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INTRODUCTION

The function are conducted by traffic volume studies is to determine the number,
movements and classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. Engineers often use
counts of number of vehicle or pedestrian passing a point, entering intersection, crosswalk and
others. The counts are usually samples of actual volume within the range from a few minute to a
month or more. The two basic methods of counting traffic are manual observation and automatic
recording. Manual observation usually used to gather data or determination of vehicle
classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements, or vehicle
occupancy. Manual traffic counting requires trained observers. They must help occasionally to
avoid fatigue and degraded performance. They need breaks of 10 to 15 minutes at least for
2hours. Manual counts recording methods can use tally sheet, mechanical counting boards and
electronic counting boards to make ease us complete the data. Automatic recording usually used
to gather data for determination of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or seasonal variations and
growth trends or annual traffic estimates. Automatic recording involves the laying surface
detectors or subsurface detectors on the road such as magnetic or electronic contact devices.
The size data collection team depends on the length of counting period, the type of count
being performed, the number of lanes or crosswalks being observed, and the volume level of
traffic (Roberston 1994). From the data, the observer can analysed the junction or road on level
of service used manual calculation or SIDRA software. The traffic flows can be reasonable well
when the rate flow is less than at capacity but excessive delay and congestion can occur when the
rate of flow is at or near capacity. From the data, planning and design of highway facilities can
be done. The principal purpose is to design or plan facilities that will operate at flow rates below
their optimum rate. In this experiment, manual calculation and SIDRA software must be
compare on level of service at the end of the experiment. Six level of services can be classified in
this laboratory.

Table 1: Level of Service


Every year, a large number of people killed and injured on roads in develop and developing
countries. Every countries spend considerable amount of resources on trying to reduce crashes by
reconstructing and improving the roads. This work should continue and necessary to be high
priority. The road safety audit is the formal safety performance examination of an existing or
future road or intersection by an independent, multidisciplinary team. It qualitatively estimates
and reports on potential road safety issues and identifies opportunities for improvements in
safety for all users.
There are three basics forms of road safety audit:

Audit of an existing road or road network.

To check a road or network for consistency, to make sure that a road user doest not encounter
road safety issues.

Audit a road works project at various stages of completion

Feasibility stage, or project scoping, when the general nature of the project is determined.

Preliminary design stage, when alternate courses of action for the project are analyzed, and
selected or discarded
Detailed design stage
Construction stage, to make sure work zone traffic controls are protecting road users and
construction workers
Post construction stage, to make sure the completed project is performing as intended

Thematic audit

Thematic audits are focused on particular aspects of a road. They may be used to investigate road
safety issues brought up by road user groups, or audits conducted to support a land development
application.
OBJECTIVE

Traffic volume study


o To determine vehicle composition in the traffic flow stream
o To observe the traffic flow trend and movement pattern.
o To estimate hourly volume and the average daily traffic (AADT).
o To determine the capacity and the LOS for the unsignalised intersection.

SIDRA software
o To determine LOS by using software.

Road Safety guide


o To determine the conditions of existing road accordance with Stage 5 Road Safety
Audit (RSA).

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
High traffic volume can affect the operation of intersection. Intersection has significant influence
for interrupted flow. Gap analysis is used to measure the LOS of an unsignalized intersection. An
efficient intersection shall operate at least at Level of service D. there are many method to
calculate the Level of Service as it goes manually or by using software. In addition to level of
service, the safety aspect of an inspection must also be considered to avoid accident.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Traffic can operated smoothly when the rate of flow is less than the capacity but excessive delay
and congestion can occur when the rate of flow is at or near capacity. In planning and design of
highway facilities, the principal purpose is to design or plan facilities that will operate at flow
rates below their optimum rate. However, this objective can be achieved only if a good estimate
of the optimum flow can be made.
Inefficient junction operations can cause severe traffic congestion, thus affecting the surrounding
environment. There are several factors that need to be considered including the safety of road
infrastructure. Long-standing traffic woes received very little attention despite the huge
investment that has been spent by the in developing and enhancing expertise in traffic and
transportation engineering.
In the road traffic study, three problems need to be tackled in order to solve traffic congestion
and safety issues such as:
1. Ensure the safety issues for road user
2. Evaluate the junction performance
3. Use an appropriate software to verify the field works result

PROCEDURE
Part 1: Traffic Volume Study
1. Perform necessary preparations such as accurate watch and set to the correct time,
sufficient pens, field data forms and clipboards, mechanical hand tally counters that are in
good condition, safety vest and others.
2. Select the study location which can be either a straight road section or intersection. The
size of data collection team depends on the type of count being performed, the counting
period, the number of counting stations, the type of intersections, the number of
approaches and lanes and the volume level of traffic.
3. Enumerators should arrive 15 to 30 minutes earlier at the site in order to familiarize with
the location, distribute the equipment, fill in the general information of the forms that
comprised of enumerators name, time and date of survey, name of site and weather
condition. Select proper observers position so that they can clearly, safely and easily
count the traffic. Avoid locations which obstructed. Sketch the layout of the study area
and indicate the counting stations.
4. A digital watch or stop watch is set for the desired count interval required whether
5, 10 0r 15 minutes. The total sample is 1 hours.
5. Each numerators records the time interval, vehicle movements, vehicle classification on
his lane and respective traffic directions with a tick mark on a prepared field data sheet.
6. Each button of push button, mechanical tally counter only represent a different
classification of vehicle or pedestrian being counted whereas the directional movement
must be recorded in the same tally sheets. At the end of the counting interval, the
enumerator reads the counter, record the data in the form and reset the value to zero.
7. Data being collected again by using every 15 minutes interval.
8. Data forms should be carefully labelled and organized.

9. Data are reviewed after the survey for any unusual pattern for its accuracy. The next
major stage is data treatment and then data analysis.

Part 2: Manual calculating Level of Services (LOS)


1. Calculate the corrected flow for each approach.
2. Calculate the ratio for each approach and thus for each signal phase.
3. Calculate the reserve capacity for the intersection.
4. Calculate the vehicular delay.
5. Calculate the queue length.
6. Determine the LOS and compare with the required level of services.

Part 3: Calculating Level of Services by using SIDRA Software


1. Click the SIDRA INTERSECTION button to see the menu function available for the
Project file. Click save and give the file name and click the Save button.
2. Click the Template button and then Template group button. Next, click the desired
template name to add in as a Site in the Project tree.
3. The Option group contain the Volume Data Method drop list, table check box list.
4. Choose the Intersection.
5. And redraw the location intersection.
6. The Freeway dialog will appear on single point interchange only.
7. The freeway lane selector picture has been used to select a lane on freeway. The lane
arrangement can be modified by deleting or inserting lanes.

8. Next is Volume input dialog in the Movement group. Volume for pedestrian movement
are given in the Pedestrian dialog.
9. Select a vehicle movement in the Movement Selector by clicking a movement and the
Volume data and related parameter display on the right-hand side of the dialog.
10. Select the Volume data method (HV option) parameter in the drop-down list in the
Option group to select HV that we want to use; Separate LV and HV, total vehicle and
HV (%).
11. Vehicle demand volume are specified in vehicle per unit time in Volume dialog.
12. For level of service, SIDRA INTERSECTION offer the following FOS Method. There
are Degree of saturation method.

Part 4: Road Safety Audit


1. Choose the existing road to be audit.
2. The road area have been divided into three with three group for every 1-2 km.
3. Take the pictures on the site that can represent the problem by the road and its
surrounding area.
4. State the solution for every problem.

RESULTS

Junction sketch:

V3

V1

V4

V2
V6
V5
Vehicle/
Movement
Car & Taxi

Small Van

Small Lorry

Big Lorry

Flow

15

30

45

60

Total every flow

Total

1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5

87
7
19
3
5
6
2
0
1
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

83
3
35
0
0
3
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

90
14
47
6
0
15
2
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

54
4
41
8
2
10
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

314
28
142
17
7
34
7
4
3
0
1
0
6
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

542

15

11

Bus

Motorcycle

6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
1
0
4
0
0
0
67
5
23
2
0
2

0
0
0
5
0
0
0
86
13
34
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
56
5
32
1
1
3

0
1
0
4
0
0
0
72
6
41
3
1
3

0
2
0
14
0
0
0
281
29
130
6
3
8

Traffic Volume presented in charts :

Volume by type of vehicles

Motorcycle
46%

Bus
2%

Car & Taxi


50%

Small lorry
1%

Small van
1%

16

501

Volume (pcph) vs Time


280

270

260

250

240

230

220
0.25

0.5

0.75

Volume (pcph) vs Time


280
270
260
250
240
230
220
0.25

0.5

0.75

Volume capacity
Movement No.

Volume(vph)
Vol. (pcph)

610
478

63
51.5

292
244

23
20

11
10

42
38

Step 1 : LEFT TURN


From Minor road,V6

V6

Conflicting Flow, Vc
Critical Gap, Tc and
Potential capacity, Cp

0.5V2+ V1=641.5 vph (Vc6)

Actual Capacity, Cm

Cm6=Cp6=515 pcph

Tc=5.5 secs and Cp6 =515 pcph

Step 2 : RIGHT TURN


From Major Road, V4

Conflicting Flow, Vc

V4

V2+V1=63+ 610=673 vph (Vc4)

Critical Gap, Tc and


Potential capacity, Cp
Percent of Cp Utilized and
Impedance Factor (Fig 4.3)

(V4/Cp4) x 100 = 4.11 P4 = 4.11

Actual Capacity, Cm

Cm4=Cp4=560 pcph

Tc=5.0 secs and Cp4=560 pcph

Step 3 : RIGHT TURN


From Minor road, V5

V5

Conflicting Flow, Vc

0.5V2+V1+V3+V4=31.5+ 610+292+23=956.5 vph


(Vc5)

Critical Gap, Tc and


Potential capacity, Cp

Tc=6.5 secs and Cp5=350 pcph

Actual Capacity, Cm

Cm5=Cp5 x P4=340 pcph = 1438.5 pcph

Shared Lane Capacity

SH =

= 594.17

Volume adjustments for minor road approach movements 5 and 6, major road approach
movement 5 :
Movement
1
2
3
4
5
6

Vc (pcph)
610
63
292
21
9.5
38

Cm(pcph)
560
1438.5
515

Csh
560
594.17
594.17

CR
610
63
292
539
584.67
556.17

LOS
A
E
C
A
A
A

Sample of calculation:
1) Volume capacity
PCU converter for unsignalised sections
Car & Taxi
Small Van
Small lorry
Big lorry
Bus
Motorcycle

1
1.5
1.5
2
2
0.5

Example calculation for movement no. 6:


Vehicles
Car & Taxi
Small Van
Small lorry
Big lorry
Bus
Motorcycle
Total

No. of vehicles
per hour (vph)
34
0
0
0
0
8
42

Volume (pcph)
134*1 =34
0
0
0
0
8*0.5 =4
38

Traffic volume in pcph for movement no. 6 is 38 pcph


2) Analysis of T-intersections

Analysis of LEFT TURN from minor road, V6:

i.

Conflicting Flow,Vc,V6 = 641.5 vph (Vc6)

ii.

Critical Gap, Tc = 5.5 secs (refer from table 4.3 : Critical gap section)

iii.

Potential capacity, Cp6 = 515 pcph ( refer from Figure 4.2: Conflicting Traffic Streams)

iv.

Actual Capacity, Cm Cm6 = Cp6= 515 pcph

3) Volume adjustments
Example calculation for movement no .6:
Traffic volume capacity adjustment, CR = Shared Lane, Csh Traffic volume capacity, V
Csh = 594.17 pcph
V6 = 38 pcph
CR = 594.17 - 38 = 556.17 pcph

By using Sidra Software :

Road Safety Audit


During night time :

Figure 1 : Street lighting is in good condition

Figure 2 : Road marking and road signage

During daytime :

Figure 3 : Poor road marking

Figure 4: Poor visibility of road marking

Figure 5 : Poor conditions of road pavement

Figure 6 : Poor condition of road pavement

Figure 7 : Poor condition of road pavement

Figure 8 : Poor condition of road pavement

Figure 9 : Road features

Figure 10 : Road features

Figure 11 : The cover of underground pipe

Figure 12 : The cover of underground pipe

DISCUSSION
Based on the survey that had been done, we discovered the performance of the
intersection that have been chosen which is at the Jalan Ilmu 1/1 near the Mawar College in
UiTM Shah Alam. At the junction, there are 4 movements of vehicles as described in the result
above. First of all, the 4th movement is found to be the highest total vehicles per hour which is
608 vph and the lowest is at the 2nd movement which is 159 vph. That sums up the highest
volume capacity at the 4th movement which is 474 pcph and at the 2nd movement to be the lowest
which is 129 pcph. This is due to the smooth flow or path at the 4th movement as the direction is
only a straight line but at the 2nd movement, the vehicles have to turn right which crossing the
oppose road that already has a lot of vehicles movement, thus make it difficult to turn through it.
On the analysis of the T intersection, the actual capacity for the 1st movement is 710 pcph
which is more than the 2nd movement which is 465 pcph. The major difference in this actual
capacity is because of the high conflicting flow at the 2nd movement that involved 3rd movement
and also the 4th movement. The 3rd movement is an oppose direction or flow to the 2nd
movement, thus making it the most difficult turn to pass through it. Meanwhile, at the 1st
movement, there is only 3rd movement involved in the conflicting flow and it is also the same
path and direction to the 1st movement of vehicles, thus resulted the lower conflicting flow than
2nd movement.
From all the important data and analysis that being calculated, the last part to be
determined is of course the Level of Service (LOS). LOS for the 1st movement is A, for the 2nd
movement is B, for the 3rd movement is C and for the 4th movement is A. But using the SIDRA
software, the result obtained is slightly different, which are LOS B for the 1st movement, LOS C
for the 2nd movement, LOS A for the 3rd movement and LOS A for the 4th movement.
On the other hand, the last part of this experiment, we had discovered some of the
conditions on the road and its surrounding. We have auditing the road and we have categories it
into the conditions of the road, road marking, signage and roadside features.

Conditions of The Road


Based on all the pictures above, we can see that the road pavement is not in a very good

condition. Figure 1 and 2 shows that the covers of the underground pipe line are not properly
installed. The covers are unevenly to the pavement of the road. Meanwhile, Figure 3, 4, 5, 6 and
7 shows that the road has several holes or uneven road pavement due to the imperfect
construction of the road especially in the bitumen or tar phase. Thus, it is dangerous to the
motorists that are passing by the road. The installation of the covers should be well evenly with
the pavement of the road and the holes should be repaired evenly too in order to secure the safety
of the road users.

Road Marking
Based on the Figure 1 and 2, it shows that the road marking has been poorly maintained

as we cannot see clearly the dividing line or edge line, arrows, lane line and stop line on the road.
Besides, the direction arrows on the road also have become sallow. This condition is not good for
the motorists as whom unfamiliar with the road, could easily doing something that is illegal such
as turning to the wrong path. Thus, visible pavement markings have to be better maintained and
made more visible to the road users in order to ensure the safety between the motorists.

Signage
Based on the Figure 2, 4 and 10, the signage such as speed limit, warnings for humps and

junctions are in good condition and well placed. This provides the road users the information that
they really need to know and make a quick response. For example, the motorists must slow down
when seeing the signage of hump and they must obey the speed limit which is 25kmh/h that is
written on the signage.

Roadside Features
Based on the Figure 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9, it shows that the roadside features are well placed.

The TNB box is in good place that is not disturbing the motorists. The trees are well planted in a
line grid at both sides of the road. The pedestrian pavements at both sides are well constructed
and ease the students to walking by the sides of the road safely without disturbing the road users.
The street lamps are all working good and lights up brightly to help the road users driving during
the night. The distance between each lamp is also suitable as the road is not dark or dim.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the intersection capacity and performance of the site on Jalan Ilmu 1/1
shows logical results based on either manual or computerized analysis that had been carried out
for the past few weeks. The T junction which composes of 4 movement of traffic flow shows
different LOS grades in relation to the volume of vehicles passing through each intersection and
the size of each lane in an hour. A higher grade of LOS shows a better performance of the lane
which means a smooth traffic flow of the lane where a lower grade of LOS shows a lower
performance of the traffic for the lane. A low grade of LOS for this area which has an LOS of C,
should be redesign for better traffic flow and performance as it may cause congestion thus
further affecting the LOS of other lanes. In addition to the roads safety which is based on its
road condition, road marking, signage, and roadside features, it can be seen that the overall
condition of these features are not well maintained. Uneven pavement and blurred line of road
markings can cause accidents to road users. Recent rainfall also shows poor surface drainage
which has cause flooding in the area. Therefore, it is recommended that these defects should be
repaired and maintained in the future for safety purposes of the pedestrians and road users in the
area.

REFERENCES
KARIM, M. R. (2003). Issues and Challenges From the Malaysian Experience. Road safety
Audit.
Ramizam. (2012). Road Safety Audit. selangor: MIROS Road Safety Audit.
Currin, T. R. 2001. Turning Movement Counts. In Introduction to Traffic Engineering: A
Manual for Data Collection and Analysis, ed. B. Stenquist. Stamford, Conn.: Wadsworth Group.