White&blood&cells&produce& antibodies ! to#fight#the#harmful#microF organism)called)

pathogen)which)enter)our)body.%

4. There%are%two%types%of%immunity,%as%shown%in%the%diagram%below:% % % Active'Immunity % %
4.
There%are%two%types%of%immunity,%as%shown%in%the%diagram%below:%
%
%
Active'Immunity %
%

1. Immunity(is(said(to(be( active ! if#it#is#due#to#antibodies#produced#by#the#body#itself. %

2. There%are%two%type%of%active%immunity,%one%is% natural'active'immunity'and'the' other&is&artificial&active&immunity. %

sickness.(The(he(is(said(to(have(attained(natural(active(immunity. %

%

b)#Certain#diseases#infect#us#only#once#in#our#lifetime,#for#example,#chicken#pox.# This%is%because%after%the%first%infection,%the%body%has%produced%enough% antibodies*to*fight*off*a*second*infection.*Therefore,*a*person*who*has*had* chickenpox*before*will*never*get*it*again.*He/she*is*said*to*have*natural*active* immunity'against'the'disease. %

% 4. % Artificial)active)immunity ' a) The$body$can$also$be$stimulated$ artificially !
%
4. % Artificial)active)immunity '
a)
The$body$can$also$be$stimulated$ artificially ! to#produce#antibodies.#This#is#
done%by% vaccination ,"the"injection"of"vaccine"into"the"body.%
b)
Vaccine'contains'weaken'or'dead'pathogen.'It'is'intentionally'injected'into'
the$body$ to#stimulate#it#to#produce#antibodies. %
%
c)#When#enough#antibodies#have#been#produced,#the#person#is#said#to#have#
artificial(active(immunity. %
%
d)#For#example,#artificial#active#immunity#against#poliomyelitis#can#be#attained#
by#injecting#the#Salk#vaccine#into"a"person."Likewise,"BCG"(Bacille"Calmette"
Duerin)(vaccine(can(confer(artificial(active(immunity(against(tuberculosis.( %
%
e)#The#process#of#attaining#immunity#by#artificial#means#is#known#as#
immunisation.*Vaccination*is*one*of*the*methods*of*immunisation. %
%
f)#Usually,#more#than#one#injection#of#vaccine#is#needed.#This#is#because#after#the#
first&injection,&the&quantity&of&antibodies&produced&is&not&high&enough&to&
reach&the&immunity&level&as&shown&in&the&diagram&below.&So,&a&second&
injection(of(vaccine(is(nee ded#to#stimulate#the#production#of#more#antibodies#
in#order#to#attain#immunity. %
%
%
%
g)#As#can#be#seen,#it#takes#some#time#before#enough#antibodies#are#produced.#
Hence,&the&immunity&is&not&immediately&attained%
%
%
%

Passive'immunity %

1. Immunity(is(said(to(be( passive'if'it'is'due'to'antibodies'obtained'from'outside. %

2. There%are%two%types%of%passive%immunity,%natural%passive%immunity%and%artificial%

passive'immunity' %

3.

Natural'Passive'Immunity'

a) Natural'passive'immunity'is'conferred'by'antibodies'acquired'naturally'from'an' external(source.'

b) This%occurs%when%a%baby%is%still%in%the%mother’s%womb.%Antibodies%diffuse%across% the$placenta$from$the$ maternal(blood( into%foetal%blood.%Even%after%the%baby%is%

born,&the&baby&will&still&receive&antibodies&from&the&mother&through& breastfeeding.-This%is%because%mothers’%first%milk%contains%colostrum.%

c) The$antibodies$that$a$baby$receives$from$the$mother$naturally$confer$natural$ passive'immunity'to'the'baby.'This'kind! of#immunity#protects#the#newborn#child# from%various%diseases. %

Q.#What#is#colostrum? % A. Colostrum)is)produced)by)mothers”)breasts)during)pregnancy)and)continuing)till)the) early&days&of&breastfeeding.&It&contains&all&the&nutrients&and&antibodies&to&keep&the& newborn'healthy. %

4.

Artificial)passive&immunit y'

a) Artificial)passive)immunity)is)attained)by)injecting) serum& (obtained*from* animals)(containing(antibodies(into(the(body.(It(gives(immediate(protection(to(the( person'concerned.'

b) The$injection$of$serum$containing$ antibodies*can*be*used*to*immunise*a*person* against'diphtheria.'Diphtheria'is'a'disease'characterized'by'the'formation'of'a' greyish(membrane(across(the(throat,(which(makes(it(difficult(for(the(person(to( breathe'or'swallow'food. '

c) This%kind%of%immunisation%is! also%used%on%a%person%who%is%ill%or%injured%and%is% unable'to'produce'his'own'antibodies.%

d) Since&the&antibodies&used&are&obtained&from&an&outside&source&(an&animal)&and& not$produced$by$the$person$himself,$the$antibodies$will$be$recognised$as$foreign$ and$wil l"eventually"be"destroyed"by"the"body.! Hence,&the&immunity&only&lasts&for&a& short&period&of&time&as&shown&in&the&figure&below.%

short&period&of&time&as&shown&in&the&figure&below. %
% Natural'Active % Immunity % Artificial)Active) Immunity % Natural' Artificial) Passive' passive'
%
Natural'Active %
Immunity %
Artificial)Active)
Immunity %
Natural'
Artificial)
Passive'
passive'
immunity %
immunity %
%
%
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Similarities %

All#of#them#give#protection#to#the#person#against#diseases.%

The$ability$to$fight$diseases$is$due$to$the$presence$of$antibodies$in$the$ body % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Differences % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %

Differences % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % • F ! I nfection(by( F ! Pathogen)are) F !
Differences % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % • F ! I nfection(by( F ! Pathogen)are) F !
Differences % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % • F ! I nfection(by( F ! Pathogen)are) F !

F

! I nfection(by(

F

! Pathogen)are)

F

! Immunity(is(

F

! Immunity(is(

pathogens*occurs*

introduced*

attained' naturally. %

attained'artificially.' %

naturally. %

! Antibodies*are* produced(by(the( body%itself. %

F

artificially)into)the)

body. %

! Antibodies*are* produced(by(the(

F

! Antibodies*are* obtained)from)an)

F

! Antibodies*are* obtained)from)an) outside(source. %

F

outside(source. %

F

! Immunity(is(

F

! Immunity(is(

F

! Immunity(is(

body%itself.% %

attained'

attained' immediately. %

attained'only'after'

F

! Immunity(is(

immediately. %

a"period"of"time. %

attained'only'after'

F

! Immunity(lasts(

F

! Immunity(lasts(

F

! Immunity(lasts(

a"period"of"time. %

for$a$short$period$

for$a$short$period$

for$a$long$period$of$

F

! Immunity(lasts(

of#time.# %

of#time%

time. %

for$a$long$period$of$ time. %

WHAT%IS%VULCANISED%RUBBER?'

1. Natural'rubber'in'its'original'state'is'not'suitable'for'making'many'thing'such'as'tyres'

and$rubber$hoses$because$it$is$soft,$easily$stretched$and$cannot$withstand$heat.$ %

2.

Natural'rubber'can'be'made'hard,'more'elastic'and'more'heat'resistant'by'

vulcanising* it. %

3.

Vulcanistion+of+rubber ! is#the#process#of#treating#natural#rubber#with#sulphur#so#that#

sulphur'atoms'form'crossF links&between&the&rubber&molecules%

% Vulcanisation %
%
Vulcanisation %
Natural'rubber'+''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !! vulcansied%
Sulphur''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! rubber%
%
%
%
%

4.

The$sulphur$atoms$in$the$vulcanised$rubber$form$cross$links$with$the$rubber$

molecules(and! prevent'the'molecules'from'sliding'over'one'another'easily.'This'makes' the$vulcanised$rubber$harder,$more$elastic$and$more$heat$resistant$than$natural$rubber%

% % a) Molecule'of'natural'rubber % % % b )% Vulcanised+rubber+has+sulphur% % 5.
%
%
a)
Molecule'of'natural'rubber %
%
%
b )%
Vulcanised+rubber+has+sulphur%
%
5.
The$hardness$and$elasticity$of! vulcanised+rubb er"can"be"controlled"by"changing"the"

percentage)of)sulphur)in)the)pressure%

%

How$is$rubber$Vulcanised?'

1. In#industry,#rubber#is#vulcanised#by#heating#a#mixture#of#natural#rubber#and# sulphur'at'140 o C"in"steam"under"high"pressure. %

%

2. In#the#lab,#vulcanised#rubber#can#be#prepared#as#follows# %

a. Pour%a%thin%layer%of%latex%mixed%with%an%acid%into%a%petri%dish%and%let%it% coagulate %

%

b. Cut$out$two$similar$strips$of$the$coagulated$rubber$formed$(1cm$x$5cm)%

%

c. Place&one&strip&of&the&coagulated&rubber&in&a&beaker&containing&a&solution&of& sulphur'monochloride'dissolved'in'methyl'benzene'for'3F 5"minutes"to" vulcanise*it.* %

%

d. Then%dry%the%vulcanised%rubber%in%air %

%

e. The$properties$of$natural$rubber$and$vulcanised$rubber$can$be$compared$by$

carrying(out(tests(with(strips(of(natural#rubber#and#vulcanised#rubber#

obtained%

Natural'rubber '

Vulcanised+rubber '

Softer%

Harder %

Not$so$strong%

Stronger%

Less$elastic$ %

More%elastic %

Less$resistant$to$heat$%

More%resistant%to%heat %

Easy%to% stretch'it %

Difficult(to(stretch(it %

%
%
Easy%to% stretch'it % Difficult(to(stretch(it % % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %

% % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % Vulcanising*rubber % % Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %

Vulcanising*rubber%

%
%

Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %

% % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % Vulcanising*rubber % % Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %
% % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % Vulcanising*rubber % % Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %
% % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % Vulcanising*rubber % % Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %
% % !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % Vulcanising*rubber % % Stretching*a*strip*of*rubber %

Production'of'ethanol'by'Fermentation'and'Distillation' '

1. Fermentation %

(a)%%Ethanol%can%be%produced%by% fermenting%glucose%with%yeast %

% ZYMASE ( % GLUSCOSE(+(YEAST(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((ETHANOL(DIOXIDE(+CARBON(+(ENERGY(( % (CATALYST) ( %
%
ZYMASE (
%
GLUSCOSE(+(YEAST(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((ETHANOL(DIOXIDE(+CARBON(+(ENERGY((
%
(CATALYST) (
%
%
%

(b)%Yeast%reacts%with%glucose%solution%(a%process%called%fermentation%)%to%form%ethanol%,%carbon% dioxide%and%energy%.% %

(c)%The%yeast%releases%and%enzyme%called% Zymase' to%act%as%a%catalyst%to%speed%up%the%reaction%.%

(d)%The%carbon%dioxide%produced%turns%the % limewater%in%the%test%tube%chalky%. %

PROBLEM %

How%is%an%ester%prepared%in%a%laboratory?%

HYPOTHESIS%

An%ester%is%prepared%by%reacting%an%organic%acid%with%an%alcohol% %

AIM %

To%prepare%the%ester%,%Ethyl%ethanoate%

APPARATUS% %

Tripod%stand%with%wire%gauze%,%Bunsen% burner%,%conical%flask%,%beaker%,%measuring% cylinder%,%glass%rod,%glass%tube%%

'

'

MATERIALS% %

Ethanoic%acid%,%ethanol%,%concentrated%sulphuric%acid%

%
%

Preparing%an%Ester %

ESTERS'AND'ESTERIFICATION''

1. When%you%eat%a%piece%of%ripe%pineapple%,%you%get%a%strong% pleasant%,%fruity%smell%of% an%ester%called%ethyl%ethanoate%. %

2. Fruit%such%as%bananas%,%papayas%and%mangoes%,%are%rich%in%esters%.%Fats%(butter)% and%oils%(corn%oil)%are%esters%. %

3. An%ester%is%an%organic%acid%with%an%alcohol.%This%reaction%is%carried%out%by% warm ing%the%mixture%with%a%little%concentrated%sulphuric%acid%as%a%catalyst% %

4. An%ester%is%made%by%%combining%an%organic%acid%with%alcohol.%This%reaction%is% carried%out%by%warming%the%mixture%with%a%little%concentrated%sulphuric%acid%as%a% catalyst.%

% % % Concentrated* % Sulphuric*Acid * % ORGANIC(ACID(+(ALCOHOL((((((((((( ((((((((((((((((((((ESTER(+(WATER( ( %
%
%
%
Concentrated*
%
Sulphuric*Acid *
%
ORGANIC(ACID(+(ALCOHOL((((((((((( ((((((((((((((((((((ESTER(+(WATER( (
%
(CATALYST) (
%
!
%
%
5. This%process%of%getting%esters%is%called%esterification% %
'
'
'

E.G &

a) Ethanoic%acid%+ethanol%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%ethyl%ethanoate%+%water% %

% b)

b) Methanoic%acid%+ethanol%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%ethyl%methanoate%+water %

c) Propanoic%acid%+%ethanol%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%ethyl%propanoate%+%water%%

d) Butanoic% acid%+%ethanol%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%ethyl%butanoate%+%water %

PROCEDURE&: &

1.

Set%up%the%apparatus%as%shown%in%the%figure%above% %

2.

Boil%the%mixture%in%the%conical%flask% %

3.

Smell%the%vapour%released%when%the%mixture%boils% %

4.

Pour%the%boiling%mixture%into% a%small%beaker%containing%water% %

OBSERVATION&: &

1.

The%vapour%released%has%a%pleasant%sweet%odour% %

2.

The%boiling%mixture%forms%a%thin%layer%on%top%of%thewater%in%the%beaker%.%the%thin%layer%is% an%ester% %

ANALYSIS&: &

1. Ethanoic%acid%(organic%acid)%reacts%with% ethanol%(alcohol)%to%produce%ethyl%ethanoate%% (ester%and%water%) % 2.
1.
Ethanoic%acid%(organic%acid)%reacts%with% ethanol%(alcohol)%to%produce%ethyl%ethanoate%%
(ester%and%water%) %
2.
The%concentrated%sulphuric%acid%reacts%as%a%catalyst%to%speed%up%the%reaction% %
%
%
%
%
ETHANOIC(
ETHYL(ETHANOATE (
%
ACID(+(
%
ETHANOL (
(ester)(+(water (
%
&

%

&

CONCLUSION&: &

1. An%ester%can%be%prepare%by%reacting%an%organic%acid%with%an%alcohol% %

2. Ester%ethyl%ethanoate%is%prepared%by%rea cting%ethanoic%acid%with%ethanol %

&
&

POLYMERISATION&AND&DEPOLYMERISATION %

PROBLEM: &

How%do%we%change%the%polymer,%Perspex%,%into%the%monomerand%then%ch ange%the%monomer%back% into%the%polymer% %

HYPOTHESIS: &

The%polymer%,%Perspex%,%can%be%changed%into%the%monomer%by%heating%perspex%until%it%melts%and% forms%%a%clear%liquid%.%the%monomer%in%liquid%form%can%turn%into%the%polymer%form%again%when%it% cools%and%soli difies %

MATERIALS: &

Small%pieces%of%Perspex%,%lauryl%peroxide%,%ice%,%hot%water%(50 0 C) %

difies % MATERIALS: & Small%pieces%of%Perspex%,%lauryl%peroxide%,%ice%,%hot%water%(50 0 C) % DEPOLYMERISATION %

DEPOLYMERISATION %

'
'

PROCEDURE& &

DEPOLYMERISATION &

POLYMERISATION '

I. Set%up%the%apparatus%as%shown%in%the%diagram%above% %

II. Heat%the%pieces%of%Perspex%gently%at%first%and%then% strongly%until%the%Perspex%melts%and% vapour%is%formed%. %

III. Collect%the%clear%liquid%condensed%from%the%vapour%in%a%test%tube%kept%in%a%beaker%of%cold% water% %

&

APPARATUS: &

Retort%stand%and%clamp,%Bunsen%burner,%boiling%tube,%with%cork%and%delivery%tube,%test%tube%,% beaker%,%spatula% %

Polymerisation: &

I. Add%a%little%lauryl%peroxide%into%the%liquid%perpex%collected%in%the%test%tube% %

II. Stand%the%test%tube%containing%the%mixture%in%a% beaker%containing%water%at%50 0 C %

III. Let%the%test%tube%and%its%mixture%stand%for%about%30%minutes %

'

OBSERVATION: &

1. On%heating%,%The%Perspex%melts%and%changes%into%a%vapour%which%condenses%into%a%clear% liquid%containing%the%monomer% %

2. On%cooling%,%the%clear%liquid%so lidifies%and%forms%the%polymer%,%Perspex%again% %

'

ANALYSIS: &

1. When%the%Perspex%is%heated%,%it%breaks%up%into%molecules%of%the%monomer%in%the%form%of%a% colourless%liquid%(DEPOLYMERISATION%occurs%)%. %

2. When%the%molecules%of%the%monomer%are%cooled%they%are% combined%chemically%to%form% the%the%solid%polymer%,%Perspex%again%(POLYMERISATION%occurs).%

3. The%lauryl%peroxide%acts%as%a%catalyst%to%speed%up%the%formation%of%the%polymer%from%the% monomer% %

4. The%monomer%of%the%Perspex%consists%of%methyl%methacrylate % &

&

CONCLU SION: &

1. The%monomer%which%forms%the%Perspex%can%be%obtained%by%heating%the%Perspex%until%it% melts%and%forms%%a%clear%liquid%(DEPOLYMERISATION) %

2. The%polymer%Perspex%,%can%be%obtained%by%cooling%the%liquid%monomer%and%allowing%it%to% solidify.% %

'

ACTION'OF'ACID'O N'LATEX '

1. Rubber%latex%consists%of%rubber%particles%and%water%.%The%rubber%particles%form%about% 30%%to%40%%of%the%latex. %

2. Each%rubber%particle%is%made%up%of%runner%molecular%in%the%form%of%long%chains.%The% particle%is%surrounded%by%a%membrane%of%protein%which % is%negatively%charged% %

3. The%%rubber%particles%repel%one%another%because%they%are%similarly%charged% %

4. However,%the%latex%coagulates%when%acid%is%mixed%with%it%.This%is%due%to%the%following% reaction%in%the%latex. %

a) The%acid%molecules%%breaks%up%and%forms%ions%. % The%hydrogen%ions%are%positively% charged% %

b) The%negatively%charged%rubber%particles%in%the%latex%are%neutralized%by%the% positively%charged%hydrogen%ions%from%the%acid% %

c) As%a%result%,%the%rubber%particles%in%the%latex%collide%with%one%another%and%break%up% releasing%the%rubber%molecules% %

d) Then%the%released%rubber%molecules%group%together%causing%them%to%coagulate% %

5. In%rubber%estates%,%Methanoic%acid%(FORMIC%acid)%is%usually%u sed%to%coagulate%the% rubber/latex% %

6. Latex%which%is%kept%for%a%long%time%is%left%to%coagulate%by%itself%.%this%is%because%the% bacteria%in%the%latex%produces%acids%. %

bacteria%in%the%latex%produces%acids%. % % Actions&of&Acid&on&Latex &

%

Actions&of&Acid&on&Latex &

ACTIONS'OF ' AMMONIA'ON'LATEX '

1. Latex%can%be%prevented%from% coagulation%by%mixing%it%with%ammonia%solution. %

2. Ammonia%solution%contains%negatively%charged%hydroxide%ions% %

3. When%ammonia%solution%is%added%to%latex%the%negatively%charged%hydroxide%ions%neutralise% the%positively%charged%hydrogen%ions%from%the%acids%in%the % latex%and%produce%water%.%As%a% result%,%the%acid%cannot%react%with%the%latex%and% cause%it%to%coagulate . '

1.

# The#diagram#below#shows# the#apparatus#used#by#Immanuel # to#separate#ethanol#and# water#

#
#

a)

What#is#the#error#made#by#Immanuel#in#the#apparatus#set#up#in#the#diagram##to#collect# ethanol?#[1#mark ] #

b)

Based#on#the#diagram#at#what#temperature#is#the#ethanol# collected?#[1#mark ] #

c)

Name#the#process#used#in#collecting#ethanol#from#the#mixture#in#the#diagram?#[1#

mark ] #

d)

State#the#use#of#porcelain#chips#in#the#flask?#[1#mark ] #

e)

Is#the#ethanol#100%#PURE ?#Explain#your#answer?#[2# marks ] #

1 !

2a.## The#diagram#b elow#shows#a#specialist#putting#radioisotope#X#into#an#underground# water#pipe#

#
#

# What#is#the#purpose#of#putting#the#radioisotope#X#into#the#underground#pipes#?#

[1#mark ] #

#

#

Name#radioisotope#X ?#[1# mark ] #

#

#

2b.# # X#is#the#suitable#choice#of#radioisotope#to#put# into#the#water#pipe#because#it#emits# radioactive#radiation#Y. #

Name#radioactive#radiation#Y?#[1# mark ] #

State#the#characteristics#of#Radiation#Y#that#makes#X#a#suitable#choice#to#put # into# an#underground#water#pipe ?#[1# mark ] #

!

2 !

2c. # A#technician#cannot # use#his#bare#hands#to#handle#X,#Name#a#suita ble#instrument#used# to#handle#X .#[1#mark ] #

# # 2d. # # As#a#safety#precaution ,#a#technician#handling#radioisotopes#wears#U#to#check#the#level#
#
#
2d. # # As#a#safety#precaution ,#a#technician#handling#radioisotopes#wears#U#to#check#the#level#
of#exposure#to#radioactive#radiation.#What#is#U?#[1# mark ] #
!
!
!
!
3a . ! ! M # is#a#government#body#in#Malaysia#responsible#for#uses#of#radioactive#substances#
and#radiation .# #
#

# i.#Name#the#government#body# M ?#[1#mark ] #

#

#

ii.#What#is#the#main#objective#of#government#body# M ?#[1# mark ] #

3b.# The#image#below#shows#an#archaeological#object##

#
#

The#archaeologist#estimates#the#age#of#the#archaeological#object#is#more#than#750#years#old.#

i. #

What#is#the#techn ique#used#by#archaeologists#to#uncover#the#a ge#of#the#object?#[1# mark ] #

ii. # What#is#the#radioisotope#found#in#the#archaeological#object#that#enabled#the# arc haeologists#to#estimate#the#age?#[1#mark ] #

 

3 !

3c. # The#image#below#supposedly#shows#a#“worker#fertilizing#a#paddy#field.”#Some# Radioisotope#C#is#added#to#the#fertilizer##

#
#
i. # Name#Radioisotope#C?##[1#mark ] # # # ii. # What#is#the#purpose#of#adding#radioisotope#C#to#the#fertilizer?#[1#
i. #
Name#Radioisotope#C?##[1#mark ] #
#
#
ii. #
What#is#the#purpose#of#adding#radioisotope#C#to#the#fertilizer?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
#
4a. The#diagram#below#shows#the#energy#produced#in#a#nuclear#reactor#
#
NUCLEAR! !
#
REACTOR !
#
E
#
n
!
!
e!
#
r!
#
g
#
y
!
#
!
#
GENERATING!
ELECTRICITY !
#
i. #
Name#the#nuclear#fuel#used#in#the#nuclear#reactor#to#produce#energy?#[1# mark ] #
#
!
4 !

ii.

State#the#type#of#energy#produced#in#a#nuclear#reactor?#[1# mark ] #

# # iii. Other#than#generating#electricity,#name#one#other#use#of#energy#produced#in#a#nuclear# react or.# [1#mark] #
#
#
iii.
Other#than#generating#electricity,#name#one#other#use#of#energy#produced#in#a#nuclear#
react or.# [1#mark] #
#
#
4b.# The#diagram#below#shows#process#T#that#occurs#in#a#nuclear#reactor##
#
i.
Name#the#particle#X#that#bombards#the#uranium#– # 235?#[1#mark ] #
#
#
#
ii.
Name#process#T?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
#
4c. # The#radioactive#wastes#in#a#nuclear#reactor#is#highly#reactive.#Suggest#a#way#to#handle#
the#radioactive#wastes?#[1# mark ] #
#
!
5 !

5. # The#diagram#below#shows#process#X#where#two#hydrogen#nuclei#combines#to# produce#nucleus#Y #

# #
#
#

a) Name#process#X ?#[1#mark ] #

# # b) What#is#nucleus#Y ?#[1#mark ]# # # # c) What#is#Z ?##[1#mark ] # #
#
#
b) What#is#nucleus#Y ?#[1#mark ]# #
#
#
c) What#is#Z ?##[1#mark ] #
#
#
d) State#the#two#conditions#for#the#occurrence#process#X?#[2#mark ] #
#
#
e) State#the#plac e#where#process#X#always#occurs?#[1#mark ] #
#
#
6.# #Sunlight#that#passes#through#the#suspended#particles#in#the#atmosphere#is#scattered#in#
all#directions# #
a. Which#component#of#the#sunlight# #
I. is#most#scattered#?#[1# mark ] #
#
II. is# the#least#scattered#?##[1# mark ] #
!
6 !
b. The#Diagram#below#shows#two#persons#standing#at#different#places#on#the# Earth’s# surface# # #
b.
The#Diagram#below#shows#two#persons#standing#at#different#places#on#the#
Earth’s# surface#
#
#
What#is#the#colour#of#the#sun#that#appears#to#the#person#standing# #
I. at#position#U#?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
II. at#position#V#?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
c.
Give#a#re ason#for#your#answer#in#II.#?#[1# mark ] #
# # The#table#below#shows#the#colours#of#the#sunset#that#appears#to#a#person#at#6.45#pm#for# t
#
#
The#table#below#shows#the#colours#of#the#sunset#that#appears#to#a#person#at#6.45#pm#for#
t
hree#consecutive#days#of# a#week ? #
#
#
#
#
Day#
MONDAY #
TUESDAY #
WEDNESDAY #
#
#
#
#
#
Colour#of#sunset #
YELLOWISH#
ORANGE #
REDDISH #
#
d.
What#cau ses#the#difference#in#the#colours#of#the#sunset?#[1#mark ] #
#
#
#
!
7 !

7. The#diagram#below#shows#the#setup#of#an#experiment#to#study#the#effects#of#mixing# two#different#coloured#lights#together?## #

# # #
#
#
#

Coloured#lights#from#sources#H#and#I#overlap#to#produce#another#coloured#light#on#

region#X#

a) Name#the#principle#where#a#coloured#light#is#produced#when#two#different# coloured#lights#are#mixed#?#[1# mark ] # #
a)
Name#the#principle#where#a#coloured#light#is#produced#when#two#different#
coloured#lights#are#mixed#?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
#
b)
Red#,#Green#and#light#Z#are#the#primary#colours#of#light#.#
i. # What#is#meant#by#the#primary#colours#of#light#?#[1# mark ] #
#
#
ii. What#is#the#colour#of#Light#Z#?#[1# mark ]# #
#
#
c)
Source#H#produces#red#light#and#Source#I#produces#green#light#.#What#is#the#
colour#of#light#on#region#X#?#[1#mark] #
#
#

#

!

8 !

8.# # The#diagram#below#shows#the#set f up#of#an#experiment#to#study#principle#X#on#the# concept#of#light #

#
#

a)

What#are#the#two#primary#coloured#lights#falling#on#the#white#screen? # (2#Marks)#

b)

What#happens#to#the#other#components#of#white#light?# (1#Mark)#

c)

Name#principle#X. # (1#mark)#

d)

The#diagram#below#shows#two#coloured#filters#placed#in#front#of#a#yellow#light#

source#

llow#light# source # i)

i)

State#the#primary#coloured#light#that#appears#from#the#green#filter.# (1#mark)#

!

9 !

ii)

What#is#seen#on#the#white#screen#if#any? # (1#mark)#

#

#

# 9. # The#diagram#below#shows#a#white#ball#and#a#black#pen#placed#under#sunlight.# # The#ball#appears#
#
9. # The#diagram#below#shows#a#white#ball#and#a#black#pen#placed#under#sunlight.#
#
The#ball#appears# white#while#the#pen#appears#black#to#an#observer. #
a)
i)#What#does#the#ball#appear#white?# (1#mark)#
#
#
ii)#Why#does#the#pen#appear#black? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
The#diagram#below#shows#a#boy#wearing#a#red#shirt#and#blue#jeans#standing#under#white#
light.##
#
b)
Why#does#the#re d#shirt#appear#red#to#an#observer?# (1#mark)#
#
!
10 !

c)

The#boy#then#stands#under#yellow#light. #

i)

What#is#the#colour#of#the#shirt#that#appears#to#the#observer?#(1#mark)#

10)# # The#diagram#below#shows#the#apparatus#and#materials#used#in#an#experiment#to# study#the#effect#of#temperature#on#bacterial#growth.#The#surfaces#of#nutrient#jelly#in# seven#Petri#dishes#are#spread#with#1cm 3# of#cultured#bacteria.#The#Petri#dishes#are# inverted#and#kept#for#two#days#at#different#temperatures.#The#number#of#bacterial# colonies#is#counted. #

#
#

Petri#Dish#

Temperature#(C o )#

Number#of#bacterial#

colonies#

1#

0#

0#

2#

10#

1#

3#

20#

6#

4#

30#

9#

5#

40#

8#

6#

50#

4#

7#

60#

0#

a) State#one#method#to#fix#the#controlled#variable#in#this#experiment.#(1#mark)#

!

11 !

b) Why#are#the#Petri#dishes#inverted? # (1#mark)#

# # # c) Based#on # the#table#above, # draw#a#graph#to#show#the#relationship#between#the#
#
#
#
c) Based#on # the#table#above, # draw#a#graph#to#show#the#relationship#between#the#
number#of#bacterial#colonies#and#temperature.#
#
(2#marks)#
#
d) Based#on#the#graph,#state#the#optimum#temperature#for#bacterial#growth.# (1#mark)#
#
#
#
#
#
#

!

12 !

11.# # The#diagram#below#shows#the#apparatus#setf up#of#an#experiment. #

#

#
#
# a) What#is#the#purpose#of#this#experiment? # (1#mark)# # # # b)
#
a)
What#is#the#purpose#of#this#experiment? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
b)
Why#are#all#the#apparatus#and#materials#sterilized#before#they#are#used#for#the#
experiment? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
c)
What#can#you#see#on#the#filter#paper#that#is#dipped#in#: f #
i.
Antibiotic(penicillin)#
#
#
#
ii.
Distilled#water#
#
(2#marks)#
d)
What#is#your#inference#based#on#your#answer#in#(c) # (1#mark)#

#

!

#

13 !

12.# # The#diagram#below#shows#how#a#disease#can#transmitted#to#a#healthy#person.#

#
#

a) How#can#this#person#be#infected#with#the#disease? # (1#mark)#

# # # b) Stat e#one#pathogen#that#can#be#transmitted#by#the#method# (1#mark)# i)# # # # # # ii)
#
#
#
b) Stat e#one#pathogen#that#can#be#transmitted#by#the#method# (1#mark)#
i)# #
#
#
#
#
ii)
Tick#the#microorganism#that#may#cause#the#disease#above#
#
(1#mark)#
#
iii)
State#a#disease#that#is#spread#through#this#method.# (1#mark)#
#
#
#
c) How#do#we#prevent#this#disease#from#spreading?#(1#mark)#
#

!

14 !

13.# # The#diagram#below#shows#the#graph#of#concentration#of#antibodies#in#the#blood#of#a# person #

#
#
a) i)# What#type#of#injection#is#shown#in#Diagram#5? # (1#mark)# # # # ii)#
a) i)#
What#type#of#injection#is#shown#in#Diagram#5? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
ii)#
State#the#type#of#immunity#produced#in#the#body#of#the#person#after#the#
injection. # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
#
b) Will#the#immunity#last#forever#in#this#person’s#body? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
c) Name#one#disease#that#can#be#prevented#by#this#type#of#injection.#(1#mark)#
#
#

!

15 !

14.# # The#diagram#below#shows#an#experiment#set#up#to#study#the#differences#between# natural#rubber#and#vulcanized # rubber#

#
#

The#results#are#shown#in#the#table#below#

# # # Type#of#rubber # Natural#Rubber# Vulcanized#rubber# # # # # Initial#length#(cm)# 5.0 # 5.0
#
#
#
Type#of#rubber #
Natural#Rubber#
Vulcanized#rubber#
#
#
#
#
Initial#length#(cm)#
5.0
#
5.0
#
#
#
#
#
Length#with#weight#(cm)#
8.0
#
7.0
#
#
#
#
Final#length#without#weight#
6.0
#
5.0
#
(cm)#
a)
State#a#hypothesis#for#this#experiment . # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
b)
State#the#manipulated#variable#in#this#experiment.# (1#mark)#
#
#
#
c)
How#is#vulcanized#rubber#prepared#for#this#experiment? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
d)
What#characteristic#of#rubber#is#being#studied? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
!
16 !

15.# # The#diagram#below#shows#the#action#of#yeast#on#glucose#solution#in#a#conical#flask#

#
#

a) What#is#gas#X#produced#in#this#experiment? # (1#mark)#

#

#

#

b) How#is#the#gas#produced#tested? # (1#mark)#

#

#

#

c) Name#the#enzyme#involved#in#this#experiment. # (1#mark)#

#

#

#

d) Write#an#equation#for#the#reaction#that#reaction#that#occurs#i n#this#experiment. # (1# mark)#

#

#

#

e) Name#the#process.# (1#mark)#

#

!

#

#

#

17 !

16.# # The#diagram#below#shows#an#experiment#conducted#to#study#ethanol.#A#few#drops#of# concentrated#sulphuric#acid#are#added#to#a#mixture#of#ethanol#and#ethanoic#acid.#The# mixture#is#heated#for#a # few#minutes.#A#substance#with#a#sweet#smell#is#produced. #

#
#

a) Name#the#substance#with#a#sweet#smell#that#is#produced.# (1#mark)#

# # # b) How#is#the#substance#produced#in#(a)#separated#from#other#substances? # (1#mark)# # # # c)
#
#
#
b) How#is#the#substance#produced#in#(a)#separated#from#other#substances? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
c) What#is#the#function#of#concentrated#sulphuric # acid#used#in#this#experiment? # (1#
mark)#
#
#
#
d) Write#down#the#equation#to#represent#this#reaction. # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
e) Name#the#process#which#produces#this#substance#with#a#sweet#smell.#(1#mark)#
#
#
!
18 !

17.# # The#diagrams#below#show#the#structure#of#latex#molecules#before#and#after#acetic# acid#is#added #

#

#
#

a) What#is#the#ionic#charge#of#the#latex#molecules? # (1#mark)#

# # # # b) What#happens#to#the#latex#molecules#when#acetic#acid#is#added? # (1#mark)# # # # # c)
#
#
#
#
b) What#happens#to#the#latex#molecules#when#acetic#acid#is#added? # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
#
c) Name#the#process#in#(b)# (1#mark)#
#
#
#
#
d) Name#one#solution#that#can#prevent#latex#from#coa gulating. # (1#mark)#
#
#
#
#
#
e) What#happens#to#the#latex#when#it#is#kept#for#some#time#and#why?# (2#marks)#
#

#

!

# #

19 !