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MCAT G-Chem Formula Sheet

Nuclear and Atomic Chemistry


Avogadro' s number: N A = 6.02 10
N A amu (u) = 1 gram

Electron Configurations
e quantum numbers: n , l, m l , m s
n = 1, 2, K
l = 0, 1, K , n 1
[l = 0 s , l = 1 p ,
l =2 d, l = 3 f ]
m l = l, ( l 1), K , ( l 1), l
5f

23

1 u = 1.66 10 24 g = 1.66 10 27 kg
mp = 1.0073 u, mn = 1.0087 u

Z = # protons, N = # neutrons
mass defect: m = ( Zmp + Nmn ) mnucleus
nuclear binding energy: E B = ( m )

ms = +

931 MeV
1u

electron energy levels: E n = Z 2 ( 13.6 eV)


n
for any 1-electron (Bohr) atom
Radioactive Decay

ses

rea

inc

Acidity
inc

rea

5d

5p

5s

4d

4p

4s

3d

3p

3s

2p

2s
1s

Electron Affinity
re
mo
e
ativ
neg

# lone
pairs on
central
atom

Electronegativity

Geometric Family
Linear

Trigonal
planar

Tetrahedral

Trigonal
bipyramid

Octahedral

Trigonal
pyramid

See-saw

Square
pyramid

ses

rea

inc

shape = geometry

Basicity
inc

rea

ses

shape =

electronegativity of some common atoms:


F > O > (N Cl) > Br > (I S C) > H
intermolecular forces (D = dipole,
I = induced, i = instantaneous):
ionion > ionD > DD (incl. H-bonds)
> DID > iDID (London)

Bent

shape =

Bent

T-shaped

Square
planar

2001 by The Princeton Review, Inc.


Unauthorized reproduction prohibited.

ses

6s

Constants or equations in a shaded


box do not need to be memorized.

Ionization Energy

6p

Molecular Geometry (VSEPR theory)

Periodic Trends & Bonding

inc

6d

Stoichiometry / Lewis Structures


mass in grams
moles of solute
# moles =
; molarity: M =
MW
L of solution
mass of X
% composition by mass of X =
100%
mass of molecule
formal charge: FC = V ( 21 B + L)
V = (# of valence e ' s), B = ( # of bonding e ' s),
L = (# of lone-pair e ' s)

Z = # protons = atomic number, N = # neutrons,


A = Z + N = mass number
Decay Description Z N A

eject = 42 He 2 2 4
+1 1 0

n p + e
+
1 +1 0

p n + e+

1 +1 0
EC
p+e n

X* X +
0
0
0

4f

7s

in energy level n ,
max # of electrons = 2n 2

E photon = hf = hc

se
rea

or

1
2

in subshell l,
max # of electrons = 4 l + 2

1 eV = 1.6 10 19 J, 1 MeV = 10 6 eV

Atomic Radius

1
2

7p

Gases
STP: T = 0 C = 273 K, P = 1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg
Avogadros law: V n
Vat STP = n(22.4 L)
Boyles law: V 1/P (at constant T )
Charles law: V T (at constant P )
Combined: P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Ideal-Gas law: PV = nRT
Daltons law of partial pressures: P = pi
Grahams law of effusion:
rate of effusion of gas 2
m
m
v 2,rms = v 1,rms m 1
= m1
2
2
rate of effusion of gas 1

Colligative Properties
moles of solute
molality: m =
kg of solvent
equivalents (eq)
normality: N =
L of solution
BP elevation: Tb = kbim
FP depression: Tf = kfim
moles of S
mole fraction: XS =
total moles
o
Raoults law: PA = X APA
o
vapor pressure depression: PA = (1 X A )PA
osmotic pressure: = iMRT

Kinetics

[reactant]
[product]
or +
time
time
1 [reactant]
1 [product]
reaction rate =
or +
coeff
time
coeff
time
rate law for rate-determining step: rate = k [reactant1 ]coeff1 L
Arrhenius equation: k = Ae E a RT

concentration rate =

Thermochemistry

T (in K) = TC + 273, 1 cal 4.2 J, q = heat


q = mc T = C T (if no phase change)
q = n Hphase change (T = 0 during phase change)
enthalpy change: H = heat of rxn at const P
H < 0 exothermic, H > 0 endothermic
standard state: one most stable at 25C, 1 atm
o
o
o
H rxn
= nH f,products
nH f,reactants
Equilibrium
Laws of Thermodynamics (E = energy, S = entropy):
for generic balanced reaction a A + b B
c C + d D,
1) Euniverse is constant. Esystem = q + W.
excluding
[C]cat eq [D]dat eq
pure solids 2) Spontaneous rxn S universe > 0
equilibrium constant: K eq = a
b
and liquids
3) S = 0 for pure crystal at T = 0 K
[A]at eq [B]at
eq
Gibbs Free Energy: G = H TS [const. T ]
(gas rxns use partial pressures in K eq expression)
G < 0 spontaneous
K eq is a constant at a given temperature.
G = 0 at equilibrium
K eq < 1 equilibrium favors reactants
G > 0 reverse rxn is spontaneous
K eq > 1 equilibrium favors products
kJ
G o RT ln K 2.3RT log K (5.7 mol
) log K
c
d
[C] [D]
reaction quotient: Q =
[A]a [B]b
Redox and Electrochemistry
Law of Mass Action (Le Chtelier's principle):
Rules for determining oxidation state (OS ):*
1) sum of OS s = 0 in neutral molecule;
Q < K eq rxn proceeds forward
sum of OS s = charge on ion
Q = K eq rxn at equilibrium
2) Group 1 metals: OS = +1;
Q > K eq rxn proceeds in reverse
Group 2 metals: OS = +2
Acids and Bases
3) OS of F = 1
pH = log [H+] = log [H3O+]
4) OS of H = +1
pOH = log [OH]
5) OS of O = 2
Kw = [H+][OH] = 1 1014 at 25 C
6) OS of halogens = 1; OS of O family = 2
pH + pOH = 14 at 25 C
If one rule contradicts another, rule higher in
list takes precedence. [*These rules work 99% of the time.]
[H+ ][A ]
Ka =
, pK a = log K a
F = faraday 96,500 C/mol e
[HA]
G = nFEcell
[ OH][HB + ]
Ecell > 0 spontaneous
Kb =
, pK b = log K b
[B]
Ecell < 0 reverse rxn is spontaneous
K aK b = K w = ion-product constant for water
0.06
Nernst equation: E E o
logQ
HendersonHasselbalch equations:
n
pH = pK a + log

[conjugate base]
[weak acid]

pOH = pK b + log

[weak acid]

= pK a log [conjugate base]

[conjugate acid]
[weak base]

[weak base]

= pK b log [conjugate acid]

acidbase neutralization: N aVa = N bVb

Faradays Law of Electrolysis:


The amount of chemical change is
proportional to the amount of electricity
that flows through the cell.