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T

SANSKRIT

GRAMMAR

BEGINNERS,

FOR

IN

DEVANAGARl

AND

ROMAN

LETTERS

THROUGHOUT,

BY

F.

MtiLLER,

MAX
FOREIGN

MEMBER

OF

THE

FRENCH

M.A.,
INSTITTTTB,

ETC.

SECOND

EDITION,

REVISED

AND

ACCENTUATED.

LONDON:

LONGMANS,

GREEN,
1870.

AND

CO.

T.

COMBE,

M.A.,

E.

PRINTERS

B.

AND

GARDNER,-

TO

TH.E

UNIVERSITY.

E.

PICKARD

HALL,

PREFACE
TO

J.HE

FIRST

THE

which

present grammar,

believed

all the

contain

to

EDITION.

intended
chiefly

is

likelyto want during the first two


Rules
referringto the language of
is

excluded, for it is
dialect should

be

and
or

his

All allusions
likewise

Gothic, have
useful

beginnerof

the

peculiarto

any

the

to

the

been

for the

been

Vedas

the

difficulties of that

one

who

such

firm grasp

have

has not
it

as

of the

entirely
ancient

fullymastered
fixed

was

by

Panini

in Greek, Latin,
however

apt

are

esting
inter-

deprive

to

grammaticalsystem
alone

India, which

study both

reading.

the

student, they

ancient

of Sanskrit

of his

years

cognate forms

to

advanced

language of

three

is
beginners,

student

suppressed,because,

that clear and

solid foundation

or

ordinarySanskrit

successors.

and

that

approachedby

of the

the grammar

desirable

not

that

information

for

of Sanskrit

and

form

can

Comparative

of

Philology.
The

principal
objectswhich

two

have

this grammar,

correctness, the

regardto

hope, without
of Sanskrit

presumption,to
which

grammar

Benfey, Flecchia,

and

more

and
than

to

if

adapt
one

work.

difficult to be correct

to re-arrange,

them

follows

as

can

can

on

to

the

so

as
closely

The

is,in itself,most
will

readilyadmit

perfect;and
that

there

onlysay

elaborated
have

who

is

grammar
2

of Colebrooke's

point,if one
collected
current

the

by

vours
endea-

by Panini,
in

Europe,

system of native

of their technical

whole

those

in self-defence,that it

minute

Colebrooke,

no

Bopp

of the intricacies

high standard

grammatical system

grammaticalsystem

of

If I may

of Colebrooke.

every

grammarians, and adoptsnearlythe

With

the grammar

done, the materials

I have

posing
com-

cleared up by Bopp,
partially
hardly flatter myself to have

correctness, the

great, though unfinished


is far

but

while

correctness.

a few
simplified

have

were

and

been

grammar

others, I

regardto

reached, with

has

view

kept in

clearness

chief model

regardto clearness, my
with

been

I have

native

tested
in any

nology.
termi-

grammarians
P"ninTs

work,

language

that

PEEFACE

iv
vie with

could

wonderful

the

of

suited to the wants

beginners.While

of

mechanism

unrivalled

But

grammaticalrules.

THE

TO

of his
that

as

of P"nini

all to

not

the wants
materials

of the

in later works, such

and

of

system is,it is

Englishstudents,least of
availingmyselftherefore

collected in the grammar

eight books

the

as

Prakriy"-Kaumudi,the Siddh"nta-Kaumudi, the Sarasvati Prakriya,


I have abstained,as much
and the Madhaviya-dhatu-vritti,
as
sible,
posof the peculiarsystem and of
introducing
any more
the terminology
of Indian grammarians*than has alreadyfound
admittance
Sanskrit grammars
into our
frequently
; nay, I have
rejected the grammaticalobservations supplied ready to hand
from

in their works, in

order

with

I have

the

judgment

engaged

in

of which

may

onlywish
*

The

of those

who

be

counted

it to

view

of

be

understood

that where

made

the work
facilitating

the very

names

at first sound

may

Thus

its first verb.

by

indicates

name

somewhat

the

by

being

students

hundreds

left out

terminologyhave

of the learner.

called each

but

I have

in the usual

of

fortune

language

longerby tens,

no

as
trouble,

unnecessary

though the

enjoy the good


a

leave

is not, I must

what

practicalteaching of

the

classes of verbs,I have

of much
and

and

grammar

few alterations that I have

solelywith
the ten

of the

memory

too

is essential in Sanskrit

the

rules and too many


exceptions. Whether
many
always been successful in drawing a line between what

student

to

overwhelm

to

not

instead of

f.

rules

made

been

numbering

This relieves the memory


of each

the character

uncouth,they are

class ;

after all the

only

recognizedby native grammarians.Knowing from my experienceas an examiner,


the merelynumerical distinction between the first,
second,
third preterites,
the firstand second futures,I have kept as much
to the
or
as
possible

names

how difficult
it is to remember
or

with which classical scholars are familiar,


the tense corresponding
to
terminology
calling
the Greek Imperfect,
that
the
t
o
Imperfect;
corresponding
Perfect,
ReduplicatedPerfect;
that corresponding
to the Aorist,
Aorist;and the mood correspondingto the Optative,

Optative.

The

of

Perfect and Periphrastic


Future
Periphrastic
retained the merely numerical
distinction between

names

story; and if I have


Second

it
Aorists,

was

classical scholar than


to
possible

were

much

preferto

this distinction

because
the six

make

or

change in

forms

seven

call the First the

Second

placeto
t

In

mere

the

Aorists

have

become

the established

latter

almost

to

be

more

of the so-called multiform

Second,and

being a secondaryand compound, the


and

seemed

tell their

own

the First and

to
intelligible

Preterite.

If it

grammaticalnomenclature,I should
the First Aorist;the former

the Second

primary

proper

names,

and
and

simple tense.
will not

But

First

easilyyieldtheir

argument.
of Leipzig alone, as
University

the classes of Professor

Sanskrit,
previousto

Brockhaus

the

in order to

many

as

fiftypupilsattend

acquirea knowledge

study of Comparative Philologyunder

every

year

of the elements

Professor

Curtius.

of

EDITION.

FIRST
contained
exceptions,

or

have

European, I

done

more

less

language. Thus,
rules

the

on

after mature

so

mention

to

two

or

by other vowels than a,


partlybecause there are very
word

should

like kim-vdn

vat

same

givingthe
be

have

preceded

instead of mat.

endingin

I did

so

because,
partly

m,

be easy to discover

it would

occur,

the

("187),I

mat

though the

m,

few bases

or

of the Sanskrit

when

cases,

of the suffixes vat and

employment

endingin
always take

but, at
complete,

of the anomalies

one

native

consideration,deliberately

more

left out the rule that bases

if

whether

grammars,

completeto the
statement
bewildering

the
preferring

time,

in other

to m, viz. in order to avoid


preferred
the
m's.
Again, when givingthe rules on the
formation of denominatives
("495), I passed over, for very much
the same
the prohibition
reason,
givenin Pan. m. i, 8, 3, viz. that
bases ending in m
allowed to form denominatives.
not
It is
are

the

why here
clashingof two

true,
be

too

reason

was

doubt, that the omission

no

said to

might

be

exceptionsmay
involve an
actual misrepresentation,
and that a pupil
kim-mdn
misled to form such words
and kim-yati.
as

But

this

the

student

be

avoided

is

likelyto

cannot

who

forms, will
consult

rules

of such

doubt

no

in

be

or

elementary grammar

an

with

in contact

come

advanced
sufficiently

for himself the rules of Panini

and

the

such
to

be

and

dite
recon-

able to

of
explanations

his

commentators.

My

fear is that, in

own

erred rather in
therefore
such

in the

rules

grammar*,
whether
be
in

table
be

may

and

certain

to

give

elaborate

like those

safelyleft

I have

the
works

contained

Here

asterisk all

an

first course

and
from

foretaste of what

of Sanskrit

332

bases

edition all these

reader
should

there,as for instance

Panini, simply in
he

may

expect in

grammarians,while lists of verbs


or
" 462 are given,as everybody

of reference

of the nominal

In the second

with

placesinformed the
or
passedover quickly,

introduced

are

of native
in

in

little. I have

givingtoo

marked

out

be

memory.

student

in

different

in

portionsmight

will see, for the sake


treatment

than

of contents

committed
to
carefully
" 103, a few extracts

order
the

as

much

givingtoo

I have

writingan elementarygrammar,

only.

in i and

The

somewhat

#, from

paragraphsare printedin

"

220

smaller

elaborate
to

" 226,

type.

PEEFACE

vi

became

TO

partlybecause

necessary,

in

THE

no

had

grammar

the different

paradigms of this class been correctly


given, partlybecause it
the principle
which
the
was
on
impossibleto bring out clearly
and apparent irregularities
of these nouns
based
are
peculiarities
without

enteringfullyinto the systematicarrangement of


grammarians. Of portionslike this I will not say indeed,
but I feel that I may
n$,\\ov $ fiiftrjo-eTai,

TIS

the

examine

examined, will be the

they should
intricate

succeed

better than

of

elements

native

European

of Sanskrit

only who know


Carey, Wilkins,

which

trouble

the

have

weighed

to

and

to the great
obligations
marians
gramI
to
not
ungratefulwere

be

assistance

scholars.

which

the

works

of

and

Forster,

his

can

I have

derived

from

first acquaintancewith

My

gained from

was

judgment,if hereafter
the
done, in unravelling

scholars *.

acknowledgingmy

acknowledgeas fullythe
the works

will take

I have

India, it would

of

*t%^ra

lenient in their

most

argumentationsof
while

But

who

of evidence

mass

same

those

that

I know

sfts^ ^ta:; and

say,

native

Bopp's grammar.

the

Those

of Colebrooke,
predecessors,
appreciatethe advance made

and in lighting
the difficulties,
explaining
up, if I
of the Sanskrit language.
say so, the dark lanes and alleys
may
I doubt
whether
Sanskrit scholarship
would
have flourished as
it has, if students had been obliged
from
to learn their grammar
Forster or Colebrooke,and I believe that to Bopp'slittle grammar
is due a great portionof that success
which has attended the study
of Sanskrit literature in Germany
Colebrooke, Carey,Wilkins,
and Forster worked
of each other.
Each
derived
independently
in

by Bopp

his information

to compose

Sanskrit

printedsheet

To

new

and

are

declension

this is corrected
On

the

same

the

same

commentators,

from

informs

faith in the accurate


it may

be

two

of

nouns

in the

misprintswhich
in i and tt.
and
Corrigenda,

disturb
hopelessly
On

page

the

and

saving of

that

us

never

time

the

first
The

1795.

swerving argumentations

to be

informed

that in

by S'ri Taranatha-tarkavathe order of the rules

136, 1. 7, read

rightreading is

or
page, 1. 13, insert "f after fa^IT,

grammars.
been the first

fire in

destroyedby

w^as

native
have

to

seems

very useful edition of the Siddhanta-Kaumudi

there
chaspati
proper

have

and

for he

grammar,

of his work

those who

of Sanskrit
the

teachers

native

these four scholars,Wilkins

Among

from

^JNr^

instead of

found

on

the

^sffcl^

in the old edition.

joinfanitrfl^tasnrK

FIRST
whole

however,

grammar,

Forster

time

mean

delivered

his MS.

in 1804.

But

Colebrooke's

EDITION.
In

1808.

had

finished his grammar,


and had
the Council of the Collegeof Fort

to

it

publishedtill

not

was

vii

publishedtill 1810.

not

was

The

the

actually
William

first part of

in 1805, and therefore stands


published
first in point of time of publication.
it was
not
Unfortunately
of Forster and Carey were
then
finished,because the grammars
in course
of publication,
and would, as Colebrooke
imagined,
supply
the deficient part of his own.
was
publishedin
Carey'sgrammar
which as first attempts at
1806.
Among these four publications,
making the ancient language of India accessible to European
the
is
scholars, deserve
highest credit, Colebrooke's grammar
facileprinceps. It is derived at first hand from the best native
and evinces a familiarity
with the most
intricate programmars,
blems
of Hindu
after him.

No
who

grammar

was

grammar

grammarians
can

one

has not

such

as

few

scholars have

and

understand

the merits
appreciate
acquireda knowledgeof the
previously

system of P"nmi, and it is a great loss


that
I

so

valuable

useful hints from

many

of Wilson's

grammarians,and
*

of Colebrooke's
of the

Baft

interest.

have
and

other grammars
which

grammar

show

to Sanskrit

remained

There

that

he

matical
gram-

ship
scholar-

unfinished.

Bopp, but
also.

of this

I have
are

derived

some

consulted

tions
pornative

the fact that he

MS.,

givesto

class,which

possessedthe remainingportion
his list of verbs, with the exception

publishedby Colebrooke,

was

peculiar

Professor

useful task
Panini

should

work

most, indeed, to Colebrooke

owe

acquired

and

Benfey in his largegrammar


performeda most
in working up independently
the materials supplied
by
too, pubBhattojidlkshita
lished
; and his smaller grammars
in German

of Boiler in

have rendered good service


English,
of sound scholarship.
There are besides,the grammars
German, of Oppert in French, of Westergaardin Danish,

of Flecchia

in Italian,each

both
to the

cause

found

elsewhere, and

proved useful
But
my

while

thus

See Wilson's

in

supplyingsomething that could not be


have
of which
containingsuggestions,
many

to the writer

of the

presentgrammar.

renderingfull justiceto

I am
predecessors,

and

Sanscrit

bound

and

to say, at

the

the
same

honest

labours of

time, that with

first edition,preface,
EnglishDictionary,
p.

xlv.

viii

PEEFACE
doubtful

regard to
the

appealed to
as

as

is well known,

there

are

in

many

Sanskrit

language,not one of them can be


contains,
authority.Every grammar

ultimate

an

THE

difficult forms, of which

or

of the

grammar

TO

of forms which

number

but

occur

if ever,
rarely,

literary
language. It is necessary, however, for the sake
to give these forms ; and if they are
to
systematic
completeness,
given at all,theymust be given on competent authority.Now
in the

of
be
it

reference to any of the numerous


supposedthat a mere
alreadypublishedwould be sufficient for this purpose,
grammars
unusual
forms might safelybe
and that the lists of irregular
or
the case.
Even
copiedfrom their pages. But this is by no means
in the
with regardto regular
forms,whoever should trust implicitly
be

might

hitherto

of the grammars,

of any

correctness

would
published,

never

I do not say this lightly,


or
having the rightform.
without being able to produceproofs. When
I began to revise my
which I had composed for my own
use
manuscriptgrammar
many
which
I
felt
when
doubtful, I conon
sulted
pointson
years ago, and
be certain of

other grammars,

discovered

soon

either that,with

strange

mistake, or that they


sequacity,
they all repeatedthe same
varied widely from each other, without
or
assigningany reason
which
we
authority. I need not say that the grammars
possess
kind

of

degreeof

in the

much

differ very

of Colebrooke

exceptionof the first volume


Benfey'slargerSanskrit grammar,

the

to

of my

any

and

Forster
materials

as
predecessors

Carey,

their
controlling
of

grammars

pointsof

Nothing
result,but

remained

to

they

native

The

almost

entirelyon

frequently
they go wildly

assistants,give

it would

seem,

power

any

frequent inaccuracies

Wilson
these
never

were

Sanskrit
in

be

perfect
accuracy, while

useful

of Professor

been

have
works

intended

as

the

pointed out

by

been

for

have

may

in

of

authorities

on

grammar.

fact,in order

collate the whole

of my

to

arrive at
grammar,

any
with

satisfactory
regard not

forms, with Pftnini


but likewise to the regular
irregular
and to supply for each doubtful case,
native grammarians,

the

other

and

Wilkins
however

and

contested

and

with

by

authorities.

practical
purposes,

only to

an

and

but with

to appeal
impossible
authorityon doubtful points.

immediatelyafter,without,

wrong

others

them

difficultforms

the most

it would

evidently depend

who

suppliedto

their trustworthiness

"

FIRST
for rules that

and

might seem

a reference
predecessors,

This

I have

done, and

whole
on

of my
this work

been

in

differ from

to

P"nirii

to

those of any of
my
to other native authorities.

or

doing I

so

had

to

-write

re

nearlythe

; but though the time and trouble expended


grammar
have been considerable,
I believe that they have not

bestowed

in vain.

authoritative references
where

even

EDITION.

onlyregret that
the whole
throughout

there cannot

be any
have
been

readers

I did not
of my

difference of

these

give

work*, because,
of my
trouble of

some
opinion,

saved the time and


might thus
lookingthrough Panini to find the Sutras that bear on every
form of the Sanskrit language.
By this process which I have adopted,I believe that on many
settled and authoritative character has been imparted
pointsa more
to the grammar
of Sanskrit than it possessedbefore ; but I do by
no

have

pretend to

means

definite view

of the

meaning

grammaticalsystem of
which

and

his

else.

which
*wijdgri,

We

I shall
forms

The

successors.

have

may

the

rule
general

then we
exceptionsin the first book, and even
certain that exceptions
to these exceptions
may

somewhere

clear and

the

means

Here

of Panini

pointsat

that rules
grammariansis so peculiar,
scattered about in different
are
together,

group
partsof their manuals.
and

all

on

Hindu

should

we

arrived

give but

its Aorist

instance.

one

There

in the last,
are

by

not

is

no

occur
a

root

by adding^q isham, f: th, fi^it.

simplestrule would be that final ^ ri before ^ isham


becomes ^ r (Pan.vi. i, 77). This, however, is prevented
by another
rule which requires
that final ^ ri should take Guna before ^t isham
(Pan.vii. 3, 84). This would give us 'smmfts ajdgar-isham.But
now

the

another

comes

Vriddhi

of final vowels

before

Againstthis change,however,
and this

secures

leaves its base

i) which prescribes
^ isham, i.e.v"uii(XM ajdgdrisham.

generalrule (Pan. vii.


a

new

2,

rule is cited

(Pan.vn.

3,

85),

a special
exceptionfrom Vriddhi, and
"*W[jdgri
againas Wf^jdgar. As soon as the base has been

for

rule (Pan.vn.
2, 3),and
IJPTJjdgar,it fallsunder a new
is forced to take Vriddhi,until this rule is againnullifiedby Pan. vn.

changedto
2, 4, which

does not allow Vriddhi in

an

diate
Aorist that takes interme-

i,like ^MinfiH ajdgarisham.There is an


*

They have been given in the


b

second

however,
exception,

edition.

PEEFACE

to, this rule


with

short

also,for bases with

take
optionally

consonant, may

and

consonant

left,but

all not

to take

(Pan.vn.
short

(Pan.vn.

a,

7). This

beginning
no

option

2). However,

2,

is
vtin^jdgar
rule (P"n.vn.
special

yet the final result.

base

Our

new

^r

2,

have
vtm^jagar,

^r, like

Vriddhi, and hence

beginningand ending

a,

Vriddhi

restricted afresh to Vriddhi

are

this is not

even

ending in

^r

roots with

and
optionis afterwards restricted,
with

THE

TO

after

5)

2,

pointby grantingto *rnr jdgria specialexceptionfrom


No wonder
that these
its Guna.
Vriddhi,and therebyestablishing
manifold changesand chances in the formation of the First Aorist of
who celebrates them
have inspireda grammarian,
in7! jdgri should
settles the

in the

couplet:
following

"r"r u

Guna, Vriddhi,Guna, Vriddhi, prohibition,


option,againVriddhi

"

and

then

these,with
exception,

in the first instance,


are
Another

the

of ri into

change

to

wish

to

we

possess

of Panini, the

detract

from

the

who
Boehtlingk,

thirty
years
Panini.

ago, when

But

few

still less

publishedhis
of

us

text

Far be it from

editors,like

from

and

able to read

were

in

Siddhanta-Kaumudi,

of native

merits

Dharanldhara, Kasinatha, Taranatha,


Professor

semivowel

of critical accuracy

in the want

Laghu-Kaumudi,the Sarasvati,and Vopadeva.

me

the nine results."

consists
difficulty

the editions which

the

of

those

nearly
singleline of
notes

during those thirtyyears considerable progress has


literature
the mysteriesof the grammatical
unravelling

been made

in

of India.

The

commentary of Sayana

to the

Rig-veda has

shown

us

how

to apply the rules of Panini ; and the translation of


practically
the Laghu-Kaumudi by the late Dr. Ballantynehas enabled even
of native grammar.
to find their way through the labyrinth
beginners

The

time has come,

and

his commentators.

I believe,for
A

few

instances

of our ordinary
editions.
insecurity
as

well

^Mte
2,

39

Panini

as

the Sarasvati

n.

25, i,

The

40,

shows

that

(vm.3,92)is right
"

these
and how

forms

suffice to show

may

commentary

givesthe

varishishta and ^rtfrrtestarisMshta


and

criticaleditions of Panini

and

new

to Pan. vn.

Benedictive

yet
are

the
2,42,

Atmanepada

reference to Pan.

vil.

impossible.Again,if

could the Infallible be

wrong?

"

FIKST

EDITION.

agragdminiwith
using^ii'iifrfa

in

it is clear that he
with

dental

regardto

syllable,

the

in

extends

he

doingso

wrong, for it is an article


that whatever word is used

rightor

was

grammarian
every Hindu
in his Sutras,is eo ipso correct.

of faith with
Panini

in the last

prohibition
given in vm.
4, 34,
to other compounds. It is useless to
Upasargas,

whether
inquire

by

xi

Otherwise,the rules

identical with
compoundswith Upasargasare by no means
affecting
those that affect ordinarycompounds ; and thoughit may be right
to
from HJiifaPnpragdmini to tujinrnfnagragdmini,it
argue a fortiori
would not be right
to argue from mij^M
agraydna to inrR praydna,
But assuming^UMifHfH agrathis beingnecessarily
TRTCT praydna.
gdmini
be correct,it is

quiteclear that the compounds ^A"


harikdmdni, and
vrishagdminau,gfXchmiflu
svargakdminau,ymtfmtft
harikdmena, given in the commentary to vm.
^(X"H*)"ii
4, 13, are all
not onlyin the printededitions
wrong, though most of them occur
to

the

and

of Panini

of the

the MSS.

Siddh"nta-Kaumudi, but may

the
Prakriy4-Kaumudi,

who
my friend Professor Goldstticker,
KMk4
I consulted
-Vritti,and whom
of Vamana
to Pan.

which

vm.

of

men

say

on

was

these

avoid
carefully

that I could have

faulty
examples

superior
knowledgeand

that I

escapedscot

is,that I shall be trulythankful

pointout

not

am

free where

talent have failed to do

so
so

guine
san-

many

All I

so.

can

any scholar who will take


into which I may have fallen ;
to

any mistakes
far forget
and I hope that I shall never
the
so

regarddue

to

truth

the declension
touching
attempt to representsimplecorrections,

as

to

of

nouns

far
of verbs,as matters
of opinion,
or
so
conjugation
such matters,
character of true scholarship
to appeal,
as
on

or

lower the

forms,that the MSS.

these

I need hardlyadd
explanations

to suppose

the trouble to

from

means

4, 13.

After these
as

he possesses,

though by no

source,

to

glad to learn from


is preparing
edition of the
an

model, of the Siddhanta-Kaumudi.

the

be traced back

the

the verdict of the few to the

the many.
friend Professor Btihler that he had

Hearingfrom my
Sanskrit Syntax,
based

grammarians,which will
portionof my grammar.
means

to the

opinionof

on

the works

soon

be

of Patnini and

finished

other native

I gladlyomitted
published,

that

by
of Krit,Unadi, and Taddhita suffixes,
do not properly
belong
If time and health permit,
sphereof an elementarygrammar.
The

rules

b2

on

the derivation of

nouns,

xii

PEEFACE

hope

the

publish hereafter,

to

Prakriya-Kaumudi
In

the

list

244-285,

the

Sarasvati.
in

certain

the

but

they

rules.

the

verbs

verbs

of

treatingtogether

those

that

those

take

the

pada,

that

lastly,those

that

the
I

verbs

have

selected

given

in

Sanskrit

of

grammar

hope

of
that

reference
have

the

My

kind

to

proper
friends
of the
them

to

those

which

interest

my

to

will

likewise

taking

each

Professor

Cowell

proof-sheets of
sincere

my

5th April, 1866.

among

frequently

more

this

In

useful

as

verb

in

turn,

In

some

has

to

try

tenses

cases

he

practical

will

and

not

forms

exact

serve

moods,

manner

it will

the

to

points

some

purposes

by

references
find

to

by

particularform.
Professor

and

grammar,

MAX

have

Kielhorn

for which

thanks.

F.
PARIS,

visions,
subdi-

selection

student, in others

for each

warranty

and,

illustrate

to

illustrate

as

grammar.

the

best

as

occur

of its persons,

of this

Parasmai-

these

of

new

two

serve

voices,

Atmanepada,

student.

doubtful

when

guide

the

their

Anubhutisvarupacharya,

which

forms

rules

the

some

to

who,

and

Dhatupatha,

to

each

those

it will

exact

added

himself

express

the

to

been

revised

student,

those

to

making

Siddhanta-

the

of the

the

In

to

Appendix

verbs, but

for

account

peculiar

the
the

certain

exercise

preference

like

according

of

illustrate

to

serve

Panini's

arranged

Eamachandra

by

literature, and

only help
of

In

that

terminations

so

are

verb

in

voices.

both

rules.

grammatical

class

terminations

of

admit

Appendix,

an

and

that

given

the

of

Prakriya-Kaumudi

they adopt,

each

as

conjugate every

only

as

take

again, the singleverbs


certain

do

Nor

given

not

those

chapter

subject.

the

do

of the

treatise, the

have

grammars

order

group

this

on

but

EDITION.

separate

which

Dhatupatha,

grammatical

Kaumudi,

as

chieflyfollowed

These

the

FIEST

bearing

verbs

of

I have

pp.

occurs

THE

TO

MULLEE.

beg

to

|":

PREFACE

TO

JLHE

where

to

in

number

remove

in the

marks

of the

I had

corrected

and

been

greatest value
scholar
Panini
and

and

list of notes

whose

to

acquire

to

which

Pandits

the

of

these

rules

There

ancient

of the

invaluable

one

one

system, the system of Panini

that

exist

system into

our

instance.

locative

rightin

gm^

except
and

it

and

has

^r
even

reason
physiological

that

#, in
been

be

doubt

no

to transfer

What

I shall

process

From

in

But

rule

still possess

that

exploringthe gigantic

have

we

the

our

own

is

spiteof

form

P"nini

the

Sanskrit

facts of

illustrate

to

as

Tpxpunsu
he is

locative
grammars

are

by
the

perfectly

pluralhas
we

first

changed to ^ sh after any vowel


(see " 100);
intervening Anusvara

maintained

for such

try

the

accidents

point of view,

his

for accordingto
objection,

general
*r

this

pumdn.

Anusvara, TJ*J
pumsu.
have

in

us

E^j^r4mas4strlobjectsto

pluralof
his

to

of

system

of
interpretation

can

system of grammar.

own

likelyto happen during


one

the

of the

European

intricate

in India

in

corrected.

which
have to contend
with,
we
difficulty
for them.
They keep true throughout to

which

not

school

Most

grammar.

and

does

old

all

grammar,

been

hopelessfor
the

able

having pointed
Rajaramasastri,

has

grammar

refinements

Sanskrit

is,however,

my

for

in

spiteof

been

Pandit

subtle, yet there

too

livingguides are

labyrinthof

all to

almost

seems

their

seem

may

of

in

of my

now

reviewers

familiaritywith

that

although some

Panini's

It

have

more

queries to

me.

also been

translation

of my

cases

in the first edition.

German

gratefulto several
oversights,and most

these

I have

misprintswhich,

some

grammar

be useful, and

likelyto

overlooked

in the

Sanskrit

Panini, in all

to

of the accent.

publishedat Leipzig in 1868;


out

references

of mistakes

taken, had

I feel most

edition of
my

new

authorityseemed

I had

care

of these

his

number

EDITION.

of additional

appeal to

an

introduction

the

SECOND

alterations
principal

consist

the

THE

that

change.

there

is

some

If then, after

kind

of

having

laid

PREFACE

xiv
down

this rule, we
blunder

avoid

to

dental

the ^5

to

ground

I believe there is no

; and

in these

In

appended

thus,

the

by

matical
gram-

except

committed.

In
of the

retention

of the

my

Panini's

loc.

in my

TJ*Jpumsu,

instead

termination

is

accordingto
pronunciation.

locative
the

mentioned

difficulties which

of g*j pumsu,

case

Anusvara.

an

reservation

same

for

generaltendency of

this

instance

one

the writer

of

have

would

be

the

ancient

written

is the

su

sounded

to

peculiar
contend

in

tryingto combine the technical rules of P"nini with


rational principles
of European grammar
; and I hope it

more

convince
I have

my

deviated

where

native

readers, and perhaps even

seem

from
to

the

have

placedmyself at

authorities, I have

weighed

the

of

not

advantages of

done
the

one

so

our

European

grammars,

OXFORD,

August, 1870.

of the

variance

with

without

having carefully

against those

F.
END,

may

Weber,

some

of the

system.

PARKS

the

that where

Professor

ordinaryrules

as

Sanskrit

the

has

grammar

fully
care-

fact remains

in order to show

Sanskrit

so

althoughthe
I have now,
by
in the general

Anusv"ra, and if the g

plural,the

note

my

into ^ sh is

^s

and
authority,
thus the
though even

reallymeant

^ sh,

be

(Pan.vin.

from

seen

to P"nini's

of ip" punsu,

of the

Anusvara

be

change of

the

edition the

able to conform

I have

the

on

plur.is precededby

rule, been

that if the dot

and

(as may

grammar

rule

second

vowel

not

these simple
evidentlyoverlooked
less forward
in blaming Dr. Keller
been
instead of
example in writing^ punsu,

that it just excludes

worded

therefore

had

have

" TOO) the

to

sh after

Weber

would

33 pumsu.

or

not

grammar,

been

is radical,and would

the ^s

cases

having followed

with

Sanskrit

has

punsu,

changed into

he

rules, or

making

blunder

that

it, I wrote

59). Professor

*j su

simply commit

we

pumsu,

making it grammaticallyand physicallypossiblefor


remain
unchanged. It may be objectedthat on the same
ought to have written Instr. iprr punsd, Gen. ipr: punsah,

liable to be

for

EDITION.

n,

"c. ; but

3,

SECOND

yet write ^g

Colebrooke's,in which
order

THE

TO

MAX

MULLER.

other

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER

I."

THE

ALPHABET.

The

Devanagari

The

Devandgari alphabet

Monophthongs

letters

and

Nasalized

vowels

Light

heavy

diphthongs

.12
.

"

i.

2.

3.
4.

Direction
How

of Sanskrit
write

to

the

alphabet

represented

5.
6.

The

the

by

Guna

De-

and

d, d

end

Signs

and

of nasals

No

Upadhma"niya

The

three

and

their

nasal

Consonants

1 1.

1 2.

Names

Vowel

and

beginning

without

words.

d,

vowels

same

followed

ing
correspond-

/, sh,

followed

and

by

Vowels

vowels

of consonants

17.

sign

8.

The

Virama

19^

The

signs

20.

The

for

used
for

as

stop-gap

List

of

of

Object

and

au,

by

The

occasioned

hiatus

final

and

.16

Sandhi

by

before

.16

and

.17
.

vowels

pound
com-

in d

.17

Sandhi

ending
e

or

or

prepositions

d, followed

by
.18

o
.

SANDHI.

OF

followed
The

Sandhi

of

ending

by

in

or

ri

of osJithah

Classification

.18

and

otah

Irregular compounds
The

Sandhi
of

vowels,

short, protracted

long,

final

"

18
.19
.

of indeclinable

words

indeclinable

words

Monosyllabic
Sandhi

A,

External

between

Internal

17

Pragrihya

or

Distinction
and

followed

RULES

use

any
.15

of

pronunciation

II."

by

Treatment

Prepositions
CHAPTER

vowels

Irregular

figures

.15

Unchangeable

consonants

Rules

similar
dis-

and

ai

Vowels

pause

Avagraha.

Numerical

by

o, followed

except

any

Combination

Vowels

and

.....

The

by
.14

followed

vowel

15.

d,

vowels

signs, initial,medial,

Consonants

followed

I,#, A,

of letters

Virama

by
.14

and

Vowels

s, h

13

vowels

diphthongs

before

14.

25.

the

and

.....

24.

of

meeting

Vowels

final

"23.

the

.13

different

semivowels

22.

at

hiatus

Vowels

tute
substi-

....

21.

vowels

Auusvara

.13

of

nasals

8.

6.

.13

Combination

letter It

Jihvamuliya

3.

Gunaof

Vowels

Vriddhi

of letters

7.

10.

circumflexed
.13

9.

.13
.

and

grave,

vowels

vowels

vandgari alphabet
Number

Acute,

letters
.

Sounds

and

12
.

of the

particled

19
19
.19

OF

TABLE

XVI

CONTENTS.

PAGE

"50. Particles

51. Protracted

unaffected

vowels

The

by Sandhi

unaffected

by

initial vowels

56

final consonants

eleven

ends in two

to their

cording
ac-

before

i.e.
quality,
approach,opening

JShoh

consonants

sonants
conunaspirated

59. Aspiratedand

eshah,syah

ending in

Nouns

Initial
Final

words

radical

medial

chh

chh

changeableto

"

ing
h,gh, dh, dh, bh,throwback
aspiration

their

sonant

initial

sah and

cording
ac-

to their

contact,

exceptions

Initial chh and

place

5 7. Classificationof consonants,

and

Final

letter

sonant

Exceptionsin compound

consonants

Classificationof consonants,

58. Surd

radical

Pronouns

consonants

word

Final
.

of final and initial

53. Combination

55. No

itsmodifications

r, and

changed to

the combination

showing

of final with

54. The

Visarga,and
Visarga before

Sandhi
52. Table

onlyfinal sibilant inpausd,

on

initial g, d, d, b.
the

showing

Table

tion
combina-

of final with initialconsonants


.

60.

Changes
of

place,and

of

quality

....

Anusvara, and Visarga


62.

Final

j,jh,n,
63. Final

64. Final

jtjh,n,

65. Final

t, th, d, dh,

of

Changes

68. Final

69.

(notsh)

quality

k, t, t,j" before

Initial h after final

70. Final

t before

71. Final

may

73. Final

75. Final

Final

short vowel

in

into sh

Change

of

into sh in the

Change

of

into sh after prepositions

duplicative
re-

....

from

Panini

Change

of

Change

of dh

into

on

tain
cer-

into sh
.

sh in

pounds
com-

firsts and

before s, sh, s

before
before

or

(notsh)

final

and

nants
conso-

kri,samskri
rdj,samrdj
final s

Verbal
Final

before hn, hm, hy,hi,hv

8.2. Visargaand

or

vowels.
d

and

No

SANDHI
hiatus

d, followed

by

....

before

Final

into dh

INTERNAL

OF

vowels

79. Final

before

RULES

Final

pausd, and before

Sam

into

of

changes of

78. Mm

51.

pound
com-

Change

Extracts

prepositionni

....

and

77. Anusvara

Sam

....

74. Final

50.

in

syllable

k, t,t,p

the

before

or

after

seconds

76.

the

before I

72. Final n, n,

,./.

into
....

mdtra
""r

of

67. Final k, t,t,p before nasals


%

kshubhndti

Optionalchangesof n

before d, dh,n

into

Tripnotiand

Change

(notsh)
66.

of

before

into sh

into n,

Table.

before

and

of

change

or

Change

Palatals ch, chh,

before

"

Nati,

placeaffectDentals,

of

Changes

changes

i,i, u, d, ri changed

y, v, r;

changed
Final

bases in d
to

final *, i,u, d, ri,ri


to

iy,uvt ri, ir

ri, before

changed to ir

consonants,
or

fir

TABLE

XV111

OF

CONTENTS.

PAGE

*"i68. Anehas, purudamsas


*

169.

Usanas

.""

radical

ending in

B. bases

s ;

pindagras,supis,

sutus
.

172- Asis, sajus; list of bases in

173- DJivas, sras

174- Bases ending in s, sh,chh,ksh,h

Ahan

at the end

of

compounds

Ahan

at the end

of

compounds

Pdshan,

1.

Dis, dris,spris

2.

Nas

....

aryaman

Han
.....

Bases
.

3. Vis

in

in, dhanin

in
Participles

vas

in
Participles

ivas

in

Bases
.

tyas,gariyas

Miscellaneous

5. Dvish

7. Taksh

with

nouns

6. Prdchh

Maghavan

Dhrish

88

Svan, yuvan

4.

Ahan

Pipathis

compounds

Pathin, ribhukshin, maihin

....

in

Bases

Optional feminine

changeable bases, pdd


Vdh
.

fevetavdh

8.

X/ihfguli

g.

Duh, ushnih

....

Anaduh
.

"\

'
'

10.

Druh, muh, snih,snuh

11.

Nah

Ap
.

Pums

175- Turdsdh

Div, dyu

I76-

Asan

*I77*

179-

with

bases ; A.

80.

181.

with

nouns

with

Nouns

Bases
The

in

184- The

three
.

and

at

bases,

and

nom.

Dyo

ace.

nasal in

duplicated
re-

2.

By

themselves

the end

compounds

189- Arvat

190.

Kiyat

191.

Bases

and

vat

1.

Honour
.

in an, man,

van;

rdjan,

Brahman,

divan

2.

nations
termi.

in I and

only,dhi,

bases
Polysyllabic

193-

Feminines

of bases of

nouns

in i and

$, being feminine only,nadi,


....

Compounds

man

Monosyllabicbases

192.

van,

fern.
.

five fuller feminine

vadhd
.

and

masc.

in t and d,

bases
Polysyllabic

IM

arvan

dhi, krt,M

d, being feminine

ndman

an,

of

Bhavat, Your

188.

and fern.

masc.

and

mat

$, being both

ft

in i and

The
.

being both

....

Mahat

187. Bases in

in i and

B. At

of
participles

185. Brihat, prishat

Monosyllabicbases

A.

in the

in

1.

base

verbs

186.

Bases

au

adat

ant;

of neuters, and

feminine

in ai and
o

any vowel

Bases

Bases

nasal in the

dual

except d

ending in

Bases

pratyach
182.

II.

two

Prdch
B.

vowels,

changeable

bases, adat
1

in

subdivided
.

Nouns

2.

Metaplasta

ending

178. Prasdm
I.

....

other

and

II. Bases

Ukthasds

,"

.....

ending

feminine

in
and

d, subhrii

in

syllabic
mono-

bases
.

..;

in i
.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

xix

PAGI

#"227. Compounds

syllabicfeminine
and
228.

poly

Strt

Syah, syd, tyat

230.

Bases in iand M,

231.

Kati

232.

Sakhi

233.

Pad

234.

Akshi, asthi,dadhi, sakthi

235.

Bases

fern.neut.

109

Possessive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns,

PRONOUNS.

Personal pronouns

Sah, sd,tat.

Atistrl
masc.

VI."

229.

CHAPTER

bases in i

d, bahuJreyast
.

in

ending

127

.128

.128
.128

svayam

129

Atman

129

....

Svah, svd, warn

.....

in

fern,

ri,masc.

naptri,pitri
^
*

236. Kroshfu
237. Nri

238. II.

239.

Bases

Bases

in

endingin

and

d,

d,

iyam,

idam

Enam,

endm,

enat

and

masc.

fern.,
.

Tdvat

131
131
.

modified

ak

by

pronouns,

131
.

tddris"c.

132

"c

132
.....

132
sarva,
adjectives,

ADJECTIVES.

visva,"c.
Declension

of

242.

Formation

of feminine

243.

Priyah, fern, priyd

244.

Pdchakah, pdchikd

245.

Feminines

adjectives

formed

by

Ubhau,

.247. Irregularfeminines

248. Formation

of

249.

Degreesof comparison

250.

Tara

251.

lyas

tama, how

CHAPTER

added
.

ishtha,how

added
.

252. Exceptionalcomparativesand

superlatives

Adverbial

"286.

.134

its

134
.

optional
.134
.

its optionalforms

135

declension

.135
.

and

CONJUGATION.
137

passive

287. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada


288.

verbs

Passive
V."

NUMERALS.
The

"253.

Cardinals

and

declension

eka
cardinals,

of

and

Significationof

255.

256. Chatur, chatasri


257.

CHAPTER

Panchan, shash,ashtan

258. Construction
259.

Ordinals

260.

Numerical

of cardinals

VIII."

"293. Special and


the ten

and

tenses
.

persons
THE

140
.

CLASSES.

TEK

general tenses, in

classes

.140
.

Specialor modified,generalor

....

adverbs

138

139

and

Numbers

.....

Tri, tisri

moods

moods

thirteen tenses

254. Dvi

138
138

CHAPTER

137

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada


in derivative

yam

Vn."

Active

.134

plural

Dvitiya and

stantives
sub-

and

nominative

.134

at

any

its optionalforms

and

Pratharva

feminine

Pilrva

.133

ubJie,ubke

Ubhayah, yi,

246. Exceptional
feminines in t

Any ah, anyd,

base
.

and

130
.

.....

IV."

and

...

Pronominal

"241.

.130

Ka^chit"LC

.....

CHAPTER

.129

Compound

adah

asau,

Pronouns

129

Kah, kd, kim

Ifdhd

240.

Ayam,
Asau,

129

pronouns,e*AaA,

Yah, yd, yat

visvapd
*

neut.,

kdntah, td, tarn


*

eshd,etat

.....

2.

Demonstrative

.....

and

other

unmodified

derivatives
.

295.

Division

.140

tenses

of verbal

bases

141
.

OF

TABLE

XX

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PAGE

"296.

Div, Chur
297.

divisions
sub-

division,and

.142

299.

II

IX.

CHAPTEK

302.

rules of

304.

305.

Guttural

306.

Double

.145

.146
.

initials

by

Medial

and

e,

ai

ai,o

are

cated
redupli-

are

by

au

Irregular reduplication by
Samprasarana
initial

Short

313.

Initial

by

two

314.

Initial ri

315.

Short

.148

initial i and

Nij,vij,vish

318. Mdjhd

319.

Han,

321.

Terminations

#343.

of

long

desideratives

sives and

Paradigms

171
.

.172

172
.

reduplicated

of the

.172

perfect

148

X."

General

or

"344.

cond
se-

GENERAL
unmodified

.150

Two

terminations,

of

classes

strengtheningor

.149

Regular conjugation

AND

WEAKENING.

of first and
.

STRENGTHENING

XII."

.149
.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

divisions

324.

.171

long t

....

hi,ji,chi

Terminations

"323.

of

148

320.

322.

....

Periphrasticperfectof inten-

.148
.

liable

perfect
Periphrastic

317.

170
.

never

Optional insertion

316. Specialrules of reduplication148


*

.168

of i

171

to Guna

342.

168
.

intermediate i

Insertion

167

of i

#338.

340.

perf.

diate
interme-

when

Necessary insertion
The

pers.

be omitted

Optional insertion

.148

showing

#337.

3t 341.

.148

for the 2nd

i must

339.

sonants
con-

.167
.

sing.Par. of the red.


Table

cated
redupli-

for the

Specialrules

in
.165

perfect
^"335.

163
.

diate
interme-

omitted

be

tenses

Specialrules

162
.

the intermediate

the

i must

.147
147

followed

omitted,

^"333.

146

omitted,

be

be omitted

i must

#336.

reduplicated

be

be inserted

in which

146

312.

must

Verbs

certain

i.

INTERMEDIATE

#332.

.146

by i, o and

.161

List of verbs in which

"* 334-

reduplicative

syllableis short

.161
.

it must

of the

vowel

thongs,
diph-

i,i,ri,u, d, ri,

it may

.146
.

311.

it

when

tenuis

by

XI."

when

.146

initials

Final

changed

.146

307. Initial sibilant followed

310.

how

When

"331.

perfect,
.

Aspirated initials

309.

ending in

reduplication
^46

303.

The

145

the
verbs

in the Hu

and

changed

Bases

CHAPTER

145

in d

how
330.

TION,
REDUPLICA-

General

308.

reduplication

and

Augment a
in
Keduplication
and

143

classes

160

base

TERMINATIONS.

"300. Augment

328. Weakening of
ending
329. Bases

143

classes

AUGMENT,

"

AND

301.

Kri
Rudh

Ad, Hu,

116.

Su, Tan,

a.

160

.141

classes

II. Second

298.

tions
termina-

weak

and

"327. Strong

division; Bhu, Tud,

I. First

#345TENSES.

verbal

base

Specialforms
and

of

weakening
.175
.

strengthening

weakening

certain bases

177

159

tenses
.

Reduplicatedperfect

325. Verbs

which

may

form

perfect
326. The

the
.

perfect
periphrastic

duplicated
re-

.159
159
.

XIII."

CHAPTER

.159

"346.

First and

347.

Four

348.

Rules

forms

second

AORIST.
aorist

179
.

of the first aorist

for the first form

179
.

.180
.

OF

TABLE

CONTENTS.

xxi

PAGE

*"349-

Rules

sives,"fec.
350-

at

352.
*
*
*

Weakening

ath

diphthongs

in d and

355-

Weakening

.....

.....

for the third form

359-

ram,

360.

Rules

for the fourth

which

form

364-

ending in

365-

Roots

with

d, e, i,ri; dris

370.

Reduplicatedsecond

373374-

Compensation

Verbs

with

378. Verbs
*379-

aorist

ending in

tenses

of

the

aorist passive 200


3rdpers. sing,
of verbs

endingin

Aorist

of verbs

ending in

Aorist

of intensive

and

Their

200

200

.201

am
.

.201

dictive
bene.201

optionalforms

.201

passive
Aorist

ay

desi-

and
Future, conditional,

.200

bases

ending in

.201
.

intransitive

passiveof

verbs

203
....

different

aorists

Aorist

Paradigm

....

199

The

Verbs

vowels

199

.200

consonants

Irregularreduplicatedaorist
the

passive

passive

Irregularforms

ending

and

Paradigm

aorist

derative

base

between

beginningwith

380. When

198

.198

of base.

penultimateri,ri

Paradigm

198

The
.

6vi,dhe

of reduplicative
syllable190

double

passive

be shortened

beginning

with

*377-

bases

Weakening

syllable
reduplicative

Verbs

198

PASSIVE.

of

....

375- Vowels

376.

bases

that cannot

and

terminations

Specialtenses

second

verbs

37i- Sri, dru, sru, kam;

ay

XV."

General

The

Bases

Atmanepada

CHAPTER

187

only

369-

Shortening of

.197

the second

take

372.

fish

tensive
Causative, denominative, in-

aorist in the Par.


Tan

Sam-

187

....

which

Verbs

the

take

....

Atmanepada

take

.196

SampraszU

197

prasarana

penultimatenasal

which

which

verbs

Benedictive

Roots

aorist

.196

197

Sds changed to

aorist

196

.196

rana

362. Duh, dih,lih,guh


Paradigms
Second

take

Other

363-

ri,rt

ending in d

361. Stish

*3""7- Verbs

ending in

in t, u,

195
.

.195

366. Irregularforms

of base before y

ending

Verbs

nam

Pa-

Atmanepada

Verbs

Yam,

.195
.

Verbs

Verbs

li

Mi, mi,

in ay

benedictive

Gam
Yam

.195

in benedictive

Han

Rules

.194

in
rasmaipada,strengthening

....

ending

354-

*358.

Bases

.193

Intermediate

357-

Benedictive

form

353- Mi, mi, di, li

*35"5.

or

future
Periphrastic

beginningwith

Terminations

Roots

"

for the second

Rules

Conditional

intendesideratives,

for

forms

of

Optional forms

203

used

are

CHAPTER
CHAPTER

XIV."

PERIPHRASTIC

FUTURE, CONDITIONAL,

FUTURE,

AND

AND

BENEDICTIVE.
.

"381.

Future

382. Changes of the base

XVI.

PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS,
INFINITIVE.

Participlepresent
pada.

415.

"

Parasmai.

future Parasmaipada
Participle

203
204

TABLE

XX11

OF

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PAGE

of reduplicated
"416. Participle
fect
per-

Parasmaipada
#417.

^"447. Gerund

.204

Ghu

#"448.

of reduplicated
Participle
fect
perwith

449.

Verbs

of reduplicated
418. Participle
fect
per-

450.

Verbs

Atmanepada

451.

205

.205
.

211

verbs,md, sthd,gd, pd,

hd,

of causatives

so, take

ending

final d

211

in nasals

211

ending in
Ve,jyd,vye

ri

211
211

'

419.

Participle
present Atmanepada

205

420.

Participlefuture

206

421.

Participlepresent and
passive

Atmanepada
future

participlepassive

Past

423.

XVII."
Verbal

.'

"

VERBAL

ADJECTIVES.

adjectives,
Kritya

in ta vya
Adjectives
in cmiya,
Adjectives
in ya
456. Adjectives

.206
.

terminations

I. The

Penultimate

with

.207

optional

Guna
.

.207

intermediate

with

Tvd

212

lost before

^430.

Final

nasal

and
^431.

Final

^432.

Roots

#433.

Final

^434.

Do,

tvd
n

so,

i.

before

tah

dropt

vowel

435-

rchh,and

changing v

to

changed

:fc 437.

#438.

Verbs

rana

take

208

or

441.

Intensive

442.

in
Participles

jfc 443.

444.

445.

Gerund

446. Gerund

formed

.215

Passive

of causative

215

217
219

verbs

of the

tenses

passive

219
219

XIX.

VERBS.

DESIDERATIVE

"

Desiderative

bases,how

469.

470.

participles

Desiderative

210

in ya

210

in tya

210

bases, with

Strengtheningof

or

intermediate
base

.220
220

#472.

Desiderative

or

weakening.
Bhu

220
.

as

verbs.

.221
.

desiderative
222

bases
Bases

bases,treated

473. Reduplication of

209
210

Exceptional strengthening

209

nah

jugated
con-

^"471.

209

verbs

220

220

without

209

bases,how formed

209

verbs

to

or

penultimate

verbs

added

VERBS.

Vriddhi

468. Desiderative

.208

Samprasa-

Adjectivalparticiples
Vat

.214

CAUSATIVE

bases,how

Guna

208

....

Desiderative

Causal

CHAPTER

"467.

nasal
439.

am

208

lose

440.

.214

or

.....

Causal

XVIII."

466. General

208

rv

208

take

which

208

to d

462.

465.

md, sthd,dhd, hd change

which

in

adverbs

#"436. Exceptionalforms
Verbs

of causative verbs
464. Conjugation

ened
length-

"*

andj
.214

*II.
207

; final chh,v,

chho

ch

463. Exceptionalcausative bases,I.

207

their final into i

/So and

and

tah

intermediate

dropt and

ai

"461.

207

terminations

tvd,without

th,ph; vanch,

....

II. The

214

tya

Infinitive in turn

CHAPTER

lunch
^429.

.207
.

Nasal

i and

Guna

without

.212

adjectives

changing final

460. Verbal

and

into k and

459.
.

^428.

458. Verbs

i and

Guna

^427.

intermediate

with

Tvd

in ya

.207
.

#426.

Exceptional verbal

^457.

tvd, with intermediate


^425.

and

tah

#424.

211
.

212

455.
.

211

454.

....

in tvd

Gerund

"453-

and
206

gerund

Mi, mi,

452.

CHAPTER
206

....

422.

di, li

....

in

and

dv

^t

474.

"*

475- $ru" sru" d", pru, plu,chyu

476.
#477.

Internal

av

reduplication

Exceptionalforms

222
222

.222
.222

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

x\in

TABLE

XXIV

OF

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PAGE

Adverbial

IV.

"529.

compounds

Tan

242

Class

Class)

VIII

(Tanvadi,

272

Exceptional

530.

compounds

and

Parasmaipada

243

Atmanepada

Modifications

#531.

of

the

final

Verbs

letters

272
.

of

adverbial

compounds

Kri

243

Class

IX

(Kryadi,

Class)

.273
.

I.

Parasmaipada

Atmanepada

and

Verbs

.273
.

II.

Verbs

Parasmaipada

.274
.

APPENDIX

I.
III.

Verbs

Atmanepada

.274
.

PAGE

Ad
LIST

VERBS

OF

Class

(Adadi,

244-285

Class)

II

275
.

...

I.
Bhft

Class

Class)

(Bhvadi,

245

Verbs

Parasmaipada

.275
.

II.
I.

Verbs

Parasmaipada

245

Verbs

Atmanepada

.279
.

III.

Atmanepada

II.

Verbs

and

Parasmaipada

260

Atmanepada

Verbs
III.

and

Parasmaipada

Class)

VI

(Tudadi,

Class

and

Parasmaipada

.281
.

III.

Verbs

Atmanepada

.282
"

Atmanepada

and

Parasmaipada
Verbs

266
.

Itmanepada

Verbs

Parasmaipada

Verbs

Parasmaipada

III.

I.
II.

.265
.

281
.

Atmanepada

Class)

III

(Juhotyadi,

Verbs
II.

Class

265
.

I.

Hu

.263

Verbs
Tud

.280

Atmanepada

Verbs

283
.

.267

Rudh

Class

Class)

VII

(Rudhadi,

284
.

(Divadi,

Class

Div

Class)

IV

267
.

I.

and

Parasmaipada

Atmanepada

Verbs

Parasmaipada

I.

Verbs

.267

.284
,

II.

Verbs

Atmanepada

II.

.269

Verbs

Parasmaipada

.284
.

III.

Parasmaipada

and

III.

Atmanepada

Atmanepada

Verbs

.285
.

Verbs

269
....

(Churadi,

Class

Chur

Class)

270
.

Verbs

Parasmaipada

only

APPENDIX

.270

II.

Su

Class

(Svadi,

Class)

270
.

I.

Parasmaipada

and

ON

Atmanepada

Verbs

Parasmaipada

ACCENT

THE

IN

SANSKRIT

286-292
.

270
....

"II.

PAGE

INDEX

OF

NOUNS

293-297
.

Verbs

.271
.

III.

Itmanepada

Verbs

.271
.

INDEX

OF

VERBS

297-300
.

LETTEKS.

DEVANiGARI

THE

CONSONANTS.

VOWELS.

Initial.

Medial

nitial.

Medial.

Equivalent.

kh

ph

g
bh

f
m
n

(or k)

ch

chh(orM)
j (or 9)
jh
ri

(or ri)

n(orri)

(or t)

th

(or s)

(or th)

sh

(or d)

dh

(or dh)
(or

n}

TT

(or m)

(or m)

vfil

ai

th

(or h)

dh

(Jihvamuliya),

(Upadhmamya),

au

Sometimes

represented

in

the

Veda

by

Sometimes

represented

in

the

Veda

by

} (or 0lh ("r


"

x
"

CHAPTER

I.

THE

"

SANSKRIT

i.

is

for

Note

employed, is

in cities.

(Pan.

the

employment

from

Sanskrit

not

mentioned,

Sanskrit

called

iv.

from

of the word
into

in

Malva.

Mason's

Memoirs

been

the

from

Aramaic
which

changes

branch

since

the

in
inscriptions
But

while

proved

the

with

to

scientific

of Tibet

Semitic

and

which
It is

old

explain
of

the

has

invented, in

usual

sense

traces

discoveries
and

of the

may

through

growth

still

it the

bring

modern

of
to

an

real

yet

ad

Thomas,

of

that

the

or

one

is the

I.

most
The

alphabet.

ancient

into

Indian

Indian

word.

ancient

this

that

Indian
in

back

34^-350.)

pp.

be

about

Asoka,

or

is found

in the

the Arianian

of

coins,

closelyconnected
Aramaic

with

ever,
letters,how-

experiencedfurther

of

and

have

must

we

the

Phenician

links

Indian

alphabet can

be

which

is

in

the

alphabets,as

n.

p.

42.)

it is to

which

with

well
to

To

gradually, and

ideographic,stages.

by

found

of

as

any

admit,

impossible. Alphabets_were

formed

were

soil ; and

connected

The

manner
satisfactory

vol.
is

alphabet

They

Indian

alphabets.

(See
Could

Kapurdigirialphabet.

alphabet,

traced

been

coins

of all other

source

Nicaea.

or

Kapurdigiri,and

of

Hebrew

types

may

alphabet

rise of Buddhism.

that

as

origin,and

alphabet

intermediate

Devanagari,

Ancient

of the most

more

alphabetwhich

same

of the

on

of

Nagara

Caucasum

the

to

The

earlier,syllabic
or

to

is

Beghrami?
anterior*

letters

native

for

Devandgart

(See History

vol.

Antiquitiesby Thomas,

of

the

inscriptionsof king Priyadarsi

the

alphabet

light

given,

of

name

Alexandria

as

the

second

as

phonetic alphabetlfalways
point back
such

of

author

Buddha, translated

Palmyrenian inscriptions,have

(Prinsep'sIndian

the

native

Phenician

Semitic

not

alphabet.

Semitic

for

is the

is

Ndgarl,

first practised

as

ancient

any

life of

(a

alphabets

alphabets.

of the

some

however, the independent invention


never

and

writing

from

called

been

more

is the language

1'Inde, p. 298.)
is the

the

or

have

Hindi

where

century, speaks of the

India

clearlyof

model

which

Burmah,

prototype.

nth

in the main

precision, the

and

in

Semitic

the

as

transition

inscriptionof Girnar,
those

and

primitive types

order

Deva

different

Egyptian

served

more

the

such

writingare

in two

the

from

they

gods)

with

adduced

Lalita-vistara

list of

equivalent of

an

met

of

to left.
of

know

we

to

recourse

right

the

sur

Greeks,

as

been

of Kapurdigiri,
inscription
is written

the

written

are

of the

meant

specimens

These

B.C.

by

the

commonly

the Brahmans.

the art of

mean

Prinsep's Antiquities,ed.

inscriptionshave
authentic

alphabet should

Albiruni, in the

by

in

have

Devanagari

250

intended

(Reinaud, Memoire

important cities founded

earliest

be

the

might

In

D.), where

A.

(bhagdrdma, abode

Beghram

No

76

it

unless

transactions

authorityhas yet been

Devandgari.

Chinese

common

Why

city,it

alphabets are

gods, or, possibly,of

in all

nagara,

No

128.)

2,

Indian

but

respectiveprovinces.

of the

Hindus

Devanagari alphabet;

the

modern

in their

Ndgart

by

Literature, p. 518.)

current

other

simply Ndgarf.

If derived

is unknown.

as

the

means

styleof writing, used

current

and

writing Sanskrit

Devandgarf

"

with

properly written

Bengali, Grantha, Telugu,


employed

ALPHABET.

one

the

be

There

hoped

alphabet

of the

purely
are

that
of

leading

no

new-

Girnar,
Semitic

ALPHABET.

THE

$ 3.
Note

Sanskrit is written

because

so

with

the

fit for sacred

all these

called

are

idiom

who

man

Vedas,

the

has

Hence

the

prdkrita.

This

has

acquainted

what

was

is rendered

The

acts, the

local

spoken

vulgar,but
originally

mean

type,'this

or

samskdras;

or

fit for sacred

language.

not

source

who
meant

called

a sacrificial victim
purified,

alone

did

became

rites
initiatory

all the

the sacred

or

source

type

or

(See Vararuchi's Prakrita-Prakasa,ed.

sacred language.

or

Samskrita

language which

derived,secondary,
second-rate,literallywhat
(prakriti)
being the Samskrita

Europeans

vessel that is

passed through
the

of

general name

first

called Samskrita,

was

perfect.But Sanskrit is not

fit or

all languages.

sacred.
purified,

samskrita.

of the

dialects received

perfectof

hence

that is properlydressed,a

ancient

still less,because

or

it the most

purposes

right.

is rendered

means

Brahmans,

it,considered

left to

(u**jjd) what

Samskrita

"

from

Cowell,p. xvii.)
sense

of

'the natural, originalcontinuations

the old language (bhdshd),'


is untenable, because

it

the
interpolates

The

If

prdkritahad
has

as

mean,

p.

explanationof prdkritain the

former

to be

been

taken

in the

shown

well

of

sense

by

D'Alwis

Ixxxix),the originallanguage,and

'

idea

originaland natural,'a language so


(An Introduction
would

samskrita

then

to

have

of

of continuation.
called would

Kachchayana'sGrammar,
to be taken

in the

sense

of

refined for literary


purposes.'This
to the

opposed

of those

view

view, however,
framed

who

the

of the

meaning of

and

names,

these two

is rendered

names,

is

impossibleby the

character of the Vedic lang*1^;

..

" 3.

In

writingthe Devanagarialphabet,the

letter is written
Ex.

then
first,

and
perpendicular,

the

k; "?,

Beginnerswill
they know

j 4.

them

The

i\g;

find it useful

well,and

to trace

write

can

the sounds

are
following

distinctive

portion of

lastlythe

horizontal
,

the letters

which

line.

"c.

*, n,

them

each

on

transparent paper,

till

and correctly.
fluently

representedin

are

the

Devanagari

alphabet:
Hard

Soft and

and

Hard,

aspirated, Soft, aspirated, Nasals.


(tenues.) (tenues (mediae.) (media?
aspiratae.)
aspiratae.)
1.

Gutturals,

2.

Palatals,

3.Linguals,
4. Dentals, Jft

-Hth

35

by

In

I and

Unmodified

Nasal

Unmodified

Sibilant

the

Veda

335

lh.

"5 d

and

"?

The

or

Anusvara,
or

called Dento-labial.

signsfor

gutturaland

the two

dots : h.

Diphthongs.

US

Visarga,

soft

is sometimes
the

Vowels.

Short, Long.

bh

dh, if between

but
a liquid,
"% h is not properly

H/

Mdh

5. Labials,

Liquids. Sibilants.

two

or

m.

h.

vowels,

are

in certain schools written

breathing.

labial sibilants have

become

obsolete,and

are

replaced

-"

8.

THE

Students

be cautioned

Devanagariwhen

the
be

should

been

made

in

5. There
and

consonants

The

safelyand

thirteen

and

with
in

letters instead

in

of

paradigms should

native form, otherwise

indistinct.

and

grammar

fiftyletters

are

learn Sanskrit.

unsettled

masteringthe

be used

alphabetmay

Roman

in their real and

first impressionswill become


has

againstusing the

beginning to

the memory

impressedon

ALPHABET.

After

some

their

progress

readingSanskrit,the

Roman

advantage.
Devanagari alphabet,thirtyseven

the

sound

vowels, representing
every

of the

Sanskrit

language.

$ 6.
never

One

the long 7" li,is merely a grammatical invention


letter,
in the

occurs

f 7.

Two

distinctive

spoken language.
labial

guttural and

the

sounds,

in
representatives

Upadhmdniya, i.e. afflandus,the

been

by
represented

signsX

the

are
sibilants,

the

near

labial sibilant.

base

They

without

now

Devanagarialphabet. They

the

formed
Jihvdmdliya,the tongue-root sibilant,
and

it

called

are

of the

tongue

said to have

are

having the shape of


(calledVajrdkriti,

the

(calledGajakumbhdkriti, having the shape of an


elephant'stwo frontal bones). [SeeVopadeva's Sanskrit Grammar, i. 185
the sign X,
Historyof Ancient Sanskrit Literature,p. 508.] Sometimes

thunderbolt)and

called

half

Ardha-visarga,

writingthese

two

-Visarga,is

signsare

used

(dvi,two, vindu, dot,)properlythe sign of


old

sign of

the

Visargais

in the Tantrabhidhana
vol.

i.

p.

as

there

in the middle

five
originally

were

or

Visarga.

like the

Katantra

th's.

(SeePrinsep,Indian

by

p,

distinct

nasals

of words, these

as

Anusvara.

"H

Thus

rii
f"j

signsfor
followed

are

nasals,^

The

figureS

4 ;

Antiquities,

is

*r n, iff n,

n,

"jn,
When,

the five sibilants.

by

consonants

by

/, th, d, dh

often, for the sake

dot, which

the

five

by ch, chh, j,jh ;

pht b, bh,)they are

writing,
replacedby
nasal

like two

unmodified

in the

five distinct letters for the

are

class,(n by k, kh, ff,gh


d, dh

described

common

dots, the Dvivindu, :,

two

the

in

75.)

8. There

m,
*Tx

as

the

replacedby

now

But

both.

for

of

of their
;

more

properlythe sign of

the

own

by t, th,

expeditious
unmodified

find

we

instead

of

^f^dl ankitd.

instead

of

fWrtI1anchitd.

"N \

""" V * I

instead

of

^fertlkunditd.

instead

of

H^dl

nanditd.

instead of cfffujril
4fljrfT
kampitd.
The
must

The

pronunciationremains
be

pronounced as
same

if it

appliesto

unaffected

were

final IT

written
m

at

by

this

styleof writing.

^f"*HI

ankitd, "c.
^HfffrU
the

end

of

sentence.

This

too,

THE

written
though frequently
be

pronounced as

to

in M.
Hitopades'a,
Note

cf.

M/s

Handbooks

the Kaumaras

for the

final *T

in

followers

of

Kumara,

Colebrooke, Sanskrit
mistake

and

$ 9.

of this

the followers

Besides

12

reputed

of

author

and

grammar,

of the

Kalapa

the five nasal

nasalized

final *T w,

represent a
the

by

letters,the

Thus

of "if*rrfTT
tarn

instead

of w

in

The

Kaumaras

Kalapa

or

the

are

(See

grammar.

made

is sometimes

the

between

ydti we

we

write

I, v, which

we

write

may

modified
are

used

are

and

7^ /,^v,

still
to

modified

(Pan.vm.
4, 59-)
Tf^rifTf
toy ydti;

write

may

as

there
pronunciation,

initial T{y,

may

sound

nasal

tal labhate

TlWHff

tav
Tflhrfa

vahati.

or

^N^frTsamvahati
But

never

nor

if the
T

if the
^

^TR"T

" 10.

semivowel
sam

^^f?
in the

represents an

dran, changed to

The

or

stands

sayydnam;
^l%3tf
sallabdham;

^CTR

or

^c53f \amlabdham

only consonants

Sl^^, ^ sh, ^
the

composition,
^TJlrf
samydnam

*W

Anusvara

pronouncedas

315, note.) S'arvavarman is quotedby

semivowels.

instead of if^ffirtarn vahati


Or

(SeePreface

aham.

II

^, 77, "4,y,
an

tarn labhate

cjvnr

^*

Katantra

labial

or

by

these three

instead

to

grammar.

r|,^,

if followed

of
pronunciation

letters,
expressingthe

IT,

line,is

the

13.

be

may

distinction

dental, and
by guttural,
palatal,
lingual,
three

pausd

the

Preface; and page

Grammar,

the author

as

Kaumaras

the

above

Study of Sanskrit,p. viii.)

and

1829*,pp.
TOTWig^ntfr*RflT 33.

^IWI%

dot

the

pronounced ^r*w

ed. Bombay,
Sarasvati-Prakriya,
T I

9-

printedwith

'snr, I, is to be

m.

Accordingto

"

and

ALPHABET.

s,

h.

which

final

beginningof words, can

savvahati.

body

of

word,

such

vowel, e.
original
^Tt'T
have

sam

no

g.

as

cfiruj: kdmyah ;

Rig-veda x.

132, 3.

varan.

correspondingnasals

before
3^ m, therefore,

by
only be represented

of these

any

the neutral

are

r,

letters at

or

fied
unmodi-

nasal,the Anusvara.
tarn
t^"fir

IT

Or

rakshati.

^UjPrfsamrakshati.
composition,

in

samsrinoti.
^nrftflT

if SHlfrflT
tarn srinoti.
W

if^tfrrtarn sarati.

TOT^firsamsarati.

3 ^flT tarn harati.

M$*Sfisamharati.

J1
*

samshthivati.
^J/l^rrf

tarn shaMram.

^RTT

In

This

the

body

edition,which

of

has

word

the

only letters

contains
latelybeen reprinted,

which

the text

can

be

precededby

ascribed either to Vani

"

herself,i.e. Sarasvati,the goddessof speech(MS. Bodl. 386),or to Anubhuti-svarupa-acharya,


whoever
called

that may

J^hrrt

Mahidasabhatta
and

to

or

be

"

and

in MS.

commentary.

Bodl. 382.

is said to have

the Lord.
pleaseIs'a,

in
commentary printed

i.e. IT^Rft.
tl^nft,

written

The

The

the Sarasvata

date given is

In MS.

the

Bombay editions is

Bodl. 382.Mahidhara

in order that his children

or

might read it,

1634,the placeBenares, (S'ivarajadhani.)

-$

l6.

Anusvara

yatdmti,
9^,^*A,^s, ^A.Thus^r. amfah, vffidhanumshi, ijjriftr

are

Before

ftff
: simhafy.
of

word, is

Taitt.-Brahm.
Sanskrit

in

is called ^raRTC:

" 13.

they follow

d,

"

a,

is

'"

'i

a,

t,

by

horses

instead

; in7!

short

or

any

of

other

OR

If the

is not

their

""

letters

sounds.

Thus

'"

ai"

""

"

'

OM-

the

gavdgra

of the

Tft^jj
goagra,

word, the

adj.preceded

ift^rtgoa"vam, cows

it

r,

PH^fHlnirritify.

body

in the
Ex.

consonant

Ex.

it.

over

hiatus

'NliJ

"
"

aw;

o,

followingsigns

ri follows

an

az,

the

*
'

is written

tolerate

yoke ;

all
(burring),

and

fdri^J^7"w, sieve.

if written

pronounced k, but
if followed

be followed

is supposed to
by itself,

by

Ara ; ^

vowel

any

y, but

not

except

a,

ya.
is

by

But

"|

pronounced

Thus

a.

kdy far ki, ctf ki, ^ /5rn,c" kri, -9jkli,(w Ar/z),


^ ku, ^ ATM,% ke, % Arai,
^t ^ro,^ kau.

earliest forms
written

over

incliningto

of

and

J 15.

^.
If

Indian

the

consonant,

the

right.

the

short

Afterwards

before

apparentlywritten
from

arose

alphabet the long

the

across

is

This

it is sounded.

these

so
top-line,

the

and

t's

short
the

incliningto
to

become

consonant

Thus

ak must

is to be

pronounced without

followed

by Virdma,

be

written

J 1 6.

If

or

three

fti and

or

four

or

five

or

more

vowel

are

another
written

p.

after

40.)
it,the

is marked

consonant,
in

of

sake

ik, ^.

immediatelyby
consonants

long

instead
sift,

vol. n.

i. e. stoppage, which

^TC^; kar, w^

is followed

consonant

any

both

were

for the

sonant
con-

in the

left,the

top-marks were,
as

the

fact that

ed. Thomas,
(SeePrinsep'sIndian Antiquities,

is said to be

consonant

ft

that short

the

drawn
distinctness,

two

vowel

ifts?I
go 3gra or

consonant,

after which

by

Vcj/^

in its initial form.

is
only peculiarity

the inherent

with

written

^, H, rt /", (^0" M"

the

tf, e,

/i, (/Q, w,

"""

t"

consonant,

Thus

a.

without

of

'padante/but

kakdrah, "c.

cv"

e"

Repha

(making) to

v*"

prauga,

J 14. Every

The

namrah,

"ro

(after-sound),
Visarga: "

'"

is written

vowel

cows,

^FT

body

written,

which

words

kdra
"**K:

they are

exception.

one

certain

second

ka,

r, H, H,

e,

retains its initial form, and


In

"9R

consonant,

T
"

There

by adding

akdrah

a),and

p. 23

in.

are
vowels, if initial,

The

a,

if

ate

stands

in the

m,

(tongue-root
Upadhletter),

upon),Anusvara

breathed

X ""(tobe

named
a

43, 4, "c.)the

i.

ifJirb
gamy

Thus

exceptionof JihvdmiiUyaX

the

see
(emission,

$nft:bamyoh (Rv.

In

With

J 2.

mdniya

are

into Anusvara.

v, the

^ /,^

y, t r,

^iHjfd"dmyati. (See f 9.)

in

semivowels

the

changed

never

*ry: amlah.
not

ALPHABET.

THE

one

the
group

(samyoga). Thus
"*|f^.

written

These

the

of the

one

^j ktva ;

c(r+

$17.
stroke

Wx+ T\

The

T:

"*

r^+^=^or
The

before

consonant

^""

!f +

r* tva ;

kta; c(T+

*R

is written

consonant

letter; as

+ ^="35

~$dra; T{+^

+ ^

Tr +

it is to be

sounded.

Thus

sign for

is

^r

letter.

same

*"

^kra;

transverse

J^+T

3T$r#/

^+

^rifi
arka

=
-31;

^nijarkam

rightof any

the

to

top of the

the

placed at

placed

Ex.

short

'g shtra.

+ T.=

by

This

by

or

is written

of the

top

o^+

consonant

which

varshma.

at the

marks

tra; ^ + ^

precedinga

^r

"^+?T

of the

foot

the

at

followinga

Kpta;

generallydropt in

are

?%nda

by

ktya.

^+-n

lines

learnt

in their formation.

generallaws

some

+ ^

ft

be

must

17-

kdrtsnya is

^T3T ;

consonants

horizontal

^M0;

^chya;

+ -Q =

discover

perpendicularand

letters: ^r + ^R

-"skha;

compound

however, to

is written

alpa

^Trfi ;

or

groups

practice. It is easy,
Thus

is written

atka

"

ALPHABET.

THE

^fer

arkena

^+
other

^FJ

arkendu.
followed

c^k

by

*^jfollowed by
T^jh is
^

*T

^ d followed

by

by

Sf

is written

written

sometimes

followed

sh is written

*t

^jna.

v^jh.
ti is written

and

g"

and

"gi it

sign of Virdma

The

consonant, shows

^ duy "* dd.


is frequently
other letters,
written

after

$ 19.

The

At
end

the

of

$ 20.
mark

end

or

or

of

of which

of

the

the elision of

for Ft ^Tft so

api,i.e.

a, after

initial W

an

^rfosas

TO

List

at the

in

ends

one

group,

it

placed

end

of

sentence,

consonant.

is used

; at the

sign n.

final wfr

foot of

*r.

ipjfyunkte.

sign s (Avagraha or Arddhakdra) is

The

in

the sign I
half-verse,

longersentence,

of

Virama, however, is

or

the

placed at

stopped,is sometimes,when

instead
Tp^fi

thus

sentence,

is

if

three consonants

sentence, the last word


of

verse,

of the

use

proper

portionof

or

short

(orto print)two

of the consonants

one

which
(stoppage),

that its inherent

is difficult to write

^ rd.

^ ru,

is written

in combination with
^^, particularly
Vl6ra.
Ex. ^J"M; i^tol;

J 1 8.

ksha.

or

in

used
^

or

api ; %sftrte 'pifor

e.

^fq

editions

most

Ex.
te

to

sftsfxrso 'pi

api.

Consonants.

of Compound

\
^

k-ka,

cRj

k-kha,

SRI

k-cha,

"^

k-ta, ^

k-t-va}"R k-na, ^f k-n-ya}^F"T k-ma,


k-la, J" k-va, "%% k-v-ya, "Sf k-sha,
r
f

kh-ya, ^

kh-ra

gh-ma,

gh-ya,

"oy

"

HT
TJ

g-ya,

gh-ra ;

"

"SR

^{

TJ g-ra,

k-ya, JR
k-sh-ma,
v% g-r-ya

^" n-ka, ^

k-t-ra, ^gf-k-t-r-ya,

k-t-ya,^
^

or

^r
;

"

k-ra, ^f

k-sh-ya,^
H

^=pjk-r-ya,

or

gh-na,

k-sh-va
"

"

gh-n-ya,

n-k-t-ya9^"J n-k-yat
n-k-ta, "j"Jf

10

Thus

^ stands

for TJ

^ stands

for If cfo of ""T

stands

The

eM,

8 stands

for ^T ch of ^r^THS
for

of

German

Memoire

vol.

Workshop,

n.

p.

in

Indiens,*
vol.

Antiquitiesby Thomas,

Prinsep'sIndian

i ;

used

as

Chiffres

des

Propagation

la

sur

numerals

letters and

the

by comparing
'

vi
serie,tome
Asiatique,

Chips from

chatvdrah, four.

Tfarpancha, five.

evident

more

one.

trayah,three.

M stands

^p

22-

cfocm,two.

"r of ^TJ

See Woepcke,
inscriptions.

Journal

p. 705

of f"Rl

for ^

becomes
similarity

ancient
in

ALPHABET.

THE

n.

289.

Pronunciation.

$ 2,2,.

The

Sanskrit

transcription
given
observed

vowels

should

however,
The

2,.

be

pronounced like

rather

in

'

topheavy /

madhouse

inkhorn

guttural^

The

in

5. The

former
the

in

dh

like

loghousef

This,
in

it is well

of ng in

sound

like

in

dh

doubt,

no

ph

is

learningSanskrit

unaspiratedletters

the

unmistakable

emphasis.

king/

the

have

kh

India,to

in

ifiph

Hobhouse/

an

*fj

Thus
distinctly.

pothouse /

aspiratedfrom

with

and

a,

sound

of ch in 'church'

and

'join/

surface

said

are

of the tongue

fact the

pronounced by bringingthe
roof

of the

ordinarypronunciationof t, d,

call

it is essential to

and
lingual,

front-teeth.

In

represent the
dentals ;

be

to

againstthe

by bringingthe tip of

6. The

'

in

gh

sound

ch

lingualletters

would

th like th in

the first the

has

palatalletters
j

in

short ^

America/

'

learnt Sanskrit

have

but
exaggerateddescription,

by pronouncing the
3. The

be heard

who

like bh

bh

English a

should

like

gh

TI

from
distinguish

to

of

be

to

are

The

in Italian.

the vowels

of the

the consonants

like kh in

somewhat

4.

sound

the

said,by English scholars

almost

'

has

of
aspiration

is

the

with

accordance

in

following rules, however,

The

4.

page

pronounced

be

The

i.

letters should

e.

the tongue

g.

dentals

by

English is

in

words

their

linguals,not

fiX*^ Direktar,Jimi*U!dGavarnment,

Visarga,Jihvdmuliya and

Upadhmdniya

are

"c.

not

dentals

of the upper

natives

the

Hindus

what

edge

very

of

matter

Sanskrit

the
distinguish

againstthe

transcribingEnglish

English

As

palate.

lower

naturally
their

by

own

articulated

now

audibly.
7. The
the

dental

^r

sounds

palatal^f

Biihler,Madras

of the Hindvi

" like

like
ss

in

s
'

in

'

sin/ the lingual"^

sh like sh in

shun/

session/

Journal,February,1864. RajendralalMitra,
Literary

Language,' Journal

'

of the Asiatic

'

On

Bengal, 1864, p. 509.


Society,

the Origin

-$

RULES

24.
real Anusvara

The

is sounded

If the dot is used

as

as

SANDHI.

11

slightnasal,like

very

graphicsign in placeof

CHAPTER
RULES

$ 23.
of

SANDHI

OF

Sanskrit every

In

the
interpunction,

with

As

be

cannot

modified

or

pronounced

either

accordingto which
the rules

As

of

stopswhich

LETTERS.

to

chain

should

mark

by

coalesce

with

the

we

coalescence

of final and

with

consonants

unbroken

one

made

are

initial
and

consonants,

incompatiblewith

are

the

to facilitate their

one

both

or

generalrule

letters

in other

the words

of Sandhi

absence

mere

""TMi H^Ht
there

it

of

each

other, i.e.
have

other,they

to

pronunciation.The

rules,

modified, are

thus

are

be

called

Sandhi.

accordingto

the
together,

word

immediatelyafter

one

in order

assimilated

five nasals

called Sandhi.

Sanskrit

letters in

certain

as

stop, which

This

vowels, of

is
vowels,)

with

is

there

followingword.

letters,
(of vowels

bon.*

it represents*.

OP

is considered

final letters of each

initial letters of the

consonants

COMBINATION

sentence

where

syllables.Except

the other

'

IT.

THE

OR

in French

pronounced like the nasal which

be

must, of course,

OP

languageshave

in

sentence

is in many

by stops.

astvagnimdhdtmyam,indrastu

bte'the greatness of

nevertheless

Agni;

be

glued

sufficient to mark

cases

to be marked

thus

must

devdndm

Indra

Ex.

the

mahattamah,

Let

greatest of the

is the

gods.
Distinction

" 24.

It is

in
essential,

the rules

of Sandhi

of words

(pada),and

which

by

order

the

The
i.e.

shortness3

Accordingto
five nasals

by

real Anusvara

sake

or

are

Internal

nominal

suffixes.

sometimes

is therefore

pronounced by their

own

and

ndsikya,nasal;

organ

of

speech,and
C

the

the

initial letters

which

apply to

when
(prdtipadikd)

bases

Though

both

are

based

on

the

is
their application
identical,

it will be best to

respectiveorgans

final and

rules of Sandhi

other

Sanskrit grammarians the real Anusvara


their

Sandhi.

between
confusion, to distinguish

changes of

and
(dhdtu)

certain terminations

different. For

the

those

roots

and
phoneticprinciples

same

and

avoid

to

determine

between

the final letters of verbal


followed

External

between

nose.

apply the

is

pronouncedin

Siddh.-Kaum.

five nasals

uttered

of External

name

are

through

the

the

to

only,

nose

Pan.

i.

i, 9.

anunasika, nasalized,
nose.

12

RULES

Sandhi

final and

the

of

bhydm,
("ri

and
conjugation,

from

the

from

the

than

exceptionswhich
of Sandhi.

head

the

which ^ +
d is

the

J^h+

changed into ^ + TT dh
the vowel
lengthened:

vowel, under

the

are

be

Latin
to be

rules

no

dhah

given at all in Sanskrit

as

while

=parivrid

remember

in

+ dhah

grammars

participle
passive

the rules

^ d

accordingto

dh, and

"j(V^+

"%d + dh;

T +

IT: parivrih+

short ;

broughttogetherin

the
affecting

and the

one

tah

parivrih+
In

parivridhah.

tafy,
=

Greek
If

they

they should,to avoid confusion,

grammars,

the rules

their

with

rules

given with regard to changes of this kind.

are

distinct from
kept perfectly

of words

the

that

circumstances,remains

same

parivridh+ tah, parivrid+


and

t,3

-f

body

declension,

of

Sanskrit

in

to remember

1 are

dropt and

complicated

It is easier to learn

y.

grammaticalparadigms

the

generallydetailed

are

except ^

heads

the

or
dictionary,

acquire the

to

consonants

it is far easier to

cases

lowed
fol-

fa: bhih,wr: bhyah, ?Jsu),

any

under

many

fe^ lih,to lick,is cTte: lidhah,than

of

In

grammar,

numerous

under

derivation.

ready-made

words

the

treated

pounds,
com-

incompatibleletters in the

of

contact

properly be

should

word

the

changes produced by

The

parts of

when
(prdtipadika)

bases

suffixes beginningwith
by secondary(taddhita)

or

(pada)apply,with

initialletters of words

the so-called Pacto-terminations

changes

elements.

and likewise to the final letters of nominal

by

meeting of

to the

Sandhi

initial letters of the component

the final and

to
exceptions,

formative

radical and

the

placeat

take

that of Internal

final and

applyto

" 25-

SANDHI.

changes which

the

to

meeting of

rules which

The

EXTERNAL

initial letters of words, and

produced by
few

Sandhi

Pada

or

OP

initialletters

final and

sentence.

same

Classification
of Vowels.

" 25.

Vowels

vowels.
(pluta)

Short

vowels
protracted
the time

of

divided

are

short

Short

vowels

2.

Long

vowels

^rr

a,

3,

" 26.

3 ;

Vowels

are

are

^ iy T

27.)

2,

ri,c"

u, ^

indicated

3" ^TC 3

ou

3.

by

likewise divided

is said

consonant

to

last half

2.

Diphthongs (sandhyakshara)
: ^
are

liable to be

^ ai, ^ft 0, ^

figure3

of

3 ; ^r$

3, ^T 3 d 3, ^ 3 i 3,

find ^r $ ^,

we

au.

3,

au

3 i,instead of

3.

into

Monophthongs (samdndkshara)
: "*

All vowels

e,

Sometimes

1.

" 27.

li.

the

3 ^, d 3 u, instead

^n

or

(Pan.i.

d, $t, "" d, ^ ri,u

3. Protracted vowels
^ 3) ^ 3

have

vowel.

1.

^3

vowels

three.

and protracted
(hrasva),
long (dirgha),
one
measure
long vowels two,
(mdtrd),

into short

e,

a, ^?T

d,\it^^u^H^

^ ai, ^

or
nasalized,

o,

ri,^ri, o"

li.

*$hau.

to become

anundsika

d.
^fa,^f

-$ 33-

BULBS

J 28.

Vowels

OP

EXTERNAL

again divided

are

into

light(laghu)and heavy (guru).This


only.
purposes

division is importantfor metrical

Lightvowels

1.

vowels

Heavy

2.

*?

are

Vowels

with

(Pan.i.

tone.

2,

by

vowels

with

Accents

29-32.)

of

means

Guna

is the

ri to

ri and

By

of
repetition

formed, viz. ^

ai instead

1.

Simplevowels

2.

Guna

au

(Pan.i.

an

even

i to ^ e, ?
i,

ri,^ ri, "$ It,by

and

to wt o,

2.)

Vriddhi

vowels
(increase)

of ^fto, ^TTT dr instead

are

of ^T

ar,

grammarians

say,

^T

and

^n

unchanged

do

a+i), ^aw (a+a+w),


(a-f

take

Guna,

taking Guna.

Thus

after

*di
not

Vriddhi

^T^jaffhana,
Combination

J 32.

As

For

the

ri"^ "
which

Callingthe
The

M.,

ends

are

not,

^r

jaghdna, I
and

allows

placein

the

order to

explainingthe

no

forms

with

killed.

have

beginningof
of

han

words.

hiatus

in
(vivritti)

word

begins with

next

this hiatus.

remove

combination

of

vowels, they

changed into semivowels,^ i, ^ i,"su,


diphthongs,* e, ^ at, ^ o, ^rr au.
a, ^T

liquid*,

calls them
Pratis'akhya
p. xxiii.

take

Vriddhi,^i?

sing,of the

liable to be

"

former

in the first person

vowel, and

other

as

or,

or

"niT"T

at the end

classes

also the
are

in

of

purpose

into two

which

Those

of Vowels

modifications

be divided
Those

word

vowel, certain

$ 33.

with

or

general rule, Sanskrit

If

sentence.

ed. M.

with

i.)

i,

Guna

the

requiresGuna

2.

pronounced

are

literature only.

z, 3" M, g; u,

(Pan.i.

which
reduplicated
perfect,

1.

(udatta),

vowels:

J 31,

may

instead

again into

vowels

acute

3. Vriddhi vowels

remain

"^i,

process

of F et ^n

divided

thus

are

same

of ^Tc5 al.

^n?^
Vowels

the

any

Vriddhi.

al.

at/, and

accent, into acute

inVedic

raises ^ i and

ar, "" li to

dl instead

and

a, which

w"

low, the circumflexed

and

of
strengthening

preceding^w

o,

consonant.

consonant.

one

marked

are

Guna

J 30.

than

more

at, wt

*, *

The
circumflexed(svarita).

raised tone, the grave

$ i,T" A, ^ r*,*

a,

divided accordingto
lastly,

are,

and
(anudatta),

grave

if not followed by a double


ri,75 li,

i,Tw,^

a, ^

vowel, if followed

short

J 29.

are

13

SANDHI.

the

gi

w,

d.
latter hard

ndmin, for

vowels, we

different reason

see

may

say

If the

Rig-veda-pratis'akhja

14

RULES

vowel

same

result

OF

(longor short)occurs

is the

long

^sr

^rr +

or

^+

or

end

at the

(Pan.vi.

vowel.

^n

^= ^ ? -{-"

3[or

^Ttpraflf

"3W

^IM-M^rd

having spoken

he

uktvd

oJuNrkartri

Or

in

compounds, *T^t4- ^t

$ 34.

udeti

but
kintudeti,

*T^$rimahi

(Pan.vi.

87.)

I,

^T

^5:

^ftw

^fe:

*TT
rf^

Or

in

compounds,

f^lT+ ^M^i:

next

Ex.

If hard

beginswith

if^ H3

i^(

The

for T

cTfJ^Klanubandhah,
t Some

brahma

ri

of

*\

(du).
(Pan.i.

ar.

i, 5

")

letter /z.

"*l*-Mfy:kdmya-[-ishtih kdmyeshtih,

upadesah

hitopadesah,good

(longor short)occur

at

the end

^T

or

^rr H- ^

^T

or

^TT +

tava

5j $
=

eva

an

d.

(Pan.vi.

word,
i,

and

the

88.) Thus

di.

di.

no

Vriddhi.
as

she
saikshishta,

saw.

It is
practical
utility.
Thus

treated

like

^ ri,only

li-\-anubandhah becomes
"^-J-W*J"5Ni

letter.
indicatory

the

Sandhi

of

with

ri

optional,but

WSTT-f^jfabrahmd-\-rishik==?mfa

Ex.

rishih,Brahma,

it is of

and

having

d-{- di

+ aikshishta

in Guna

of

advice.

tavaiva, of thee only.

out, because

i. e.

long

tavalkdrah,thy

result is Vriddhi.

Guna

sarddhih, this wealth.

"

^%J

grammarians consider

shortening of the

diphthong,the

letter ~3lU is left

substitutingc^I

the

soktvdyshe having spoken.

A^a
f^7ftaRf5K

and

certain boon.

vowels
a

"*1WJ +

of the earth.

tavendrah, thine is Indra.

indrafy

d +

^=

or

^"v" + likdrah

ri^^Kt

oSoRT^: =

sd + riddhih

offeringfor

^ 35.

mahisah, lord

"

"gjm^ft a

or

sd + uktvd

^f%t

^3TT +

or

KT5;: tava

^TT ^W1^

^TT +

or

^T
cf^

Uah

rises.

he

Thus

".

Ex.

river.

at the end of a word,


(longor short)occur
the result is
liquidvowel (exceptdiphthongs),

liquidvowel.

the

nadidrisi,such

vowels

If hard

begins with

next

right.
kartriju,
doing (neuter)

"

kintu

apagachchhati uktvdpagachchhati,

idrisi =

riju

d.

"

away.

goes

ft nadi
=

CL

z.

"

"

Ex.

the

Thus

beginningof words,

and

101.)

i,

wr

or

" 34-

SANDHI.

EXTERNAL

Rishi.

they require the

Irahmarshih

or

W5f

-"37-

RULES

*TT

Or

compounds,

*rfafT
+

WH"J

the

change of

rdma

she desirous.
sautfukyavatt,

aisvaryam ramaibvaryam,
=

Rama.

*X\A\m*l8itd+ aupamyam

with
sitaupamyam, similarity

wife of Rama.

(longor

with

begins

next

into

liquidvowel

the

tavaushthah, thy lip.

tl^R

15

8ANDHI.

autsukyavail

simple liquidvowel

and

-f

^R

TJ*T -f

Sita,the

J 36. If

oshthah

lordshipof

the

EXTERNAL

*flrW*Hcf1
sd

TOT7W4"H"fl=

in

word,

tava

mrro:

r: =

OP

"

or

^n

or

^=

TTT

or

or

"31=

or

*j =

SM

or

TOT
TOT

!T or

or

'H

or

^="ftcor ift

-31=

e,

ai

TO^ ^

o,

au

\t

ri

or

or

sn

Ex.

or

TOT

or

or

TH

"f"U*4jnadi

In

compounds, t^
of
Note

Sandhi,
chakrf

atra

" 37.
with
is

any

native

may

If

be

vn.

dadhyatra, milk

ve, vai.

van.

vo,

here.

kartruta, doing moreover.


=

madhviva, like honey.

aidasya

"

nadyaidasya,the
artham

grammarians allow, except

river of A Ida.

nadyartham9

case

or

vowel

or

end

diphthong (excepta),the
semivowel.

diphthong;

see

If

compounds,

a
long
^if^i^T^ chakri

at the

occurs

in

final vowel

that

^-sfcJWchakryatra

Guna-

vowel

the

va.

L o, au

tTirSnadi

they requirein that

changed into

placein

^f"

ro, ran.

for the

sake

river.

Some

"

but

ri

+ iva

madhu

e, ai

atra

kartri + uta

re, rat.

au

or

dadhi

yo9 yau.

or

^"= ^

or

^T

or

f%

Thus

L o,

or

or

is

i=ri.'

or

TOT~^

or

result

yai.

ye,

e9 ai

fftor

77.)

i,

of

TJ

or

(Pan.vi.

[ or
or

end

or

the

at

diphthong,the

or

semivowel.

or

vowel

any

*T

short)occurs

$ 41. (Pan.vi.

word,

and

last element
is

i,
=

Ex.

of

this

^ft """

the next

begins

of the Guna-vowel

elided,and

78.) Thus

(e)+ any vowel (excepta) ^r^(ay).


^ (o)+ any vowel (excepta) ^T^ (av).

omission

atra.

of

follows,a

the

be shortened.

no

change takes

16

KULES

Ex. *rif-^MNsd.

sakhe
*U?miJ|"ad.

sakhe

" 38-

SANDHI.

sakhayiha,Friend, here

=prabhavehi, Lord,

ehi

llVRfav prabho

sakhaydgachchha, Friend, come

dgachchha

iha

TW%f^prabho

EXTERNAL

OF

near

come

Lord,

aushadham=prabhavaushadham,

medicine.

compounds, ift+ -|$i: TT^H

In

go + Uah

exceptionsin compounds

J 38.

If

begins with

vowel

any

semivowel.

fafl ^r":

tau
^frf 'rfTrMfrf
=

next

into

changed

sriydyarthah.

sriydyrite.

astamite

ravdvastamite,after

sunset.

tdviti.

"TR^

(dv).

w^

ravau

iti

composition,tfr
+ ^T^

In

is

the

^TH^ (ay),

sriyaiarthah

friyairite

and

word,

78.) Thus

i,

rwwS:

of

various

are

("41.)

gava.

last element

diphthong, the

% (ai)
+ any vowel
^T (au)+ any vowel
Ex.

*re

as

end

the

at

occurs

or

(Pan.vi.

iftgo is treated

where

Vriddhi-vowel

gavisafy.There

+ artham

nau

ndvartham,

for

the

of

sake

ships.

" 39.
1.

The

These
final

be

TO

sakhe

sakhe

and

dgachchha,not

into

*K"WI-ed

TOf

IWt

nfe prabho ehi,not

H*ft ^W

2.

The

prabha

WW

final

of

^y

into ^?T

TW%fi|
prabhavehi,but

into

into

not

^5 sakha

iha.

itf^prabhaehi.

into iw

TpT^rNv prabhavaushadham,

but

into

aushadham.
stands

which
*%r*{dy,

it is usual to

vowels, and

into

sakhay dgachchha,but

*R^fM^ sakhayiha, but

prabho aushadham,
TW

rule for

accordingto

dgachchha.
into

iha,not

printededitions change

MSS.

Thus

stand

modifications

(except
a, $ 41); not, however,

most

sakha

WT35

liable to certain

all vowels

dropt before

composition.

'-HNI^

are

^v of^tnay, ^r^av,which

and

i^y

^fto, may

?? e,

in

rules,however,

two

fo**l^T": sriyaiarthah, is

drop

it in

for
our

^ di, may

editions.

all

Thus

usuallywritten foRT ^:

more

dropt before

be

6riyd arthah

instead

ftsnrnr^t
Sriydyarthah

of

3. The

final ^

^ ^fir
tau

iti is

more

are

any

reason

that

dropt,while
generally

consistent either

in

au, may

be

editions.

our

dropt

before

always to

the dropping of the final


the

final

the final
retain

^y
^v of

the

of Guna
Vriddhi

\y

not

and

\v

and Vriddhi
is

vowels,but

HT
is
and

^TT id

is

Pan.

or

vi.

iti.

obligatory.
the final

retained.
generally

final semivowels

ed. M. M., Sutras 129, 132, 135


Rig-veda-pratis'akhya,

all

Thus

and
tdviti,
usuallywritten rilfcPri

more

Before the particle


T

It is without
Guna

^rr^dv, for ^

usuallyretained

more

Note"

of

It would

always to drop them.


i,

78;

vm.

^u

3, 19.

of
be

See

18

EULES

OF

EXTEENAL

" 43-

SANDHI.

IrregularSandhi.

" 43.
be

The

are
following

stated.

When

beginningwith
^

^ft0,

or

Ex.

jf

^Wff

TO

TOfir

TJViT

" 44.
in ^?
vi.

^iftafTTupa

oshati

verb

the vowels

is

94.)

I,

the

verbs

two

=parekhati.
uposhati.

=parohati.
and

to grow,
TT^ec?A,

to go, if raised

3[",

by Guna

"^Vff upa-\-edhate
=
upaidhate.

and

nouns,

beginning with

If

root

beginningwith
vowels

^rr a, the two

^j ri is

coalesce

TT

^ffr
e or

or

o,

preceded by

into WHC

ur

the elision of the

final

preposition
ending

instead

of

(Pan.

ar.

91.)
"SHr +

^TTRtflf apa
^"ed.frf

-f-richchhati

^ft +

ava
^Ullfff vS^|iSlfri

+ rindti

+ ^prff =

IT

tm

^qfff TO^fa

In verbs

in^rwpra
=

derived from

In certain

+ rishati

j9"m

avdrndti.
"

=pardrshati.

beginning with ^ ri,this lengthening of the

and

nouns

vi.

i,

H + ^$18

TR^ pra+rinam=prdrnam, principaldebt

rindrnam,debt

contracted

^CJ

^fUMW

^Wt

affected by
^n^l'^t
soka-{-ritah-=sGkdrta.h,

rina+rinam

forms
carrying,

"^t visva+uhah, the

plur.of

ace.

with

Vriddhi

^FT

of

92.)

compounds ^TOT rinam, debt, and ^TlTtritah,affected,take Vriddhi

if preceded by ^aj

for ^Tf vdh,

apdrchchhati.

rijate"prdrjate.

the preposition
is optional. (Pan.

Guna

+ ohati

prepositionis optional.

or

i,

Ex.

ekhati

of the

of

coalescence

by

89.)

i,
=

is followed

eshayati"pr eshayati*.

before

requireto

upeshate.

TJTJsrflT
para

derived from

In verbs
a

+ eshate

upa

case

^TT

or

which

ejate=prejate.

^f^frT ^T^flTpara

^r

of the

(Pan. vi.

(Pan. vi.

^TT

result

au.

^"WrT

"3T +

or

^r

or

This is not the

^T

o, the

iNlfifpra

TO

Ex.

ai

T^Nw

^^rfrr

e.

or

JHT^ pra

U +

^T

to ^

not

-f-1T3TTT =

^TT +

Sandhi
irregular

of

cases

preposition
ending in

Tj

few

Likewise

sorrow.

preceding^

in

fmyi^:

visvavdh, is
fqiyqT^

debt ;

another
liquidate

to

instead

uh,
"3!^

the

^ftW+
f%^T-f

(Pan. vi.

visvauhah.

^JW

substitute

Thus

compound.

of

i,

89,

vart.)
If the initial

" 45.

by

or

^fto

in

^TTa, the two

^Ft oshthah, lip,and


vowels

may

coalesce

Wtg*otuh, cat, is
into

^5n

au

or

preceded

^fto.

in

(Pan. vi.

pound
com-

i, 94,

vart.)
=
+ ^fVffl

}Ex. ^WC

viMOst adhara+
'^IMClSt
or

oshthah

=.adharaushtJiah

or

adharoshthah,

the lower lip.


^y"*)

In

nouns

^rVfft
=
W^T?n
derived

praisJiya, messenger.
a

from
IR

or

sthula-\-otuh
t^^lrft
=

U^ ^res^,the
presha,

rule

is

sthulautuh

optional.

gleaner,is derived from

Ex.

ITp-a

or

sthulotuh,a big

cat.

ifa?or 9*51preshya
and

^["A.

or

-"

RULES

51.
If

they
Ex.

*iW

*T*T +

WlJ o/a

and

oshtha

follow the

OP

EXTERNAL

preceded by

are

19

8ANDHI.

^JT

or

in the

middle

of

sentence,

generalrule.

^ffat

THTOJ

+ oshthaJi

mama

are
compounds the following
" 46. As irregular

"Satsvairam, wilfulness,and

mentioned

native

by

from
self-willed,
Jflfi^roairtfi,

"2f"fliy"UT
a complete
akshauhini,
army,
: praudhah, from

hah, my lip.

mumau8ht

IT 4- TO?

from

^ftlf4-

grammarians :

^f +

aksha
^tfigil

ma+ira.

-\-uhini.

pra+ddhah, full-grown.

j^

from
investigation,
HT?[:prauhati,

ifa praishah,a

certain prayer, from

praishyah,a

uW.

IT +

"31^:pr

-\-uhah.

IT -f '"?. pra + eshah.

(See " 43.)

messenger.

" 47. The final ^fto of indeclinable words is not liableto the rules of Sandhi.
Ex.

"SHft
^nrf^aho apehi,Halloo,go

of
" 48. Indeclinables consisting
not liable to the rules of Sandhi.
Ex.

^TT ^^"a

"
before

Is it

evam,

If ^TT"2

49.

Indra

indra,Oh

i.

"3H^| u

Vf

(" 49),arc

14.)

i,

Oh

umesa,

lord of Uma

indeed ?

(which is written by Indian grammarians W^


before

verbs,or

so

singlevowel,with the exceptionof

(Pan.

away

(Pan. 1. 1,15.)

in the

nouns

of

sense

far as'

so

dh) is used

as

preposition

or
or
exclusively)
(inclusively

it is liable to the rules of Sandhi.


little,'
Ex.

until the readingbegins.


^U|lMli^= ^mmHTf^a adhyayandt=ddhyayandt,

^\

ekadesdt
^||f^a
n

Id\ P"l
ri d dlochitam

d ushnam
^TT

^l^

*f"

If ^TT d is used

Ex. ^TT

d ihi =

as

an

ehi,come

kila

" 51.
to stand
Ex.

indra. Oh

^ei^rU $ I

certain

place.

little warm.

here.

tat,Ah,

"

unaffected

liable to
I

now

Sandhi, accordingto " 48.

recollect,it is justso.
"

by Sandhi.

Indra.

protractedvowel

at the end of

dlochitam,regardeda little.

it is not
interjection,

f^R7 (TiTd, evam

^ ^" he

oshnam,

remain
" 50. Certain particles

Ex.

aikadesdt,to

remains

sentence.

^f^ devadattd

unaffected

(Pan. vi.

by Sandhi, because
125

i,

ehi, Devadatta,come

viu.

2,

here !

82.)

it is always

supposed

20

SANDHI.

EXTERNAL

""

tfr
48
"

5*1*

UTS-

S
tr*

fcr"

"

tr
T.

"c

S-

5s;

s;

'C-

"

"C. 'C.

"C

f
"*"

,l"

T!S

rfip*
p

1C"

$1
I

I
ri

"

**'

t**

IW'

ur

tvf

ft

*
r

-$54-

EXTERNAL

Combination

$ 53.

Here,

of words

consonants
to

in the

as

of words

of nominal

other

bases

rules.

But

the

are

best

the

changes

the

terminations

regulatedby

of

dictionaryin

nominal
of

In

order
it is

consonants,

There

1.

of

The

their

the

and

other

ready-made

ending

in

state

other

acquiredin

while

before

consonants,

conjugationand

same

suffixes

suffixes,are

learningby

heart

the

of

final

verbs.
rules

concerning the

at the

stand

changes

that eleven

outset

in Sanskrit

at

the end

of the

only out

of

word

; viz.

"

m.

consonants, consistingof five letters each

givingtwenty-five.In

thus
if

classes

final

compound.

according to

^t, is^n,j^t,
"^n,^/?,i{m, "^/, : h,

five

are

are

state

ever

the

suffixes
secondary(taddhita)

means

best

simplifythe

can

in

of these

bases

and

and

nouns

importantto

n,

by

verbal

laws, and

to

consonants
thirty-five

"^k, ^

and

declension

different

equallyapplicable

are

other

treated

are

from

principal
paradigms of

J 54.

i^ y,

formed

the

sentence

before

derivatives

learnt

apply to

too, before the so-called Pa"/a-terminations

but

consonant

any

in

rules which

followingeach

bhydrn,fa bhih, wi: bhyah, g su)and


(wit

beginningwith

Initial Consonants.

and

of vowels, the

case

each
following

the final consonants

final consonants

Final

of

21

SANDHI.

every

of these five classes the

one

aspirates,

their

correspondingunaspiratedletters: ^M
by ^ k / -^gh by IT g ; ^ chh, however, not by ^ ch, but by 7 /,"c.
Ex. f^ y PC* chitralikh,painter;voc.
This reduces
fad fc"5
"^ cldtralik.
^
final,are

the

letters
twenty-five

In every

2.

replacedby

3. No

ten

to

instead
the

5. "^ h cannot

Some

voc.

In

be

the

Final
roots

*{n does
the

not

hnd,

only remaining palatal,


Ex.

k f.
This

occur.

'^T^vdch,

reduces

*^/is replaced by

final

responding
cor-

*.

ten

corresponding
guttural^

r,

is

into the

is the

eightto

changed into ^t

allow the soft

onlyexceptionsare

"^ /,\v3)^l

This raises the

but
final,

grammarians

few

final; hence

Ex.

TT", "c.

the fifteen to

their

the

lingual

guttural.

of words.

generallychange them

ending in

"^T^vdk.

eight.
of

the

c^Ar;^d by

reduces

be

ever

semivowels,(TI
y,

the end

t The

This

^cA, is replacedby

speech;

letters; i\^gby

can

replacedby

are

^ir hrit.

nom.

palatal^ch
the

4. Of

(J58) letters,if final,

class the sonant


surd

heart ;

to fifteen.

or

sonant

letters

hard
corresponding
technical

terms

vowel, instead of ^^t?n agantah.

such

as

that is found

only one

nine

at

letters.

sometimes

but
final,

into ^ k

the

MSS.

vowel

and

or

K^t.

editions

letters.
as

"3^ acfc,a

-*"in;ajantah,

22

EXTERNAL

6. Of

the

the only one


sibilants,

For, radical v^shcannot


becomes
Radical

fe"Tvit.
Final
The

be

cannot

^s

In

radical

few

words

some

"S

replacedby

sh is
"

changed into

cir k.

f^^visbecomes
k. ("174.)

Thus

t.

fg^dvish

Thus

" 1.

changed into

is

the nine

that

to

and

stand

ever

can

ten

final
affecting

rules of Sandhi

the

replacedby

cF

Visarga.

as

the only ones


letters,

is

is

final

final ^rs

raises
Visarga,therefore,

Hence

words

but
final,

is treated

but
final,

is Visarga.

of words

at the end

that is found

be

In
fgz^dvit.

" 55-

SANDHI.

at

the Anusvara, to

of real words.

the end

consonants

eleven

reallyreduced

are

to

eleven heads.

$ 55.

It is

than

more

final radical tenuis

But

cjf", 7tf,i^t,T^p.

word

no

in Sanskrit
T

an

ends

ever

in

precedesa

Thus

^fsfH^abibhar

abibhar,3. p. sing.impf.of

bhri,to carry.

^rfe*n:abibhar

abibhar,2.

sing.impf.of

bhri,to carry.

^p"^ suvalg+

that

only exceptionbeing when

the

consonant,

one

If =

observe

important to

nom.
urk, strength,
"3fi(r

sing,well jumping.

suval,nom.

sing,of

p.

^f^urj.

avarivart,3. p. sing.
impf.intens. of ^ffvrit'OT ^^vridh.

amdrt, from
The
not

?n^ mrij.

(Pan.vin.

2,

24.)

is f%"sh chikih,because
sing,of fqpjft*(chikfrsh

nom.

followed

by

the

here

is

tenuis.

Classification
of Consonants.

" 56. Before


the

i.

The

placeand

By

the

qualityof

called the

are

between

contact

teeth,
"

Labial
3. In

the

changes of

Sandhi,

final and

have

we

initial consonants,
is meant

explainwhat

to

consonants,

nose

the

organs

tongue

are

formed

nasals

of the

consonants

from

placesor

and

of the letters.

the four

and
guttural,
palatal,
lingual,

forming the
the

pharynx

Anundsika, i. e. co-nasal
4. The

the

and
the roof of the palate,
the teeth, the lips,
throat,the palate,

nose

a.

examine

can

the rules of external

accordingto
by

we

real Anusvara

by

is withdrawn
or

is formed

"

consonants

between

five classes
*.

(See $ 4.)

roof,
places, throat,palate,

dental

contact

the

the

the

lips.

veil which

Hence

these

formed.

are

separates the

letters

are

called

nasalized.
in the

nose

only,and

is called

Ndsikya,i.e.

nasal.

5. The

Visargais

said to be

five sibilants in their

Lectures

on

the

pronounced in

the chest

(urasya);

respective
places.
Science of Language, Second

Series,p. 145.

the three

or

$ 59-

referred to these

semivowels,too, are

6. The

l"iv*

"*

ly"

be nasalized,and

can

v.)
^, or 4, "*,^,y, /*,

$ 57. Accordingto
1.

Letters

formed

their

if they did not

Cshmans, which

rendered
4. Vowels

" 58.
1.

letters

Surd
^T

2.

They
letters

Sonant

3JTn9 "f n, "T

$*

an(i

called

are

that the

X,

shy

to read

*"

be

may

X X"

is
glottis

the

m,

*n,*n9

all vowels.

and

called Ghoshavat.

are

0;

h;

the

Visarga :

dh9
and

rest.

change of ^ch

into

^J

call this

the utterance

^i*sn";

is

the vowels

p.

10.

is

requiredfor

either

change of quality
;

change of

while in the

dbhyantarahprayatnah,mode

M"4"7t.

close of the

differ in their

into ^ k is

sound, and distinguishit from

of the

utterance

of the

"M*I;

of articulation

rdhyah

HM"^;

sound, which

produces

as
explainedin " 58, 59.
unaspirated,

of the degreesof closingor opening


description

ascribe to the semivowels

i.e. greater opening than

ought

They

s,

imperfectcontact,
duhsprishta,

slightnon-contact, or fshadvivrita,
slightopening ;

I.

the Anusvara

change of ^ch

and
surd, sonant, aspirated,

Some

vol.

^^" ^8^

X"

d, vdh, ib, *bh,

the

grammarians

Kaum.

liquid.

or

kh, Tf ffh,"^chh, "%jh97 th, "% dh, "nth,

of articulation at the

of
qualities

theyrequirefor

that
therefore,

grammarians

prayatnah,mode

the organs.

semivowel

m.

preparatoryto

t Some

Sparsasand

It will be seen,

Sanskrit

(not^ h).

non-sonant.

T5/,"3V,

: all the
Unaspirated(alpaprdna)

/,^

into,
divided,accordingto quality,

are

",

and
place,

"*

*r,

In their formation

is closed.
glottis

the

bh;

Anusvara

the

T^r,

2.

nasals,would

by completeopening (vivrita)^.

Aghosha,

:
Aspirated(mahdprdna)

are

in Sanskrit,
which
(flatus)

Visarga: h.

^ h, ny,

J 59. Lastly,consonants
T*ph,

Cshman

Vffh,^/, T(jh,
^d^dh,

JT#,

In their formation

1.

called

", ^ kh, ^ch, -^chhy zt, *th, *", Vth, vp, TXph;

^, W sh9 Its,

open.

division,
is,
accordingto quality,
^R

the

*r

flatus.

or

said to be formed

second

freelytranslated by

called

are

sibilant

by

are

comprehend

i.e.intermediate between
(fern.),

been

has

These

(f"}
^ h.

"*k, wM,

These

bh, urn.

into,

T"" *dh,

*/, 7#,

:
X
by slightopening (ishadvivrita)

formed

3. Letters

the organs:

(ishat
sprishta):
^y,

contact
by slight

called A ntahsthd

are

b,

*
TJ/?, iR/?A,

divided

the classical mutes.

correspondto
These

in Sanskrit.

of
(sjmshta)

them,

(3,"$,

called Anundsika.

*ch, -^chh9 *lj,T$j/i,


*tn;

/, ^f /A, ^d, vdh^n

Letters formed

three of

letters are
quality(prayatna*,effort)

Spar"a in Sanskrit,and,

2.

places,and

be nasalized

by complete contact

Tiff, Vffh, Trc;


K

five
then

are

cannot

*r

23

SANDHI.

EXTERNAL

the

to

or

ishadasprishta,

the sibilants nemasprishta,


half-contact,

semivowels,

or

vivrita,
completeopening ; while

non-contact.
vivrita,
completeopening,or asprishta,

xin.
Rig-veda-pratis'.
3.

instead
eke 'sprishtam
^fiS^JI?

In

the

of ^"5

of

Atharva-veda-pratisakhyai.

FJT?eke sprishtam.

Siddh.33.

we

24

transition of ^

ch into TT g,

placeand

of

quality.

" 60.

changeswhich

of

The

take

initial vowels

letters with

TT^into

of

or

IT

have

should

we

n,

final

into

therefore

be divided

may

change both

of the eleven

the combination

placeby

consonants

or

" 60-

SANDHI.

EXTEENAL

two

classes.
Final

letters
their

regardto

with

changed,I

are

the

only final

The

and

the letter

by

and

into

cha

TFrT +

f^Rf%

TTfT +

W^sniflPd'
tat +
SJJUlfri

rTcT+

^rnT^1

1TW

ri(W'H(Vftat +

is

tat +

d-nJUH

changed into ^

composition,"T"r?T +

final consonants

of Dentals,

case

Anusvara, and

changes of place.

tachcha,and this.

7^t
In

tat +

"fTW +

in the

changes of

placeof

the

possibleto

as

letters.

these

*T n,
3)is changed
palatals
(^ ch, "^ chh, *(j,T"Jh,
SIN
4, 40.)

t before

palatal.(Pan. vm.

Ex.

Final

much

All other

these

the

Dentals,being incompatible

The

as

followed.

they are

Visarga,being superaddedto

$ 62.

with

change of place are

palataland lingualbefore

Visargaadapt themselves
which

liable to

are

Visarga.

merely changes of quality


;

are

which

Linguals,become

Palatals and

Anusvara

2.

organs,

Changes of Place.

consonants

Dentals,the Anusvara,

with

placesor

quality.
i.

" 61.

their

regardto

chhinatti
srinoti

jayate
ch and

he
tachsrinoti,

then

into ^

this.

cuts

this *.

hears

is born.

The

j accordingto

$ 66.

this
tajjdyate,

final

of

jagat +jetd =jagajjetd,conqueror

WTWifT

WlfT=

tachchhinatti,he

the world.
The

change would

same

initial "r n,

" 63.

i^t might

Final

become

before

"T n

Note

"

hereafter.

Rules

the

on

TTif +

T*Tff

and

3^

is

changed

he
tdnjayati,

changes

of

final "f"

7#,

before

palatal"^n.

to

(Pan.

them.

conquers

and "S^swill
^cA, TS^chh,

th, T d, ^ dh, w

lingual.(Pan.vm.
tat +dayate
TT!"qTT

into T t and
ffff +
composition,

then

^^1

into
=

1^^1

t etat +

an

be given

See " 73, 74.

changed into

Ex.

before

T(jh; and

40.)

4,

j 64. Final i^tbefore

In

*{j,T^jh,*{n,

vin.

initial

an

*{j or *{n. ("68.)

either

tan +jayati
+ "nrfir rtiy^frf
Trif^

Ex.

is

place before

take

4,
=

(not\sh,

accordingto
tikd

thakkurah

vm.

4,

43)

41.)

taddayate.

tat +

Pan.

The

final

T{t is changed

"J66.

a glosson
tattikd,

the
etatthakkurah,

ST 4,accordingto " 92, is generally


changed to "$ chh

this.
idol of him.

tachchhrinoti.
ri^lififri

26'

before

sonants, changed into

kakup
base

atra

"nK

^T3TJ:

ajo +

^M*K

ap

ghatah

ah

^r:

*rft^Wsarit

jagat + Uah =jagadisah,lord


*lJ|"fl3i;
:

before

mahat

^W?T
Note

which

+
"

6A^

into T d:

TRT:

found

in

Thus

dictionaries.

of

unchanged before

same

the

is not

vala

vidyutvat,possessed

"ft
f"4
H^tejovin

changed.

lightning.

Final

" 84. (Pan.


**4\fa*i!{jyotirmat;

J 67. Additional

" 84.3.

see

4,

nasals,chiefly
^

and

these

final sonants

initial nasals,and
Ex.

f^oF+
a

"TPT:

may

be further

may

be written

f^nn:

n9

f^ni:

or

Pri1^
'aifi
1(fyotis-}-mat=jyotishma

ip?)

and
they requirethe change of o^k, ^ t, Ji^t,
but

changes take placeif the

initial

ca^

remains

f^T"T=IMftjlt^"c/as+rtn=tejasvin,

TT"f^+

I.

Tt^maf,

fa^i*i
\vidyut+

represents Visarga,

too, which

+ HW
WlTn*^

instead of

suffixes
possessive

the

them.

derivatives

to Taddhita

+ ^^=
fq^rt^

Ex.
s

confined

Tt^tbefore

Thus

Taddhitas.

of the river.

etadddmarah, the uproar of

final

instead of

by

$ 62

see

exceptionsto this rule,but they are

3c5
^i(vat, fV"Ttfw,

followed

$62:

sarijjalam,water

etat + ddmarah,
^rf|THT:t

are

largebow.

mahadbhih, instrum. plur.

linguals,
changed
=

of the world.

mahaddhanuh,

sonant

There

are

dhanuh

*cftWc3 sarit +jalam

'STF?
*rfci^-f

t before

changed into "S^/:see


palatals,

sonant
=

II

atra

mahat
"ff/

palatalsand

sonant

river there.

saridatra,the

^3

before

d, except

"*

plur.

(accordingto $ 62) it is changed into *(J and T$:

when
linguals"

"R1T

kakubbhih, instrum.

into

changed

("69.)

ammayah, watery.

bhih

before sonants,

abghatah, a water-jar.

-\-jayah abjayah, obtainingwater.


may

kakubatra, a regionthere,(inflectional

'3ftt^kakubh.)
=

^HT

" 67-

SANDHI.

EXTERNAL

final surds

into JT g,

"q jo

infected

n,

n,

the nasal

by

d, ^ d, and

^ ^";
of the

character

45.)

4,

dihndgah,

dignagafyor

"

are

being sonant,

(Pan.viu.

*{m.

ndgah

dik +

nasals

The

m.

^ k, 7 t, T{t,
^p

world-elephant.

or
'Tvf^+ 7Tff7Tnvfej|fif
H^f^rt^

madhulit

lidnardati

or

madhulinnardati,the
:

ndthah,lord

of the world.

*%"$

or

-f-H^:

TTT^^:

khah, facingthe

or

your

jagat +

madhu-

hums.

^jagadndthah,or jagan-

ndthah

ap + nadi

prdk

m^TO:

abnadi
mukhah

or

amnadi, water-river.

=prdgmukhah

or

prdnmu-

east.
or

vanmatam,

^NTVJ:

or

bee

+ nardati

^^

opinion.

bhavat+matam

bhavadmatam

or

-"

EXTERNAL

72.

Note
then

If

"

would

should

T^/would

final

word

become

begin with

change

its

or
guttural,palatal,
lingualn (^

placeor

at the

organ

There

or
^n.
"^/i,*^fl,

27

8ANDHI.

are,

time

same

however, no

",

or
*^ff,

that it became

words

in

common

It

nasal.

beginning

use

withTri, *f3, or Tffn.


the suffix TO

" 68. Before

^T^T +

Ex.

*HI

+ *n^
*Ojf"$^

Note

vm.

mdtra

4,

wfrt"i"iidmadhulit+mdtram

tat-}-mdtram

CT*HI^

1(f(1 ^)f^P (^^)"^ commonly,


letter,viz. into

tinah,Fie

is not

mntlhulinmdtram,merelya bee.

the

on

-f ^1H

Mflliqfrt
shadnavati.

contact

Igh, "Zdh, VrfA, H6A.

(Pan.

the sonant

vm.

4,

^fCsfT^Tft ^iVctrsFn!parivrdt-j-hut ah

^T^-f-^""i(

or

^i

final ^ Jt (*ty),
^(

(\"f)t

aspirateof

the

62.)

elephants!

or

"3"u

^parivrddhaiah

jjari-

or

is killed.

W^.Sff or TTSTiTtat-\-hutam= tadhutam

"?iT =

with

changed into
necessarily,

not

vrdddhatah, the mendicant


inr +

the nasal

fvrirfttnfl
ftl'^tW'iJ
or
or
dhik-\-hastinah=dhighastinah
dhiggha$-

fVcf + ^(Vsrit
=

"QHC3T7

change into

tanmdtram, element.

h, if brought into immediate

initial ^

class of the final

the

45, vart.)

is always muqfif shannavati,


never
Ninety-six

"

" 69. The

Ex.

before HTO

^T^pT rdk-\-mayam=.vdhmayam, consistingof speech.

"HI -f-TTpT

and

maya

(Pan.
obligatory.

but
optional,

vi"H"u

taddhutam, this is sacrificed.

or

ap+haranam

abharanam

abbharanam,

or

water-

fetching.

J 70.
Ex.

before

if ^

Wf^4-75W

J 71.

Final

through the
in this
Ex.

J 72.
by

any

Ex.

and

nose,

Final

^rr^"

toward

words

as

tT n,

dhdvan

this

dot

4,

6O.)1

Idbhah

3,
asvah

mahdl
a

It is usual

it.

Ardha-chandra.

Idbhah, largegain.
vowel

short

and

followed

32.)
dhdvannaSvah,a running horse.

=.

dste

head.
large fore-

c^/is pronounced

over

half-moon,called

preceded by

"^/.(Pan.vm.

brihallaldtam,a

the Anusvara

(Pan.vm.

gnWT^ sugan

If ^ n, T^ n, and

Ex.

into

sits

pratyahhdste,he

turned

the west.

*J*TW4- ^mir

vowel, no

+ laldtam

pratyah +
HW^I^d

d, but

changed into "^/; but

the Anusvara

"n^*Sf:

"*

tallabdham, this is taken.

is written with

doubled.

vre^-f ^ng:
+

is

n, ur n, and

mahdn
Hgl|fl*T:

vowel, are

U7TT

labdham

T^TIbefore "^/

HTH:

H^l^+

changed into

^d'cftl? brihat

to write

case

not

^"^ +

TTWW

c3c3T?

^T^+

c^"is

+ dste

precededby

are

sits

he
suganndste,

long vowel

and

countingwell *.
followed

by

any

change takes place.

^SThT + ^idgma

Technical terms

like

kavin +

dhvayasva,call

^tUlty
unddi,a

endingin tin,are exempt

from

the

poets.

list of suffixes beginningwith


See

this rule.
E

also

un,

or

filTW tihanta,

Wilkins, Sanskrita Grammar,

"30.

28

J 73.

Final
Final

before

initial cp

tT

before

^(ch, "^ chh, requiresthe intercession

Before

before

7^ n

of

unchanged.
of 5^s.

"^sh.

intercession

I(t9 i(th9 requiresthe

^n^+^flRTC^^^aRTR

Ex.

IT p,

ty ^ th, requiresthe intercession

is

original
^w

sibilants the

inserted

these

k, ^kh,

of

(Pan.

^s.

7.)

3,

vin.

and

T"ph,remains

"^n

Final f^n before


Final

" 73-

SANDHI.

EXTERNAL

hasan

chakdra

Anusvara.

changed to

hasam$chakdra,

did

he

it

laughing.
'$Tn:
*Tre"^+

dhdvan

vrf^gNH

chhdgah

dhdvamschhdgah, a

ning
run-

goat.
chalan
frfjvr: ^cfffefpr:

tq^TT

chalamshtittibhah,

"

tittibha-bird.

moving
HgR

tittibhah

Tips

H^i"a":mahdn

thakkurah

mahdmshthakkurafi,a great

idol.

"^1^+
Note

TT^nw prasdm,quiet,forms the

"

representationof
take

Ex.

Final ^

and

causing any change ;


after the

/5fl.

T$F

to
optional

3,

by
add

becomes

nsa

nksha;

(Pan.vin.

^T

without
n

and

(orljr"nkchha, " 92);

nksa

^r

becomes

ws^a

k after the ^

OF

becomes

w^a

initial "5{s,^shy^s

"^r

nksa;

K?TR

ntsha;

TT$T ?M" becomes


^T

becomes

ws#

28.)

^W^Trr^^W or

TTTT +

not

7.)

be followed

it is

but

3,

may

(or TP"5 ntchha);TR

ntsa

Ex.

^n

Thus

HT n.

becomes

W5^a

"^n,beingthe
"^ch, ^chh, 7f, ^th,T^t,^th to

"firrr
(Pan. vin.
prasdmschinoti.

J 74.

but this final


;
U$| ['^prasdn

nom.

original
*^w, is not allowed before
=prasdnchinoti;
*K^H*t + fW"iTfif H^lTi%*ltrfT
prasdn -\-chinoti

an

sibilant.

tree.
falling

+ taruh, =patamstaruh} a

HAW^:patan

IT^t =

Wl^iJM(or Mli^ri)prdn

sete=prdnsete

or

prdnksete(orprdnkchhete).

*pni#*rcfr
sugan

or

$ 75.
before

The

same

\sh, where

into palatal^ n*
nchchh

s"5
or

be

rTHT -f "^7

final

appliesto

it remains

(^63);

changed

and

into

ifT^M? /a/z +

ns

or

To

grammar,

allow

sdrddldn

before
.

shat

rfincci*
or

be

3,

or

and has

to remain

long been

unchanged
corrected

by

before
that

changed

was

scholar.

s, but

not

to

355^nchs,

unchanged,

30.)

tdnchsdrduldn

^s

remain

rti""aLic*"i"

those tigers.(Pan.vni.3,
tdnchhwrddldn,

"^w

six.

tdnshat,those

tdn"drduldn

s^ ^ and

^s, f^n may

'^nts. (Pan.vin.

sugansaratior

3^ s it is first changed

Before

again

may

Before

or

tan +

7^w

unchanged.

(J72, 92),or 's^nchh.

-^(ns may
Ex.

rule

sarati

mere

or

or

ni""tirti^f

tdnchchhdrduldn

31.)
misprint in Benfey'slarge

-$

EXTERNAL

77-

he

bears

hims,
(The base f^9[

enemies.

Ex.

or

tdnttahate,

ritahtsix rivers. (Pan.vm.

at

the

-f ^ra

kim

hintsu, among

or

of the loc. plur.,


is

*Jsu

unchanged,and

and

of words

end

the

be inserted.

ift may

saritafy shatsaritah

Final

remains

shatjsa-

or

29.)

4, 42 ; 3,

Anusvdra

/a//*w

55.

shat
M^rHiXd:

$77. i^m

before

remain

must

*finr. MZ"fCff:or

TO

^ f before ^a

J 53,

See

Pada.)

as

final

tdnsahate

H$rr"Ain (hints)
+ *M

or

J 76. A

sahate

them.

+ *J
f^g
f^ (fi[^)

treated

tan

HlfH^rt

or

29

8ANDHI.

i^m.
if followed

unchanged

by

any

initial vowel.

f^T

Ex.
Before

consonants

vm.

23.)

3,

4"

simply optional(Pan.vm.

exceptionsare

The

(Pan.

59)"v12^ ", -^kh,i{"/9\gh" ^n" t^e fin"l *^m

Before

changed into ^

^ch, -"chh, *{j,T^jh,


*{n,

Before

7/,

Before

^th9 ^d, ^dh, ^w,


tt^t,
^p9 T^ph,^b, ^bh9 ^m,

Before

it follows

Hence

and

consonants,

^th, ^d, ^dhy iffw, to

T{y9

7^1,^v,

that

i.e. the five consonants


It would

changeof

be

final Anusvara

compound

avoid

the

sonant
written

into

ambiguityas

to the

dentals.

riiy^fri
tan jayati,it
damayati

tarn

damayati,he

alwayschanged
Ex.

into

may

^T

be

may
tames

f%

changed
All this

kill
jahi),

writing and

be

class-nasals

m^qPn

^*iMfntan

tan

when

is at
uncertainty

once

thou

initial

by

her, is

conquers

same

manner

them,
if final

or

TITT
is

\m

followingword.
kirk

karoshi

(or

+jahi

'

them,

conquers

removed

+ karoshi

should

we

followed

tames

of the

optional

spared a number

jayati. In the

damayati, he

fa^OfM) kim

of the

printing; and

*H4fH tarn jayati,he


WT^ ^^frifan jayati,he

5RJ ^ff?(or^Tf^%)satrum
the enemy.

should then

be the initial consonant

ohOfM (or

before all

si s,

if 1R

Thus

for

doest

in

of these

either UTT

What
karoshi),

4-

both

into

her.

Anusvara

into

avail themselves

never

We
H^n, "^n,*TN?n.

be taken

be

Anusvara, whatever

fcwv+oM"fa
kin

n,

J 56. 6.

See

changed

would

originalnature

which, accordingto " 63, must

^n.

to urn.

\sh, ^s, ^h, and ^r,


correspondingnasal class-letter.

no

troublesome

and
palatals,
linguals,

tan

have

^", ^

are

be

^n.

changed only before

so

which

letters which

may

Tffw.

to

be

may

desirable if scholars

most

to

^y, ^T,1(v.

to

final J^m
be

must

Anusvara

or

n.

Before

Before

of

be changed to Anusvara.
exception,

without

it may,

is there ?

faHd kimatra, What

generalrule.

is the

This

+ atra

satrumjahi (orsatrun

30

EXTERNAL

nadim
:"T^fIRflf(orr^^Tfncfif)

"

he
tarati),
+

frl

H H

(orgurun

fa

phalam),What
31HdH

kiih

(or

phalam

kirn

use

mimdmsate),he

(orsdstram

mimdmsate

namati

salutes the teacher.

sdstram
(or ^n^Ffhrni'ff)
STT^1*rfafaffi

=
+ *ftafaff

bdstram
Before

is the

(or

tarati

-\-namati-gurum

kirn + phalam
(or PcM-Mie^)

W5

nadiih

the river.

crosses

namati),he

Tfic5 =

-f tarati

"T*rfifr
(or *T^wrfir)
gurum

g%

far* +

" 78-

SANDHI.

+ mimdmsate

studies

the book.

i^y, e^/,^v.1
satvaram
TTTfrf TR?rt TTfcf(or ^RT^iiffr)

^H^CH

+ydti

he
(orsatvaray ydti),
c5HW

walks

frot cW^

ydti

satvaram

quickly.

(or fwrS"^) vidydm

labhate

vidydm

la-

he acquireswisdom.
(orvidydl labhate),

$^

TO

veda

(or tav

veda

tarn

"

veda),I

him.

know
Before

(or 1T^^) tarn

^r, ^s, \sh, T^S, ^h:

Or^fd
flR^T]r^+
piteously.

karunam
"R^T!JXtf^fw

roditi

he
roditi,

karunam

3luimraN+3r? $|aimf$ff sayydydm-\-sete=-sayydydmsete, he

cries

lies

on

the couch.
4- ^%1T
*fft^r

ir^H moksham
iftet

cultivate

+ 5eve/a

seveta, let

moksham

man

freedom.
spiritual

TVT^+^rfw

Tgt '^ufifmadhuram

hasati

hasati, he

madhuram

laughssweetly.

$ 78. Jf^m at
is

sake

of

not

as

Anusvara.

the

simple dot

end

m,

with
brevity,

pronounced as

in this grammar.

$ 79.

Final

\y" "^ ^" ^[ v"


letters

may

(Pan.vin.
does

f^

be

^ h,

($8, note),and

end

of

it is

written

so

or

f^; -3:

or

if it

foh^:^m

by ^n9 *^w,
immediately followed by these

were

A/iw^e =

A:z/^hnute

or

kim

or

kimhmalayati,What

does

Hm

changed to

Anusvara.

hnute,What

Am

hyah

"

hyah

kiy hyah, What

yesterday\

preceded by

TO

out
through-

immediatelyfollowed

be

kim +
fofi^ff

If ^ Ari is

Ex.

for the

27). See, however, J 77.

J 80.
and

sentence,

written,however,

f^TH + ^Tc^rfif
f% ^TH^firT
kim + hmalayati=
=
fch'i^rM^fir
or
or

thus, (orT"ft^evam.)

if^h

as

at the

be

It may

*r=r evam,

treated

f$ ^W

pausd, i. e.

he hide ?

+ ^r:

about

before

3, 26;

foiw + Fff=

Ex.

Ex.

^m

word

of

the

cpn:

Tlff:

5am

he

(Pan.VT.
=

hmalayati

^T
preposition

the

kritah

move

kim

i, 137;

vin.

an

sam,

3,

^[s is inserted,

2"5.)

samskritah, hallowed.

-J 83.
$ 81.

In

(Pan.vin.

samrdj,

WTr^

fmi^ samrdt, king, i^m

nom.

be borne
1.

The

phoneticchanges

That

in mind
there

Final

That

Visarga is

followed

mr.

only

the

signsfor

the

replacedby

were

Visargaonly,i.e.

to the

which

it
letter,

surd

^TC

and

letter

h,

by

that the

is the

into the

changed

that the

gutturaland

If

Visarga.

sibilant of that
is

sibilant.

labial sibilants

also be used

sign may

same

instead

cHT X ^w:) tatafy


+ kamab
(originally

MJ"^":purnah

is

pausd

belongs,providedthere

(originally
tata%kdmah), hence
+ ^:
^jS:

corresponding

proper

are

of any

sibilant.

Hif: ^FTC

final in

be

can

observed,however,

by

that their

r.

by

sibilant,if followed
Ex.

obsolete,and

properlybelong to

surd
following

the
be

written

three ; that the

not

Visargaare surd,and

only sibilant

It should

It should

the

sibilant.

is the ^

class to which

now

(:)which

all sibilants and

" 83. The

considered

are

simple rules.

very

became

labial sibilants

dots

sonant

few

^r.

which
sibilants,

of final

to

and

^s

reallyfive sibilants,and

are

unmodified
2.

changed.

never

gutturaland
the two

reduced

be

difficult,
may

most

is

25.)

3,

Visarga and

$ 82.

31

8ANDHI.

EXTERNAL

love.

chandrah

tatah kdmah

purnaS

the

chandrah,

full

moon.

riOw*n

taroh +

chhdyd

taros

chhdyd, the

shade

of

the tree.
T. -f

375f7f WlriEMfri bhitah

talati =

bhitashtalati,the

frightened

is disturbed.

man

T^t:
broken
r: -f

bhagnah +

HH"^:

thakkurah

the
bhagnashthakkurah,

idol.

"nrrefttnadydfy+ tiram

fftt
=

nadydsttram,the

border

of the

river.

tnt=TOT:
par

am

Visargabefore
H 4-

TOTX^ni) nadydh+pdram
(originally
the oppositeshore of
nadyd "f"pdram),
(originally

sibilants

f^:

mt

(Pan.vin.
child
t

or

sargah

or

prathamah

"isuh

sleeps.
or

shodasah,a
bhdgaJj,
or

inw:

nadydk

river.

36):

or
suptah +
*prf35TST:
grr: f^rsj:

suptah bisuh,the

shoda"ah

3,

sixteenth

*ni:

part.

prathamafy

sargah,the first section.

supta"

tiiuh

or

32

EXTERNAL

Note

If

"

but remains

"FJ +
Note

by

if followed

initial

an

?f(ts, it

by ^s. (Pan. vm.

rovPff $T3t W^Pff sathah+tsarati


=

W^J

"K

If,on

"

the

t^TC +

^ej

^Tt ^r

is followed

contrary,Visarga

(Pan. vm.

^^T

or

by

a wicked
tsarati,

^s,

sibilant with

cheats.

man

is the handle

sword ?

of the

the
letter,

surd

36, vart.)

3,

devdh-\-stha=.devdh stka

"W

dental

35.)

3,
sathah

changed into

is not

tsaruh,Which

kah

kah-\-tsaruh=

W^J

droptin MSS.
frequently

Visarga is
Ex.

is followed

Visarga,as

^HK +

Ex.

Visarga

" 84-

SANDHI.

devd

or

stha, you

gods;

are

(also"^IH?i|devds stha.)

^ftt4-^fCfw ^fct^firflT1[fT"*jj"Jn
harih+
=

or

sphurati,Hari
Note

If

"

by

words

be

substituted

ending

nouns

beginning with

he drinks

" 84.

but

thou

generalrule

"T^ws,like ^f%thavih

or

tf(ph,and

off", ^(kh,^p,

(Pan.

water.

If final

If the

^"s

V"JJdhanuh,

or

governedby these words, "^shmay

are

of the

Visarga

is

udakam,

tvam

let the

ghee

44.)

3,

followed

is that it be

followed

are

*U"jf"iH^Tir
^TPtftfs"iFnsarpishpibati
or
or
sarpihpibati,

vui.

Visargais

hari

sphuratior

sphurati.)

^It ftr"r
tishthatu sarpih,
j^H^^T
piba
flH?jJ

admits,however,
1.

in

haris

(also?Tpr^Wjn

for final Visarga.

ghee ;

stand,drink

the

appears

sphurati=harih

by

changed into

consonant
letter,

sonant

(See,however, $

^r.

or

vowel,

86.) This

rule

:
followingexceptions

preceded by

^rr

and

a,

followed

by

sonant

letter

the Visargais dro'pt.


(vowelor consonant),
2.

If the
the

Visargais precededby
Visargais

3. If the
the

Visargais dropt,and

Examples

be elided.

of the

The

generalrule

kavih
ohfaiji

except ^

sonant

by

^r

a, the

Visarga is
the initial

Avagraha.

am

kavirayam, this poet.

udeti

^nrffT fVuu^NPrf vishnuh

ravir udeti, the

+jayati

gaur

ti^lv: pafofi+

bandhah,

sun

rises.

the
gachchhati,

ox

jayati,Vishnu

vishnur

walks.
is victorious.

=pasorbandhah, the binding of

cattle.

91* "*"SI*
^TRJ

muhuh
oltl*

4- ^Tfw

%f^fTT
ni h +
fVf"rf:

:=

5: + THfr:

+ muhuh

vdyuh,+
^T^frrff

vdti

dhanah
nitih

gradually.

muhurmuhuh,

vayur

"isuh + hasati

duh +
JiuTPri:

vdti,the

wind

blows.

sisur hasati,the child

nirdhanah, without
durnttih,of bad

laughs.

wealth.

manners.

instrum.
aiftflT:
+ ftr: vffffiffiljyotifr
+ bhih =jyotirbhify,
=

a,

consonant,

which,accordingto "41,

the elision is s, called

sign of

+ ay

ravih
^Pri1 ift'^fri

by

followed

and

^r a,

n^33fifgauh + gachchhati
: +

any vowel

changed to ^fto.

into ^fto, after

changed

must

^1 a

the ^T

followed

and

^r a,

Visarga is preceded by

dropt,^

by

dropt.

Visarga is preceded by

4. If the

followed

and

^r a,

plur.

the

34

EXTERNAL

all the rules

follows

if

2, 3, 4 ; i.e.

punah
g"Rftr

n -f ^T=

$ 86.
final

No

Tcr

can

+
TnOtSprdtah

eva

"TfT^ bhrdtah

"Tlf: +

T^f

to

TT^ bhrdtah

*m

generalrules

the

followingrules refer to

The

$ 87.
^TET

esha

end

of

Ex.

The
before

^ifff

TO +

"JW^fT

TO
JJIT:

*c ^

indrah

sa

The

before
Ex.

The

appears
^q:

rajate, the

shines.

moon

raksha, Brother,protect!

of final

Visarga,^

and

r.

eshah, this,become

^m

before

short

^r a

*f

and

sa

and

at

the

132.)
daddti
=

daddti,he gives.

sa

indrah, this Indra.

sa

^TR

*Tfc+

^Ti:

'bhavat,he

50

"

for
place,particularly

The

two

vowels

was.

(Pan.

i,

the

rule

vi.

same

all sonant

of

compound

the

in poetry. (Pan
optionally

bho

derivative

are

words.

and
best
A

lord!

Oh

devdh, Oh

H*ft:bhagoh
interjections

which
exceptions,

here be mentioned.

person.

134.)

Udna,

bho

God,
v(TFR(bhagavat,

and

metre

thou, drops its Visarga


vc%i(bhavat,
consonants.
(Pan.vui. 3, 22.)

f$n"Tbhoh + Udna
^i: bhoh + devdfr

appliesto

of the

sake

of

Ht
Ht

the

ffasaisha,he, this
occasionally

vocative
irregular

$ 89. Numerous
may

Sandhi

vowels, except

syah,he, follows

and

vocatives
irregular

occur

preceding vowel

cases.
exceptional

sendrafy.
^hj:

Ht: bhoh, an

H^: 4-

in

takes

as

all vowels

same

bhrdtd

"

safy and

indraft

becomes

esha

pronoun

$ 88.

vidhd

initial ^ r,

by

sah} he is dead.

Sandhi
sa

r, if followed
its

14). Hence

3,

rogi=pund rogi,ih1 again.

^sn^rr safy+ abhavat

mritah

Sometimes

(Pan.vin.

liable to Sandhi.

not

are

^5: sah

^[

i,

^Tflfsafy+

*C

^5:

^r:

Thus

(Pan.vi.

dropt, and

the

few

and

consonants

is

early.

dehi,Brother, give!

or

rdjate

on

*c:

pronouns

sentence.

*:

But

two

^r,

are

another

again,

very

bhrdtar

+ raksha

5"T:+ tfaft *pTTft^punah


These

by

vidhuh

f^"Wri

dehi

etymologicaUy^

by " 84 changed
lengthened. (Pan.vi. 3, 1 1 1 .)
+ UlTH
"fag:

vowel
letter,

sonant

any

even

=prdtareva,

be followed

ever

Visarga,whether

Ex.

by

api =punarapi,

therefore

and

followed

a, and

rules " 84.


exceptional

the

is retained.

"tr

+ ^rfa
"jrf:

Ex.

the Visarga except


affecting

preceded by

consonant, the

or

$ 86-

SANDHI.

gods !

and

^nft: aghoh, really

sinner.
^SWRJ^aghavat,
learnt
few

from

of the

the
more

dictionary
importanl

-jj89.

EXTERNAL

I. Nouns
1.

Before

in

^Bft^as,
^is, ^^

derivatives of

tfkri,to

us,

forming

"W^a5 is changedto ^s. (Pan.VIH.


^M*"O 6reyah+karah
4- oRI
^Rt

Ex.

^W

-\-

^Hi:
There

several words

are

which
Ex.

4~ ^J

^nn

of the

Visarga is

the

kind

same

changed

+ "an::=

Hi:
2.

in

Nouns
with

TT"T

WJJ! +
Note
son

"^(us,such

^Ar,?^ kh, ^p,

?fr4t +

Ex.

and

^"s

cRTHt

and

as

^f^lhavih, V^t

nephew,
^TTJ^JWibhrdtushputrah,

"

47.)

the foot.

dhanuh, "c.,before words

^sh. (Pan.vm.

beginning

3, 45.)

sarpih-\-pdnam=^sarpishpdnam,
ghee-drinking.

dyuh+kdmah
^TTJKRTlTt

in
dictionary

"c.

bhdskarah,sun,

t$ph, always take

^TiM'mT

dyushkdmah1 fond

is used instead of

of life.

WTjJJ
J^I bhrdtuh putrah,the

of the brother.

II. Words
1.

bhdh+karah

*TCRT.

3,

the

lord of speech.
vdchaspatih,

vdchah+patih =

qi'qt^nJ

(Pan.

from

vm.

lord of heaven.
divaspatih,

divah+patih
H- ^rt

learnt

adhaspadam, below

"

best

are

into dental sibilant.

adhah+padam

vnitMtj

the final Visargaof bases

aya8kumbhah, iron-pot.

which

"

karhsa,goblet,^"?kumbha, jar,

muFfkarnt,
ear,

ahaskaraht sun.

ayah+kumbhah
*tM*"jiH:

kdra),before derivatives ofW(kam,

sreyaskarah,
making happy.

^n^T^iC ahah-\-karah=

of a Compound.

46.)

3,

^T^fJ 4- "WS

the first
part

kdma), before WH

counter, board,
TfT"pdtra,vessel,gi^iiJttt^,
in

35

do (e.g.IRkara, ITT

desire (e.g. "aRTTTkdnta, WTT

to

SANDHI.

words

The

rHTt namah,

change Visarga into


"?Wt +

Ex.

"KRt

in

^SH^as,
^is, T^us,

treated

as

Prepositions.

if compounded prepositionally
with ifkri,
purah, ftRttirak,
"JTJ
^Ts.

(Pan.vm.

3,

40.)

namah-\-kdrah =

n"i"5hiO

namaskdrah, adoration;

(but

"W

^HT

kritvd,having performed adoration.)

namah

purah+kritya=puraskritya, having preferred.

frR*?hlOtirah-\-kdri=
tirah
tiraskdri,
despising. In f?TTJ

is considered
2.

with

words

beginning with

(Pan. vm.
Ex.

3,
oFRt

f%t +

"^Rc^I=

cF

"T p
^ fcA,
Ar,

TRpA, take ^sh

ftT^fiTTt
nih+kdmah

nishkdmah, loveless.

P^Ufcc^:
nih+phalah

fruitless.
nishphalah,

dvih+kritam
^IIT" ^if"i"*fljiii
=

or

J^fffduh+kritam

dvishkritam,made

III. Nouns

Before the Taddhita

Ex.

^5

in

^PR[as,
^is, T^us, beforecertain

suffixes ^mat,

manifest.

square.

Taddhita

'Zitvat, f^Ttnn,and ^Jra/a,

Suffixes.
the final

^sh (" icx").

or

W*T: 4-

f^

: 4- TrT=
t 4- W(9

of final Visarga.

dushkritam, badlydone, criminal.

chatuh+konam-=chatushkonam,

as

instead

41.)

f^TJ+

r.

change

3, 42.)

f^f
\ nih,Jtduh,"^f^t
vahih, ^iPMJ a"z^,Tttglprddufi,
^TJtchatuh, if compounded

words

The

optional.(Pan.vm.

the

H "f Pf*f
"^tejah+vin=

with splendour.
tejasvin,

Pel
a*ft
"" AJyotih
+ mat =jyotishmat,with light.
"="H"M

a buffalo.
=
rajasrala,
rajafr+vala

^s

appears

36

EXTEBNAL

Before Taddhita

2.

into

Ex.

\sh,

suffixes

vtpqt+ ?t=
+

^Wt
3. Before

TnT

the

the

7^t

becomes

viPqgarcMh-\-tvam

Taddhita

it into

^Tni?

TT*n +

"K

n +

cni^Pn

V"J*+

V"J*+

$ 90.

^R^T

retain their final

as

in

s,

pay ask

composition with

while

in

nouns

the

and

^^is

alpam

milk.
little milk.

a
j

yasaskah,glorious.

1^T*5hi*"|f7f
yasah+kdmyati=:yasaskdmyati, he

four.

39.)

3,

=payaspdsam, bad

k alpam
p ay ah -\-

yasah+kah
M^lt^ti*.

is ambitious.

(M""" I ^r sarpih+pdsam
bad ghee.
sarpishpdsam,
tiPM^snttH
sarpik+kalpam
sarpishkalpam,a little ghee.

^n^T=

l+

^w, is changed

or

archishtvam,brightness.

payah+pd"am

H*|t*h"34

K +

n +

i ^r

\sh (" 100). (Pan.vm.

TfMW

+ cR^I=

JTOi

^s, preceded by ^i

suffixes tTT^f
pdsa, "K^T kalpa, cfika, and
nouns

~^^us change

the

^IJBflchatuh-\-tayam=chatushtayam,the aggregate of

"^i**(^nkdmyati, in ^T^

verb

Ex.

beginningwith \t,

after which

$ 90

SANDHI.

tf

dhanuh+kah
dhanushkah,belonging to the bow.
^^"x=n;
fn dhanuh+kdmyati=dhanushkdmyati,he
"*!*"" fn
V"Jl*am*'H
"RJ =

ending in

Nouns

and
the loc. plur.,

in

("85) retain

radical *.r

compositionbefore

nouns

the ^r

desires

before

the

bow.

su

of

though beginningwith

even

surds.

Ex.

^T" vdr

3T^ + *J

su

vdrshu,in

the waters.

+ ilftf: llMfff:
gir -\-patih
=girpatih, lord
fh^:

of

In

speech.

the optional
use
compounds,however, like inQfii:girpatih,

(Pan.vm.

ahar, the Pada

treated
with

base of

^":

ahahsu;

svahpatih and

^Rfin svarpatih,lord of

vt^lfat
ahah-\-bhih
4l^ilc|t
ahah+rdtrah

=
hence ^IffJ + f*Tt

^?^t + -CTsft=

of the

day.
its final

because
^I^"^ahan, day,is further irregular,

and
the Pada-terminations,

likens before

tioned
Visargais sanc-

dhuhJftrprfjn
gihpatih,vttjfTT:

with

meet

we

^:"qfir:
ahahpatifyand ^qfrf: aharpatih,lord

v"^".

and
vart.),

^fir:dhurpatifr;^fqfin

patih, and
heaven

3, 70,

of

in

composition before words

ahobhih

"

^T^J + ^

ahordtrah, day and

is
r
"""

beginning

^n?^J ahah+su

night. (Pan. vm.

2,

68, vart.)

$ 91.
after the
Ex.

^chh

^TT
particles

1T^ +
*H +
^T

After any

"5THT

In the

Ex.

after

beginning of

d and

ITT md,

tava

TPf ^3TRT

*n fsa^H
f^lTN=

"gT^TflTm
=

other

body

is

word,

chhdyd

"

md

long vowels,

this

final short

vowel,

chchhdyd,thy

shade.

chchhidat, let him

not

dchchhddayati,he

long and

word,

the

cut.

covers.

change is optional.

cj^O'Q"mi
badarichhdydor badarichchhdyd,shade

of

and

^55 chchh.

tava

Tn a + chhddayati=

Wl^

after

changed to

chhidat

ma

or

both

the

at

change

of

t$ chh

into ^5 chchh

of Badaris,
is necessary

short vowels.

ichchhati,he
S^arfir
i, 73-7^.)

wishes,

fra: mlechchhafy,a

barbarian.

(Pan.vi.

_$

EXTERNAL

93.

f
into

Initial

92.

if

chh,

*5

^T^

(Pan.

5ITT

followed

not

letter

final

the

(for ^rc).
Ex.

6,

$T

vm.

by

of

the

hard

consonant,
word

preceding

be

may

is

hard

changed

consonant

or

63.)

4,

TTOfnr

37

8ANDHI.

vdk

TO"[W

or

Mam

vdktatam

vdkchhatam,

or

"

hundred

speeches.

i|(Xfll^ fft
or

parivrdf

H^^r^3
mahach

or

chhakafam,

rf-^t^H

great

^a/

mahat

H^^^"s

or

"ete

parivrd(

tete

6aka(am

mahach

fakatam

car.

that

by

tachchhlokena,

blokena

parivrdf

down.

lies

beggar

the

chhete,

nfldl"("^

or

verse.

"

VT3R+

^nn

dhdvan

^HJ

93.

otherwise,

/i,
IT^,

of

^"/,
initial

the

C?M^,

visvagudh,
wise,
,

\^dh,

^ d,

or

consonants

milker,

dhdvan

sasafy

or

ap

babdah

ap

babdah

or

apchhabdah,

water.

^dh,

i{gh,

sasafy

hare.

^^"^;

or

dhdvan

VN^ft^lt

running

^u^|""":

sound

with

begins

Ex.

If

or

chhasah,

$1^!

the

VN^f^K

becomes

all

becomes

v^bh

or

stand

lose

and

^",

^c?,

T^,

"p|r

attracting,

dhuk.

becomes

at

the

their

^ c?,

end

of

aspiration
or

^"

are

syllable
as

changed

which

final

or

into

EXTERNAL

I 94-

SANDHI.

"

33

.'1

33

*
"3

Sfe;

I**
2

" S

ll

'"

"i

,0
0

-6

"*"*
^S

U|

3'

3*3.

"I
33

33

3'

"i

1R

Eh.s"

*l

41

" 94-

EXTERNAL

8ANDHI.

"

""

II
~

.2

"

"2

"%

I?

S3
(fT

.f
tr

If

I
.'*'

IF

nr fr

"

": .2

II
-2

00

"T
ir*

*"

K"

I* I*

41

11?

17
vo

CO

p"

jj

P^P
"3.

K*

If

If

15

is

"
lu-

11

S}

I i
-2

2
"

"

"

z
^

03

40

EXTERNAL

SANDHI.

ir

94-

tov

|u/

**

tr

/w

fl^
a*

IB"

"

:a

ra

ra

ra

|rr

fir

1C

1C

IT
"IS

MS

17

*"

,"*

PS

[1

tr

lr

ar

Jr

IB- Ur

5
"r

I
IS5

"

t-

r"C3

^3

CHANGE

f 97.

The

iftnd,the sign of
verbs

of

r^w

OF

"JWM, the sign of

the Kri

$97-

INTO

Su

conjugation,and

not

changed into H{n

the

are
conjugation,

lf{tnpand Tg*^kshubh (Pan.vin. 4, 39). Hence


TTTTfrfTT
he pleases*. TJtfrfiT
kshubhndti,he
tripnoti,
JNuflfk
he hears.
brinoti,

But

the

of

^n

in the

two

shakes.

Tf^trnfrf
pushndti,he nourishes.

kshubhdna, imper.shake.
Table

" 98. The changes here explainedof

(whetherit belongsto

remember.

is likewise

But

in the

occurs

of the

one

tT

part of

second

letters

suffix

^ri} ^rt,

depend

employment

the

of the

are
termination,)

liable to

^r,

or

rules

the

dictionaryrather

dental

be

and

are

much
on

lingualnasals.

or

first

\sh,
than

the

simplewords,
importantto

most

changed

the

of

middle

part

contains

of which

certain

after
particularly

uncertain,and

more

the

for the

grammar

followingrules

The

it

TQ^n when

into

we

right

are

the

important:

most
i.

on

in the

tTw

compound

prepositions.Here, however,
must

or

into wn.

Changes of^n

the

showing

The

change of ^n
the compound

of

Hence

into T^n

"^nff bdrdhri, a

goat with

long ears

so

leathern

as

to

thong,+

of

name

place unless

take

not

combined

are

if it is the
bdrdhrinasah,
of

does

rpa nasa,

certain animal

Pan.

members

singleconception.

nose,

gives ^nffaran

accordingto Wilson,

accordingto others,of

ed. Aufrecht,s.
(Unadi-Sutras,

express

the two

rhinoceros,or

3.)

bird.

But

charman,
w^
gives^HHlf"^: charmandsikah, if it means
v.

vin.

4,

leather,
+ HlfUcM ndsikd,nose,
An importantexceptionis ^%rnw"T sarvandman,
havinga leathern nose.
a

technical term

which

Panini

Other proper
*

"

t
name.

In the Veda
The

we

himself
names

find

not

employs

(^% sarva
with

the

list,)
^n only. (Pan.i. i, 27.)

being the
dental

first in their

the general
rule,are
following

Rv.
"iTOgf^
tripnuhi,

n.

16, 6

ITW^t

Rv.
tripnavah,

^RT ^T, that the n is optionallychanged when


f^tfTTttrinayanahor fi^T'f:trinayanah. "\.^ ^.

Sarasvati says
Hence

for pronouns,

in.

42,

2,

Trinayanah is

-$ 98-

CHANGE

svarbhdnuh,
^f'Anj:
Words

of

name

be remembered

to

INTO

^n

43

l^n.

Siva; ig "{{"!:
raghunandanah,

of

three-eyed,name

OF

Rahu,

of

name

Rama;

"c.

from
\l agranih,
first,
principal,

\lgrdmanih,head

borough, from

lead.

front,and ?ftn/, to

HTJ agra,

fftn1t

multitude,and

?JTR grama,

to lead.

Indra, killer
vritraghnah,

of Vritra ; but

(Pan.vm.

-itrahan.

jrpardhnam, afternoon,from

and the

distinctions,
according to

which,

for

kamsah

it must

10.)

In

the

same

only be

can

affected

mdsha-vdpena

mtHTUtll

of

belonging to Indra,

4,

Ex.

Or

than

more

by

fa: +

T^t

4,
4. In

in

in"T
+

live

dental

milk,

on

IT

words

two

hay-

the

as

dental

t^n

the

"T

of any

one

immediatelypreceding.Hence

the word

but ^r^'W^ri^mdsha-kumbha-

bean-jar.(Pan.viu.

change of

into

^n

4,

does

TFT n

38.)
take

not

placeif the

first

g.
rik + ayanam

^'I4H

^
a

grammarians restrict this

if it ends

Ex.

in

ends

^cjr + W*r4

Some

the

compound

word

drinking

8.)

bv sowing: beans

vdpena, by sowing from


a

vessel for

tribe who

"""'"/

3. In

instance, "/Uni"i

ordinarycompounds, such

in

while

vehicle

of
compound consisting

word

(Pan.vm.4, 7.)

pronounced with

be

name

ahan,

"*vNl^iU darbhavdhanam,

manner

unchanged. (Pan.viu.

remains
a

if it is the

lingual^n;

$"m^"i indravdhanam,

In

kshirapdnah,
may

T^rc)
; but

or

cart, is speltwith

2.

drinkingof milk, or

all,and W^

pronounced HfkMUli:kshirapdnah,milk-drinking.(Pan.vm.

be

4, 9 and

the

ahan, day ; but

^RfT

*R a.

milk, ojw: K/knn:

(^

and

over,

ends in

means

n
lingual

para,

the firstword

whole

whenever

kshirapdnamif it

or

TTTT

*r% sarva,

same

minute

are

22.)

day, from

^%T^o: sarvdhnafy,the

There

of

ace.

mountain-stream.
Pj|Puu"{l
girinadior girinadi,

or

day ;

12

4,

^nptfvritrahanam,

\sh,

and

the next

rigayanam.

to

proper

is formed

(Pan.vm.

names.

by

4, 3,

5.)

primary suffix \vith "^n.

PH^MH nih -\-pdnarn nishpdnam.


=

"

MNH

T^HTR"T yojuh -\-pdvanam

yajushpdvanam. (Pan.vm.

35-)

compounds

the

if followed

"^w of

by

nouns

endingin

hivdpinah; but
or

or

'

also

and the *T n

always liable

vowel, are

pflP^Trfi*"T
vrihivdpin,
rice-sowing,may
\

tf w,

form

to

the

of case-terminations,

change.

genitivedlP^lPmn:

WlP^mPm: vrihivdpinah.

'^f^ninf'Tvrihivopdni
or
vrihivapdni,nom.

plur.neut.

instrum. sing,
"at^iiR trihivdpena
or
vrihivdpena,
o

IT/-

44

CHANGE

Likewise

feminines

such

OF

INTO

TO

" 98.

or
or
'atf^mPmifl'
cflngmPijffl
vrihivdpini
vrihivdpim.

as

(Kas'.-Vritti
vin.
4, n.)
Note

The

"

"T

secondarysuffixes,attached

of

general conditions,always changed


"sfi"^it*i"ut
khdrapdyanah,the

fit to be

possessedby

descendant

mother, from

TOxw. Thus

to

becomes

to the

end

the

TTrWT'fi'TOrt
mdtribhoginah,

Kharapa.

vffrTC
bhogah,enjoyment,with

and

mdtri,mother,

TTtT

compounds, is,under

kharapah (i.e.donkey-keeper)

"3".Mt

of

of

is always speltwith TfT^n.


suffix ^tna (samdsdnta),
(See also " 98.6.) Again,
adjectival
'I'taf'i'fl
of
retains
its dental IT n, being an
while
Garga, always
gargabhagini,the sister
the

ordinarycompound, TWff^
T^HTt gargabhagah,the
from
enjoyingthe
suffix

of

is
Ex.

after

which

singlewords

followed

by

obligatory.(Pan.vin.

part of

second

though the

even

7. Likewise

part be

affixes,such
a

4,

in these

optionalafter
and
4,

prakopanam

(not

^T

a)

causative

M^IIMHf
or

and

is necessary

is

the change is obligaguttural,


tory,

and

an

r, the

^T

"T

in, Tf

of

3.)

primary

(ifpreceded

na

certain restrictions.

prdpyamdnam.

urmHW

4,

30),and
vowel

any

but

^T

in other

^iiR

hence

U"if*r?T
pra

THfitTO or

beginningwith

verbs, not
U

by nasalization,the

bases

-f
+

^r^

TPTW

kampanam

ning
begin-

(Pan.vin.

beginning in

verbs

Again, after

is said to be

after verbs

Otfpraydpanam and praydpanam

strengtheningtheir

92.)

TT^W, but under

to

with

consonants

prakopanam.

but

4,

harikdmena;
sing.^fxcfiT^

3,

contain

(Pan.vin.

verbs

; it is forbidden

^ n,

^Nhjjft

but

it
pronounced obligatory,

is

though they requirenasalization


prenganam

of

sing,of 3rE5Rjfta*r
sushkagomaya;

changed

change

ending in

31);hence

change

dung.)

HH|Tii
pramdnam

the

cases

general

29.)

iHM"!Jpravapanam

While

new

sing.^li.ij'Jii
kshirapena.

^rfTfani, ^nft^r aniya,

ana,

vowel),and mftmdna,

(Pan.vin.
Ex.

vritrahanah

; instrum.

dry, TffcR gomaya,

^R

as

the

monosyllabic.(Pan.vin.

not

prepositionswhich

after

the

plur.neut. ^"imf\!r
surdpdni.

sushkagomayena,instrum.

by

4d^"u:

^njirrfafrr
agragdmini. (Pan.vin.

take

terminational

or

; instrum.

harikdmah, loving Hari


^fccRTH:
but

of

vowel,

contains

compound

compounded

therefore follow

then
monosyllabic,

; nom.

ksMrapah, drinkingmilk

6. If the second

been

7.)

4,

surdpah, drinkingsura

derived

was

vart.)

4, u,

is

it

12.)

4,

dirghdhni. (Pan.vin.

Ex.

they have

vritrahan, Vritra-killer ; gen.

"^1^

lingual*JTw,if

suffix
adjectival
ini,
^r^in, fern. ^"ft

the

terminational

the

(samdnapada), and

Kas'.-Vrittivm.

4, 3.

have

with

part of the compound

5. If the second
final ^

Garga,

of

Words

Garga.

" 96. (Pan. vin.

share

in fact like

treated

are

rule of

share

gargabhagintwould

pra
=

H-

"7f

vowel

change
vowels,

inganam

prakampanam.

CHANGE

Lastly,there

OF

several roots

are

INTO'w.

1"

which

defyall these rules,viz.

T"T vep
T^c/am, *n\pytiyt
prabhdnam ; 1T%*R pravepanam,

^pd, Wfton,
1THTCT

never

containingan
prepositions

8. After

and
"qftjoflri,

IT

/?ra, and

^r,

after

45

such

hence

prabhdnam "c.,

m"(
lOTTO

never

pravepanam.

f^wtr,qn/wa,

wwraw/ar,

as

jt */Mr,the change

of ^

into

w^n takes

place:
In most

i.

HUJHfrt
/"ra

IT -f-HHfri=

jj +

"rnrcK

liable to this

are

Jtt^n. Thus

simply in order
few

viz.

(Pan.vm.

3. In

in the

blame

few roots

5. In the

to
liability

optionalif they are

beginning
qp^nam,

as

change.
by

followed

or
nftii^H
TTPH^Hpranindanam

the initial ^

resists all

tT ny

?TTT

rejoice.

to

nardy

to howl.

nakk,

to

Krit

affixes,

pranimsitavyam.

pranikshanam.

pranindanam.
these roots

are

entered

65, vart.)

I,

down, (Chur*.)

faU

ndt, to

or

(Pan.vi.

viz.

ndth,

to

ask.

nddh,

to

beg.

f|nri,to

destroy.

or

or

change,and

beginningwith

as

nand,

lead.

Mfc"i"Hparinandanani.
into ?ffw

to destroy,
changes *T n
ffSl^naS,

its 31

only when

"

is

+ na"yate=pranasyate ; but
changed to t^sh.IT -f Tr^nr
Tmpttpra
-f nashtah =pranashtah,destroyed.
(Pan.vm. 4, 36.)
TO
TFW.pra
=

root

mftllfrf
pra
part

to

breathe, the

the

tjn by more
prdniti, he

^rfcm,

separatedfrom
aniti

+
=

aniti

Hllill
^prdninat; the desiderative

nishati.

It is not

(Pan.vm.

4, 19,

"T^na",to dance, but

Siddh.-Kaum.

"T/i

is

than

changed to i^n

breathes

vol.

n.

p. 41,

with

but

if the

Thus

letter.

one

The
paryaniti (Patanjali).

M I

long a.

its

entered

"^nam

in

IT +

grammarians,as

or
UUllttJlli
yfHH|^i
pranikshanam

Dhatupatha

root

not

of native

entered

are

33.)

iircHHHparinartanam

4. The

of their initial *^ n

find the root

nrit,to dance.

Ex.

leader.

nfiuftiffttj
uf"jfa ri*4pranimsitavyam
or

frSTWniksh, to kiss
nid, to
ftjf^

is

change

4,

QllfHnis,to kiss

change

leads in.

antarnayati^he

to indicate

thus

this

roots

should

we

pardnudati,he pushes away.

nayati

list of roots

Dhatupatha, the

he bows.

ndyakah =prandyaka/i,a

^?ra +

HIIIIM^:

which

roots

In

-f

14.)

4,

=pranamatit

nudati

antah
"l^flT "iri^Mfrt

-f

with

a.

namati

w:

the

j"ard+
j^fri M^KM^fri

-qtr +

The

t^n. (Pan.vin.

beginningwith

roots

Tr

IT 4-

xrft4- ^fnfH

reduplicatedaorist

f^jpard

is not

forms

is wftrftr^fifpardni-

21.)
"17
note.

nert

of the

Chur

class,and

hence

written

with

4:6

CHANGE

OF

be

" 99-

TST^.

"

4,

24);

Also H^Otf

kill.

but

is

he

prahanyate,

(Pan.vin.

TT -f

vin.

"jHlT SHlftf
pra

prahanvah

U^Fi
tT

f^n is followed

TJ^ftwprahanmi

Tnrfar or

by

*rw

or

prahanmi

or

M^*4!

and

of the Kri

of tfT raa

or

conjugationis changed

f^ hi,to send, and ?ftm", to destroy.(Pan.vm.

i^n in the verbs

(Pan.

^v.

prahativah.

or

of the Su

of fjWM

-eici^JLHd1
antarhanyate

ghnanti=praghnanti, they

prahananam, killing.

Thus

23.)

4,

down

struck

change is optionalagainwhere

7. The

to

root

hanyate

to

INTO

^han, to kill,the ^n is changed except where "^hhas


changed to T^gh.(Pan.vin. 4, 22.) Thus IT + ?rsrff TnrTRTH pra

6. In the

The

ft

4,

15.)

TT^rq^fw
praminanti.
prahinvanti; IFfiwfTT

Ex.

in the imperative
is changeable.(Pan.
T^raof the termination ^fif^dni
TW^lftr pra + bhavdni "prabhavdni.
IT + *^Tftf
vin.
4, 1 6.) Thus

8. The

9. The

*T

is

of

prepositionfa rci,if preceded by

the
into

changed

kill,ITT ya,

to go,
to

eat, "^vap,

vd, to blow, "^T drd,

^T

to

or

sow

^vah,

weave,

to speak,
17) i\^gad9

change

same

(Pan.vin.

f"Tni after

all other

TTf^q^ffrf
or

in

(Pan.vin.

8),in

the

when

even

intervenes.

augment

verbs

except
is

which

those

follow

n^

gad9

the

of

change

optional.

Mriiimfripranipachati or pranipachati.

Except again
4,

bear, yp^sam, to be tranquil

to

wm"\"(i{pranyanadat.

"c.,
iffcpari,

if pra,

sleep,wr psd, to

to

or

vart.)

4, 17,

pranyagadat
ilimJI^TT
In

place

takes

flee

to

anoint.

fa cAi, to collect,fij^
dih, to
(c?w),

" 99.

4,

ifopari,"c.,

pra,

called ^ghu,
to go, the verbs
to fall,Tf^pad,
?,to shout, tfKjpat,
to measure,
ma,
*T^me, to change, ^ so, to destroy,^ A"w, to

The

(Pan.vm.

before the verbs

T^n

beginning with

verbs

which

the

*T

cR

ka

ending in ^
unchanged.
kha,

or

of fa ni remains

or

sh

dflT pranikaroti; irf'f^T^'fif


pranikhddati; 'wfHfi(HP"pranipinashti.

Where

it seemed

likelyto

be

diacriticalletters (anubandhas),but
the roots

which

according to
mimtte,he
in

this

the

the

and

measures,

the

letters

grammarians.

after

the

transcribed

TKpra, "Oftpari,

the

of that

conjugated like div, and

not

roots,the

two

which
^^me(n),
form

of

looked

ftff
ni, mentions

enumerating

HTw?a, but this,

which

m"md(n},

its

differs from
diacritical

Thus

in

their

forms

T"i*i1n

HTfifmayate, he changes. Where

certain verbs

in brackets.

sdmayate.

forms

as

upon

class to which
class

root

root

given with

Panini

form.

Devanagari

been

have

roots

See.,into

always be

may

Sometimes

first verb

root

their

only in

commentaries, includes

grammar

additional

adding

change f^ni

Sanskrit

useful, the

sam

the
Devanagari original,

marks

belong

employed by
has

(div)means

been

native

indicated

sdmyati,or

by
sam

-$

CHANGE

100.

OP

Change O/T^S

J 100.

any

vowel

by

in^T

of
(chiefly

^*

except

^Tf a,

v,

^tn} i^y,or

^v

likewise

if preceded
terminations*),

and

by ^ A:, t r, ^ /, is always changed


followed
by a vowel, or by i^/,^ th,

be

certain

by

47

into

suffixes

or

linguali^sh,provided it

into the

^n9

dental

^th.

INTO

^8

Taddhita

suffixes,
T|Ara,VW

kalpa,

pd6a, "c.

If

inserted

an

vowel

and

Anusvaraf
the

the ^s,

the

or

into

change

butter

; instrum.

between

the

"^sh takes placenevertheless.

*ff"^Tsarpishd;

clarified

sing.neut.

plur.Kqffq sarpimshi (here

nom.

intervenes)
sarpihshu (here the
; loc. plur. *rf":i{

Anusvara

the

intervenes

base; ?rfchsarpih, nom.

sarpis,inflectional
*rfxN^

Ex.

Visarga or ^sh

or
Visarga intervenes),
"P"ujsarpishshu(herethe \sh intervenes).

vdkshu, loc. plur.of


+

speech.
"ZF^vdch,

sarvafak
*cf$T*J

F)+ ^

su

sarvasakshu, omnipotent.

chitralikh (k)+
"fa^rfo'BJ

su

chitralikshu,painter.

gir, speech.
jfiggirshu,loc. plur.of frf^
+

"F*T^ kamal

*J

and

the

"K

q; +

TO

The

do not

other

H- Trl

changed

into 3^,

change

(here
sarpishtarah
;

$ 89, III.

in

as

2.)

the

of

penultimate

If the

place; irtaTO gistard. (Pan. vin.

takes

^5

must

+ mat
frffar^sarpih

not

final

Anusvara

ig^jwm,it does

be

^s;
must

not

radical

^s;

59.)

Yet

3,

be

have

to write

if

*jftnsupisau,because

VHlfyM:dsishah,from

we

write

who

do

not

limit
if

is the

the
we

vin.

3,

to

right form.

to

not

ip^tim*,

the

preserve
The

rules

55.)

58.) According

Anusvara

wish

^* belongs to

the

it must

call nuro,

'Qftpumsu,loc. plur. of

^pumshu,or,

purhsu
According to Panini, however, TfjJ

3,

clarified butter.

JIT^Afc. l"he

root

(Pan. vin.

grammarians

^pumshu. (Pan.

become

either

sarpishmat, having

hence

Sanskrit

what

even

-flfHWd agnis tatra.

hence

European grammarians,

should

ka,

butter.

long, no

radical nasal; hence,

base

we

be

by

I01-)

apply to

t The
a

is

adj. formed

sarpishkah ;

(Pan.vin.
f*PR(pis.

the root

*rfqro sarpih + tarafy

tarah

vowel

to

"^push, to nourish; (here ^s/i is changed

'^f^Mi: sarpih -f kah

having clarified

3.

changed

^ k.)

: +

1T^:

is

of

pokshyati, fut. of
into

kamalshu, naming the goddess Lakshmi.

^ druh, to hate ; (here ^ h


the initial ^ d.)
thrown
on
aspiration

dhrokshyati,fut.
cfik,

su

to

represent
man,

Bopp

Pada
and

inserted Anusvara,
the

^s, TJ^Tjmnjii.

Sarasvati

prescribes

48

CHANGE

Table

" 101.

The

"

^ sh.

INTO

^s

Changes of ^

the

showing

into

IOI-

sh.

of ^

produces the change

rule

same

OF

into

in

sh

roots

provided the vowel of the reduplicated


beginning with 1(s, if reduplicated,
to sleep; Redupl.Perf. *J"TR sushvdpa,
is not ^sr,^TTa:
Ex. ^r^"vap,
syllable
I

ftrfMrHfrtsishitsati.

sidh, Des.
slept, ftr^

have

This

rule

is liable

to

exceptions.

j 102.

Again, many

beginning with

roots

requiringsuch
prepositions

change, viz. ^ifffati, over,

^rfa abhi,towards, "fani, in, far mr,

^rfa api, upon,

Ufa prati, towards, ft vi, away


he praises. The
abhishtauti,

which

Ex.

abhyashtautthe praised.
^HTCCTf^

the

case

is

Some

^rg

after,

anu9

abhi
-3ifa"ifrf

after

^sh

out, Tfftjoari,round,
+ stauti

reallypreceded by
verbs,after

after the augment

change takes placeeven

same

been

in

^rfw

^rf* +

Ex.

has

added,

it into

l^s change

these

^r

an

prepositions,

the

Ex.
:
ftr^sich, to sprinkle;
"^sh in the reduplicatedperfect
^srfafttefw abhishinchati,he
^rfafa^fa abhishishecha, he
has
sprinkles
;

keep

sprinkled. In the intensive ftr^


^Tfirofaxqif
abhisesichyate
(Pan.vin.

sich
3,

abhishishikshati.
changed, ^r5rftfoT5ffr
from

"

the

In

103.

order

grammarians,

subject according

by

not

by

grammarians

vowel

by

or

been

have

views

of

the

they write

This
cover,

is not

to

burden
an

all

enumerate

their

with

memory

these

(likewisefW*

is not

^s

They

styai,to sound, ^c^sefc,


to
liable to be
then

give

the

these verbs, except


in

W^mp,

to go,

changed

into

general rule

where

(Pan.

^p^m)',

t(sh under

is

learnt

vi.

i,

any

by

down, the

lowing
folthe

hardlybe

added

that

rules,though

if

native

exhaust

smile,

to

glance

grammar.
s, and

followed

ft?^svid,to

beginning

with

sweat,
"^ sh.

64.)

to cover,
off,^c["^s"r",

sri,to go, in order

to

show

that

W^stri,

to

their initial

circumstances.

this initial

to spit,and
fe\shthiv,

shtyai,Sar.,)unless

means

no

beginning with

smi,

to let

go, V

that

laid

are

idea of the intricacies of Sanskrit

fa(skidh,shtM, fa? shmi.


with

collected

as

It need

grammarians.

verbs
monosyllabic

consonant,

rules

subjoined,though they by

ST

done

hence

be

must

rules

these

to embrace, ^T^svap, to sleep,)


svad, to taste,^s"^svafij,
as
"*f"j
Thus

rule ;

desiderative

cases

of the

in which

native

giving them

dental

minuteness

complicated manner

attempt

be useful

may

Native

the

to

112); but in
Many other

this

Panini.

idea of the

an

Panini

from

beginnersshould

give

to

of the

and

extracts

at them

from

or
dictionary

follow

does, not

^sh

is to

""{*%sJivashk,to

^sh is enjoineda second time.

be
go,

changed inters,in
(and according to

all

some

50

CHANGE

OF

fa vi,*jftpari,^srfaabhi, f"Tm',
may
"f"^syand

5. After the prepositions


^HJ anu,

except when

appliedto living
beings, (vm.

fa vi, ta^^.
skand

6. After the prep,

(vm.

Tf ta

(vm.
7. After

3,

prep.

in the

not

in
past participle

past participle

in the

(X"s"q
t parishkannah or pariskannah.

^!^sphur and

verbs

take

t*yco sphul may

^sh.

76.)

3,

verb

^[

f^vi,^^skambh
must
as,

after

dropping

always take ^sh. (vm.

its initialvowel, takes

"^sh

3,

77.)
prepositionswhich

after

vowel
TK^prddur,if the ^sh is followed by \y
(vm. 3, 87). ^XfazfTi^abhishydt.
prdduhshanti.
injt^fir
W^?E(l^prdduhshydt.
f%
The verb CT{st?op,when
m",f"T^mY,
changed to ^^*"p, takes \sh, after *JSM,
"j^c?w
(vm. 3, 88). *[$*:sushuptah. JfJW*.
duhshuptah.
such

cause

10.

tak

72.)

"qfic
pari,throughout, even

f"Tw",
fefvi,
the
f*f^wz",

8. After the prep,


9. The

3,

^sA,though

take

may

after the prep,

74). ^fV^-sctor

the

(vm.

3, 73),but

." 104-

\sh.

INTO

^S

Exceptional
cases,
11.

The

12.

The

change, and

where

is

^s

after

used, and

followed
fa*{sich,

verb

or

by

the

verb

ftlV sidh, signifying


to

go

verb

not

\sh:
affix (vm. 3, 112). ^afn^ f" ^"rf abhisesi-

intensive

cJiyate.

13. The
14. The

verbs

(vm.

113). ^lV*ivfn parisedhati.

3,

sodh (vm. 3,
sah, if changed to ^iffc?

f^T^siv,
^ sah,

W^stambh,

in

15).

parisodhum.
yP"4ft'^

aorist (vm.
reduplicated

the

verb

15. The

"Qsu,followed by the affixes of the ist future, the conditional,or


abhisusuh.
(vm. 3, 117). ^fHtftucPri
abhisoshyati. "KfH^JfJt

tive
16. The

verbs

sad,

abhishasdda.

17. The

verb

in the
"^T^svanj,

perfect(vm.
reduplicated

116).

desidera-

the

^(WmiT^

118).

3,

3,

abhishasvaje.

'STPmifl'T

if precededby
TR^sad,optionally,

the augment

(vm.

3,

"HtO^

119).

or

nyasidat.
tmaftt^nyashidat
or

"

There

104.

to

if the
TB(sh,

in

battle,and

are

compounds

many

firstword

ends in

shomau, Agni and Soma

^RTt

of

name

sacrifice,
(here the

Indra, and

(excepta). Ex.

sushthu,well
samah,

final

^s

Change of Dental
of the

the aorist,and
perfect,

^ftt4shidhvam,

(Pan. vm.
Ex.

3,

in

follows

second

pers.

"^ftsST
sMdhvam

is

^ cAyw ;

Bened.

sister

vc"*J^6
achyodhvam.
p loshidhvam

ft n

metre

dh

into

3,

Lingual
is

changed

"i

beautiful,

vcfiTHi"iT
agni-

father's
^pitrishvasri,

sacrifice

3"4lfn"Wjyoti-

g"itn^ turdsdh,a

In

whenever

h becomes

T t;

56.)
"? dh.

changed

to

dh

reduplicated

in the

benedictive,providedthe

dh,

inflective root ending in any vowel

immediatelyan

Ml
^ft

(Pan. vm.

of the

^f|"chakridhve.

Aor.

trishtubh,
fag*T

changed to ^sh

plur.Atm.

78.)

kri; Perf.

g^dushthu,ill;^^"TTsushamd,

is dropt.)
Tt^^'^jyotis

?^s of

is

from jfvyudhi,
gfa^^yudhishthira,

^TP'"i8l*iJ
agnishtomah, a

similar compounds,

" 105. The ^dh

ace.
^l^IT^turdsdham.
j
'^\m^turdshdt

nom.

of

even

of the second word

the initial^s

mother's
mdtrishvasri,

; *iin"mi

sister; TTVfft
goshthah, cow-stable
shtomah,

vowel

f^f^sthira,
firm; ^"

f"1Ht vishamah, difficult,


from

in which

or

the

^ftshi

but V, ^TT

a.

-$

INTERNAL

51

IIUjll^
yakshidhvam.

Bened.
Tf*{yqj;
If the

terminations

same

y,

^r, ^ /,^0, ^

Ex.

Perf.
"J/tt;

"5"5^^luluvidhve

^HTtftW

Aor.

or

abodhidhvam.

when

rules
phonetic

06. The

of Internal

brought

into immediate

letters of nominal

There
nominal

is another

these rules

with

verbal

the

rules

accordingto

Sandhi,or

do in Greek

which

they

suffixes,and

and

before

Some

^y.

or

are

in many

learn

the

or

of

cases

themselves

liable

words

Latin, than

formed

are

final letters of

But

it is far easier to

we

except ^y.

the

vowel

remembered.

the rules of External

grammaticalforms themselves, as
master

to be

final

the other terminations

Krit

the

to

before certain

consonant

or

(padas),

sentence, to the

to
applicable

suffixes,beginningwith
deserve

in

compounds, and

before
(dhdtu)

bases

exceptionsthat

numerous

other

Pada-terminations,and

phoneticrules

and
general,

they either agree

into

before primary
conjugation,

Taddhita

are

initial letters of words


each

formed
the

precedingparagraphs($32"94)

suffixes,beginningwith any

class of

and

secondaryor

with

contact

before

and
(prdtipadikd)

of declension

such

bases

Taddhita

secondaryor

in the

contained

initial letters of words

final and

Sandhi.

stated,to the final and

been

has

apply,as

be preceded by

\%

optional.

Rules
1

the

or

"6""M

\i, and

or

"JJM;
But

change

is

intermediate

the

preceded by

are

h, the

luluvidhve.
(Jcjfaj
alavidhvam
Aor. ^fc5fa*4
alavidhvam.
^""fq^
rtf^Ml
f^fqMl*4lavishidhvam
Bened.
j lavishtdhvam.

"5/M;

to

8ANDHI.

**4 akshibdhvam.
Aor. V f\Sf
flSp^foAtp;

But

OP

BULBS

107-

to

or

try

supposed to

to

be

formed.
The

followingare

Internal Sandhi.

few

student

The

endeavouring,however,
learnt that %s

of the

dvish, to

hater,%^: dvishah, of

back

with

change

advantageto

of final

declensions

an"

paradigms as
accordingto

sh

the

dvi(su, among
hater, fg^4}

rules,more

he

n"J"i

or

endeavours

phoneticrules

hiatus

Final

as

called
without

is tolerated in the

going
if"jnpura-etd,

in

"

which
general,

of

construct

in the

will refer

he

haters,

he

! f|T7dvif,

regulatethe
learn

his

acquiring first

the

will

each

never

form

by itself,

paragraphs.
following

Vowels.

middle

fd'Hd titaii,
sieve,are
praiiga, fore-yoke,
such

less

to

laid down

i.

" 107, No

glanceat them,

advet,he hated, %fjdviddhi,Hate

into ^F k, 3 /,

are,

be

may

After he has
impress them on his memory.
dveshmi, I hate,^ftfdvekshi,thou
hate, forms irfor

^ d, "c. ; but
conjugationsproperly,if,instead

they
the

will find it useful to

of what

to

he hates,^Z
hatest,ifffc
dveshti,
a

phonetic rules

of

Sanskrit

words.

isolated exceptions. The

Words
hiatus

such
in

as

pounds,
com-

which
front, HH^fth:
nama-ukiih,sayingof praise,
H

52

is

RULES

producedby

the elision of

Final

108.

"

treated of under

been

before certain vowels, has

^s

108-

the

Sandhi'.(" 84. 2.)

of External

head

final

"

SANDHI.

INTERNAL

OF

^TT

coalesce

^Tm

tuda-\-ami= it^iUituddmi,I beat.

according to

following vowels

with

and

the

general

rules of Sandhi.

+
"if^

+ ^ tuda+i=ltfi
tude, I beat,Atm.
TJ""

"P^ddne, in the gift.


^ c?awa-f"= "H%ddne, the two gifts.

+ 3[dana+*
"JT"T
+
t[T"T
If

the

admit

we

necessary

certain

Thus

'3F3vdch-am, it is

in

if

of the

am

down

put

Atm.,

we

pres.
down

of
forms

actual

can

omission

f$rt

to

at

i.p. sing.impf. Par., and

of the

advesh-am

the final ^T

sets of

terminations, and

and

conjugationby

of declension

termination, it is possibleto dispensewith

and

Again,

beginning with

of

dative

the

is

many

Here, too, the

dropt,in

of these

in radical

other

so-called
of these

the

cases,

its

systems has

to learn the
the base

nouns,

Bha

and

to be

'^

in the

fk puna

-t-

^i,

changed to Ty,

v,

Ex.

no.

Hw

",

-\-anti

^fc

WT

"31u,

certain

a,

any

the

at

in this

of base

W[

questions as

to

the

form

to

san^l"s!**i

for this

dropt, to

(Pan. vi.

to

terminations

not

bases
d is

had

rules

4,

for

as

all the

140).

practicalplan is,no

most

lay

arrive

said

was

and

Each

doubt,
in which

manner

glued together.

or

specialrules

a, many

elided,or

changed

to

^z

have
or

to
to

be
J?

e.

Thus

^jr( in punanti,they cleanse.

yvfli!
punimah,

we

cleanse.

^$ri, if followed by

vowels

or

diphthongs,are

^.r.

JT"

"3u,

cases

Conjugation.

f^ dd-\-hi=^ dehi, Give

Final

"

weakest

is either

chapter

IpTT-j-IT: pund+mah=
ST

base,

the

ending in long ^TT

on

to

sing.

to

arrive at the

to

phonetic

elided before

in which

defects,and

final ^TT

which

given

ipfT-h

were

p.

have

order

is

am

phoneticrules.

by admittingtwo

calls the

asking

i.

combination

^TT a, certain

combined
originally

verbal bases

regardto

rules will be

Bopp

without

heart

the terminations

observed, according to

which

advantages and

paradigms by

" 109. With

These

cases

if

we

student

ty"sr*Hl4- JJ sankhadhmd-\-e

weak

before the

"va

of the

but

mechanical

merely

is obtained

result

same

assigning the

and

that

before

sing.,as

ace.

manner,

as

^IT^TJTsankhadhme, (to the shell-blower,)by dropping the final ^TT


khadhmai.

f$R

same

enablingthe

number

of the

TIT^ dvishe;

ij^tuda

thus
a

dropt

By followingthe system adopted

the final ^TT d had

Thus

vowels.

ending

of bases

declension

in the

down, accordingto which

be laid

and

tud(a)e.
^Tg^atud(a)-am and TJ^

giving two

In the

be

to

of

of final ^Ta

sivam.

and in short

consonants

general termination

arrive

regularly^s^

form

forms

the correct
grammar

order

the

as

enjoin the

rule,accordingto which

new

to

necessary

down

in

requiringfinal ^T

rules

some

*8R^am is put

termination

the

as

lay

to

sing.,in

ace.

down

ending

after bases

set of terminations

same

^T a, it becomes
vowels.

to the

mati+ai=matyai,

mind.

J
(Vf
J* /^-H$==/fey*" they have conquered.

*TT^t bhdnu+oh

bhdnvoh, of the two

"fi^Tpitri+d=pitrd, by
UbM+ati

"

splendours.

the father.

bibhyati,
they fear.

generally

-$
In
to

t"

and

^t

cases

some

RULES

13.

-f-Wlf
H- T:

53

*[*[+

and

"Hi* to

T"(t"p;^ri

+ ^

+ ^HTT

to

ftri;

*nT|:yuyu+uh

yuyuvuht they have joined.

5?^ sushu+e=sushuve, I have


gfabhtf+i=zbhuvi, earth.

gone.

bhiyi,in fear.

brought

forth.

on

ftnin mri+ate=imriyatet

1T^+ 3[

either the

^fVpapri+
one

the

or

under

specialrules given
*ftbhf, but

swallows.

i =papuri, liberal.
other

be

place must

takes

the heads

of Declension

from ^
fnf"""
fnjihriyati

^Qrt,if followed

Final

he dies.

f^KPn gri+ati=girati, he
M

"m.

siJriyathuJtt
you (two) have

yu-\-anti=iyuvantit
^"ffif
theyjoin.

*|+ wflf =

from

"T

When

53

8ANDHI.

^iy;

to

(VPsH^tfiJri+athuJi

fafr bhi+i

tf + ^=

changed

are

INTERNAL

and, after labials,to "9^ur.

+ Wy
fyOftl

Ex.

OP

and

learnt from

paradigmsand from
Conjugation. See fw"rfkbibhyati

hrt.

by terminational consonants,

is

changed to

^Tfr;and

after

labials
*T

grt,to shout; Passive 1^5

"^prt,to fill;Passive
Before the
final

of the

^y

^J ri changed

"

to

gir-yate;Part. ^iWt girnah.

Part "^Ipurnah.
^npur-yate;

Passive, Intensive,and
final ^
ftrt,

f^ ir

to

ri

final ^i
Beneclictive,

^e, ^ ai,^uo, ^TT"M, before vowels

112.

9 +

^Trf

X + ^
'M

^frf de+ate

+ JJ =

"H +
Roots

^Tt

changeit into

are

lengthened,

and

are
diphthongs,

generallychanged into

cow.

nau-\-ah=.ndvah,the ships.

TTre:

terminated

wealth.

to the

T3T ^70+ e=gave,


=

"3

dayate,he protects.

rai+e-=.rdye,to

ITT

and

"^.ur. (See f 390.)

or

by

diphthong(except ^vye

radical

^TT d before any affix except those

in

of the so-called

redupl.perf.,Pan.

vi.

(Pan. vi.

tenses.
special

1,46)
i, 45.)

^ + 7TT ^TrTTde+td=ddtd, he will protect.


^ + *faT=^ltO*Jde+siya ddsiya,May I protect!
" + WT
mldtd,he will wither.
STrTT mlai+td=
=

^ft+

But in the Present

^rfif 'c6I^Pdglai+ati=gldyati, he
=

2.

" 113.
the end
:

#,

The

of

77i, must

verbal

base

letter or
Thus

he will pare.

^TTTTTso+td=sdtd,

HT=

rules
word

likewise
becomes

which

restricted to

are

be

Consonants.

Final

accordingto

the

^ k, ^

observed

final,i.e.

is weary.

where

where

n,

which

consonants

^ /, ^
the

it is not

w,

can

occur

at

j^tt^[ w, ^/?, "T m, ^ /,

last letter of
followed

by

any

nominal

or

derivative

syllable.
the nominal

base

battle,would
ifijjudh,

in the vocative

singularbe

54

is
aspirate

tolerated

word

end

no

the "^dh

Here, however,

y^ yudh.

can

sing,would

in

^ d} because

no

changed into f{t,because


2). ^tr^vdch,
speech,in the voc.
^ d is

palatalscan

into cF k, because

its ^ ch

change

($54.

soft consonant

and

into

changed

be

must

($54. i);

final

as

" 114-

SANDHL

INTERNAL

be

never

final

(#54-3).
back

becomes
aspiration,

"114.

Nominal

it would

because
+

have

^7

$ 115.

this

suvalg

suvalk

final

The

final nasal
final

UTcfr

k had

^K

as

the

remainingguttural,
remained.

Here, after

but

Here

^s, is,accordingto

its Pada

assumes

(J55).

can

Before

form

dropping

the

word

no

4}4c4 suval.

to

'srvVoFadoh

advet, he hated

adhok,

under

seen

killedst ;

ahan, thou

be

of

gutturalif the

is reduced

altogether,

sing.masc.

nom.

dropping

^"R"F

by

final consonants.

suval,well jumping.

With

the

suval
*jc(c^

end

changes

2.

Pada-

("53) ;

sing.impf.Par.

p.

; 3. p.

he milked

the heads

the

regard to

Terminations

beginningwith

of the nominal

Terminations

sing.impf.Par.
sing.impf.Par.

3. p.

of Declension

and

Conjugation.
of nominal

final consonants

of the

3. In this

verbal

or

general rule

nasals

are

letters,
requirea

sonant

verbal

or

beginningwith

of the nominal

sonant

letter at the

base.

surd

letters,
requirea

surd

letter at the end

base.

the terminations

beginning with

excluded,i.e. they produce

vowels, semivowels,

change in

no

the

final

sonant
con-

of the base.
1.

2.

in

bases,before terminations,the generalrule is,

verbal

end

advesh

Exceptionswill

termination

word

followed

and

suvalbhih.
plur.*jqf*H:

^T5*T ahan

^=

been

remain

*}T^

instrum.

eastern;

after the

of

losingits

sing.

nom.

the
againto TfT^prdn,

consonants,

hence

end

after

""? k.

in consonants

like other

vdk, speech;

would

s, there

terminations

or

*J^ suvalg+

^=

two

2.

at the

the final is thrown

ght

TT

or

changed to

ending

treated

then

are

rule,reduced

same

bases

^h

singleconsonant, drop the

remains

which

prank,

is further

prdnch + s=prdn,

=inT

1.

verbal

vdch

rai

and

or

of the base

consonants

g, which

of
aspiration

final

The

being tolerated

not

consonants

of

*T

of
consisting

terminations
two

^d ("118).

initial

the

on

the

adoh,
^rft|

of

In ^nftcfi
adhok, instead

T^-f fv

"^fHrvach

*[^4-ur

prich +
IJTJ^

fa

+ fir=

dhi

dhve

^rffcrad + si =

^rf% ad

ti =

vagdhi. Speak
=prigdhve,

you

2.

p.

mix

sing.imp. Par.

; 2. p.

atsi,2. p. sing.pres. thou

atti,3.

p.

sing.pres.

he

plur.pres. Atm,

eatest.

eats.

Il8.

INTERNAL

marut

^far vach

"

?TW7T

Exceptionssuch
*T"T:

"Ao/ -f nah

+ i=

maruti, loc. sing,in the wind.

mi

vachmi, I speak.

fain "/"^

bhagnah^broken,

it is

grath + ya/e =grathyate,

fa^-f "n

as

55

SANDHI.

wo

bhinnah,divided,

learnt

be

must

arranged.

by practicerather

than

by rule.

1 1

if followed by
Aspirates,

6.

(exceptvowels

and

Ex. *TRnqr+ fcT=

+ ti =

wri^mdmath,he

%^

ufr=

rundh

^^rudht you impede.


^="5T^
C5H4
labh+sye
But

TJV+ ^

yudh
"5fy

lapsye,I

3?^-|-i:Ht"T: lobh -H yah


kshubh +
"Sp^+ "nfw ^tflfif

"

ndti

generalrule

that two

bh

soft letters,*T^, \d, 3d, 'Qb,


corresponding
the

receives
""c?

Ex.

W:

"u

fa runadh+ti

e73H: labh + talt =

rundh

Wt

battle.

but

in

meet

ordinarySanskrit.

by T^^or ^ th,theyare changed

the

1(t and

^M

are

to the

likewise softened, and

the aspiration. See also " 128.

^TJT^+ fff
cJ"T +

of

be desired.

never

foUowed

are

plur. pres. Atm.

p.

kshubhndti,he agitates.

can
aspirates

" 117. If final \gh, \ dh, \dh, H

aspiration.
(J54. i.)

shall take.

lobhyah,to

It is

2.

yudhi, loc. sing,in

i=

letter

much.

runddhve,

their

any

mdmatti, 3. p. sing.pres. Par. of the

shakes

dhve

beginning with

lose
nasals),

and

irRfw mdmath

intensive

%V

semivowels

terminations

TT =
"

vi"ri-s
=

*i

labdhah,taken.

runddhah
-\-thah-=.

^r?TJ
rundh

runaddhi, he obstructs.

+tah

abdnddham,

abandh+thah

2.

obstruct.

two

obstruct.

runddhah, they two

abdndh+tam

"R" iJ

(alsospelt^VJ rundhah], you

p. dual

abanddhdh,

2.

i.

aor.

p.

sing.

Par. you
aor.

i.

two

bound.

Atm.

thou

boundest.
In

^TOT^ abdnddham,

p. dual

the initial^6, because

upon

changed into
*TH thdh

"
as

2.

1 1

final

back

8. If

upon

The

it is

Par., the aspirationof final ^dh

i.

supposedto

be

absorbed

by

here

the termination

^gh, ^

dh, V dh, ^(bh, ^ A, at the end of

being followed by

as

lose
syllable,

their

H bh, ^s, they throw


(not by fv c?Ai),
VS^dhv

the initial letters,provided these

letters be

no

other

than

aspirationeither
their

aspiration

*T^, ^ d, ^d,

See " 93.


Ex.

back

the IT tarn of the termination,

abanddhdh, though
appliesto ^f"i"it

same

is nojt thrown

aspiratedin itself.

was

or

V dham.

aor.

Inflective base
Instrum.

to
'^^budh,

know;

nom.

sing,y^bhut,knowing.

bhudbhih.
plur.^JHfft

Loc. plur.iJPJbhutsu.
Second

pers.

plur.aor. Atm.

Second

pers.

sing.pres. Intens.

^Hp|

abhuddhvam.

+ ftf
"T\"fl^

^jWlfrobobodh+si=bobhotsi,

W6.

56

INTERNAL

Desiderative of "^"Tdabh,
First pers.

sing. fut. of

wishes

he
dhipsati,

iHsfi

$ 119-

SANDHI.

hurt.

to

"^-f **nf*T "irt"ll("l


bandh+sydmi=zbhantsydmi,I

shall

bind.

""? dah, to burn

^T^dhak,nom.

duh, to milk

^JTSEfadhugdhvam,

g^

burner.

sing,a
2.

p.

plur.impf. Atm.

but

2.

p.

sing.imp. Par.

jf*Vdugdhi.
Note

aspirationof

the

before TT t and
dadh + tah
dhatse

"

the

^V dadh,

"

^(th,where

^"^+

19.

final Vc?A

dhattah

If

reduplicatedbase

^*f

^T

+ *n

dadh

\fS

"

Ex.

Nominal

base

Verbal

But

base

"3^vach;

+ fv

loc.

sing.^T^T + ^=
=

cfT1*!

"
Ex.

^"5 +

vdch+ya

vdchya,to

and

fg\dvish;

fg\dvish;
3. p.
\ fg|dvesh+si

and

Before IT t

122.

"^M

or

VW

cfotta+

5e

termination

to

off k

beginning with

letter,

any

*T#.

or

'%favach+ti=vakti.

sing.imp. Join

spoken.

we

verbal

speak.
speak. (See also " 124.)

two

bases,if it becomes

the final of

word, is

sing.impf. Par. -ws^ advet, he hated.

verbal terminations

ftf"=.

VWt

"

a hater.
sing,fs^dvit,

nom.

beginning with ^s, it


dvekshi,thou

*}\V#rApokshyati
(posh+syati),he
"

be

vachmah,

the end of nominal

Before

121.

likewise

^jf^ vdch+i=vdchi.

t?acA-|-t?aA=vachvah,we

base

Verbal

p.

vach+mah

base

Nominal

by

sing.pres. "^^ + flf=

^x^J

into "T t.

but

speech.
"^Tc"t?a",

^Tt

changed

dhatthah

changed

are

"^s^at

Ex.

nasals,they

1 20.

"

the lost

place,throws

dhaddhvam.

final,or followed

3. p.

^d, not only before S^dhv,^s,

?^^ yunj-\-dhi=yungdhi,2.

^VTfiT
dadhdmi,

of " 1 17. "^^4- 1H


expected the application

"^T^vdch; voc.

^T

+ ft

or

dhd,

dacta + thah

TOT:

initial

have

+ dhvam

c^, "f ./,l^y^ are

except vowels, semivowels,

the

on

might

we

"^

back

of VT

it remains

hatest;

is treated like "3Fk.


he
^f^l^ i^advikshat,

aor.

hated.

will nourish.
but changes J(t and ^th
unchanged itself,

into 3f

"$th.

Ex.

'%'^+KJ
^ffrN +

"%FJ dvish+tah

7R

This rule admits

*lfQ8W sarpish-\-tamam=sarpishtamam,the

of

^s,

^(n, and

^sh. (Pan. vin.

Ex.

ft^+

fV

generalapplication,
namely, that

more

"Tw, and

changed into

is

dvishtah,they (two) hate.

4,

dental

^th, ^
T^f,

d,

l{dh,

lingual,if precededby "Zj,


corresponding
^th,Tc?,^dh,

the

41.)

fkf^ dvid+dhi=

every

best clarifiedbutter.

dviddhi,hate thou.

mrid+ndti=.mridndti.
1"?+ "rrffr *j'^illflf
=

^5-f-"ff ^
=

"?+

#e

ftfe, he

"^TT shat+ndm

praises.
shanndm, of six.

rri"shat+navatih

shannavatih,ninety-six.(Pan. vin.

vart.)
"
Ex.

123.

other

Before

l4
"fe1^+

consonantal

terminations

^sh is treated

dvish+dhvam-=dviddhvam,
fk^|'
c?"MA+"-"=

loc.
dvitsu,

2.

p.

plur.among

like

plur.imp.
haters.

Z^t.
Atm.

Hate

ye

4,

42,

58

(i) V^duli;

Ex.

Vffidhuk

nom.

plur.vfrn: dhugbhih;

instrum.

$ 129-

SANDHI.

INTERNAL

dugdhah.
"|7Vi
=*^"oJdrih+tah dridhak, fast,is

loc.

plur.WZdhukshu;

part.pass.
+

"^

TH

lih j
(2) fc5^

Ex.

fc57 Kf

nom.

lidbhih
plur. f"f^jt

instrum.

*'

exception.

an

loc.

plur.

vdh, ^TT^Jvdtsu).

c*te:74tf"a$and

In

^:

ruh+tah

^"t

rudhah,

The

and

*T^ sah

of

vowel

either

"3 gh

as

and

dhruk
IJali

"^Tc?Arwf(Pan.
final

d is

e.

g.

udhah.

2,

Tf =

i,

in

have

=
vrih-{-ta

3,

slipper;nom.

sing. "m

i *i

more

vridha.

112), unless

15.)

f^^snih)is

snuh,

the

compounds

33) ; past participle


'5n^ drugdhahor "^t
as

or,

lengthened.

vowel

(Pan. vi.

('ttdruh,
muh, ^^
Jjfi

^ dh+dh,

the

^\

into

(Pan. vi.

"^ A of "Tt"naA, to bind, is treated

updnah,
"grrnr^

?T +

to

dropt and

druh, to hate, we

^^
vin.

" 130. The


Ex.

From
"^c?A.

or

changed

part.tKiSt

of certain roots

final WA

first

is

vaA

in the

as
Samprasaranais required,

" 129. The

the

changed

are

lengthenedis "^Jri ;

is not

which

only vowel

^+!{dh+t
then

to "^d-fT? dh (" 117);


correctly,
The

treated

sing.

nom.

drudhah.

dh.

plur. ^m"if|ftupd-

instrum.

j^updnat ;

nadbhih.

Past part. pass.


As to ^R"TF

"
or

anaduh, ox, "c.,

The

131.

followed

fft=

"T^+

Declension.

see

the nominal

of

^5

bound.

"T^; nah+tah=naddhah,

bases

and ?5T^sra5,
tearing,if final
tm^dhvas,falling,

by Pada-terminations, and

the

of

"^

only,is changed

perf.Par.,before Pada-terminations

vas,

to

the

termination

T^" (Pan. vin.

2,

of the

part.

ever,
72). See, how-

" 173,204.
Ex.

$5R^dhvas, to fall;
VSffjgl
dhvadbhih.

dhvasah, instrum. plur.

nom.
plur.SERK
sing.V3R(^dhvat,

nom.

"

Verbal

132.

tenses

Ex.

ending

bases

in

it to

^s, change

T{t,before

terminations

beginningwith ^s. (Pan. vn. 4, 49.)


^f^vas,to dwell; fut. ^5[+ tHif"i "wn("i vas+sydmi
=

beginningwith ^s,

Before other terminations

^^

TT

^fW

vas+se

thou

vasse,

"=.

final

remains

^s

of the general

vatsydmi.

unchanged.

dwellest.

sassi,thou sleepest.
sas+si
^T^ + "ftf 'flfUf
+ %
fHw nims+se=nimsse,
thou kissest.
f"T^
=

HH"^ +
In certain verbs

ftf=

Tj^fsqpepes+si=pepeshshi,thou

final H

is

dropt before

TV dhi of the
sddhi.

chakds+dhi
In the

verbs final
^s, if

same

^(s,may

be

changed to 1{tor

^$TT^ + ^

^T^T

T^or

Before the J(t of the third person,

(Pan. vi.

4,

35.)

chakddhi.
termination

^s.

^n:
it

(" 100.)

imperative.

immediatelyfollowed- by the
remain

hurtest.

asds+s

alwaysbecomes
=

asdt.

asdt

or

asdh.

Tf t.

(Pan. vm.

2, 73,

74.)

of the second

person,

-$

INTERNAL

137.

Final Tf t, %d,Vldh before the

of the 2nd pers.

^"

sing.Imperf.Par. may be regularly


sented
repre-

aveh,thou
or *ftl
by l(torby^*; *"l(avet
thou preventedst.(Pan. vm.

" *33' *{n and

HH HI

Ex.

If

suhinsuy among
*jf?T^5

5^n
"

" I35- *^m remains

Pada-termination,

5^w. (Pan.

2,

vm.

VI*I"N

of

suhims.
*ffi^

"jjf"*J

to write

suhimshu.

from iP^ten.
'%*^han.n"i"^ tanvan, extending,

the semivowels

nominal

"5 la.

sunix

verbal

or

suffix follows,or

base, if no

beginning with

by personalterminations

or

"^ /.

and suflix ^ra.

and

am

r,

A;am.

^IW

Tf^/aw

^W

^y, ^

*T m

^u,

or

if followed
is

by

changed into

65.)
instrum.
H^nf^Tt
prasdnbhih,

sing.,and

and

went,

we

aganma,

J 137.

^i*i""r

aganva,

we

2,

plur.,U3li**jprasdnsu,

64.)

went, from

two

T^

+ T gam+ma,

gam-\-va.

only

be

used

as

regard to nasals,the generalrule

With

the seconds, the thirds,and


firsts,

the

precededby
a

or

giTr?r

compounds,
m,

If the

changedinto

"^n
a

class

in

writingthe

such

as

or

dot

can

be

may

to go.

*R-J-^H

the end

of

were

vm.

trembles.

kalpah,it

Pada, into
or

treated

lingual(" 96). Pan.

sam

cheats.

utkamthate,he longs.

kampate, he

TTf^r: samkalpah

before

vamchayati, he

or

gamtum,

or

kampate

standingat

^cR^q: or

of each

fourths

of

dsamkate,he fears.

or

utkanthate

ifjgantum

or

body

he embraces.
^ifc^Jlfri'
or
dlimgati,
dlingati

^r*^

or

is that in the

($8.)

^^mfa vanchayati or

or

the

fifths,
though

own

dsankate
^i^jcfcri

or

or

their

generalsubstitute.

^n^TUTT

hence

base

plur.M^imt prasdmah.

nom.

final

han.

plur.,from H^Il'T^rasam,quieting.(Pan.vm.

+ ^
71*^

of

nom.
H$!Ri{prasdn,

loc.

In

from

from

sour,

at the end

" 136.^w

Ex.

not

semivowels.

unchanged before

tdmram, copper,

^^J amlak,

word

base,before sibilants (but

suhin, Pada
"j(V"^

should have

we

cfiTWj:Mm-yah, to be loved, from


TTPff

But

arvnah,

from ^5^"nt?.
prenvanam*,propelling,

M"-q"l

Ex.

W^Hn

or

Anusvara.

good strikers,from

"^Tn" hanyate,he is killed,from

Ex.

^1(arvnat

1P{kram.

unchanged before

"^nremains

verbal

or

from ^5T
kill,

to

step, from

changed to Anusvara,

were

134.

Ex.

will

nominal

changed to

PH jighdmsati,he wishes

^^Tn kramsyate,he
But

of

the loc. plur.),


are

*Jsuof

before the

knewest;

75.)

2,

the end

*^wiat

59

8ANDHI.

the fifth

is

optionalto change

or

into real Anusvara

sankalpah. (See J 77.)

Anusvara, the

as

4, 2, vart.
I

second

"^ n would

have

to

be

60

J 138. In

hamsahj

Ex.

" 141. "Schh

before

IT^+

1TW

"T=

"

Roots

^+

suffix beginningwith

and

^v

"llH

.changed to

Tf?s.

I ask

frequently.

is followed

before

terminations

didivdn, having played.

ending in

final letters

y.

-\-vdn
fffiC^l^didiv

and

^", if preceded by 3(ior TM, lengthen their ^i

Wt? and

immediatelyby

terminational

(Pan. vm.

consonant.

"3"w,

2,

77.) See

turvdvak.

rT^tvar.
dtvyati,he plays.
play,cflsHPff
exert,

voice;
"^.gir,
are

similar

(Pan. vm.

old, *f\^\njiryati.

Nominal

lengthen^
Loc.

is

^fUra kurydsam.

turv+dvah
lengthenedin jj^-f^rnn ij^i^*
=

and

verbal

ending

bases

final after the loss of another

TT^-f ^=

" 145.

Bened.

sound.

79.)

2,

78.)

" 144. Nominal


becomes

"

^leqm dw-ydsam.

girbhih,loc. plur.Tftftgirshu.
plur.iftf^t

instrum.

principle^T

2,

Bened.

JjrSt
gurnah.

exceptions.(Pan. vm.

"^^Mr, to

Ex.

is

turnah, killed.

'i.e. vn^jir}, to grow

^r

off their

throw

THU; turv+nah=.

div,to
f^1^

diphthongs

question.

"-,to

On

or

tjjnpuy-\-tah=putak, decaying.

Roots

^v or^r

There

"Tn

7K

" 143.

Ex.

or

goes.

HmlVi pdprachh+mi=pdprasmi,

ending in T^y

No. 92,

vowels

barbarian.

beginningwith consonants, except ^

if

n.

this change is optional.

142.

Ex.

to *T
born.

was

between

word

prachh+na=prasnak,

1*T=
HlH^ +

^fsir
jajne,he

'^^firrichchhati,he

go ;

Jra:mlechchhah,

Before

of

middle

*^jis changed

or

TTsjftra/m,
queen.

the

^f^ richh, to

Ex.

prayers.

changed to ^.chchh. (See" 91.)

be

must

in

^chh

140.

stand

can

t*"lTramhate, he goes.

goose,

TT^T ydchnd, prayer.

that

f h.

immediatelyafter ^ch
following

"Tw

139.

Ex.

s, and

s^s9 ^ sh, ^

only nasal

is the

Anusvara

word,

damsanam, biting, ^nrft yajdmsM, the

^R
*r^n

"

of

body

sibilants

before the

Ex.

the

" 138-

SANDHI.

INTERNAL

and

in

final

^C"V and T^wr lengthen ^i and


consonant.
(Pan. vm.
2, 76.)

*f^ *f\tgir+s=gir gfk,


or

or

bases
^fu when

ending

in

plur. ^^^ + ^

when

sing,voice.

S^z'sor ^^ws (the 3^

before

final,and

nom.

Tw,

terminations

is

or

I^MS being radical)

beginningwith

supis+su=supfyshuj
^rt!1J

nom.

*T bh

sing.

masc.

or

^s.
and

neut.

*|tfh
supth.
Nom.

sing.masc.

^HjpT+^T

^"n

sajus+s-=sajuh;

nom.

sing.neut.

*HT*

sajuh.

-$

148.

INTERNAL

Doubling of
" 146. According
another

preceded by ^lr or
objectis obtained

sibilants and

If

it is
practice,

h, is precededby ^r

m(i\brahman

may

be written

sibilant

$ 148. Some
useful

after

that

or

aspiration.Thus

Vriddhi

TO"T

or

used

grammarians have proved


our

grammatical

own

the

mark
Panini

by

sanctioned

besides

we

shown.

into

to

words

these

But

adopted by comparativegrammarians

terms

are

consonant.

(Prat.387), mirror.

native

by

by

by Native Grammarian*.

used

classical words

under

have

grammars

Terms

ready admittance

of any

absence

"U"$: ddarsah

terms

found

and

Guna

it is followed

doubled, unless

be

Grammatical

comprehended

Sanskrit

first loses its

darsyateor darsfyate,it is

";^Mn

they have

terminology.
vowels

doubled, the

not

must

^"

of the technical

in the

Thus

vowel.

Amman.
"%*i"^6ra

has to be

Explanationof some

so

except the

consonant,

any

practical

varddhana, increase.

or

either "^Mff

write

frequentlywhere

no

it throughout.

A, these being again preceded by

always,T^K varshdh, rainy season

it is

consonant

any
As

vowel.

written ^1% arkka.


frequently

aspiratedconsonant

an

likewise

precededby

"A, followed by

to discontinue
best,with Sftkalya,

"

or

doubled

be

themselves

place most

takes

except ^r and

consonant

vowel, may

being

letters

doubling

is

" 147.

may

this

^T% arka, sun,

^Ifa vardhana

Tims

by

editions

our

preceded by

A, these

Consonants.

grammarians any

some

and

consonant

In

to

61

8ANDHI.

the

and

others.

of

use

of

changes

exact

such

Most

terms

as

Parasmaipada, Atmanepada, Tatpurusha, Bahuvrthi, Karmadhdraya, Krit,


and

Taddhita, Unddi,

many

Panini

grammaticalterminologyof

same

time

some

of Panini'
All

adoptingthe

words

very

few

have

been

not

collected

only all kinds

mind,

have

any

HMU

from

and

from

attached
the

root

few

for his

of it without

own

the

at

remarks, however,

on

dhdtus.

or

with

grammarians

some

These

roots

the
Dhdtupdthas,root-recitals,

by

of pratyayas

means

all substantives

and

most

Words
to

Siddhanta-Kaumudi,

to

are

root

likewise

formed, but

thus

them,

Sf^Ym,

the

thinks, but

he

called

beget,we

ed. Taranatha,

or

suffixes,

and according
adjectives,
from

particles.Thus

mdnas-a, mental, "c.

Thus

the

tradition to Panini*.

only ?rgw man-u-te,

not

adopt part

roots

derived

are

verbs,but

case-terminations

bases.

roots

all pronouns

even

think, we

of

or

by

contrived

was

according to

called

are

is ascribed

dhdtus

it

perfectthan

more

be useful.

may

derived

in what

which

as

be

can

of his system.

exception,or

exceptions,are

these

to some,

whole

grammaticalterms

without

importantof
From

but

it is difficult to

of grammar,

peculiarsystem

Nothing

more.

"R^

without

Prdtipadika,

have

vol.

m^

H.

the

p.

I.

man,

to

man-as,
as

yet

nominal

prdtipadikaor

62

GRAMMATICAL

nominal

base

^jan-a,

sing,becomes

nom.

Suffixes
Those

by

2.

Those

by

The

former

which

nouns

the

nouns

of two

kinds

direct from
from

other

Krit

the

*{r{janby
from

is derived

addition

suffixes

Krit

The

suffix

called,i.e.

Krit, properlyso
formed

by

from

with

roots

both

suffixes

which

figkm,

kshavathu, sneezing,from
davathu, vexation,from

Kritya, certain suffixes,such

2.

which

be

may

cR^kar,

to

Unddi, suffixes

3.

seemed
from
The

more

are

the

by

nouns

be

can

introduced

Sanskrit

base

sing.,
the

is

nom.
nom.

base

technical

to

meanings.

Thus

sneeze.

to burn.

vex,

JffoOT
elima,

if ya,

Thus

terminations.

to native

which

nouns

in form

from

and

ace.
ace.

These

Bopp

the

Before terminations

as

Thus

the

house.

feminine

suffixes

separate class.

Krit or Taddhita, is
whether
(pratyaya)9
becomes
real
and
a
(prdtipadika),
finally
case-termination (vibhakti).
a
by receiving
is attached

suffix which

the

purposes,

only called Anga


and

but
subdivided,

rians
gramma-

meaning.

or

however,

before

dual, and

plur.of

Anga

cases

the

terminations

nom.

plur.of

neuters.

The

togetherare

it,is

to

distinctions

new

grammarians,accordingto which,

the nominative.
calls them

regularly

suffix

regard to

For

by

treated

it is finished

Anga, body.

besides

swell.

verbal

of

further

no

dignityof

Every base, with

ace.

*"f\"ijanma,as

tremble,

either
irregular,

less

or

suffixes

(pada)when

and

f"Tfact.

suffix

"#S"*i
kartavya,Wtjtffa karaniya,CRT"kdrya,

in the formation

used

root, followed

word

inffarf
janina,

i"(vas9to dwell,both ^r vastu, a thing,and wi^vastu,

Taddhita

raised to

but

a;

is

man,

done, faciendum.

sometimes
are
(stripratyayd)

to

tavya, ^f"ftaaniya,

declinable

as

do, is formed

is to be

what

treated

g du,
rf^T

as

to

kshu9

TO

^jana,

grammarians form

^TTJvepathu, trembling,from ^^vep9to


from
"sgrrsrsvayathu,swelling,

Thus

less definite

or

Sanskrit

WJ athu,

SecondarySuffixes.

of declension.

classes

by

more

*"{jana

to

into three

certain

of the suffix

means

of the

Primary Suffixes,

the Taddhita

*ttjana by

apply

subdivided

are

sign

nouns

bases, ready to receive the terminations

nominal

of the

roots

latter Taddhita.

Krit, the

root

man,

are

derived

are

the

by

man.

derived

prdtipadika would

name

1.

of
are

called

are

appropriatefor
The

nouns

which

from

derived

*F\\jan-a-h,a

for the formation

1.

this

and

man,

" 148.

TERMS.

masc.

vocative

have

in certain
of the
and

called
been

sions,
declen-

nom.

fern,

and

nouns

generallyfollows

called the Sarvandmasthdna.

Strong Cases.
beginningwith

consonants

(likewisebefore

Taddhitas

"

148.

GRAMMATICAL

beginning

with

which,

term

same

in

main

the

Before
before

calls

three

same

Pada

The

was

to

of

words.

which
vowels

the

Pada

called

with

with

Middle

case-

called

is

Cases

(likewise

vowels

base

the

the

terminations

these

Weak

the

Pada,

noun,

before

^ y)

and

the

is

begin

together

calls

base

signify

end

cases

he

used

Sandhi

with

Bha

the

of

terminations

and

^ y)

rules
the

at

as

distinguish,

whether

numbers

with

middle

declined

called

fwf^i

and

and

Bha.
it

when

the

Bha

the

in

termination

well

as

and

active
and

moods

ten

vocative,

the

eight

through
A

cases.

passive voices,
with

tenses,

is called

fir^tin

verb,

conjugated

declined

are

pronouns,

case-

vibhakti, lit. division.

the

through
also,

as

include

we

or

personal

noun

adjectives, or

if

or,

1"{sup

voice

numbers.

seven

conjugated

are

through
three

substantives,

is called

Verbs

three

in

ending

some

and

persons

Owta

or

and

vibhakti.
a

is

vibhakti,

Pada.

Particles

All

particles

Particles

what

conjunctions,

the

called

same

the

called

with

Nipdta,

after

or

or

enter

the

sound

i.

falls

literallywhat

other

list

e.

interjections, collected
u

prat

before, i. e.

native

by

prepositions

^Oeffl urikritya,
e.

before

and,

cha,

words.

with

When

Gati.
into

assenting

The

name

close

produced

by

if pra

they
of

of

words

of

consisting

native

grammarians.
collected

prepositions

khdt

in

clearing

govern

joined

are

Gati

combination

^TI^

by

list

of

grammarians.

beginning

Karmapravachaniya.

which

i.

with

manner

Upasarga

adverbs

of

name

(avyaya).

adverbs,

beginning

When

place

indeclinable

are

beginning

in

its

takes

the

are,

Those

Those

under

comprehended

are

sentence,

khdt,

it.

beginning

to

termination

are

before,

saw

remaining

the

Nouns,

2.

except

Cases.

Weakest

1.

the

the

necessary

into

we

to

Taddhitas

Bopp
is

as

attached

termination
are

consonant

any

63

TERMS.

is
with

also
verbs.

to

substantive,
a

given
Ex.

ttlrjirflkhdtkritya,
the

throat.

root,
to

they

they

are

class

of

"astf uri

in

having

made

64

"

DECLENSION.

149-

III.

CHAPTER
DECLENSION.

$ 149.
Neuter

Sanskrit

Plural

and

numbers, Singular,Dual,

three

genders, Masculine, Feminine,

three

have

nouns

and

and

eight cases,

Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative,Genitive,Locative,


Vocative.

and

Note

There

"

are

few

which

nouns

Sanskrit:

in

indeclinable

are

era); ^tj
year, (ofVikramaditya's
^*m^ayds, fire; W33(^samvat,

bahulapakshah,(Warren, Kalasankalita, p. 361.) According

Some
.

pluraliatantum, used

are

nouns

dpah, plur.fern, water

" 150.

^c^UHft

sudi
Radhakanta,*jf?f

to

Sanskrit

is used

pluralonly ; "f!TTJ
ddrdh,plur.masc.

^rtTSvarshdh,plur.fern,

nouns

in the

the

be

divided

into two

classes

Those

that have

bases

ending in

consonants.

2,.

Those

that have

bases

ending in

vowels.

Bases

ending

" Iji.

Nominal

bases

end

may

with

the

rains

in Consonants.

in all consonants

final letters of the inflective bases

in contact

the

wife

q^coit bahuldh, the Pleiades.

may

i.

i. e.

rainyseason,

i.

of the

fortnight,

only.

sikatdh,plur.fern, sand

The

dark

or
5J^M^tsuklapakshahand ^snqsj: krishnapakshah,

abbreviations for

in the West

self; *l|f*f
saw*,

svayam,

and ^f^ badi, the


the lightfortnight,
'^fesudi,

half; *j$.bhur,atmosphere;
the usual

*5^ svar, heaven;

being either

of nouns,

initial letters of the

except *"n} 5Tn, Tty.

are
terminations,

final

or

brought

subjectto

some

phoneticrules explainedabove.

" 152.

ending in

Bases

consonants

Terminations

for

receive

the

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

Norn.

^5 (which is always dropt)

l^au

Ace.

Instr.

^rra

Dat.

ire

am

Feminines.

and

Masculines

terminations
following

PLURAL.

fa: bhih

"

\vi\bhyah
J

...

Abl.

^:

ah

Gen.

^r:

ah

Loc.

Voc.

like

^TT

}^:o*

Neuters

Nom., except
have

no

bases

termination

in ^\n and
in the

"^s

au

dm

ISM
^r:

ah

Nom., Ace., and Voc. singular(Pada

cases).
They
They

take
take

\i

in the

Nom., Ace., and Voc.

^ i in the

before the final

consonant

Nom., Ace., and

dual

Voc.

of the inflective base

(Bha cases).
plural,and

insert

(Anga cases). This

nasal

nasal

is

DECLENSION.

"

155. Bases
bases

These

root

#,

^ffh.

rules.
special

requireno

fern. neut.

TRtsPBsarvaSdk, omnipotent,masc.

Base
and

ending in gutturals,
^ k, ^kh, ir

(from *f

all,

sarva,

""%" to be able.)

N.V.

*t

A.

sarvasdkam
^%5nfc

I.

**im"m,aOkd

MASC.

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

MASC.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

FEM.

sarvasdkah

D.

sarvasdgbhyah

Ab.l
sarvasdkah

'

sarvasdkdm

,.

sarvasakoh

sarvasdksTiu

sarvasdki

L.

NEUTER.

N. A.V.

All

"h sarvasdk
'^5^1

in

^ A:,^

A;

may
of

sarvasdnki

sarvasdki

^^"h

ending

regular nouns

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

declined

be

model

after the

sarvasdk.
^rfsr^

(from f%^
painter,
" 156. Base ending in^M. faRffa(chitratikkf
to paint.)
and root f"^likh,
picture,

MASC.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

N.V.

cUtralik^

A.

chitralikham

I.

chitralikhd

MASC.

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

FEM.

i-+
n
/,
chitralikhah

chitrahkhau

chitra,

"1

cUtraligbUh

D.

t chitralikhah

p.

chitralikham

.r^i^i.

\ f"^r"4^u

f^^fc^r/?r
chitralikhi

L.

T,
L-*
7-77.
chitrahkhoh

chitralikshu*

NEUTER.

be

"

In the

5fe

chitralikU

N. A.V.
Note

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

with

paradigmsof regularnouns

sufficient to remember

On

the

the

Nom.

Sing.,Nom.

change of *Jsu

t "R" instead of

T^kh,

see

unchangeable

consonantal

bases

Plur., Instr. Plur.,Loc. Plur., and

after "3U, see

"

chitralihkhi

113;

54.

"
I.

100.

it will
Norn.

~" 158.
Plur. Neut.
Ace. Gen.

Ace. Instr. Dat. Abl. Gen.

The

Plur., follow the Nom.

the Instr. Plur.

The

Vocative

" 157. Regularnouns

The

Plur.
is the

Loc. Sing.,Nom.

Instr. Dat. Abl. Dual, Dat.

8.

NOM.

fftl(harit,
green

INSTR.

fVj^ ^(Vn.

f. n.

NOM.PL.M.F.

harit

haritah

LOC.

PL.

f. n.

g^

n.

f. n.

*"{gup,guardian
f. n.

m.

kakubh, region
"JT5pT

NEUT.

^(Xfn

haridbhih

haritsu

harinti

^"jf":

""P"i*iw lwi*"i"iPiq

suhritsu

ijl^

^VJ

^jfe*

^P5

7^

bhut

budhah

bhudbhfh

bhutsu

bundhi

^J*^

JPi;

5^*^

79

1Sf^

gup

gupah

gubbhih

gupsu

gumpi

"F^Tt

"*"^f"*Ttcf|c|H{

"4^f*T

kakubbhih

-kakumbhi

\\

kakubhah

ending in ^ ch change ^
termination beginningwith a

Bases

^^^Jalamuch,

ch into

cloud

masc.

N.V.

FEM.

MASC.

"]
""

"

A.

"io*i"*i

jalamucham

I.

^TOT^n

jalamuchd

D.

^^jalamuche
1

G.

L.

c^

"R

k, or

IT

followed

^r, except when

(water-dropping).
PLURAL.

DUAL.

vK"ttjalamuk

Ah.
Ab.

kakupsu

vowel.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

^^

suhridbhih

kakup

Base

*J37*J

suhridah

I 158. Bases ending in palatals,


^ch, ^
a

PL.

f fU4l

*J^t

i hr it

4^;^

f.

by

NOM.

PL.

suhrindi

si

^{budh,knowing
m.

Abl. Plur.,follow

agnimat* agnimathah agnimadbhih\ agnimatsu%agnimanthi

friendly
^Q^suhrid,
m.f.

Loc. Dual,

^Wilt

^ifrwifagnimath, fire-kindling
vif*r|ti|i
VffjrWYj: %tf'1*1(5!
m.

Gen.

the Nominative.

as

same

Ace. Voc.

to be declined like

BASE.

m.

67

DECLENSION.

^c^H^T

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

jalamuchau

"

ico^^iijalamuchah

~]

nc5^

TOWin

f*"" jalamugbhih

jalamugbhydm

jalamugb1iyaH

^^

J
t jalamuchah

W"$*1jalamuchdm

m.

^j,
.^
jalamuchoh

"i"*jni jalamuchi
NEUTER.

N. A.V.

5Tc51 "%jalamuk

Decline
skin ;

^th

*T

c^fl^ jo lamu

*i ""*{'*

cM

fern, speech;
fTc3$^jalamuch, ^n^ vdch,

like

^^ ruch,

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

"

fern,

W9

tvach, fern,

light; ^^ sruch, fern, ladle.

final changed into

t See "66.

jalamufichi

1(t. See "

113;

J See " 54.

i.

54.

i.

Final

^5 dropt,"

55.

|| See " 118.

68

" 159-

DECLENSION.

bases
" 159. Special

in

^ch.

BASE.

NOM.S.

INSTR.PL.

curlew

krun

if it means

pran

vrisch

^^

"

f, cutting

60. Bases

ending

before consonants.

in *".chh

(See " 125;


NOM.

an
TffRZprdchh,

krunbhih

"f^* (Accent,Pan.

krunkshu

JtHlJ(Accent,Pan.

*{jbefore

BASK.

^T urj, strength

f^l

^f*

mit%

vridbhih

vritsu

vnschuh

into

change "^chh
Pan.

174.6:

vi.

4,

NOM.PL.

becomes

3^s,which

SING.

LOC.PL.

NOM.PL.

bases

+s;

Derived

to
or

Sanskrit

NOM.PL.

LOC.PL.

"31^tirk \\

*3"(\ urjah

drkshu
^Rfr^Jtirgbhih "3R3"

*^j, ^f^T^vanij,merchant;
m.

"

NEUT.

that

41

^"^om,/,
n.

^jTSTrukshu

runji

1!^ urji

bhishaj,
fiTO^

physician;

m.

blood.

NEUT.

(On the optionalforms

Sing.T"^ mak, diving.

Nom.
if^majj,

the root

"FA; are

f Derived

168)

d.

into 7 1

or

and before terminations


final,

d when

consonants.

from

and

^s

PL.

"^ch,except

^^Tt rugbhih

ending in *tj change 1TJ

beginningwith

in

nouns

INSTR.PL.

" 162. Bases ending in *{jchangeableto ^


Some

i,

final,and

NOM.

^ITt rujah

" 214.)

see

182)

vi.

7 t,when

^TofTruk

in

regularnouns

vj^^amj,

1,

19.)

INSTR.PL.

frcf
m.
priest;"5tsraj, f. garland;
"^ritvij,

of

vi.

vowels.

NOM.

ruj,disease

^i

(Accent,Pan.

^*

" 161. Bases endingin *^j,if regular,follow the example of

Other

182)

UTSfftt
W$f\prdsah
prddbhih m^prdtsu Tfif$[prdmsi
Tfl^prdt

asker

they preserve

i,

pranbhih prdnkshu prdnchah (Ace. the same)

^7

SING.

vi.

krunchah

Ul^'fa:Tlh|

worship- TTT^

ping

NOM.PL.

"J^fa ^Q

^5*1krunch*, moving crookedly,"^


a

LOC.PL.

from

^^krunch.The

dropt,see
the root

"

changed

J The

form

into Vt.

Sing,would

have

been

^pfi+ 1{krunk

114.

(inthe Dhatupatha,
'ZF^vrasch,

grammarians, the penultimate ^s

if final

Nom.

to cut.
^fld*^),

According

dropt,and ^(ch before consonants


S^^'is

or

(See " 114.)

(not 'ffZvrat}is
^ftvrit

confirmed

by

Siddhanta-Kaumudi

(1863),vol.

i.

p. 182.

|| On
or

3OTn

the

final consonants,

two

ttmr/t*.At

The

latter

and

the

form

the

end

of

is confirmed

Prakriya-Kaumudi.

see

compounds

The

Nom.

Plur. Neut.

the optionalforms

by Colebrooke,

the

are

would

^if^ urji

Siddhanta-Kaumudi,

Prakriya-Kaumudi (p. 44 a)

^rf^i^|f^ ^rfrr^:i ^|f^ ^T^T


72, vart.)

The

" 55.

says

"^rf^urji

be

01(3*
urnji.

or

vol.

"3^

i.

p. 194,

^ft^gfrf

i (Pan.vn.
^WTT^ ^ft^w% i *rffst

i,

-" i"53Base

samrdj,masc.

sovereign.

MASC.

FEM.

N.V.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

MASC.

rdjam

FEM.

samr*

I.

MASC.

FKM.

samrdjah

djan

samr

A.

69

DECLENSION.

: samrddbhih

samrdjd

D.

samrddbhydm

samrdje

Ab.

G.

samrdjah

Hyi^*K samrddbhyah
*fli"ii
samrdjdm

samrdjoh
,

L.

The
from
^J

words

follow this declension

which

derived,without

mostlynouns

to shine;
^fT3j),

not
6Artf/(j^THJ,

the roots OT5T

are

1"T mn;,

to

clean

any suffix,

T^yo;

Prf"^ritvij),
to shine, to rule; ^p^*n;',
to sacrifice; tT^rtf;,
to dismiss, to

not
blood,
wreath, and WJJ^asn;',
(^n^sro/,
roast ("T5T).
Also Tfft$K*{parivrdj
', mendicant.

derived from

are

(except
create,

to
^5^"n;)jHM^bkrajj,

SING.

NOM.

BASE.

NOM.

IN8TR.

PLUR.

LOC.

PLUR.

PLCB.

vibhrdj,resplen
f^TTS^
dent

mbhrdtf

of the

i%y worshipper

"^"3

gods

devet

creator
visvasrij,

R"

visvasrit

vibhrdtsu

devejah

devedbhih

devetsu

visvasrijah

visvasridbhih

visvasritsu

parivrdjah

parivrddbhih

parivrdtsu

f^^i.i'ii

fq^Ki^UTJ

rq*aKT^

visvardjah

visvdrddbhih

visvdrdtsu

bhrtjjah

bhridbhtTt

bhritsu

MPi^l^

^parivrdj,
a

vibhrdtlbhih

tqvjtii

of the universe
H

ah
vibhrdj

men-

dicant

parivrdt

universal monarch

visvdrdt

roasting
JJ5^bhrijj,

" 163. Irregularbases


BASE.

in
NOM.

^Tj.

NOM.

SING.

lame
'll",

Cf.

||The
a

another

vol.

J From

khdnjah

PLUR.

LOC.

PLUR.

J khanbhih

" 76.

t From
Kaum.

INSTR.

PLUR.

i.

p.

vibhrdk, famfh?. vibhrdgbhih"c. may

root,

be formed.

(Siddh.-

165.)

efefla,
god,

lengthening of

lingual.(Pan. vi.

3,

IT See Siddh.-Kaum.

and

^H^ yq;,

the ^T

in

to

f^I

contracted into
sacrifice,
takes

rt"?a

128.)
ed. Taranatha, vol.

i.

p.

165.

y.
^"5^

place whenever

is changed into
*^^'

70

" 164-

DECLENSION.

of

*RiRv{avaydj,
name

2.

and

all the

^RTRH

the

irregular,
being,againstthe

Norn.

Some

Sing.

same

rule of

grammarians, however,

allow

vtq*u^ avaydj.

and

avayas

PLURAL.

DUAL.

MASC.

MASC.FEM.

MASC.FEM.

TJ avaydh

A.

from

Sing.,too, is

SINGULAR.

N.

formed

(Pada cases)are

avayah.

if ^rezi: he

Base

the

The Norn. Sing,is vt^MiJ avaydh,

bases.

two

consonants

Voc.

The

avayas.

bases, identical with

these

has
priest,

Vedic

beginningwith

cases

base, ^ra^

I viq*(mi

FEM.

avaydjau

avaydjah

avaydjam

v"q*iin

I.

avaydjd

D.

avaydje

avayobhifr
avayobhydm 1

avayobhyah

"

Ab.
b. 1

avaydjah

"

}*i"i"nnlS

avayahsu

L.
.

""

avaydh or viq*(i avayah

V.

" 164.
Bases

ending in ^ r.
ending in ^ r are regular,
only ^

Plur. the final


Base

like Nom.

like Nom.

Bases

if the
lengthened,
^r
Loc.

avaydjdm

avaydjoh

is final
remains

^r

followed

or

i and

by

u,

precedingthe ""r,

(f144). In the
by "S sh. ("90.)

consonant

unchanged though

are

followed

frrr^r,fern, voice.
SINGULAR.
MASC.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

FEM.

MASC.

N.V.
r

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

fJTU girau

"

fiRt girah

A.

TftfH:
girbht'h

I.

D.

Tft^Tgirbhydm

\ Tft^lgirbhydh

k'}

Ab
G

"PTTT giram

fH^t gir6h
J-

L.

Base

neut.

water.

NEUTER.

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

vdri

N.A.V.
I.
BASE.

f. town

f. n.

Accordingto

Pan.

according to Pan.vi.
Ace. Dual

i,

in the neuter

t Siddh.-Kaum.

vol.

vi.

i,

are

i.

not

aari

have

have

would
it

on

but
Tritiyadi,

p. 125.

PLUR.

dvdrshu
?TT"

k/h

168,

171, would

LOC.

j dvdrbhzh

Ctdvdrah

scattering

PLUR.

vdrbhih, "c.

purbhih

Jf"purah

f. door
c?t?ar,
m.
Arir,

:
INSTR.

PLUR.

NOM.

SING.

NOM.

vdrbhydm

^WT

the
are

the accent

second

on

while
the first,

because
syllable,

Asarvanamasthana.

the Nom.

and

-$

[65.

J 165.

in ^s.

Bases

formed

(A.) Bases
ending

Bases

in

as, if

and

changed

to

before

as

become

Besides

these

Nouns

1.

becomes

and

Nouns

by

and

(See

ush.

W(as

ah;

*r:

or

^: i#, T^MS/Jor

the

not

in

by

the

the

Nom.

in

beginning with
is and

7^

us

before ^ bh

"

and

7^

us

before

suffixes ^

or

is

g^

and

Sing. masc.

it in the

Nom.

should
V

be

observed

in the Nom.

Thus

or

fern.

us

Nom.

do

Sing.

Sing. m.

f.

From

JR:

Sing. m.

Nom.

f.

rtftPH:
jyotih,

*Jsu, good, and

*J su, good, and

from

vowel

^(isy""3(us,lengthen their

Ace. Voc. Plur.

lengthen their

not

Hence

light; *J^Er: suchakshufy, having good eyes,


chakshuh, n. eye. (Pan.v. 4, 133, com.)
^TB|:
in ^r^as,

*J *w

(eifyzej/ifc)
; Voc. tJ*Hisumanah.

n.

nouns

are

Vocative.

from
sujyotify,
^TtflPff:
having good light,

3. Neuter

vowels

J 100.)

lengthentheir

the

unchanged.

wA.

T:

suffix ^^as

fern.,but

formed

vowel

terminations

($84. 3);
($82.)

*ptTK sumandh, well-minded


2.

generaleuphonic

remains

vowels

generalrules,the followingspecialrules

formed

masc.

or

beginningwith

^fto

becomes

bh

^ish

the

according to

^s

by

f^ish

^.ir and T^ur.

become

f^us.

("83.)

ah.

w:

followed

us

before ^su

VT^as, ^w,

Thus

^and
^

the

terminations

by

is and

suffixes

change

^$

final,becomes

followed

as

the

by

explainedabove.

rules

71

DECLENSION.

manah, *HJfa

and

nasalize

mandmsi

from

chakshumshi.
**ftftt
jyotih,T"fl
tijfajyotimshi
; from
^T^t chakshuh, ^TSffa
Base

*p?F^ sumdnas, well-minded, masc.

m^mdnas,

neut.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

FEM.

MASC.

sumdnasau
_

tpntt

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

A.

su

mind.)

SINGULAR.
MASC.

(from ^

fern. neut.

HH^:

sumdnasah

sumdnasam

I.

D.

-^

'

sumdnasah
I
^

^HH^I

sumanasam

?*^""

sumanahsu

sumdnasoh
f ""i"l"'"l;

L.

"}"ini"

V.

'5*^*sumanah

sumanasi

^HH^I

sumanasau

^intil sumanasah

NEUTER.
SINGULAR.

N. A.V.

The

5*Rt

DUAL.

sumanasi
4J*Htfl

sumanah

rest like the

masc.

and

fern.

PLURAL.

sumdndmsi
^i"iirt"

and

72

" i66-

DECLENSION.

Base

sujyotis,
masc.
well-lighted,
?JTif)Prf^

fern. neut.

(from *j su

and

is,neut. light.)
SINGULAR.
MASC.

N.V.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

FEM.

MASC.

MASC.

FEM.

FEM.

sujy6tih
sujy6tishau

A.

sujydtishah

sujyotisham

I.

f sujyotishd

D.

sujy6tishe

sujydtirbhih
sujyrftirbhydm
sujy6tirbhyah

Ab.
I

sujy6tisJiah

sujydtishdm
sujy6tishoh
L.

sujytitihshu

sujy6tishi
NEUTER.

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

N.A.V.

The

like the

rest

Decline

after

followingbases

the

of

f.

m.

n.

s. ^R:

N.

s.

very

of

N.

HjTi*^mahaujas,

nymph.

"y"^, n. iron.

pay as, N.

^^

yasa^,

^15: %wA,

s.

N.

s.

n.

life,age.

prachetdh,

s.

m.,
m.

TSC^K^apsaras, N.
s.

s.

H^"n: mahaujdh,
milk.

praise.

^rf$:archih, n. splendour.

^g^

vapus,

N.

s.

^j: vapuh,

body*.
old age, may
" 166. 'STTJJara,

There

is,however, another

that it is defective in all

Any

compound

of these
;

neuter

be declined

base

cases

throughout regularlyas

equallyfeminine

*K$(jaras,

the terminations

nouns

assume

may

qg^(V nashtahavih,Nom.

of which

masc.

sing.masc.

and
one

t Boehtlingk (Declinationim Sanskrit,p. 125) gave


the

N.

n.
T^r: yasafy,
s.

N.

divaukdh,
f^cfir:

TIT?: payah, n.

^rNN^archis, N.

ffa:^flviA^n. oblation.
s.

s.

bird.

faginn vihdydh,m.

s.

UHrilt

s.

divaukas, N.
f^^ofi^

lawgiver,

chandramas,
^"S^1^

wise.

N.
"SFn^prachetas,

moon.

mighty. TT^

^rrg^ dyus, N.

sujyotisthe

and

*JT"T^ sumanas

sing.^VT* vedhdh, m.
m.

apsardh, f.

N.

n.

model

deity. f^R^v^%"5,

^3n*ro

fern.

^"^Tr:
chandramdh,
prop,

and

masc.

%V^ vedhas, Nom.


Nom.

sujydtimslii

sujy6tisM

though oxytone,
dictionary,

it is

by

mistake

put down

t, and

begin

feminine.

equallyregular,except

with consonants.

fern, terminations
whose

(See " 238.)

oblation is

at the

end

of

destroyed.

feminine;
as
*"$(jaras,rightly
as

neuter.

in

74:

" 1 68-

DECLENSION.

DUAL.

DUAL.

r*f*f"^T
nirjarasau

N. A.V.

Uf"i"J

I. D. Ab.

fti"3
"jvqfnirjardbhydm

deest

f"i"K*iunirjarayohor

f"T^T^n*nirjarasoh

G. L.

nirjarauor

PLURAL.

PLURAL.

Pri^ltnirjardh
or

fa^HSt nirjarasah

A.

f^TT^ nirjardn

Pri^K.^nirjarasah

I.

f"T^T*nirjaraih

deest

f*l*n,*n

deest

N.V.

or

D.Ab.

nirjarebhyah

G.

f"T5fcU!!ff
nirjardndmor

fl*l"JRT
nirjarasdm

L.

PiTtO nirjareshu

deest

fMfTTnirjard,like

Fern.

oRTTTTX:a"^.

" 168. ^nnn^ anehas, m.


anehd, ^^

Sing.vin^T

?\ \

" 169. ^T^^usanas,

Sing.^T^^usanan

final

purudamsd,without

m.

I?

^^"^the

proper

name,

o^i"i" usanah

or

nirjarasi;Plur.

m.
time,'g^I^pMrwrfffm/as,

Voc.

m.
"QTfif^sumanas,

(fr|*f"^
nirjarasam)
;

Sing, deest

Neut.

like ^ifwkdntam.
fH*rtmV/aram,

Neut.

like

(f^R%J nirjarasaik,
masc.)

or

of

name

Visarga. The

? nirjardmsi.

"i "

Indra,form

other

Dual

cases

are

^i ni usand

and

the Norn.

regular,

anehah.

Sing, o

the Nom.

forms

(Sar.I.

T^Rusana.

9,

the Voc.

73.)

" 170. (B.) Bases ending in radical f^s.


1.

ffepinda,lump, and %fH(gras,


to swallow, compound

From

gras,

From

is formed,

fferf1{pinda-

lump-eater.

ni^ ^n's,to walk,

and

***" well,

compound

is

formed, ^Jnl^ supis,well-

walking.
From

Tj^ #ws,

to

sound, and

^JSM, well,

compound

is

formed, *jjj"^
SM/MS,

well-

sounding.
2.

In

formingthe
to
in

Ex.

f.

Sing. m.

(and neuter),the

rules laid down


are
suffix,

belong
^Sl^as,
^^is,"31!(us,
in ^K^as leave
j^"'sand "3^ us lengthenthe vowel, nouns

nouns

Nom.

3. In

Nom.

in which

Sing. m.

the Nom.

to

f. n.

Ace. Voc.

before with

simplyinverted.

regard
Nouns

it short.

"ftf^U!
pindagrah,^fh supih,^JJ sutuh.
Plur.

of neuters,

in

nouns

^(is, '^(us,nasalize
"ZR^as,

their

vowels, but do not lengthen them.


Ex.

4.

Nom.

Nouns

in

Ace. Voc. Plur. neut.

fq^fffS
sutumsi.
supimsi,"fffffa
Jjf4(Vi
pindagramsi,

3j^isand "3^ws lengthentheir

vowels

before all terminations

beginningwith

consonants.

Ex.
5. The

Instr. Plur.

suturbhih,*pj"3sutuhshu.
'gtrtfH:
supirbhih,
*pjf*l"

radical

of

^s

liable to be

nouns

ending in ?^w

changed into ^sh. (See "

and
100,

T^MS, though followed by vowels,


note.)

is not

DECLENSION.

eating
h*n\pindagra8,

Base

mouthful,maac.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

N.V.

PLURAL.

FEM.

pindagrafy

MASC.

I.

pindagrasd

FEM.

I ftji

indagrasau

pindagraaam
pindugrobhih

pindagrobhydm

pindagrase

fern. neut.

DUAL.

FEM.

A.

75

"

TTTnjr"n pindagrobhyah

Ab.

pindagratdm
L.

pindagrahsu
NEUTER.
SINGULAR.

N. A.V.

DUAL.

: pindagrah

pindagrasi

SINGULAR.

pindagramsi

fern. neut.

masc.
well-sounding,

MASC.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

FEM.

MASC.

PLURAL.

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

N.V.
sutusau

A.

sutusah

sutusam
suturbhih

I.

suturbhydm

D.

suturbhyah
Ab.
sutusdm

G.
sut

us

ok

L.
NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

sutumsi

N.A.V.

" 171. Nouns


Base

fsM

derived from

pipathis,wishingtcr read, masc.


Hjt^

MASC.

into

when

MASC.

FEM.

necessary.

fern. neut.
PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

N.

desiderativeverbs change H

FEM.

MASC.

FEM.

pipathih

pipathishah

rMHf"j*f
pipathisham

A.

pipathirbhih
D.
"

ft'^fT^Jpipathishah
["
G.

L.

pipathisham

fM

pipathirbhyah

pipathishoh

PM pipathishi
f"J

:^ pipathihshu

NEUTER.

N. A.V.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

t pipathih

fnM (VH^ pipathishi

Siddh.-Kaum.

vol. i. p. 187. " 83.

(see" 172)
pipathishi

76

0 172-

DECLENSION.

" 172. The

used

List

sumandh1

id.

(Accent,P. vi. 1,171.)doh

of

ous

of

or

f'JSiji'm* nh"?JW

"?I"^J

or

"*""*! w

chakdsah

chakdmsi

chakdbhih

chakdssu

domshi

dorbhih

d6shshu

^Tfani

^"^rnH*

^tflt-^^^"5

supisah4

supimsi

supirbhih

supishshuor supihshu

"fffiK

51^"

?^lf^*

?5^5

sutusah

sutumsi

suturbhih

sutushshu

ftr^frf^

fo^^ftf*!:

ftf^"ft^5
-^JJ

id.

sutuh

^"*Ti3J

or

chakdhsu

or

dohshu

or

or

or

^?:3
or

sutuhshu

or

pipathishahpipathishi5
pipathirbhihpipathishshuor-thihsh

m.f.n. pipathih
reading,

chikirshi^

chikirshah

chikih

m.f.n.
acting,

'p'frfff^"fr"*J

*"|oftTf"Tt

fiwftl
id.3f^Rf^^*
f^^"S^pipathis,^esiYous

-nahsu

or

^fofiTtH

id.3 ?jftnTJ

^["ff*

sounding,m.f.n.

sumanassu

^"^iT^Tt

supih

wellIffiHsutus,

sumanobhih

TOf^jnT

doshah

^l^"

going, m.f.n.

PL.

Loc.

pindagrasahpindagramsi pindagrobhihpindagrassuor-grahsu

chakdh

^^"T^
supis,well-

sumandmsi

"nT^T^tt

id.

^cfiTt

PL.

svjyotishahsujyotimshisujyotirbhihsujyotishshuoi-tihshu

lump-eating,m.f.n.pindagrah

did, m.f.n.

be

^s.

T*T"
^JWtfTfrfa
3{Wt fin
*JjSftfiret

sujyotih

ftfe?J!
f^'^T^'^fpindagras,

splen^T3!fflchakds,

are

NEUT.

sumanasah

-nah

id.
sujyotis, ^^ftflTt
Sjsftfrf^
m.f.n.
well-lighted,

companion,

Plur., if they should

INSTR.

MASC.FEM.

NEUT.

in

PL.

NOM.

MASC.FEM.

kind, m.f.n.

Bases
of different

SING.

NOM.

BASE.

and Voc.

Ace.

Nom.

in the

compounds*.

end of

at the

neuters

as

masc.

fTTf^pipathis,except

like

declined

dsis,fern, blessing,and ^*J^ sajush,


'STT'f^I^

nouns

chikirbhih

chikirshu

^TT^ft^or
^ftf^FHdsis,
3r W$ft*5
blessing,^T^*dsih id. ^Tlf^I'RJ^TT^n"P^ ^JTT^I^f*!*
(Voc.id.)

dsishah

H^J saju/iid.

""fMt

^*|f^

^^fHJ

^T5"

(Voc. id.)

sajushah

sajumshi

sajurbhih

sajushshuor sajuhshu

^T^H*

^nffa

^f^frHt

^'^^

suhimsah

suhimsi

suhinbhih

suhinsu6

f.

"^^, saJus"companion, m.

^f^^SM/tim5,onewho
^n^r^
strikes

well, m.

f. n.

suhin

grammarians do

Some

id.

not

allow

^^
sajumshi. (jTTTTfir

I X(T0

strict

lengtheningof

^. d" "iO. I H ^ -^^^1

^TTnTrjII ^T^^t "3Tcfi^R


to the

the

dsimshi

in

The

dsishshu

in

the vowels

1)

This

H4 W

be

may

Vocative

is

*}*Ri sumanah.

In

an

has

Ushman

long

dsi
dsihshu

and

JPOT1
1TO *ft

right according

of Panini, but the Pratisakhya


interpretation
(xui. 7)givesthe
in

or

dsimshi
^STT^flfft

^iJ^JJTlfiT
"* N
M f^
1

general form, statingthat every neuter ending


Anusvara, the Anusvara
being followed by si or
1

tf 'fli^THTWTi

dsirbhih

rule in

vowel

more

before

the

as

the

shi.

the

other

paradigms

it is the

same

Nominative.
2

be
"fft^c?os
may

declined

as

neuter.

declined
On

Siddh.-Kaum.

vol.

i.

Siddh.-Kaum.

vol.

i.

its

regularlythroughout

as

irregularor optionalforms, see

p. 197.
p. 194.

^s

not

See

" 75.

changed

But

masculine.

"

into

it is likewise

214.

^sh;

see

"

100, note.

} 174.

"

77

DECLENSION.

and ^R^sras(from $3N^*rarfw,


to fall)
to fall),
when
(from V"^dhvarhs,
" 173. VSR^dhvas
in
the
Nom.
their
into
and
Voc. Sing.,
used at the end of compounds,change
and
^a
T^J,

before terminations beginningwith consonants.

Tn"wfT parnadhvasau

N. A.V.

N.V. ^JBfaefif
parnadhvat

s"!)tt""I
parnadhvasah

N. A.

I. ^^isfylparnadhvadbhih
A.lfftVafQparnadhvasam
I.D.Ab.'WRVSnfflparnadhvadbhydm

I. T"SERTTparnadhvasd

Bases

endingin

with vowels.
treated either like
Bases

1.

Before

k.

derived from

BASE.

SING.

NOM.

NOM.PLUR.

PLUR.

NEUT.

are

SING.

N.

3. All other bases in ST /

change their
NOM.

who

derived from

BASE.

NOM.

NOM.

PL.

NOM.

SING.

PL.

NOM.

PL.

dadhrishah

or

-nagbhih-natsu

INSTR.

NEUT.

SING.

NOM.

PL.

-nakshu

or

PL.

LOG.

PL.

"^k.

NEUT.

INSTR.

PL.

LOC.

PL.

dadhrigbhih dadhrikshu

^sh change ^s" into 7f.

NOM.

PL.

PL.

dadhrimshi

5. All other bases derived from verbs with final


NOM.

LOG.

final into "?t.

SING.

dadhrik

BASE.

c^AT.

or

PL.

-nadbhih

dhrish,to dare, change *r sh into

NOM.

PLUR.

f^
fa^falvidbhih
f^vftf^llvtsahf^ffyvfmsi

enters

V^

LOG.

""T^5T:or0TrfirH:
"7T^Jor""rEJ

BASE.

7 t

INSTR.

N.PL.NEUT.

PL.

PLUR.

dikshu
f^fnudigbhih $%%"

into
to destroy,
change "S^s
TfS^nas,
NOM.

one

INSTR.

dim"
f^f^f

disah
f^^It

'oil
m.f .n
3 H $(jfvana6,
^TMH^or0^"7T5T: ""i%
life-destroying jtvanator -naA: -nasah -namsi

4. Bases

ning
begin-

their final consonants


final,

c"k.

dis,f. country f^T dtk


f^S^

is,m.f. n.

all terminations

to see, UFS^sprtf,
to touch,change3^*
to show, ^S^dris,
f^ST
efts',

NOM.

Bases

WJ parnadhvatsu

(" 126.)

BASE.

2.

when

all other terminations and

like

or

unchanged before

retain them

these consonants

derived from

into

L. TTO

endingin ^s, f^sh,


"^h.
"^ksh,
TS^clth,

Bases

" 174.

*riU"nffc
parnadhvasoh

G. L.

PL.

NEUT.

INSTR.

PL.

LOC.

PL.

dvtshah fsfadvimshif^fWtdvidbhih fgr"J


ish,m.f.n.hating fjfZdmt ffT^t
IJdvitsu
6. Bases

chh into 7 t.

endingin "^chh change^


NOM.

BASE.

NOM.

SING.

PL.

NOM.

PL.

NEUT.

INSTR.

PL.

LOC.

PL.

prdmsl
W^'prdsah TTtf^T
asking W^prdt
prddbhth
TfT3iprdchh,m.f.n.
riT^j*Tt
f

ksh into 7
7. Bases endingin T5Tksh change T3^
BASE.

NOM.

If

NOM.

SING,

.f.n.paring 17 tat*

forms
regularly

its Nom.

NOM.

tdkshah
rHSfJ

derived fn^ta"sA
differently
may

which

PL.

form

t.
PL.

NEUT.

ifffef
tdmkshi

its Nom.

INSTR.

PL.

Dual

Sing.7T3F tak.

to a
*nT7"7ora",
Sing.
may, according

desirous of

desirous
famsfipipakshau,

saying;

of

f^V"F
didhak,Nom.

Nom.
"4*"vivak,
maturing; f"J
Dual

PL.

If^fHJ

iffTE^goraksh,
herd,
cow-

different

form "Ui^ gorak.(SeeColebrooke,


187.)
p.9O,note; Siddh.-Kaum.vol.i.p.
Nom.

LOC.

tadbhih

Dual

f^lHSJT
didhakshau,desirous

derivation,

Sofav^pipat,

f""
"f "T"
r/rar;tsAa",
of

burning.

78

" 175-

DECLENSION.

8. Most

bases

endingin ^
NOM.

BASE.

change ^

SING.

m.f.n. covering

On

9. Bases

derived from

BASE.

Bases

derived from

^f snuh,to

" 93.

see

NOM.

NOM.PL.

BASE.

NOM.

derived from

Bases
BASE.

INSTR.

h into

LOG.

^T k.

or

snih,to love,

'ORk.
LOC.

PL.

dhruglhih dhrutsu

or

PL.

V^dhukshu

f^

PL.

dhrudbhih

druihhi

druhah

dhrukshu

or

J{t.
INSTR.

NOM.PL.

SING.

NOM.

h into T t

N.PL.NEUT.

nah, to bind, change

h into

PL.

dhugbhih
T*fr*\

|f^

dumhi

the final

NOM.PL.

SING.

INSTR.

NEUT.

PL.

druh, to hate, ^muh} to confound,

change

may

dhrutordhruk

hating
ii.

the roots

spue,

LOC,PL.

lidbhih
fcV"Qlitsu
fc5^fat
ghudbhih "JT^ghutsu
"5^fa"

^T^gumhi

m.f.n. milking Vftdhuk g%l duhah


ij^duh,
10.

PL.

metre.

SING.

NOM.

INSTR.

ending in ^ h, and beginningwith ^ d, change ^

roots

ushnih,
^fWi^

Likewise

NEUT.

fc^fir
limhi

^rw^aA

$r into "*T"^,

change of initialT

the

PL.

NOM.

fc5^"lihah

"jrMf ^1

"^

^ t.

NOM.PL.

lih,m.f.n. lickingf^T lit


,

h into

PL.

LOC.

PL.

updnahahvvwtklupdnadbh

^^^updnahtf.shoe ^m^J(updnat 3H\3"


a

f. ordure.
ft^cwA,
f. anger.
f. dropof water.
wishingto enter. "P^snih,loving.
f%1"3viprush,
TufalS^viviksh,
bee.
fi^tvish,f. splendour.'Q^fiS'^bahutv
tPffictf^madhuHh,
*rk^goduh, cow-milker.
stealer of gems.
f.
such.
idris, f.
"""^1
very splendid.T^J1^ ratnamush,
kidris, f. Which?
givingpain.
"fi'^J'3T
*\n^*fS(marmaspri^f
Decline

m.

fnm^l vipds,
f. the Beyah

river in the

n.

m.

" J75into

Punjab.

or

m.

of Indra,changes

name

^s

into

^sh whenever

^h

is

changed

turdsMt.
Sing.iJl!lHl"r

Norn.

n.

n.

l^T^Tfturdsdh,
T

m.

Norn.

Dual

"u"r^turdsdhau.

Instr. Plur.

TJTraT^fa:

turdsMdbUh.
m.
an
" 176."g^nTpwrorfa/,

*f^teTt
puroddh, and all the
base ^f\^^purodas.
The Voc.

cases

(" 152),though some

or
offering,

beginningwith

The
is irregular.
priest,
consonants

(Pada cases)are

being identical with


too, is irregular,
Singular,

grammarians

allow

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

1JCtTnpuroddh

g^

A.

j^Cl
sT^T puroddsam

I.

ifCtTT^n
puroddsd

^X^"5T^TT
puroddsau
gT^ThTT
purodobhydm

D.

^Tt5T%
puroddse

Ab.

puroddsah
"grtTT^Tt

G.

^Ct?T$npuroddsah

L.

IJ^Trf^I
^Mroc?"i""

V.

"g^TT:

"?t

puroddhor

3 1

^|Tpuroddsau

"yftftxti
purodobhydm
^ft^"npurodobhydm

-c?aA

Sing,is

formed

from

the Nom.

Sing.

^ ^tt'J*
he purodah.

N.

or

Norn.

PLURAL.

^CteTSTt
puroddsah
^ Cls I ^l!puroddsah

"$ftftf*K
purodobhih
purodobhyah
tpCtTteH

^Styftlpurodds'oh
^^f T^ft:
puroddsoh

purodobhyah
g^Tt"Tt
^^T^f puroddsam
3^"*Jpurodahsu

gOil^fi
puroddsau

^^T^TJpuroddsah

79

DECLENSION.

179.

a
word, 5"*^^||^ukthatids,

" 177. Another

reciter of

is declined

hymns,

like

puroddt.
Ace.

J"+^^H'.ukthasdh.

Nom.

ending

in

^m

uktha$dsam.

^cr'q^iJukthasdh

or

or

Instr. Plur.

uklhasah.

before all terminations

retain *Tm

and

terminations

all other

311*1

in *Tm.

" 178. Bases


Bases

Sing. 9"r^^iit

Voc.

ukthasobhih.

Sing. ?"r*i

final,the

when

is

^m

beginningwith

changed into

Before

vowels.

"^n.

mild.
Jf$Ki{pra$dm,

Base

MASC.

i I:M.

MASC.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

1CA8C.

KI;M.

FKM.

TT^IW! prasdmah

IRRTr^praJdn

nywl

Ace.

TTSfTPT
prasdmam

H^H"I!
prasdmau

14311*0prasdmah

Instr.

U^TTTT prasdmd

H^n^Tf pratidnbhydm

H^I

Loc.

H^nr*ipra5^m"

w^n*fUprasdmoh

Nom.

Voc.

NOUNS

2.

J 179. Many
modify their
Nouns

nouns

base

with

A. Nouns

with

two

in Sanskrit

have

more

base

one

f*Htpras"nbhih

Bases.
than

rather

base, or

one

they

certain terminations.

rule before

bases, have

BASES.

CHANGEABLE

WITH

accordingto

two

prasdmau

for the

Nom.

Voc.

and

Ace.

Sing. 1

Nom.

Voc.

and

Ace.

Dual

Nom.

Voc

Nom.

Voc.

*-

I
and

second

The

base, and
The

The

the terminations
base

base, and

generalrule is that

base

*m^prdchbecomes

is

with

nouns

as^TO^rfaman,

are

feminine

the

at the end

in the

of neuter

nouns

the

strong

terminations.
and

base.

Bha

calls it

Bopp

the strong terminations.

Anga

Anga

changeablebases

calls it the

Bopp

cases

appears
Thus

cases.

^T^

form

their feminines

without

takingthe

in

Pada

and

Pada

and

Bha

The
adant

fy.

\i,and

in the

the

ufa prdnch.

adaty eating,becomes

compounds.

nouns

simple base, which

said to be feminine

of

masc.

Anga base.

called the Pada

strengthenedin

present participle
^^

Most

Plural

of

cases.

the terminations

cases,

Ace.

the weak

will be

Bha

the

and

base will be called the

second

the weak

(notAce.)Plural

base for all other

former

"

some

Pada
in

base

the

of

Anga

few, however, such


of them

occur

as

80

"

DECLENSION.

This

cases.

bases

two

the

gives us

followingsystem

of terminations

for words

80-

with

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

MASC.

NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

Nom.

Ace.

80.

Certain

derived

words

from

to

move,

have

two, others

three bases.

TTT^prach, forward, eastern,


for its Pada

Bha

and

has

bases,

two

base, and

is declined

Anga base,or, accordingto Bopp, strong base


are

called in Sanskrit

t Compounds

the

ending

prepositionsending

in

^"

^1^

or

Tw.

ach

retain

This

rule

with

weak

prdnchfor

its

Anga,

t.
accordingly

The

terminations.

tions
termina-

terminations.

Sarvandmasthdna

in

TTI^T

the

accent

does

not

on

the

preposition,
except after

apply to fa m

and

^Qfaddhi (Pan.

"*R3*(pdrdch,
^^l^dvach,TTR prach, ^^udach^ also 'Zf^nyach,
but TTT^ pratydch,^T?^ samydch,
^Hfl^ ddhyach ^TVR^sadhryach, f"t^ m'shvach
vi.

2,52-53).

Hence
"

anvdch.
stands

for

this
Trr^jprawfc;

|| In the declension of words


as

the
to

endingin ^^ach, the rule is.that if^f^ach has the Udatta,


Hm-^pratydch,
^(^^(anvdch (" 180, note), all terminations,except
"QJq^samydch,
take the Udatta (Pan. vi. i, 169-170).The rule Pan. vi. i, 182, refers
Sarvanamasthanas,

in

not to ^T^ ach.


T"^anch,

is treated

as

The rule Pan.

if the accent

were

vi.

on

i, 222,

the

is restricted in the Veda

preposition.

by vi.

i,

170.

82

"

DECLENSION.

Tllft^rt
pratfahdm

Mril^t pratich6h

G.

Tnft^Jpratichdh

L.

inftfa^ratfcfo' inft^t prattchth

182-

H7TZ[pratyakshu

NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

pratfchi

N.A.
FEM.
SINGULAR.

N.

The
ANGA

si

cfl
"^1pratichi.

words,
following
OR

STRONG

derived from

PADA

BASE.

(Pan.vi. 2, 52)
samydnchyright(vi.2, 52)

have

to move,
OR

MIDDLE

BASE.

three
BHA

OR

bases
WEAK

BASE.

WF^pratyach

behind

samich

samyach

nyanch, low (vi.2, 53)


h, accompanying(vi.
3, 95)

^p^sadhryach

following(vi.2, 52)

^"J^

vishvach

vishtich
ftf^[

vishvanch, all-pervading
,

upward (vi.2, 52)

tiryach
firSf^
Bases
i.

182.
n

of
Participles

the

^fiatf,the Anga base in


SINGULAR.

3^\

udach

tortuous
tirydnch,
frTM^

and

in

andck

anvach

udich

frf^tirasch

^a^t

Present.
Participles

present have

two

^h^"m^ (Accent,Pan.
DUAL.

Pada

bases,the
vi.

i,

and

173.)

PLURAL.

Bha

base

-J

184.

83

DECLENSION.

NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

^K^In addnti

N.A.
FEM.
SINGULAR.

^^n\adat{t
"c., like

N.

" 183. There


in the Nom.

is

very difficultrule

and Ace. Dual

onlybe fullyunderstood

by those

who

which

accordingto

of neuters, and
are

before

certain

the ten

with
acquainted

the

keep
participles

\t of the feminine.

the

This

classes of

rule

"^n
can

conjugations.

It is this,
I. Participles
of verbs followingthe Bhu, Div, and
II.

of verbs followingthe
Participles

III.
I.

Tud

Chur

class may

or

same

of the future in
appliesto all participles

verbs

of the Ad

class in ^T

of all other
Participles

not

may

preserve

the "^n.

the

"^n. The

preserve

^H^syat,and

to

of
the participles

the "Jn.
reject

verbs must

VRl(bhdvat.

classes must

and Ace. Dual

Nom.

Neut.

*flhft
bhdvantl
dtvyanti.

chordyanti.
II.

tuddnti

^J^tuddt.

^f^T^

tudati.
iJ^Tft

or

or Hfa"nft bhavithyati.
bhavishydnti

(fut.).

ydt.
*ffi^

ydnti *ffift
ydtt.
or

III.

Nom.

and Ace. Dual

Neut.

wrftadatf.

*"d$J\
juhvatt.
sunvatf.

rundhatt.
^^Jdl

Mndt.
The

feminine

base is

throughoutidentical

HTiftbhdvantt,being,fern.; ij";
n\ tuddntt
fern.

The

feminine base is declined

" 184. Another


the

rule,which

of
strengthening

base

not

with

base in

to be mixed

Dual

Hence

Neut.

throughoutin

the

Ace. Voc. Plur. Neut., where

With

are
participles

therefore

\t.

precedingrule,prohibits
participles
present of reduplicated

up with the

verbs, except in the Nom.


this exception,
these

the Nom.

eatin'g,
^n\tudantstriking,
fern.;^a"pftae?af/,

or

as
regularly

ought

the Anga

in form

Jcrinati.

insertion of *^n is

the

declined like
really

in

nouns

optional.
J(t with

unchangeablebases.
Base

giving,from
rjftf^dddat,

ddddmi,I give.
^T ddtto give,"J^Tfa
DUAL.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

PLURAL.

MASC.

N.V.

"^TT dddat

A.

^ff

dddat

NEUT.

MASC.

"^m dddatau

dddati
^^ift
f-

"";nidddatah

^^Pndddati

am

I.

^fndddatd

D.

dddate

dddadbhih

j^lOf
dddadbhydm
dddadbkyah

Ab.
t dddatah

dddatdm

G.
J dddat oh

L.

dddati

^7^
*0r

dddanti.
M

dddatsu

84:

DECLENSION.

The

appliesto

rule

same

the

eating;
participlesvCB^jakshat,

being poor; ^m^sdsat, commanding;


"jfr%J{daridrat,
neut. the
*\*\l(jdgat,

worlcL forms

Nom.

of
participles

verbs

of the

Ad

^iTOT^ chaMsat, shining.

deer, n.

drop of water,

are

declined like

class.

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

MASC.

MASC.

MASC.

N.V.

A.

But

*\*\fa
jdganti,only.

Plur.

m.
" 185. ^ftjmkdt,great, ^f^pr^shat,

waking;
*W4i(jdgrat,

brihdntam

brihdntau

brihdntah

brihdntau

bnhatdh

NEUTER.
PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

N.A.
FEM.
SINGULAR.

brihati
'pift

N.

86.

forms

its

of
a
participle
if^mahat,great,likewise originally

Anga

Ad

class,

strong base in

or

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

MASC.

MASC.

MASC.

N.

mahantau

fifmahdntam

A.

the

I.

*T?nrTmahatd

D.

Hij.n mahat"

Ab.

1
rT?1T" mahatdh

G.

mahdntah

"

mahdntau

mahatdh

t maJiddbhih

mahddbhydm
t

mahddbhyah

JT^WT mahatdm

L.

*}lt"fiT
mahati

V.

T^"^ mdhan

mahatdh

mahdtsu

NEUTER.

mahati
"l^fll

N.A.V.

The

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

rest like the masculine.


FEM.
SINGULAR.

mahati
*i^rfl

N.

Bases

ending in

the

Suffixes

strong
Nom.

base

possessivesuffixes ifi^ma/
in

i^ mant

Sing.Masc.

These

forming

their

Anga

Bases

and
itc^mant

in

" 187. The

and

vaw#.

suffixes

are

and

v"#

form

They lengthen their


of very

their
vowel

frequentoccurrence.

Anga
in

or

the

188.

85

DECLENSION.

having fire.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.
MA8C.

N.

agnimdn

A.

^ec

MA8C.

agnimantau

agnimantah

"i"/ni, nu

agnimatah

agnimantam

V.

PLURAL.

MA8C.

nt

nu

ft1*1*^ ayniman
NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

V.

f*ri"iii agnimat

agnimatt

agnimanti

FEM.
SINGULAR.

N.

^M

is used

va/

P*"i*i iflagnimatt
i

after bases

in ^i

and

^J

having knowledge.
'^Fffl^jndnavat,

Ex.

vidydvat,having

N.
know-

ledge.
But

having jaws.
having fire, "^rn^hanumat,
wfi"\H\affnimat,

After

2.

bases

(Pan.viu.

d.

^n

or

if precededby
ending in nasals, semivowels, or sibilants,
2,

TF^rflpayasvat, having milk.

But

Pd *H AJyotishmat,having Light. I^IT girvat,having a


T*ft

be
Ex.
There

"

any

other

udanvat, having water.

^R^tf

voice.

vowel

consonants, by whatever

they may

preceded.
having lightning.
f^j^vidyutvaty
exceptionsto

are

ending in

10.)

Ex.

3. After bases

88.

the second

Your
Vffl^bhavat,
followed

person,
Native

by "%1(^vat.
distinct from

these

rules.

Honour, which

by

(Pan.vni.
is

the third person

grammarians

derive it from

2,

9-16.)

used
frequently
of the
HT

verb,

bhd,

with

in

the

is declined like

the suffix

present of *^bhu,to
being,the participle
*f33{bhavat,
f,Your

place of

pronoun

noun

and
"^1(vat,

be.

Honour.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

N.

^^l^bhavdn

A.

HTcf

V.

H^*^ bhavan

bhavantam
or

DUAL.

PLURAL.

MASC.

MASC.

bhavantau

bhavantah

bhavantau

bhavatah

bhok
NEUTER.

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

N.A.V.

bhavatf

FEM.
SINGULAR.

N.

bhavatt

PLURAL.

HTfw

bhavanti

of

derived

keep

it

86

" 189-

DECLENSION.

bhavat, being,part,present.

H^Tif

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

MASC.

MASC.

MASC.

bhavan

N.

H^f^

A.

*r4lTbhavantam

H4lu

bhavantaw

WffJ

bhavantah

HTiu

bhavantau

VTO

bhavatah

V.
NEUTER.

Wffitbhavanti

H^rftbhavanti

"T"toa*

N.A.V.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

FEM.
SINGULAR.

bhavanti
^T^ift

N.

"

80. ^RH

Norn.

ar^af,

Sing.,where

word, and

" 190.

^Rf^araew

arra.

declined like

in ^lf vat,

nouns

in

noun

^R^awarvaw,

in

except in the
a

foe,is

Sing,^ftl anarvd;
Instr. Sing.^R^TT

Nom.

W^aw;

without

^nftTtlManarvdnauj Ace. Sing.^RtTOT anarvdnam;


The feminine of ^^c^orva^
is ^Jcfdlarvati.
Instr. Plur. WiT^fHtanarvabhih.

Dual

anarvand

^Tf

it has

_"".__

totallydifferent
Nom.

like
horse, is declined regularly

masc.

*r

How
f^Rl^%a?,

Their feminines

much

much,
so
^Ti^tyaf,

declined like bases

are

in

are

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

MASC.

MASC.

MASC.

N.

f"hm"^
My an

fon*iffT
Myaniau

ftF^J kiyantah

A.

f"*4ri
Myantam

fonMiukfyantau

f%Tin kiyatah

I.

fawn ttya*4

f^rcirf
TciyadbJiydm

fmfel MyadbUh

V.

fenM^ My

an

NEUTER.

N. A.V.

Bases

Mark

Pqi^nlHya^

"fSFTi**yfl*

191. Words

in ^ir^an

in ^^an

their Bha

or

weakest

base *{n

bases
and

their

Anga

their Pada

or

strong

or

middle

base

base

is

^r a.

besides,

That

the Nom.

Sing. masc.

2.

That

the Nom.

Sing.neut.

3. That

the Voc.

4. That

fcfi^fn
kiyanti

(^5(an,ii^man,

three

have

1.

or

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

take

Sing.neut.

has
may

WT

d, not TO^ """($).

^r a, not

be

^r"^an.

either identical with

the

Nominative,

*{n.

words

their Bha

ending

in i"^man

and

the

man

keep iceman

^^van

bases,without dropping

immediatelybefore
concurrence

has

the

and

of three consonants, such

^r a,

when

v"ft.
as

there
This

and
is

^^van
a

is to

from
ifi^parvn

as

consonant

avoid

the

-$
or

"A^

from

dtmn

*m*

ending

in

i^

5. That
and

drops the

"nH

I.

"fiyi

D.

*TT%n/mne

Ab.

"TW

ndmnah

G.

f^t

ndmnah

L.

tiif^n^mni

or

takshnd

UWT

in

ending

words

simple

*JV^ murd/tan,

words

the

loss of the V

Ace. Voc.
thus

Dual

is

optionalin
The

of neuters.

the Loc.

Sing.,

feminine,however,

TTlftrdjnt.

ndmnd

consonant,

ndmnoh

ll^li

in which

such

as

the

ndmasu

suffixes H^wara

'3CT^ brahman,

f^^an;aw,n. joint,form
brahman,
brahman.

m.

creator.

namndm

"Tl*i^

man

or

Nouns

Bha, ^CJ^

words

to

HIH"^nd

V.

" 192.

forms

to

appliesonly

king. Anga, T"K*{rdjdn; Pada, TTHrdja; Bha,

m.

nama

not

vaw,

rule

"c.

Nom.
^r

TTfl^ takshan

in all other
in the

and

This

dtman.

WTTR^

maw

Thus

an.

mdrdhnd,
frjr

87

DECLENSION.

m.

n.

their Bha

Anga, ^WT^

and
the

^vara

are

preceded by

creator, *T^^ yajvan,

base
brahman

in H^wara
;

Pada,

and
^w

m.

^va".
brahmd

88

" J93~

DECLENSION.

V.

brahman
^t51"r^

I.

brahmdnd
9(411111

D.

fls*"u

Ab.

"""nt

""fat brahmdbhih

brahmdbhydm

brahmdne
brahmdnah

brahmdbhydm

brahmdbhyah

brahmdbhydm

brahmdbhyah
0141ill!
brahmdndm

: brahmdnoh

G.

t brahmdnoh

brahmdni

NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

brdhmant

N. A.

brdhma

V.

brahman

or

yajvan, sacrificer;

Decline

brdhmdni

self ;

dtman,

sudharman,

virtuous.

MfdR^

whenever

f^cftto ^t^,

the

Sing. Hfrff^i
pratidivd
;
l pratidivnah

" 193. Words


^f

before

in

Words

in

W^man,

" 194. Nouns

if in the

Thus,

if

(See,however, Pan.

feminine,

their feminine

in

their feminine

in

in

Nom.

w.

Ace.

Plur.

^tf,
droppingthe

base

Nom.

Sing.

masc.

as

drop
and

but there is

the

^f^van, at

^T"^aw, T"^ man,

they can

7,vart.)

i,

base "fRT rfam"f,


Ace.
optional

an

feminines, or form

the ^T

fern.

end

feminines

before the "^w,may

sucharmd,
^pf*h

suparvdh.

Of

T$*(qsucharme,

Plur.

or,

bahurdjd,Dual
"|J"J"1T

4""MMT

2.

"^Jtnn bahurdjd,Dual

3.

Dual
"r^"T9^
bahurdjni,

^TT% bahurdje.
"J^l^ir
bahurdjnyau.

(Pan. iv.

i,

27),having

two

in

fy (Pan.

Nom.

Sing.

may

^n^aw,

iv.

i,

28).

Dual

fern.

^1T"T
su

kings,the

many

1.

dviddmni

"

Those

a.

leather,Nom.

having good

^^Tt sucharmdh

bahurdjan,having
1"S*^^M^

in ^TT

also take

Dual

compounds,
adjectival

of

*J-q*n"ul
sucharmdnau; ^^T^T
suparvd,^M 5 i"uT suparvdnau
sucharmd, Nom.

^i"i"\daman, fern, rope;

13.)

i, n;

forms

iv.

declined like masculines.

are

^i*n"i
ddmdnam;

(Pan. iv.

their masculine
Bha

by

Hfrff^H:pratidivdnah
;

fisherman, form
vT"l"^c?Mflaw,

Ace.
Sing. ^TTTe?ama,

use

Plur.

Nom.

immediatelyfollowed

^T"^aw,like TTf^nf/aw, king, form

fisherman.

Sing.^TRT ddmdm.
either

is

^w

("143).

^f^paw, like

dhfvart,wife of

Nom.

the

divyati,
lengthens

5^w; TT|ftra/w^
queen.

the

Words

in

sports,from

who

pratidivan,one

feminine

be,

may

bahurdjdnau.

ropes,

is

an

exception.

Adjectivesin "3"[van,which form their fern, in ^ft van,


slqO pivari,fat,
vtaO dhivarf, *4*\"*"\pivan,
may do the same

fisherman,
vffo*{dhivan,
a

at the end

of

compounds,or

90

" 197-

DECLENSION.

" 197. At the end of

compound, too, ^i^ahan

havinglong days,is declined

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

V.

^Krr^T:
dirgMhdh
^iSl^tdfrghdhah

A.

Q I^!"U dirglidhdnam
"fl

N.

In

is substituted

for

(Pan. vi.

3,

" 199.

dog, 5^;

m.

the

For

bases.

(Accent,Pan.

m.

N.

'^rrW

they

rest,

vi.

i,

A.

mi"i

V.

^^^"

accordingto

forms

^TR

saya,

admitted;

are

^j"
e.g.

declined

are

of

like
regularly,

182.)
PLURAL.

W$svc[nau

N.
A.

is

"van

^ww^;
Tgpft

of g^

ywvaw,

the

Mighty, a

of

name

Indra,takes

HM^M

V.

T^^^wM^Aavaw

N. A. V.

maghdvd

"i^^i"iT maghdvdnau

maghdvdnam

likewise be declined like

may

W^t^maghon
as

its Bha

PLURAL.

DUAL.

A.

^f?K yuvatty;

grammarians, igftydni.

some

"m"n

word

sp( "un, ^

I.

N.

same

and

take

young,

"odnam

SINGULAR.

The

fa vi

DUAL.

W(3i{maghavant

200.

m.

yuvan,

N.A.V.

feminine

"

Sing, both

Loc.

the

SINGULAR.

The

"c.
^ 5 1 ^lfa:dirghdhobhih,

sA^^dvya
or'Sjfgdvyahni
or
days; Loc. Sing,'gfedvyahne

in two

$van,

brahman,

I.

10.)

their Bha

as

"0*njg;
dirgMhnah

7).

4,

in

but

^K^aAaw;

dvyahnah,produced

A.

with numerals, and with

compounds

derivative

PLURAL.

"{t5l"
HIM dirghdhdnau N.V. "0"l"H!i:
dirghdhdnah

N.A.V.

(Pan. vm.
Feminine, "0"l^dirghdhni
" 198.

Thus
is irregular.

maghdvdnak

N.

"iM^i"it

A.

#i*T\ni
maghtinah

I.

*iM"l("?J
maghdvabhih^

with the suffix ^U(vat

masculine

or

lff(mat;

(see^H P**\*"{agnimat.)
SINGULAR.

DUAL.
N.A.V.

PLURAL.

*i^i"JnT
maghdvantau

N.

*mqnt

maghdvantah

H^4rt maghdvantam

A.

HM^rit

maghdvatah

H"\ mdghavan

I.

*iM"i(st
maghdvadbhik

N.

nim\v{maghdvdn

A.
V.

*i M

The

feminine is

"

201.

'5^jJwsA^

their vowel
follow the

either H*fl"fl
maghtinior HV4il) maghavatt.
accordingly

^SnNr^
aryamdn, two

and

except in the Norn. Sing,and


bases in

^(inj " 203.)

the

names

Nom.

of Vedic

deities,do not lengthen

Ace. Voc. Plur. neut.

For the rest,they are

declined like

nouns

(in this they


in

^T"^an

(see

Pan.

vm.

2,

dtrghdhdas

69, vart.
Nom.

i;

Siddh.-Kaum.

Sing.

t Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. Si.

vol.

i.

p. 194;

but

Colebrooke, p. 83, has

pfahn
pdshan,ptisha,

aryama,

aryamn

The

202.

when

"^han,

root

the vowel

between

BASE.

J^ghn

INSTR.

PL.

PL.

NOM.

PL.

NEUT.

pUshd

pdshdnah

pdshndh

pUshdbhih

ptisUni

aryamd

aryamdnah

aryamndh

aryamdbhih

aryamani

to

kill,if used

and

SING.

as

NOM.

ACC.

t hanah

rule; only that

same

^gh.
INSTR.

PL.

NOM.PL.NEUT.

PL.

hdni

: hub hih

ghnah

brahmahdnah

brahmaha

follows the

noun,

PL.

(S"r.1. 9, 31.)
^f^pUfhi.

some,

is dropt,
^ h becomes

hd

^T

brahmahan, ha, ghn


Loc.

^h

NOM.

^ ha,

ACC.

PL.

"g"((Vr
pdshdni;or, accordingto

Loc. Sing.^(jfaf
pUshnf or

"

NOM.

SING.

NOM.

aryaman,

91

DECLENSION.

303.

brahmahani

brahmahdbhih

brahmayhndh

brahmahdni.
Sing.wwPH brahmaghnt or flw^fcj

Bases

J 203.

Words

in

1.

They drop the

2.

They
^

form

Nom.

the

and

at the

^n

the Nom.

regular;it

almost

iftinare

end

in.

in ^

of the Pada
in

Ace. Plur.

neut.

in

that

base.

$i;

Sing.masc.

is to be observed

the

Nom.

Ace.

in

Sing. neut.

ini.
ffif

MASCULINE.
SINGULAR.

DUAL.

N.

V"ftdhan(

A.

Vnf"T

I.

vf^HI

D.

%r"indhanine

dhantbhydm

Ab.

vP"i"i;
dhanfaah,

dhanfohydm

Vflli

dhantnoh

G.

dhaninam

dhantndu

t dhan(nah

dhanfnau

dhantnah

Vf"T"ridhanibhydm

dhantnd

dhaninah

: dhantthih

dhan(bhyah

dhantthyah

Vf^RT

dhanindm

L.

^fVrf"T
dhanini

V.

VfV|

Vf"T"fh
dhantnok

ctoonw

dhantshu
dhdninah

dhdninau
NEUTER.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

VftfH dhanfni

N.A.
V.
FEM.
SINGULAR.

N.

dhanint

Vni

Decline

^Vtf^medhdvin,wise

^rfy^ yaisasvin,
;
glorious

loquacious;oirrft^AranX
domg.
Note
the

"

These

analogy of

masc.

and

nouns

nouns

neut.,and

^tn,

in

^I"^an (like TTH^r^jan,

in the Voc.

ranged, in fact,with the


vowel

in the Nom.

which

is inserted in these

and

shortened
a
(etymologically

in

nouns

Sing, and

in the Nom.

cases

"TW^"""man)
Ace.

having unchangeablebases

Ace. Plur. neut. is but


in all bases

form

of
in

Plur. neut.
;

for the

^*Jcn,) follow
the

Nom.

Sing.

They might be

lengtheningof

compensation for the absence

exceptthose endingin nasals and semivowels.


N

the

of the nasal

92

" 204-

DECLENSION.

in ^
Participles
"$04.
vdms

vas.

of the reduplicated
perfectin ^
Participles
the Anga,
as
^ ush as the Bha, and ^

three

have

vas

vas

as

the

bases

Pada

base.

grammarians,they change the ^s of ^(vas into T(t9if


the
if it is followed by terminations
or
beginningwith v^bhand T^S;
^" is final,
(seeJ 173, 131.) But the fact is,that the Pada base is really'^vat, not

Accordingto

Sanskrit

vas.

rurudvdms

Anga,

V.

Pada, '^^(rurudvas ; Bha,

rurudvan
"^^"f"r^

I.

rurudushd
rurudushe

D.

rurudvddbhih

rurudvddbhydm
:

rurudvddbhydm

Ab.

rurudushah

rurudvddbhydm

G.

rurudushah

rurudushoh

L.

rurudushi

rurudushoh

rurudvddbhyah
rurudvddbhyah

rurudushdm

rurudvdtsu

NEUTER.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

rurudvdmsi

rurudushi

FEM.
SINGULAR.

N.

rurudushi

in
f 205. Participles
root

and

changed

^v"5

the

termination,drop

into

T^wM.

pechivdn,from
very

word

common

an

between

termination

the

the ^ i whenever

the

reduplicated
^

#a$

is

Thus

tasthivdn,from

insert

which

5/M,

5^n

to

the fern.

stand, forms

f^pach9 to cook,
followingthis

forms

W^J^ttasthushi.

^^joecAw^.

the fern.

declension

is

vidvan,wise, (for
fVgrir^

vidushi.
vividvdn)
f^fsTSTT^
; fern,"fagtft
If the root

the contracted

ends
form

in ^ i

or

^ ^,this

of ^vas.

radical vowel

Hence

ninyushd; fern, ftfg^t


ninyushi.

from

is

never

droptbefore -grtr^,

"ftra",PdHl^K ninivdn; Instr.

$ 207.

:
followingparticiples

the

Decline
I'ADA

93

DECLENSION.

NOM.

MASK.

SING.

jufruvas

NOM.

ACC.

PLUR.

PLUK.

IN8TR.

FLUE.

Jusruvdihsah

iusruvushah

sujruvadbhih

pechivas

pechivdn

pechivdmsah

pechushah

pechivadbhih

jagmivas

jagmivdn

jagmivdnisah

jagmushah

jagmivadbhih

jaganvas

jaganvdn

jaganvdmsah

jagmushah

jaganvadbhih

jaghnivas

jaghnivdn

jaghnivdmsah

jaghnushah

jaghnivadbhih

jaghanvdn

jaghanvdmsah

jaghnushah

jaghanvadbhih

Bases

Bases

206.
base

Anga

Pada

in

and

in

^^

ivas.

of
(termination

in

the

form
comparative)

their

^1^ iyd
?, heavier ;

base

Bha

Anga

base

MASCULINE.
SINGULAR.

N.
A.

IO

gdriydn

*4 1"\

*iO"*i"gdriydmsam

gdrfydmsau

gdriydmsah

gdriydrhsau

gdriyasah

V.

I.

"c.
gdriyobhlhy

gdriyobhydm

gdriyasd

NEUTER.
SINGULAR.

N.

TJSNT:gdriyah

gdriydthsi

gdriyasi

FEM.
SINGULAR.

gdriyasi

N.

Miscellaneous

" 207. Words


it to

tj^ad

as

in

ending
Bha

Nouns

changeableConsonantal

Bases.

and

as
foot,retain ^T^^^c?
Anga
"m^tfc?,

Pada

base, but shorten

base.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

supddau

N.V.
A.

with

supddam
tjHi^

supddau

^m changed

into

(Anga)

gtf^:supadah (Bha)
I.

supddah

supddbhih
^pllfk:

"^n according to " 136.

(Pada)

94:

DECLENSION.

The

feminine

of two

feet is called

208. "Words

"

or
supadi(Pan. iv.
*JM"{1
tjm'^swpad
PrfM^I
dvipadd.

is either

shorten it to
Final
The

ending
Bha

uh
"3fi|

as

h is

"35w

of

retain
vdh, carrying,
^TT^
^T^ vdh

in

base.

^t

fern, is

The

with

forms Vriddhi

uh

preceding ^

(Accent,Pan.

visvavdh,upholderof the universe.

vi.

1,

128 ; 174,

or

^5TT a

N.V.

n*"a"u visvavdt

A.

visvavdham
ftrflBRT^

base,but

8.)

(4HI'41"

(" 46). Thus

171.)
PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

consisting

and Pada

Anga

as

metre

uU.

interchangeablewith ^dh, "?$,"ff. (See "

"^

8)j but

i,

J mfoauhdh

I.

"

*yti"h# foetavdh is further

209.

and Voc.

it in the Nom.
Instr.

(Sar.

i.

"

Sing.;e.g.

foetauhd
*%i\ls\
; Instr. Plur.

210.

It is

Bha

3. The

"

"f\
fa 3vetavobhfy,";c.;
Loc. Plur.^JCm^svetavahsu.

The

i.

Anga

of

in the Nom.

'Wisi^ anadvdh;

base

DUAL.

^SMil^T
anadvdhau

V.

w\s*{anadvan

I. D. Ab.

*f"is"i

A.

'sins

^ anadvdham

anadudbhydm

anaduhoh
vcnj^lt

G. L.

neuter, at the end of

rest like the masculine.

The

feminine

^ini^

In

Nom.

^TTTJ:

vi.

i,

forms

neuter

I.

^"isf": anadudbhih

L.

viH^rg anadutsu

"wi$\^anadvdmhi

"^1 anaduM

^nji^lanadvdhi

(Pan. vn.

i,

makes

with

The

good

its ^r

long

in the
bh.

the

is said to
;

Ace.

Nom.

Sarasvati

water.

apsu.

171.)
Ace.
^^

^TR

form

WF^svdp,

svdpam ;

svapah,;

Sing, ^f^svap;

Nom.

Instr. ^m

and

Sing.masc.
svapd,"c.

Nom.

Instr.

^fe:

svadbhili,"c.

Nom.

Plur.

^ffttsvampi

of Panini.
svdmpi, accordingto different interpretations

note.)

98,vart.)-

j(tfor T^p before an affix beginningwith *T


dpah,Ace. ^R: apdfy,Instr. ^Hfe:adbhih,,Loc. ^n"

water

svdpafy;

^rro

vins^t anaduhah

PLURAL.

invariably
plural,and

is

composition^r^ap

fern.,having good
Plur.

or

anadvdhah

substitutes

Anga base, and


Pan.
(Accent,

anaduM

^r^ap} water,
:

iHHJ^.

A.

DUAL.

^InJ^ anadud

The

Plural

base

cart-

compound, it forms

SINGULAR.

" 2ii.

Pada

N. xinsi^t

I. "*in^l"T anaduhd

is

The

(i.e.a

PLURAL.

N. A.V.

N. A.V.

2.

ox,

Sing.

anadvdn
'^5HJI"^

cases

Sing.

N.

as

all the Bha

an

and Voc.

SINGULAR.

If used

fvetauh,in

base "wnj^. anaduh.

besides
irregular

*yiiiF

^T^r^A is w\s^anaduh,

with

important compound

more

drawer.) It has three bases


anadudj

Nom.Voc.

"aii^t 6vtiavah in Voc.

likewise

9, 14),and

"y n

base in

ing
^(ras, and retaini^n"*\*svetavclh;
Ace. HI rH I" svetavdham

instead
tivetavdh,
5m"u^"

grammarians allow

Some

irregular,
forming its Pada

or

(Colebrooke,
p.

The

^fft
101,

(i.9, 62) gives ^ift ri^HHf*!svdmpi taddgdni,tanks

-"

DECLENSION.

214.

"
base

has three bases:

"p^pwhs,man,

212.

ty^pums.

The

N"

^mpumdn

N.A.V.

V.

tjfr^
puman

I.D. Ab.

A..

pumdmsam
*jptt

G. L.

Pada

171.)

i,

pumdmsau
;jnitn
pumbhyim
y*lf

N.

y\\*\pumdmsah

A.

ipn pumsdh

tpffcjjumsrfA

I.

jg^uwwAw

not

"pumsu,

Panini (vin. 3,

prevent the change of

not

svhinsu
"j(V"^j

place in

The

L.

gives ^Qpunkshu(1.9,70).
general,does

2.

PLURAL.

nuwsa

Loc. Plur. is written

take

vi.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

I.

Anga base ^^pumdrhs

The

i.

(Accent, Pan.

base

Bha

Jjftpum;3. The

95

second,the Anusvara

In
^^puihsu.

and

represents

^*A,-

and

The

"^num

Sarasvatt

Anusvara

only, not

in

therefore that change does

first,"^n is radical,
not inserted

the

Cf. Siddh.-Kaum.

original
*^m.

an

"f^punsu (" 100, note).

says that

58)

into

^s

or

vol.

p. 186

i.

not

in the

Mi"l("ir"i
In
As

is declined

compositionit

it is,Nona.

neuter

in the

same

Nom.

Sing.SjyTsupum,

if used

manner

in the

fern, gender.

or

masc.

4JJJ40

Dual

supumsi, Nom.

4J^Hif"H

Plur.

supumdmsi.
"

f^div

Base

f. sky,is declined
IJtfyu,

or

213.

flj^rfw,
l[dyu.

vi.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

J"ldyauh

N.A.V.

""$

dtiau

N.

%t

A.

ftfdfoam

I. D. Ab.

^"rfdydbhydm

A.

f^T.divdh

I.

f"Jdivd

G.L.

fffrldivfy

I.

D.

f^rftW
f^:

divdh

V.

ifttrfyaSA

*ft#o,
" 219.
Compounds

L.

Sift
c?yois

declined

as

(See Siddh.-Kaum.
like

In the neuter

having
gft^sttefaj,

they

sudivt; Plur.

Nom.

form

in

Metaplasia,i. e. they exist under

two

being deficient in

Nom.

paradigm

masc.

and fern, like

"c.

Sing. ^IJ sudyu, having a good sky ;

BASE

*2.

SHW^

dsan, n. face

datf m.

n.

water

cases, i.e. Nom.

No

grammarians

Sing,and

Voc. Ace.

(Pan. vi.
BASE

i,

63.)

THROUGHOUT

^np^osn;, n.
dsyayn.

^TT^T

"3^1 udaka,

accent

would

Dual

PI.

on

^rfdanta,m.

^TH datdh;
Vibhakti.

(Pan. vi.

i,

171.)

n.

call
one

Dual, Nom.

Thus

DECLINED

tooth; Ace.

Greek

what

forms, each followinga different declension, but

^sran^asan,n. blood

udan,

are

Ace. Plur. of neuters.

Voc.

*i.

4.

follows the

declined in the

good sky, are

Sanskrit

Sarvanamasthana

the

DEFECTIVE

*3- f^

vowel, and

p.. 138.)

Ace. Voc.

of words

Voc. Plur.,and

i.

ending in

^5 dyushu

sudivi.
^f^r"c

number

214.

base

vol.

sudivam,
^flrtsudyauh, *jfq4

Hence

i^f divdm

G.

f^ftdM

base

divah

D.Ab.

L.

Another

183):

i, 171;

N.

Ab. G.

"

follows, (Accent, Pan.

(See " 219.)

SINGULAR.

of

as

96

DECLENSION.

*5- "*^

doshan,(m.) n.

7.
8.

Tl^ac?,m.

foot; Ace. PL

f.

10.

TT^m^ms,

11.

TT^mas, m.

*I2.

meat^

n.

month

*I4. ^T"F^ sakan,


15.

Ttff$pdda,m.
pritand,f.

ipBpritsu;

mdmsa,

||; TPHt

n.

m.

16.

pea-soup;

ordure;

n.

ridge;

n.

SWM,

n.

hriddh;

n.
An'c?,
(m.); Gen. Sing,

hridaya,n.

asrik only;
Sing.is ^TCpJ?

N.V. A.

N.V. A. Dual

is

Plur. is

N.V.

1 1.

f.

in

Hence

No.

P"i^||
msa,

TO"l yafam, n- liverlf;

m.
*I3" "^g"iyushan,

No. 4.

n.

"TTftl"!fT
ndsikd,f.

T^t paddh;

Loc. PL

f;

*p^.pr**"army

9.

I.

dos, m.

*"(nas,f. nose ; Ace. PL "TOt nasdhj


fff^T
nisdh;
m's, f. night ; Ace. PL f"T$tt

6.

No.

arm

315-

~"m"ilasrijionly;

amj

asrinji
vttjf"i
only ;

A. Dual

N.V.

Plur.

N. A.V.
N.V.

is

is

dantau
tflfr
only;

is TPHT

Dual

I.

mdsau

but

only;

fA.

only;
but

yushau only ;

doshant, Nom.

be
^[***{doshan
may

315.

the

exact

Neut., would

Dual

rule is restricted

on

used.

seem

to show

I.

2.

Bases

or

mdsdn
TT^rr"^

vol.

mdsena

mdsah.

TTOJ

Hlfll wwfoa.

or

*n"T**rf
mdsdbhydm or *rn*lima"%am.

Plur.

"^m*\ yushdn

^HI

or

"M

Sing.T^yws^e
rule

^{W* yushnah.

or

yushena
^Ul||yushnd.
Iyushdbhydmor "^*ri-shabhydm.

Sing.^W

in the
i.

or

^WT dadbhydm.

such

forms

and

Nom.

or0^U!J-s^am

"ft5t
"

as

Dual

Ace. Voc.

pp. 107, 131, 141,

or

144.) By

the
some

base
the

ending in

vowels

ending in Vowels.

any

2.

Bases

ending in

derivative

on

J Siddh.-Kaum.

Vibhakti.
vol.

1,63.

i.

subdivided

vowels, except

(Pan.vi.

p. 141.

be

may

ending in

vi.

that

(See Siddh.-Kaum.

Bases

IF Pan.

^in"ri
dantdbhydm

to the Veda.

Bases

accent

tpTTrfa^.

meaning of Panini's

1.

No

or

[I.Du.

yusMh only;

differ

Sing.tpf"Tdantena

I. Sing.^TO"T

L.

Grammarians

"5H

I. Dual

or

A. Plur.

only;

wia5"fAonly ;

is

Plur. is

but

dantdn

I. Dual

Sing,is

N. A.V.

N.V.

"

dantdh only;
"fffTi

N .V. Plur. is

No. 13. N. A.V.

A. Plur. drlld

only;

Sing.isiran,0^Tj0^masaA,"

A. Dual

or

or^W^asabhydm.
asrigbhydm
Du.^tpttlT

N. A.V. Sing.ia^jn^^dantah,am, a,
N.V.

asdni.

asrinjior

i,

and

derivative
^TT

171.)

|)The

Sarasvati

classes

into two
^r a

and

^TT

d.

d.

t Siddh.-Kaum.

givesall

cases

vol.
of

I.

p. 131.

HT^mas (i.6,35).

98

DECLENSION.

ai,*K\ o,

If bases in J?
shorten
^

1* ai to

The

u.

au

to be declined

are

and

au

Ace. Voc.

surdyd; but

are

Sing. Dual

and

of

compounds, they

declined like neuters

then

equallyallowed (ifthe

are

f^^div,
sky,but

differsfrom

*ft#o.It

like

it in all other

SINGULAR.

Instr.

Sing.neut.

coincides in the Nom.

and

4j(XlJJI

and Voc.

(" 213.)

cases.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

dydvah

N dyauh

N.

^"

is masculine)in all

base

Hence

Plural.

in

only tj*j"iuwmma.

" 219. rndyo, fern, heaven, is declined


Sing, with

at the end

neuters

as

to T u, and

forms, however,

the Nom.

^CHTT

or

*, and ^n

masculine

except

cases

surind

219-

vau

f dydm*

A.
I.

dydvd

D.

dydve

Abb. 1

dy6bhih
yrfbhydm

dy6bhyah

flffc

dydshu
L.
V.

Forms

of

dyauh

dyu which

in the

occur

Rig-veda:

Sing.N. dyausj A.d{vam,dydm;


dydm;

I. divd(dtvd,
by day); D.dive*;
A.
dydvahz

51, 5). Plur. N.

V. dyaus (Rv. vi.

dyun ;

I.

G.divdh,dy6"h;

dydvd.

dyubhih. Dual N.

compound Inrfyo forms its neuter base as Igdyu; e.g.


H"*l1 pradyuni,Plur. WS^ipradyuni (Siddh.-Kaum.
Dual
WQpradyu,eminentlycelestial,
Being used

vol.

i.

pp. 144,

having
as

"

of

sky, Dual
take

There

are

JJi eh,the sun,

no

from

145); while

neuter, cannot

Note
as

good

end

at the

the
"R^cfo'p

tJ^Tq

^jP^cfl

sudivi

sudivi,Plur.

the optionalmasculine
real

ending in

nouns

adjective
was,

neuter

"TBR^
udyadeh, the rising

sun

^?T sudyu,

saw,

vol.

i.

p.

145).

though grammarians imaginesuch

Nom.

we

(Colebr.pp. 67,73). IRSpradyu,

(Siddh.-Kaum.

cases

U e,

as

Dual

o"^"4l udyadayau, Nom.

words
Plur.

udyadayah.
"9'CI^Mt
in

Bases
i.

(A.) By
"

220.

MonosyllabicBases

in^iand

Monosyllabicbases, derived

unchanged before terminations

"31^ into
as

-31 ti.
and

liu, being both Masculine

Feminine.

themselves.

"aft
krt, buying,f5lu, cutting,take
remain

and

$t

^*{iyand

T^MU,

verbs without

from

the

like
any suffix,

terminations

same

as

consonantal

beginningwith consonants,

before vowels.

(Pan.

vi.

vftdM,thinking,

but

bases.

Th"

change final fy am

4, 82,83.) Their Vocative

is the

same

compounds.

He

their Nominative.

(B.) At the
"

221.

These

end

of

compounds.

monosyllabicbases

rarelyoccur

vi.

except

i, 93.

at the end

of

99

DECLENSION.

221.

they may

\t and

either change

Iftiyand T^W,

"314 into

into

or

and

^y

^[r. They

change it
1.

Into
a.

and

^(iy

T^wr.of the compound

first member

If the

second

Tn4 paramaniyam.

lost its verbal character.

to have

thought,Ace. Sing,

the predicateof the second, and

M4,*Hl:paramanth, the

Thus

"ifanihis

Here

treated

fuddhadhth,
^T^ftt

as

tuddhadhiyam;"$":kudhth,
^pgfftri

and

seems

of pure

man

of bad

man

best leader,

noun,

thinker, a

pure

the

thought,

kudhiyam. (Sar.)
Sing.Tffvni

Ace.

tyand

b. If

character.

maintains its nominal

Ace. Sing. M*"I

forms

""tt are

radical initialconsonants.
^"M(\ljalakrth,
buyer
w
ell
Ace.
ofwjalakriyam.
Itpftt
susrth,
faring, Sing.
Sing."i

precededby two

of water, makes

Ace.

sutriyam. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol.


tj^scq

i.

p.

19.) This

is a

merelyphoneticchange,

intended to facilitatepronunciation.(Pan. vi. 4, 82.)


2.

Into

retain their verbal

retains

here IT pro, is

prepositionbelonging to "ftnt.

the

only belongsto

suddhadhih
^JSVfc

from

compound,

Bahuvrihi
both

which

possessedof

man

suggested the distinction between

^{iy
as

and

or

compounds

such

Juddhadhih,a

as

only at

of

end

the

or
by
providens)

which

Ex.

of

be in the

of

form

case

final

thinker,or

an

by

p.

119),

either into
treated

thinker),or

good thinker; SI3"*J*h

latter
be

The

exceptionto

verbal

as

always retained

used

by themselves,

preposition(HVfcpradhth,

them.

i.

were

compounds ending
it be

"31u

(*fh
dht/i,

the

while

either

t and

generalrule,which

this

or

in

^t and

in which

nouns

that

phonetic explanation(" 330),so

vowels, whether

distinguished

that the former

could therefore not

of certain

one

general idea which

The

(^ft"
sudhih*,

governed by

was

be

pure

by themselves

thoughted);

radical consonants

*$^bhuv before

becomes

be used

character,and

exceptionadmits, however,
exceptionwould

pure

been

to have

compounds, preceded

noun

"3Su stand after two

consonants,

thoughts (Siddh.-Kaum. vol.

changingtheir

admits

or

their accusative.

seems

might

noun

thinker

pure

two

is

ud

(ifa Tatpurusha compound), thinking

pure

bases

\v,

that

of their verbal

somewhat
but

into ^T y and

nouns
monosyllabic

real

in

T^WP,

preceded by

(as a Karmadharaya compound),

here

Sing."ttQunnyam;

^t is

Though

suddhadhiyamfor
^j-sfrra

have

Ace.

and thus
the Ace. Sing. ygSUts'uddhadhyam,

form

things,would

pure

Ace.
a high degree,
"ftdht,which retains

prepositionbelongingto

^P^* suddhadhth

root.

Ace. Sing.iJIHJUJ
village,
governedby "^ nth,

U"fh pradhth,thinkingin

""3ftl
unnth,leading out,

nature.

of

bases
monosyllabic

the

of "TTt nth,but is
predicate

far its verbal character.

so

Sing.T"Qpradhyam;
its verbal

i|WUfi:
grdmanih,leader

character.

here n\*\grdma is not the

grdmanyam;
which

circumstances, i.e. wherever

all other

^v, under

and

^y

^bhu.

nominal.

the

only

Thus

(Pan.

vi.

real

^bhu
4,

85.)

Ace. Sing, ^^^t svayambhuvam. (Sar.i. 6,61.


^*OJ" svayambhuh, self-existing,
vol.

Siddh.-Kaum.

^TV^

or

119.) Not, however,


4,

84), and

in

in
some

^tpjtrarshdbhuh,frog, Ace. Sing.


other

compounds,

such

as

"R*Jt

bolt.
punarbhuh, re-born, '^J! drinbhuJt,thunder^TT^JtMrabhuh, nail,^pT*Jt

(Pan.vi.

sudhth

p.

(Pan.vi.

varshdbhvam

karabhuh

i.

is

4,

never

sudhiyam,"c.,
*jf"f*f

as

84,vart.)

to be treated
if it

were

as

verbal

compound,

Karmadharaya compound.
O

but

always forms Ace. Sing.

(Pan. vi.

4,

85.)

100

"

TJtfh
the

bases

Polysyllabic

222.

papih,

Remember

Ace.

Sing,

in

\tm

2.

they

form

the

Ace.

Plur.

in

%*{in

that

those

two

entirely
nouns

uhj

the

^IJt

consonants,

sushkiyau,

"c.

form

antelope,
follow

like

sutyuh
is

may

for

(Siddh.-Kaum.
before

throughout,
vol.

i.p.

vowels

u.

dancer,

nrituh,

"JTg

such

feminine,

and

masculine

declined

are

as

like

that

except

an

in

Sing,

declined

be

^1

222.

and

LOG.

wishing

pradhih

changed

the

and

like

Wftlpradhih

verbal

the

'Jifttsutih,
H*Tfc

verbal

it

\i

in

and

vrikshaluh,

^3T"$*

the

follow

"3*:

and

pradhfh

both

being

road,

form

i/), it may

They

yayih,

in

they

vdtapramih,

to

"3!

1.

also,

applies

and

sun,

JT^fh

compounds

verbal

in

tpftj

the

protector,

Bases

Polysyllabic

2.

in

"

DECLENSION.

f, not

in

but

papth

vol.

(Siddh.-Kaum.

son

but

^^*

the

120).

If

into

^"'y.

I.

their

final

Ex.

p.

Gen.

long

^^tt

\i

by
The

16).
for

wishing

sukhih,
have

they

derived

if

pleasure.

and

Abl.

is

preceded

sushkih,

same

Sing.

by

$-222.

101

DECLENSION.

*"$
"

fe"

$
,2

ll

*4"i

rS*

S
58 """

"

"""""""S i

ftlf""|.|"ii
Iffll

Ht'Mll^8-

5-.

="

s,
CH

i
"s

ll
S

".

02

"-

H
if

102

DECLENSION".

222-

1-

"a

-J

compounds

All these

" 223.

masculine

in the

nouns

feminine

in the

or

sex, the

'4"4c4i4

0^1)khalapve striyai(Kasika
is such

compound

it may

mftl pradhih,thinking, some


feminine, like
and VJ ah;
i.

second

time.

vol.

138),and

take

p.

It may
the

MASC.

is

stillbe

applied

to

allow

then form

as

if the

well

compounds

its Vocative

as

FEM.

FEM.

if it

A.

1W

pradhyam

TTWT

pradhyam

I.

TRflT

pradhyd

TFtR

pradhyd

D.

Uttfr
pradhye

or

Tn*I

pradhyai

Ab.

1TUK pradhyah

or

1HTK

G.

TWt

or

IHflTtpradhydh

L.

yfapradhyi

or

TTW

V.

TVfcpradhih

or

Tjfapradhi

am

means

woman

pradhyah

pradhydh

pradhydm

DUAL.

UW

I.D.Ab.

IwNff pradhibhydm

inft"ri
pradhibhydm

G. L.

Jn4h pradhyoh

H**fopradhyoh

N.

IT^IJ pradhyah

A.

IT^n

I.

TnfHWt^rarfAt^AtA

JUfffir.
pradhibhih

lrft*Kpradhibhyah

IWh'K pradhibhyah

pradhyau

pradhyah

pradhyah

pradhyah

pradhydm

or

MM)"TIpradhindm
pradhishu
lT"fh|

L.

MonosyllabicBases
Bases

like

"rt 5A^, fear,and

^6Ar^, brow,

consists
peculiarity

Abl. Gen. and

in

\\

and

^su,

det?z^Feminine

"ft c?^z,intellect,
^ft srz,

monosyllabicbases

fullerfeminine

g.

radhih

Jiwft
pradhyau

224.

they take

e.

in the

SINGULAR.

N. A.V.

i.

man,

ONLY.

pradhih

HWT

of

(" 224).

m:

G.

meaning

to

punarbhu (Siddh.-Kaum.

N.

D.Ab.

striyai,

be declined

to

Plur.,where

^"f^he

Jivefullerfeminine terminations

AND

sweeper

f$9Ryrdmanye

appliedto ^Tjt punarbhuh,

DUAL.

Dat

woman

the

to

IPffpradhtm
ortpftlpradhth
(Siddh.-Kaum.

SINGULAR.

the

such

they refer

head-boroughor

t(i*i"w

the Ace. Sing, and

pradhyah, not

similar argument

change, whether

any
If the

3). Sometimes, however,

4,

grammarians

pradhyam, TtW

TW

married
I.

i.

itselfbe

A^f\l lakshmih,except in

136).

p.

by

gender.

Sing, would

Dat.

be of the female

that

without

used

be

may

should

vol.

103

DECLENSION.

224.

in

^"

in their

Loc.

and

"35 ^,

in

Gen.

happiness,^t Ar?, shame,

declined

such

admitting a

Sing,and

terminations

may

be

as

number

Plur.

only.

throughout exactlylike

"jf"2,a
of
These

^ ai, ^r: dh, ^rn ah, ^f

cutter.

optionalforms
may
am,

only

Their

in the

be called the
and

?ffndm.

five

104

I 225-

DECLENSION.

Optional fuller

Monosyllabic,
fern. only.

Optional fuller

Monosyllabic,
fern. only.

forms.

thought.

forms.

earth.

SINGULAR.

SINGULAR.

dhih

N.

tf :

A.

fVrfdhiyam

I.

fwr

bhuvam

dhiya
fVni dhiyai

Ab. to:
G.

tot:

dhiydh

to:

bhuvai

dhiydh

bhuvdh

dhiydh

bhuvdh

dhiydm

L.

bhuvdh

bhuvi
bhuh

vT

V.

DUAL.

DUAL.

bhuvau

bhtibhydm

I.D. Ab. tf"ridhibhydm

tot:

G.L.

bhuvofy

PLURAL.

PLURAL.

N.

to

bhilvah

A.

to: dhiyah

bhuvah,

D.Ab.

"rfattdhibhydh

G.

tot

L.

dhishu
-qfar

dhiyam

f 225. (i)These

beginningwith

(3)They
(4)They

take

those

to

"

women)
Versus

as

and

"31 u

have

it.

\f take ^s

in

memorialis

18

T^nadi

beingFeminine

the full feminine

^1

and
in

into

T^y

and

only.

terminations.
before

"^v

"35 u

^i

of the Ace.

in the Vocative

have

no

^5

in the

Nom.

Base

'^vadhiland

SINGULAR.

SINGULAR.

FEM.

FEM.

N.

A.

nadi-m
"Tcft'

I.

"^ITT

nadi

nady-d

Sing.,while

(applied
Sing.: ^T^h avih, not desiring
lute.
tarfh,boat ; "rf^t:
tantrth,
prosperity
; fTtt:

^^c*y1rf'OH*"^Vl'

^g^nady.

Plural.

Singular.

a.)

and

terminations

Sing,and

in the Nom.

o5TS*rhlakshmih,goddessof

"31u,

the terminations

^i

nouns

(Sar.p.
Base

most

nouns

i "wc?

vowels.

that
in

Some

^i

their final

shorten

in

always take

final

and

n^m

(5)Remember
Note

bhushu

bases

(2)They change their

$tffbhundm

bhuvam

Bases
Polysyllabic

2.

bhubhydh

N.

vadhd-h
Tf:

A.

'zr^vadhu-m

I.

efsen

vadhv-d

106

326"

DECLENSION.

excluding

the

fuller

terminations

simple terminations
the

compound
If the

base,
the

same

and

are

Inst. Dat.

(*?e,

(*Zai, ^\\dh,

^pfhsudhih, when
declined
Abl.

are

like

Gen.

dm, Iffworn)* for

used

as

used

The

they

and

Sing. Dual

*g[mridu,

and

Plural

they

final

the

shorten

applies to

same

\i

"31

or

of

in

masculine

the

optionally take

may

their

that

this difference, however,

with

the

or

intellect.

substantive, good

neuters,

as

^tft!vdri

Loc.

masculine,

the

ah, ^STt ah, \ i, ^TT dm] for the feminine.

VK

compounds

^TT

forms.

Masc.

and

Pern.

Optional

fuller forms.

Optional

for

forms

Ace.

Nom.

except

neuters,
Voc.

good-tho ughted.
SINGULAR.

SINGULAR.

SINGULAR.

N.

gift:sudhih

A.

gf^R sudhiyam

I.

gfaxrrsudhiyd

D.

sudhiye
*jfv*r

sudhiyai

Ab.

gftrosudhiyah

; sudhiyah

sudhinah

G.

gftrc:sudhiyah

gfw: sudhiyah

sudhinah

L.

gfvftrsudhiyi

sudhiydm
"ffipti

sudhi
sudhind
sudhine

sudhini

V.
DUAL.

DUAL.

A.V.

N.

I. D.

DUAL.

sudhini

sudhiyau

Ab.

sudhibhydm

G. L.
PLUBAL.

N.V.

A.

or

gfv"lfsudhibhydm

or

sudhinofy
4jf\f"fU

PLURAL.

PLURAL.

sudhiyafy

sudhini

sudhiyah,

sudhini

I.

sudUbhih,

sudhibhify

D.

sudhibhyah

sudhibhyah
sudhibhyah

Ab.^ft"i:sudhibhyafy
G.

can

find

"T^

no

vol.

authorityby

i.

p.

TWffc pradhih, possessed


vol.

i.

p.

119),

sudhishu

sudhishu

bahusreyasf, the feminine


(Siddh.-Kaum.

sudhindm

sudhindm

sudhiydm
tjfimi

L.

gv

or

which

these

fuller

"^WJ1 sreyasi retains


116); and
of

the

same

terminations

its feminine
is

are

character

(naditva} throughout

distinctly maintained

distinguished intellect, if used

as

In

excluded.

masculine

for

the

compound

(Siddh.-Kaum.

DECLENSION.

Maso. and Fern.

with

beautiful

SINGULAR.

N.

subhrtih

A.

subhruvam

I.

subhruvd

SINGULAR.

g^

subhruvai

or

TT^JTTT

subhrund
subhrune

^^T!

subhruvdh

or

g^!K subhrunah

G.

subhruvaJjt

g"^r:subhruvdh

or

L.

subhruvi

g^f

or

g^Trn subhrunah
"fiu subhruni

V.

subhrufy

subhruvdm

DUAL.

DUAL.

subhruvau

subhruni

subhrubhydm

subhrubhydm

subhruvoh

subhrunok

PLURAL.

N.V.
A.

PLURAL.

PLURAL.

subhruvafy

subhrum

subhruvah

subhruni

I.

subhrubhih

subhrubhih

D.

subhrubhyah

subhrubhyah

Ab.

subhrubhyah

subhrubhyah

G.

subhruvam

L.

f subhrundm

subhrushu

subhrushu

Feminine
Compoundsendingin Polysyllabic
Feminine

which

are

like

nouns

used in the masculine

gender.

auspiciousqualities
(Siddh.-Kaum. vol.

is hetter than

an

(Siddh.-Kaum. vol.

army

Bases

and ^^c^flmw
"T3(twac?f

i.

I.

p.

Thus
pp.

may

in
form

\ i and

"3! ti.

the last

portionof

pounds
com-

who
a
man
^^qtttbahusreyasi,
116,117),and xi Pn
atichamv, one

-s^

123),are

declined in the masculine

and

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

N.

bahusreyasi
H^^^til

A.

^T? ^nTOT

bahusreyasim

I.

bahusreyasyai

Ab.

G.

bahusreyasydh

f6"*ili
lakshmfy,the

bahusreyasyau

~TS1smtO"^
bahusreyasin

bahusreyasyoh

Sing, would
P

bahuSreyastndm

bahufreyastshu
^^'"Mil^lM
1"sJ^^^^yt bahu"reyasyah

bahusreyasyau

Nom.

bahusreyasibhyah

1 bahu^reyas(bhyah

bahusreyasyoh

bahusreyasi

From

bahufreyasyah
"i^^"4**"t

bahusreyastbhydm

bahusreyasydm

V.

bahusreyasyau

Vin

bahusreyasydh
^M^l

PLURAL.

bahusreyastbhydm
bahusreyastbhih
^HSHnftfat

bahus'reyasyd

D.

L.

g^WT

subhruvah

G.L.

feminine

or

Ab.

I. D. Ab.

who

subhru

^subhru

subhruve

N. A. V.

has many

for neut/ra, except


Ace. Voc.

Norn.

brows.

DUAL.

" 227.

Optional forma

Optional fuller forma.

SINGULAR.

D.

107

be

atilakshmty.

108

DECLENSION.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

N.

^fflT^nTt
atichamuh

atichamvau

atichamvah

A.

^fftT^f^atichamum

atichamvau

atichamun

I.

^rfif^*^Tatichamvd

atichamubhydm

: atichamubhih

D.

*iiPfi"^*^
atichamvai

atichamubhydm

Ab.^rfn^^iJ

atichamvah

atichamubhydm

atichamubhyah
atichamundm

G.

vtPfl-s*"u:
atichamvah

atichamvofy

L.

wPrr*f*"lT
atichamvdm

atichamvoh

V.

atichamu
'SfPtf'i'J

Nouns

Jcumdrt,a
in

bahusreyasi,except
kumdryah.

Sing,and

Base

Ace.

I.

pp.

is avoided

not

*?m

regularinsertion

the

also two

ffam

D.

"^^ striyai

or

i,

of

^ i, e. g.

an

in the

168.)
PLURAL.

P^j4istriyau

N.A.V.

stri

ffepT
striyam

N.

or

G.L.

f^TTt striydh

G.

f^RT
%"^

L.

striydm
(Pan. i.

4,

(tfl*""
striyah

s^rzA
^t^TfstribhydmA. ^jjjfh
Q^i
stribhih
I. ^ftfW:
f^|4fl:
striydh
D. Ab. ^ft"i:
stribhydh

I. D. Ab.

striyd

" 229. When

and

tion
the accumula-

optionalforms

DUAL.

I.

V.

"T^ w"c?^,
only that

Pan.vi.
(Accent,
ffa*{striy.

and
npftstrt

Tfiift
sfrzm
^pff

L.

cjj*u*q
kumdryam

they form

Plur.

A.

Ab. G.

like

Remember

5/rya.

declined like

girl,are

118, 119.)

by

SINGULAR.
N.

like

Plur.,where

Sing, and
vol.

'*atichamvah*

behaves

is declined

woman,

consonants

f^fT striyd,and
Ace.

the

who

man

(Siddh.-Kaum.
,

of four

atichamushu

atichamvau

like

atichamubhyah

^lillis^/m
(P
^1n

striyah

4, 5)

strishu

4)

forms
^jfl's^

the last portion of

forms
masculine, feminine, and neuter, the following

compound, and
occur

has to be treated

as

SINGULAR.
N.

t atistrih
atistrim

\\atistrih
atistrim

or

atistri

or

atistri

A.

atistriyam

atistriyam
I.

ffrf

^rPrfi^flJn
atistriyd

atistrind

atistrind
atistrine

or
atistriyai

D.

atistraye

atistraye

\latistrinah

or
atistriydh

Ab.G.

J atistreh
t

atistrefy
atistriyamor

L.

atistrau

Pri
^

"JH

V.
*

or

atistraye

atistre
The

neuter

atistrau

atistreh
L ^Pfi^t*
\

'SiPi
atistrini
if^jjffijT
r

L ^Itf

atistre
N.A.V.
bahusreyasi,
Sing,o^^ilitfl
^?^"4tflP"r
Dat. Sing.
bahusreyasini,

is said to be N.A.V.

N. A.V.
bahusreyasini,

Plur.

"c.
bahusreyasyai(-sye?) or -sfoe,

or

or

atistrau
atistre
Dual

"rj^l*lt(l

-J 230.

109

DECLENSION.

DUAL.
NEC*.

FEM.

MASC.

atistribhydm

atistriyoh

atistriyoh

G.L.

atistrini

atistribhydm

atistribhydm

I.D.Ab.

In

atistriyau

atistriyau

N.A.V.

t atistrinoh

PLURAL.
FEM.

MASC.

N.V.

atistrayah
atistrin

NEUT.

atistrayah

atistrih

or

atistrtni

tu

or

atistrini

A.

atistriyah

atistriyah

atistribhih

'.atistribhih

I.

D.Ab.

atistribhyah,

G.

F atistrindm

L.

atistrishu

forms

admitted.

are

feminine

The

The

may

" 230.
They

There
of

are

Loc. Dual.

(Siddh.-Kaum.
be the

the

same

as

I.

In

declined like "="(%.


kavih,

Ace. Sing, and

the

Plur. optional

134.)

p.

masculine, except in the Instr. Sing,and Ace. Plur.,

^ft stri in

the Dat.

Abl.

Gen. Loc. Sing.

Masculine,Feminine, Neuter.

"3 u,

masculine,feminine,and

are

atistrishu

optionalforms.

in ^ i and

Bases

f atistrindm

the compound

^t,and

to

vol.

has the usual

neuter

and Gen.

be declined like

likewise

but it may

atistribhyah

atistrishu

Acc.Voc.

except in the Nom.

atistribhyah
atistrindm

^fisshortened

final

In the masculine

atistribhih

should

and

frequent occurrence,

bases

neuter

be

in ^ i and

carefullycommitted

u.

to

memory.

Adjectivesin \i
may
and

be
optionally
Ace.

If the

Some

for the

neuter

and

in all

Plur.

the

masculine

except the Nom.

cases

Ex. wfa: suchify,


masc.

be

declined

final T

^z.

is

Thus

like

like

Likewise

^^:

"gi^: uruh,

except

that

be

declined

they may
t.

as

Thus

form
P$IK

laghuh,

feminine,or

their

cflMl

"T^tnadi.
more

than

consonant, the fern, does

one

ifl'gpdndu,
pale; fern. HTJJpdnduh.
~su

lengthen their

vadhufy.

^v:

kurufy,a

thigh,such

vdmorufy.

u,

laghuh,to
?5T[:

preceded by

in
adjectives

declined

change, or by adding ^

any

in the fern, either

to
laghvi,

take

substantives,only that

Ace. and Voc. Dual

Nom.

either without

is
light,

substituted

like

in
appliesto adjectives

same

feminine

not

declined

suchih, fern. ; ^jfa


suchi,neut.
^fVi:

bright;
The

Sing.;

are

..

Kuru
a"

Thus
;

vowel

pahguh,
T}IJ:

fern. ^^: kurufy:

"qwljc:

in the

vdmoruh,

lame;

some

with

fern.,and

are

then

fern, tpj: pangufy.

compounds ending in
handsome

thighs,fern.

110

" 23"-

DECLENSION.

in

Bases

in

Bases
SINGULAR.

MASC.

Base

N.

A.

FEM.

NEUT.

NEUT.

MASC.

"

15

15

mridu, soft

mridu, soft

mridu, soft

mridu-h

mridu-h

mridu

mridu-m

mridu-m

mridu

mridu-nd

mridv-d

mridu-nd

*t^cf

^W

mriddv-e

**3"x

\_kavi,
poet

matt,

J cFf%:

*rfitt

thought vdri,water

[kav{-h

mati-h

J cfff^

Jffif

I kavi-m

mati-m

*^J

**W

I.

D.

vdri-nd
\kavi-nd maty-a
miTJmatdy-eoT "nftffl
J ofi'"JM
[kavdy-e

TW

f^i^J

Tlf J mate-h

maty

Ab.G.

vdri-ne

-at

mriddv-e

or

mridd-h

or

or

[kave'-h

TrPTFt maty-dh vari-nah

mrid6-h

"

mridv-dh

mridau

or

L.

\_kavau

maty -dm vari-ni

mf(

mridau

*J^Tmridu-ne

or

*f$3mriddv-e

mridv-ai

T mridv-am

mridu-nah
^JjpT*

or

mridd-h
ipjfc

mridu-ni
IJ?'*T

or

f^T mridau
or

V.

^ftv/re*

mate

mr/c?o

DUAL.

*nft
N.A.V.

\kavi

Ifgft
vdri-nt

wia/^

mridu

mridu

mridu-nf

I.D.Ab.
L

kavi-bhydmmatt-bhydm

f^ffr*

T?ftt

vdri-bhydm mridu-bhydmmridu-bhydm mridu-bhydm

"4ir"UUU

Jpftt

"pftt

JJgrfttmn'c?M-

vdri-noh

mridv-6h

mridv-dh

mridv-dh
JJ^tt

G.L.

[A:at?y-^A maty-6h

PLURAL.

N.V.

J ofT^TIJ

TiHT*

[Aravay-fl/i
matdy-ah
A.

fffti

J "^T*^

mati-h
[A:fli?"-w

^TXVf%

*pf^*

'J^*

vari-ni

mriddv-ah

mriddv-ah

^tx^ftr

"jg"^

^51

vdri-ni

mridu-n

mridu-h

vdri-bhih

mridu-bhih

mridu-bhih

mr

I.
matt-bhih

mridu-bhih

IS**

D.Ab.

[kav{-bhyahmati-bhyah

vdri-bhyah
mridu-bhyah mridu-bhyah

mridu-bhyah

G.

[kavi-nam
L.

f mati-ndm

mridu-ndm

vdri-ndm

mridu-ndm

mridu-nam

r^rf^r^ ^^

'4if"y

*gj$

"j^5

If1!!

[kawi-shu

vdri-shu

mridu-shu

mridu-shu

mridu-shu

The

Guna

Vyaghrapad, as

mati-shu

in the Voc.
be

may

Sing,of

seen

from

neuters
the

in

^ i,TM, ^[rt, is approved by Madhyandini

followingverse

""iW"T 'iJ5ri;T^'^^TT
^TTIT 7HIT
r: n

t Nouns
throw

may

ending
the

in short

accent

on

^i,I'M, ^Jn, and ^Ta, and having the accent on


"*tindmin the Gen. Plur. (Pan.vi. i, 177). Hence

these

vowels,

matf'ndm,
or,

usually,matindm.

more

The

lines of

separationplaced in

the transcribed

paradigmsare

not

intended to divide

kati,how
" 231. ^ifif
in the Plural

only,and

declined like

they are

lf?fyati,as

many,
take

without

TOfT

A.

tt"?H"4

"arfirWT:
kdtibhyah

Abl.

^flfwr: kdtibhyah

Gen.

*fftni kdtindm

Loc.

kdtishu
^ifriij

Anga, i.e.
and

base.

Bha

cases.

sdkhd

PLURAL.

sdkhdyau

sdkhdyam

sdkhdyah

sdkhdyau
sdkhibhih

'*{fa*R sdkhibhydm

sdkhibhyah

Ab.

sdkhyuh

^rf%"n sdkhibhydm

sdkhibhyah

G.

sdkhyuh

*fWfc sdkhyoh

sdkhfadm

L.

sdkhyau

W"\\\ sdkhyoh

5aA:Ae

is

find ^f

SINGULAR.

as

follows

PLURAL.

DUAL.

susakhd

susakhdyau
4J4HslHu

susakhdyam

A.

declined

masc.

good friend,masc.

N.

like Nom.

regular,like

compounds,we

susakhi,
tjtifW

Base

sdkhishu

like Nom.

feminine *^ft saMz


of

For the rest,

the strong base.

DUAL.

sdkhye

At the end

susakhdyah*

^[fl^lMlsusakhdyau

susakhln
ri susakhibhih

I.

susakhind

IJ*ifW*li
susakhibhydm

D.

susakhaye

^" ftl"n susakhibhydm

i:

susakhibhyah

i:

susakhibhyah

Ab.

susakheh

G.

susakheh

susakhibhydm
*jufw"[i
^^t\l susakhyoh

L.

susakhau

'QM"\\1susakhyoh

V.

susakhe
At

the end

of

Masculine

prop.

as

nouns

from

the real base, but


in short TM

nouns

"q^pWu,

Feminine

susakhishu

susakhdyah

is the

masc.,

in short Tw

Siddh.-Kaum.

vol.

i is declined like

compound

neuter

the real terminations


nouns.

susakhindm
*jti"5i1"it

^^Isll^Ususakhdyau
a

used

sdkhibhydm

V.

The

bases

two

I.

D.

Plural.

are

Wfirfcto'

Dat.

of its

Ace.

many,

gender.

flufnfa;kdtibhih

SINGULAR.
N.

distinction of

and

Instr.

for the Pada


some

Nom.

Tffft
kdti

for the

in
irregular

in the

Ace.

J 232. ^rftrsaMe,friend,has

Tffw tati,so

and
(relat.),

many

terminations

no

*lifa
kavi, and

Nom.Voc.

It is

Ill

DECLENSION.

233.

i.

p.

are

112.

name

are

of

only to

HTg 6A4nu,
a

tree;

as

facilitate the
sun,

(" 230).
learningby

heart

of these

wind, fq"^ci^nu,
^T$ rrfyu,

neuter, the

name

of its fruit

nom.

(Sar.i. 8, 17).

fa""*^"
body.
rope, W^*
V*j:dhenuh, cow, T^p rqjjuh,

112

DECLENSION.

" 233-

Trf"T
:
pati, lord,is irregular
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

N.

Ttfnipdtih

N. A.V.

ifftpdti

N.

A.

Tffftpdtim

I.D.Ab.

*rfw"ri
pdtibhydm

A.

I.

TfTRpdtyd

tfTftt
pdtyoh

I.

D.

TTW^afye

G. L.

*rffffa:
Trfk^K pdtibhyah

D. Ab.

T7Jtpdtyuh

G.

"tjrfrfri
pdtindm

L.

ifiQipdtyau

L.

trfinj^aft'sfa*

V.

tni

V.

Tfimi

Ab. G.

pdte

trfTT
^a/i at the

of

end

compounds,

e.

g.

pdtayah

lord
^rfir
bhtipati,

of the

like cirfa
#aw.
lord of creatures, is regular,
MPri
prajdpati,

HHI

wife,she
Tfopatiis tf^tpatni, wife,i. e. legitimate

of

(Pan.iv.

sacrifices of her husband.


" 234. The

thigh,are

'SrfTSf
akshi,eye,

bases

neuter

regularlylike

declined

vj

in

Anga

*%*[an,such

and Pada

base

-"f

^%[f%.vdri;
but

f"sj
akshi, Bha

base

SINGULAR.

in the

Bha

In these
to

" 203.)

wv^akshn.
PLURAL.

dkshint
*fi%nft

N.A.V.

I.

^H^ill aksJind

I.D.Ab.^Tf^"rf
dkshibhydm

D.

^r^f oJtsA^

N.A.V.

akshm
4fPi9!l

V.

^T^ a^s^e

and

^r%ftT:dkshibhih

G.

vi^ii

L.

^rf^Jdkshishu

akshndm

(or

These

235.

dkshtni
*ratftfor

D.Ab.^rf^^* dkshibhyah

akshn6h
^T^llft:

vuqfVjakshdni

Bases

"

'

I.

Ab. G. *2f""{liaksJindh
L.

sakthit

theyare declined,in fact,like

DUAL.

G.L.

part in the

takes

they substitute the bases

cases

cases

itfqdkshi

N.A.

feminine

The

(Viasthi,bone, ^f^dadhi,
curds,^^^

*\\*M\ndman.(See note

as

who

earth,

33.)

i,

fSW*fsakthn.
"mM^ aksJin,^T^1 asthn,'%l(dadhn,
neuters

233-

in ^

bases

are

ri,Masculine,Feminine,
declined after two

models

Neuter.
:

SINGULAR.
I.

MASC.

Base

FEM.

NEUT.

sister
svdsri,

VfiJdhdtn, providence

"Tff ridptri,
grandson

^T

N.

"TRTwapfa

^WT

A.

"THTtndptdr-am

^^TR

I.

ndptr-d
'5TJJT

^THT

D.

*nfr
ndptr-e

^H

Ab. G.

wajp^A
"^rgt

^^t

L.

"THftndptar-i

*3**r".svdsar-i

V.

ftfi:ndptah(r)

^[W.

If

and the

"^n

has

Udatta

and

AjadiAsarvanamasthana

becomes
cases

svdsd

V^dMtr{

svdsdr-am

VT^

svdsr-d

VT^TT

syaswA

have

is

preceded by

the Udatta.

or

fill
"lI"J
dhdtr{-ni

VTJ cta^n or
a

VTWT

or

dhdtrt-nah

VT^H

svdsah(r)

and

dhdtn-nd

dhdtn-ne
VTJJfr

svdsr-e

^r

dMtri

VTW
or

or

VTiT:

consonant,

dhdtrd*

dhdtrd

VTg: dAaMA

dhdtdri
"llrifll

dhdtah(r)
the

feminine

114:

DECLENSION.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.
N. A.V.

N.

kroshtdrau

N.

"a^TO

A.

kroshtun
"^tj*^

I.

"Siftfa:
kroshtubhih

kroshtdram
*ntg|".

A.

I.

kroshtund
I.D.Ab.

kroshtubhydm

kroshtdrah

kroshtrd
kroshtave
D.Ab.
kroshtre

kroshtubhyah
sRtj"i:

kroshtvoh

G.

''

kroshtuh

^ITrffkroshtundm

kroshtroh

kroshtau
kroshtushu

Jcroshto

V.

admissible

is the only
JKf^kroshtri
he kroshtah
exceptingthe Vocative. (^ "SRtl'I
base

The

The

one

is the
^t^kroshtu

base

i.e. in the strong cases,

is,I believe,wrongly admitted

admissible

onlyone

Anga,

as

as

by Wilson.)

Pada, i.e. before terminations

ning
begin-

with consonants.
The

other

cases

be formed

may

(Pan.vn.

i,

95-97.)

Those

who

admit

from both bases,but the Ace. Plur. is

Ace. Plur. likewise


'A^Jkroshtrln
as

T$f%*(kroshtun
only.

kroshtum
sjfr|

admit

as

Ace.

Sing.

(Sar.i.6,7o.)
The

" 237- *fWH"


replacedby "TT

man,

word

of

is declined

nara,

nrindm

be either "TOT

may

or

though, for

frequentoccurrence,
like
regularly

^pOTnrindm.

frjpitri,except in

(Pan. vi.

4,

N.

ff(nd

A.

tR ndram

I.

^tW

D.

^nr^(Ved.

Ab.

cjtnt^

G.

g: nuh (Ved.

L.

rfftndri

convenience

sake, often

the Gen. Plural,where

it

6.)

PLURAL.

DUAL.

SINGULAR.

"TT* ndrah

ndrau

ff"^wnw
nnbhydm
nnbhydm
^"lf

nnbhydh
nnbhydh
nrindm

or

"p!nnrindm (Ved. naram)

nrishu

nr6h

"fC* ndrah

ndrau

V.
The

TSftnadt.

declined like
feminine is Vhlgl
kroshtrt,

feminine is

2.

J 238. This
like the

with

The

Bases

class is the most

correspondingclasses

accent

and ^
*"\bh

endingin

may
*.

be

on

(Pan. vi.

and

numerous

of

the first or
i,

^?

184.)

nouns

on

and

the second

most

importantin Sanskrit,

in
adjectives

in
syllables

us, a, urn

the Pada

cases

in

Latin,

beginning

115

DECLENSION.

and

oy, 77,oi" in Greek.

learn ^ihn

The

case-terminations

kdntah,*hrr kdntd, SRTW

kdntam

learn bomis,bona,bonum, without

we

of the

bases

by

and
peculiar,

are

heart

in the

it is best to

same

asking any questionsas

manner

to

their relation to the terminations


or
case-terminations,

ending in

the

as

origin

appended

to

consonants.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

PEM.

NKUT.

ifakdntd

Base
N.

kdntdfr

A.

cMdi kdntdm

kdntam

"Kfaf
kdntdm

I.

kdnttna

"*id*ll
kdntdyd

D.

kdntdya

cfrfrtiM
kdntdyai

"*idHIkdntdya

kdntdydh
ftkdntdydh
ifkdntdydm

Ab.

r:

G.

"hlri44|
kdntdsya

L.

cRfij"
Mntt

V.

IKUkdnta

kdntdsya

W^kdnte*
DUAL.

N.A.V.

Wt

I.D.Ab.

3inrT*qi
kdntdbhydm

Jtoaw

fcfetf

kdntabhydm

ehldjfl!
kdntdyoh

G. L.

ohld'jfh
kdntdyoh

kdntdyoh
PLURAL.

fafeofiri

N.V.

kdntdn

A.

Jtantfni

I.

D.Ab.

kdntebhyah

Certain

"

will
declension,

in
explained

Bases

" 239. These


WTT dhmd.

They

the neuter

are

and

Pada

neuter

Pronouns

and

immediatelyfrom
same

way

is declined like "RTTT kdntam

base

ambddd, TO?!

c5T

Feminine.
TOT a, such

endingin
and

feminine

as

gender.

In

declined like ifa kdntam.

(masc. and
fa"W{visvap,
all-preserving,

(" 238).

in TO a;

e.

g.

ambdld,and TO^PiT ambikd form

bdde,^H"llc* ambdlet^^Kambike.
Q

pronominal

(" 278).

verbs

Bases in TOT d, meaning mother, form their Vocative

TO^ alia ! But TOWtST

follow the ancient

in the masculine

shortened, and the word

Bha
fcmmvisvapd,

kdnteshu

which

am,

in TOT a, Masculine

declined in the

base

ah, TOT ^, TO

the chapteron

derived

are

the final TOT d is

fern.) The

bases

"nini"ii
kdntdndm

kdntdsu
efiirtl*}

in
adjectives

be

kdntebhyah

kdntdndm
""ini"ii

kdnt"hu

L.

Anga

\\ kdntdbhyah

chlriMI
kdntdndm

G.

Note

kdntdbhih

2,

^TS"akka,

the

regularVocatives

116

DECLENSION.

MASCULINE

340FEMININE.

AND

SINGULAR.

N.V.

visvapd-h

A.

visvapd-m

I.

visvap-d

D.

visvapau
visvapau

visvapd-bhydm

visvap-e

visvapd-bhih

visvapd-bhydm

visvapd-bhyah

visvapd-bhydm

visvapd-bhyah

Ab.

visvap-ah

G.

visvap-ah

visvap-oh

L,

visvap-i

visvap-oh

visvap-dm
visvapd-su

NEUTER.

fw^tf visvapam

N.

*fi^Hltsomapdh,

Decline

wealth

dhanaddh,

follows

as

Soma

visvapdni,"c.

drinker;

sankhadhmdh, shell-blower;

giver.

Masculines

" 240.

visvape

in ^TT

d, not being derived by a Krit suffix from verbal roots,are declined

Base
SINGULAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

N.V.
A.

hdhdm

I.

hdhdbhydm

: hdhdbhih

D.

hdhdbhydm

hdhdbhyah

Ab.

hdhdbhydm

hdhdbhyah

G.

hdhdm

hdhauh

L.

AaAe

hdhauh

hdhdsu

CHAPTER

IV.

DECLENSION

$
final

As

241.

noun

every

portionof

had
compound adjectives
declension

of neuter

^^(sumdnas, as
time
of

no

($165).

an

nouns

feminine

Sar.

i.

to be

may,

of

masculine

the

same

form

the end

of

form

compound,

neut.,

was

feminine

exhibited

in the

of such

Thus

in the

at the

and

same

admitting

terminations,
appliesto
(this

^T^TJ hdhdh in the masculine.

is sanctioned

the

the declension of

endingin consonants,

nouns

and

precedingchapter.

Trf^ mdnas, mind,

fern, and

6,38, givesthe optionalform

compound

the

in ^n-^as, like

In the declension

at

essential rules for the declension

given in

masc.
adjective

distinction between

The

in Sanskrit

all the
adjective,

an

ADJECTIVES.

OF

Rupavali,p. 9

b.

At

the end

of

-$
all

DECLENSION

247*

Acc.Voc.

Sing.Dual

Plur. had to be exhibited.

and

jalamunchi.
*M*J*0jalamucht, iraijfa

changeable bases, the


mentioned
separately

J 242.
of

subjectare

rather than

doubt

by

to their

as

The

feminine

in
J 243. Adjectives*

Certain

kdrikdj ^iscR
sends ;

$ 245.

the

be learnt

to

declension
rules

by practice

given,there
declension

this

Ex.

ftrfpriyam,

to

be

can

of the

pointmust
d.

on

no

responding
cor-

suffice.

ftnfpriya,
be declined

"*"M"tii

form their feminines

in

^9R ikd.

Ex.

m^"*

pdchakam.
pdchakafi,fern. *nf"l"RT
pdchikd,neut. TTPW
ttRcfcl
kdrakah, doing,"*!fX"*l
sarvikd, every; 4K"*t
sarvakaTi,fern.
kshipakd,fern, one
$^fi*|"*l
ihatyikd. But PHflJ"fcl

kanyakd, fern.maiden;

both forms

Bases

aka

HM"*;

ihatyakah,present here,

Sometimes

star.

masc.

*H"I"

masc.

base, and

in *n

their feminines

derived by ^HR
adjectives

pdchaka, cooking,

who

form

were

($238).

like ^Fru kdnta

Likewise

^r

on

forms

the

regard to

bases,however, once

fire:priyah, fern, ftnn priyd, neut.

dear, masc.

244.

with

A few observations

nouns.

with

fullystated.

complicatedthat they have

so

nouns

ending in vowels, all

nouns

feminine

of the

of

neuter

declension,as they follow exactlythe

feminine

"

remains

formation

and

subjectwere

same

which
difficulty

often
rule.

the

of

in Nom.

" 158,Jrft9ftjalamukt

declension

the

in the declension

and

the exact

In

of the neuter

See

important feminine

more

regardto

chief

The

is
adjectives

this

rules with

necessary

117

ADJECTIVES.

the special
forms
unchangeablebases,)

with

nouns

OP

in ^jrz

; vmcm

occur

and

kartri,doer, ofi^fkartri

in ^n

-q";=fti

chatakd, fern, sparrow;

ni"j"i

tdrakd, fern.

ajikd,a she-goat.
ajakdand vif"icu
take

the

as

("235); ^fe^ dandin,

sign of

the feminine

w*

dandint
mendicant, ffitfl

(J203). Likewise most bases endingin consonants, if they admit of separate


feminine base
w^ftprdchi($181); ig^foan,
dog,^n^suni
(J199);
"VN^prdch,
in ^
form
their
xm^bhavat,HTift bhavati (J188). Some adjectives
feminine base in "3^vari: ifa^pivan,fat,"q^'^ pivari("193).
a

van

in
" 246. Many adjectives

trinamayah, made
i|*U*i"4*
If^UJI tarunah

or

form

^Ta

their feminine

base in

trinamayf
ij"u*i"fl

of grass,

^t

\i (" 225),instead

of WTa.-

devahy god, dh-ine, ^^t devl;

taruni; ^*n",I
kumdraJi,a boy,^*fi-u kumdri;
talunah,a youth,ntj*ul
cT"5*Tt

his wife, but '*\\mgopd,female shepherd ; l^"="t


^rftn^^qp^
nartakaA,
doe ; H"RTJ sukaraJt,boar, "g^nrf
nartaki; ^Tt mrigah, deer, ipft
actor, "in"*l
win^,

jffat
gopah, cowherd,

kumbhakdri.
kumbhakdrah, potter,^H'"niO
^^"*iO

sukari-

of these words

that many

forms

*irwl matsi

are

substantives rather than

or

in

TTt

^a^,expressiveof colour, form

matsyah, fish,

TOH

manushi.
*i"j"u

their feminine

either

"ftnf:"^TifJsyetah,white, ^WT/ye/a, ^pFftsyenf;


variegated,T"n
'ZiT.etaJi,

^ft enf; ^f^Wt rohitah,red,


svetd;

Thus
adjectives.

("Qya
manushyaJi,man,
beingexpunged before ^i)J "t*j"Hl

in
" 247. Certain adjectives
7TT ft? or

It will be observed, however,

white ;
^(VieiTflstVa,

^%iTTroAtVa

or

Pc4riI palitd,grey

gunavachana, the

name

for

in
etd

0 f^^llrohint, but ^Hi "?e/aA,white,


-haired.

occurs
adjective,

in Pan.

v.

3,

58.

118

DECLENSION

" 248. The

formation

of feminine

J ajah,goat,forms

v"

: bdlah, boy, forms

sudrah,

"i i

OF

be learnt from

substantives must

ajd. ^HSK asvah, horse, forms

Thus
dictionary.

*a I asvd.

of the

woman

[^rjlsudri,the wife of
mdtuli
Hl'j'cA

uncle, forms

t mdtulaJi,maternal

the

bald.

WTc5T

f SLUT swc?ra,a
forms 1 **
S'udra,

" 248-

ADJECTIVES.

S'udra caste.

Sudra.
*i\ijc4
I*fl
mdtuldm,

or

^Ti-qwfl dchdrydnt*wife

dchdryah,teacher, forms

wife.

uncle's

an

of the teacher; but

female teacher.

dchdryd,a

^f^ patni,wife, "c.

lord, forms
|)a/i$,

Degrees of Comparison.

J 249.

Comparative is

The

Superlative
by

or

"j?m:nritamah, a thorough

more

of

and

in: tara

H*T fawa

be

may

3,

^q^ fyas (J206);


such

Thus

used.

or

tjnri,man,
{pflrUf
stritard\,

in

the

personalterminations,

forenoon

(Pan.vi.

frl
pachati,he cooks,T^fjr?fxf
pachatitardm, he cooks

tH

57),M^fririHl
pachatitamdm,he

" 250.

and

"cRl fara

im

cooks

best

^"m", if added

as

^tr%"purvdhne, in

from

(Pan.v.

the

and TW /ama

in: ^cr"

^ft 5^rz,woman,

man;

pdrvdhnetare,earlier
forenoon, ^tT%Jfft
From

or

terminations

after case-terminations

Even

woman.

TTC;tara,

adjectives.Substantives

form

by

^irishtha t. These

restricted in Sanskrit to

not

are

tama,

HT

formed

3,

3,

better

the

17).

(Pan.v.

56).

changeable bases, requirethe

to

Tfi^prdch("180),m"Kprdktara; from
\Ftt
("iftj),
("203),"|ftTTtdhanitara ; from \f^j[^dhanavat
from
f%^^^6?va5($204),fzrsw* vidvattama ; from TTF^ pratyach (" 181),
such as
VKTiK^pratyaktara.There are, however, a few exceptions,
"^gii*U
from

Thus

base.

Pada

"^J^ dasyuhan, demon-killer


supathin,with good roads.
*Jtrfa^

dasyuhantamah,
from

from

and ^ishtha
f 251. %*R(iyas

are

added

never

to

supathintarah,
^i|fv("riT:
the

secondarysuffixes

ending in these
^"H, Tt^fwaf,
^v"^, "3"vala9 f"^vin,JSftin.If adjectives
suffixes require
iyah
^Ttiyah and ^5 ishtha,the suffixes are dropt,and the i^r:
3[S ishtha added

and

vdn, strong,

to

the last consonant

"^1n^ i"Z- tyas,


'"4

^f^r
doh-iyas,

doh-ishtha.

of the

base.
original

On

Before

the dental

theythrow
%
rW
may
Also

?R
it

on

Feminines

tama;
or

may

^ara

*^", see
and

sragvin,garlanded,^^^sraj-iyas,more
fcifi^

in

shorten

(Pan. in.
syllable

3,

from

forms
their

^JnrcrfafTT
sreyasitardor

vidushitard (Pan. vi.

Kshubhnadi

*rfire
mat-ishtha.

Kas'.-Vritti.

in the

retain their accent; before


adjectives

\i,derived

^i^HJjft
brdhmani
not

Gana

TfT ^"ma

their first

i^ bala-

^rvdogdhri,milking,"")^1
1|^

wfe? bal-ishtha.

wise,^^mat-iyas,
garlanded.*f?RT^wa^waft,
profusely
*

^r"*H

i, 4;

vi.

i,

masculines,must

shorten

WT^rftjUrmbrdhmanitard.

vowels

^f\ stri forms

There

197).

the

Other

and
%*"(iyas
are

few

\i before
feminines

^pprRTstritard

or

''SRftfilll
mdushitard
sreyasitard;
f"i^*ln"l

43-45).

^T?ishtha

exceptions.
JR. tara
in

^i

or

and
"^iw

stritard.
(^|ri"l
or

-f

DECLENSION.

252.

J 252.
and

Other

OF

adjectives,
too, lose

^ffishtha,or

are

Comparativeand

otherwise

119

ADJECTIVES.

their derivative

elements

before

new
irregularby substituting

Superlative.TJTO pdpah,

bad

bases

for the

pap-iyaSyworse

MlfMtfpdp-ish(ha,
worst.
SECOND

i.

BASE.

COMPARAT1VK.

^ffn"nantika,near
alpa,

2.

BCPERLATIVE.

nedtyas

small

T^j uru, wide

4.

"^nr riju,straight

alpiyas

krastyas

6.

VttjHkshipra,quick

ksheptyas

7.

TJ$ kshudra, mean

8.

T^^wrw,

9.

^TTtripra,satisfied

kshod

*
rajishtha

krasishtha

"Sjftnf
kshepishtha
kshodishtha
ttfif^B

kshodiyas

heavy

artyas

*II"I.H

'^lfl|8
drdghishtha

drdghiyas

far
gT cJwra,

davishtha

davtyas

dridha, firm

"5^ dradh

12.

TT3"

13.

parivridha,exalted
H(V"J"S

14.

^^^n^M,

15.

broad

as

pratMyas

TT^^ra^A

TR
a,praiseworthy

dradhishtha

dradhtyas

(Xd ^ parivradh

fro.

garishtha

^fs" trapishtha

as

^W dirgha,long

^l mprajasy

"^fTttf
rijishtha

rajiyas

*f$T krifa,lean

varishtha

rijtyas

5.

1 1

alpishtha

variyas

Vedic

10.

kanishtha

as

or

3.

iK-ilislithfl

f""PCs parivradhishtha

nPM8 prathishtha
IR!

sreshtha

TfH

preshtha

or

6.

dear
ftftpriya,

Upra

17. "^Jbahu, many


1

8.

bhuyishtha

*J5I^bhuyas

*^c5 bahula,frequent

bamhishtha

bamhiyas

excessive

bhrasishtha
Hf^Tff

19.

^F Mn/a,

20.

lg

mridu, soft

mradiyas

mradishtha

21.

fl^*^ywt?aw,
young

yaviyas

yavishtha

kantyas

kanishtha^

bhra"yas

or

22.

'^TSvddha, firm

Kshthat

sddhtyas

23. ^5Tvriddha,old

varsh

varshiyas
"**t[m{

varshishtha

unndf

vrindfyas

vrindishtha

or

K.CH

beautiful
vrinddraka,

24.

25.

f^RsMtra,firm

^
^1

stha

26.

^c5 stMla, strong


27. f^TO sphira,thick
28.

j[^ hrasva, short

Pan.

vi.

4, 162.

stheshtha

stheyas

sthavishtha

sthavfyas
t*t"M^

spheshtha

spheyas

hrasishtha

hrasfyas

ed. Kielhorn,i. 7 ; 23 (20).


f See Phitsiitra,

t P"n-

v-

3"

63-

120

" 253-

NUMERALS.

CHAPTER

V.

NUMERALS.

" 253.

Cardinals.

ekah, ekd,ekam,
^

1^,if,if,

3 WQl,

fro:,

two.
efoe,

(Base
(Base^r dva;

one.

tisrdh,trmi,
trdyalj,,

in comp.

(Base

three.

TOTft, chatvarah, chdtasrah, chatvdri, four.

(Base

chatur.)
f. n. five.
'fapdncha,
m.
^

(Base
"f^T 5^a^, m. f. n. six. (Base^ shash.)
f. n. seven.
3 TOf saptdjm.
(Base
^T^
b
ashtau,m. f. n. eight. (Base
ashtan.)
f. n. nine.
m.
"T3T
(Base

7
8
9

f. n.

ten.

10

a, m.

1 1

ekddasa,eleven.

(Base
(Baseas

in

mn.)

dvddasa.

35 W

trdyodasa.
chdturda"a.

14

ifa^Tpdnchada"a.

15

shodasa.
17

8 st

9 "l"*.

ashtadasa.
or

shattrimsat.

37 3^

38

ashtdtrimsat.

^b

navatrimsat.

39 ^

saptddasa.
ndvadasa

36 ^ ^zf^ri

fern.
chatvdrimsdt,

40

do

41

d"i

42

^^

ekachatvdrimsat.
dvdchatvdrimsat

unavimfatih.
^^rfTTJ

fern.
vimsdtih,

20

^o

21

rfir:
ekavimsatify.

2,2, ^

fittdvdvimsatih.

dvichatvdrimsat
.

43

or
R\\J(trayaschatvdrimsat

83

44

ffr:
trayovimsatih.

24 ^d

chaturvimsatih.

46

^i

25 ^M

panchavimsatify.

47

d^"

48

8b

shadvimfatih.

27 ^S

ifrf:
saptavimSatih.

28 ^b

ashtdvimsatih.
^rrtJ

29 ^

navavimsatih.
fern.

30

30

31

ekatrimsat.

32

dvdtrimsat.

33

33

34

3^

45 8M
shatchatvdrimsat.

or
r^.\\^ashtdchatvdrimsat

ashtachatvdrimsat.
49

d"i.

50

MO

51

M"l

navachatvdrimsat.
fern.

ekapanchdsat.
^cF^T^Ti^

dvdpanchdsator
52 M? ^IM^I^If^
53 M^

chatustrimsat.

trichatvdrimsat.

chatuschatvdrimsat.

$8

23 ^

26

or

flTM^I^dvipanchdsat.
^n^Nm^ trayahpanchdsat
tripanchdsat.
r^M^r^lr^
or

122

no

^nftnirsn? dasddhikam

in

"m

i^RT^nftraf
snr

satam

ekddasam

excess).Pan.

satam

113

^3

satam

^t^IlfVoF
^IW chatur

dasddhikam

^M

116

^^rrfVr"lr
"|C|^
^rw

117

8 "ttb

shodasddhikam

satam

satam

satam.
satam.

satam.

"5^ashtddasam
-"5ilfT^^

satam.

"^
rr^^Tf^Gir

satam

or

^^T

satam.

navadasddhikam

30 "^^o f^^fv%

TOT^I ^Tcfsaptadasam satam.

^TfT navadasam

f^r 3Tff vimsam

or

TT5|if^rwfV%
ekavimsatyadhikam
W

satam

or

*.

satam

Tjcfif^i
W

ekavimsam

"c.

$TiT trimsadadhikam

^^Tfr^fVNr

satam

f^

or

^TiT chatvdrimsadadhikam

SHT trimsam

satam

or

satam

*.

^fi3lfc$r
^nf chatvd^

satam*.

rimsam

i^^i\i%^/"a/icMsa^a^/:flms"/"morTj^T^^pfl^

"wo

Fr"3Trf
sdrdhasatam,,

or

+-J- (hundred).

100

160

^o

nwfV^r ^rf shashtyadhikam

170

^so

^nrmiVGR1^iif saptatyadhikam

80

"^bo

^ifarfVrojr
^nr asityadhikam satam

190

SQ.O

H5rwf\f% ^nr navatyadhikam

200

^oo

ir^

300

^oo ^%

400

chatvdri
^oo ^r^rftl
Tfnnf^T

500

MOO

'q'q

600

^oo

"^7

700

500

TOT

800

fcoo ^n?

900

Q.OO

cfoe sa/e

5^a/
^Idlfrf

asitisatam.
xM^flfrtDM

or

satam

navatisatam.
TT^ffT^nr

or

or

dvisati.
ffT^nft

satdni

^g:^i^ chatuhsatam.

or

"q^ITt
panchasatam.

or

Ml^frl shatsatam.

or

WHSlrlsaptasatam.

satdni

or

^31

w"va
^nrrf*T

and

i"^H

3000

^ooo ^^Hril*T?W
^0,000 ^w

46.

or

satdni

riashtasatam.

navasatam.
"T"r^ilf
or

or
dasasati,fern.,
^Sfl^nrt

?H[H

sahdsrani,

masc.t

cfoe sahasre.

^ooo

2,

satdni

""zsa
^TWrf?T

2000

/rmi sahasrdni.
Pill

ayutam,
The

same

neut.

rules

^'cmq^}
1Xig" ekddasam

sahasram, "c.

tiHfri$('ri
saptatisatam.

or

or

by

satam

^Mif*i5"jo/asatdni
ashta
^lirrf'T

v.

^fF$nfshashtisatam.

or

f^Tfftrisatam.

or

satdni

satdni

satam

dvisatam

satdni

'SfTlTT'PfT
pancha

neut.

Pan.

Pd^M

or

^nnf5Tifrmi

IT^

^ooo

rendered

satam.

or

satam*,

satam.

satam

10,000

dvddasam

^Ifl^irftrar
^Tffashtddasddhikam

121

1000

(in

or

$Trf
vimsatyadhikam satam
CI^Q f^^rwAl""*

eleven

satam

1 20

150

"c.

^ saptadasddhikam
^m^^nftnfi

"jc|""

"i$o

having

shodasam
*fhr$f
^Tif

or

119

140

hundred

or^[^^trayodasam
^lichaturdasam
or '^njtST
or iHr^T
^panchadasam

satam

^panchadasddhikam
''T^^TTfv^

115

ekddasasatam

^T^T

or

^fafsnfirir
$nr trayodasddhikam satam

14 ^8

TOT^TW

2, 45.

v.

"\"\^IT^nfaoff^nr dvddasddhikam

or

satam, i. e.

H2

1 1

^FSlrf dasasatam.

or

ekddasddhikam

u^fiT^f
STW

or

" 253.

JTUMEEALS.

and

masc.f

apply to ^IfH sahasram,


sahasram, 1041

Siddh.-Kaum.

1000,

so

that

^^5T
by "i"*^r=nf^^I

vol.

n.

p.

635.

ion

might

be

ekachatvdrimsam

J 253.

123

NUMERALS.

7TBJlaksham,neut.

100,000

100,000
One

million,fljwprayutam,

Ten

Tsfrfz
koti,fem.J
millions,

hundred

thousand

neut.

or

or
fern.*,

or

masc.*

millions,
^TJ^ arbuda, masc.
mahdrbuda,
millions,
*T"IJ"J

and

fagwniyutam, ncut.

and

masc.t

neut.

and

masc.

TITI padma,

neut., or

neut.,

i.e. lotus.
Ten

^
millions,

thousand

kharva, neut., i.e.

fn^c5 nikharva,neut.
millions,

hundred

neut.
billion,
H^IM-W mahdpadtna,

Ten

thousand

billions,
$vjsahku, masc.,

hundred

thousand

A hundred

thousand

million

Ten

million

hundred

thousand
In the

be

used

masc.,

or

middle.

iQ"pardrdha,i.e.

same

manner

form

as

^rfVcRadhika, exceeding,
'Sftuna, diminished, may

Another

^"FTW
by prefixing

not

If

5, i.e. 95.

"

or

ekdnna, i.e. by

twenty, i.e. 19. (Pan.vi.

not

one

3,

fatam

deducted,"gR

or

una,

K^Tlfffci^ifiT:
ekonavimSatih,

expressingnineteen

of

way

is to be

one

unavimsatih
sjiHf^flT:

ekat suffices.

is

i}*ft"f
^Tff panchonam

compounds.

numerical

i.e. 19.

host.

mahdkshauhini.
q^iH^f^ft
billions,

million

"c|f

other half.

neut.

i.e.
million biUions,^"fff^ilfl
akshauhini,fern.,

"i,

one

*nj^

billions,
*?^TVrf mahddhuna.

20

by

madhya,

Hm

or

n"^imahdhdhd,
billions,

billions,
^tfdhuna,

to

without

conch-shell,or

sea.

-"ft
H 51tipanchonasatam,100

neut., i. e.

masc.

billions,
^T^T hdhd, masc.,

One

i.e.

ant-hill.

an

^T^fa mahd"ahkha,or ^w antya, ultimate.


billions,

A thousand
Ten

i.e.

billions,
^fa sahkha,

samudra,

minute.

Jd4

and

similar

numbers

ft: ekdnnavimsatih,
14(^31

76.)

Declension of Cardinals.

N.

*5K

A.

VFR

FEM.

tkah
tkam

eka" one-

"

SINGULAR.
MASC.

PLURAL.

l^RT tkd

tkam

T"K

^cRT ekdm

tkam

NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

^BH

ekdh

U"*1"^e'A:a"

^^iK

^roA

^%t

V^iT*?:ekdbhih

eke

I.

l*cJHeTcena

T"Wm

D.

'"R"

^afc^ekasyai 5"*^

Ab.

^4^1:
ekasydhQ"*W\^ekasmdt
^cROTTi^efcasmaZ

^T"i:tkebhyah^r"i:

G.

^"=M-M tkasya

"J"*Mfekeshdm

L.

el-"5a
^(WT^efcasmm
^oh^MieArasyam'^flftTWr^e^aswit/i
"{cni^
^cF^e^e^M

V.

sur

tkasmai

^3ta

^8

ekayd

^ "+^H 11ekasydh^ "h^M

^R

eyte

vol.

n.

Siddh.-Kaum.

"

A differentstringof

la

^"*H ^tena

p.

names

^R

"

ekasya

*^T ^te

^Jba

f Amara-Kosha

635.
is given in

propagationdes chiffres indiens

eifcatA

l"Wle'kebhyah'"

ekasmai

xvn.
theVajasan.-Sanhita

(1863),p. 70;
B

tkdbhyah^W^l

";cni^f
ekdsdm

^BT:

in.

2.

elaA

6, 3,

^*im\e'keshdm
^"^T^f A-esAu
^BTfiTrtaiu

24.

See also

ed. Calcutt.
Lalita-vistara,

Woepcke, Memoire
p. 168.

124:

$254-

NUMERALS.

("238).

like cfffir
Ararat

254* ft dvi,two, base ^ ^",

DUAL.
FEM.

MASC.

dvdbhydm

dvd'bhydm

l"T"n

dvdyoh

G.L.

$ 355.
N.V.

dvdyoh

f"f"H, three,fern.

"?R:

fwrcfc(Pan.vi.

*r"ya#

i, 166)

tisrdh *

A.

D. Ab.

fif*n tribhydh

frfWH

G.

d*U4lli
traydndm(Ved. trindm)

tisrindm
f
ftHprf

L.

trishu
"JW'3

Irt^Mf tisrishu

tisribhyah

N.V.

^rTHt
^n^tc/mWra#(Pan.vii.i,98)

chdtasrah

A.

^if"*chaturah (Pan.vi.

chdtasrah*

I.

chaturbhih
^jjf^"

D. Ab.

chaturbhyah
^TJ**?*
^i

167)

i,

^, five,

J ^57

iH^a'Ma
iHf^^ancAa^AiAt

D.Ab.

"*fa"tt
panchdbhyah

G.

"4^I"1 1 panchdndm If

L.

""fajj
panchdsu
with

Cardinals

in

shash, six.

5^4

Not

f Not
in the Veda

like

shadbhydh

ending

construction

rf^n

in the

f"r?#,nor

of the

-"i n^ft

nor

ashtd

in

or

"^ w,, such

feminine

chatasrth.

-"iri"ii]ri

ashtdbhydh

ashtdndm

as

ashtdbhyah

If
ashtdsu

or

TOlr^ saptan, "T^


of "q^

declension

^i;

those

navan,

panchan.

in TT f like feminines

from

to 19

when

it

means

(Accent,Pan.

chatasrindm

requiresa
some

vi.

(Pan. vi.

I,
4,

few

remarks.

^fi"

^frf

*J"fieka

eke

vn.
i67,vart.;

vadanti,

2,99,

4),though these forms

Epic poetry.

t Accent, Pan.

vi.

i,

180; 181.

\\

in ^r".

masc.

cardinals

ashtdsu

singularonly,except

tisrindm,
fw^nf
and

like

neut.

^T?

: ashtdbhih

shatsu

bases

or

shadbhih

in

is naturallyused

chaturndm
chaturshu

ashtau

shanndm

chaturbhyah

4igc^ashtan, eight.

\\vimsatih is declined
satam

chatasnshu

the

" 258. The

"^r

chatvdri

: chaturbhih

chatasribhyah

dasan, "ichi^^ ekddasan, "c., follow

^HT
"j^tf;

"^ r3 1 U.

""in""ui
chatasrindm f

5"Ur chaturndm

^irt-HM

I.

chatvdri

"Tt chatasribhih

L.

N.A.V.

traydndm
trishu

chatur, four,fern. ^H^ chatasri.

" 356. ^g^

G.

tribhydh

||Pan.

vi.

i, 172.

If Pan.

VH.

i,

55.

vart.)
occur

some

Ex.
men,

fifdvi

people say.

is

always used

with
tribhih purushaih,
fafa: TjpT*fc

ndrih,eleven

in

from

numerals

and
adjectives

as

twenty enemies,

men

to 19

are

treated

^w^ekddata

pvrushdn,eleven

ddsindm

their substantives

fatravah
fruits

VftH fiji^q:
shashtih sis'av'ih,
sixty

fc^ln i ^filtririrfatd vriddhaih,by thirty

ddsyati,a hundred

satam

slaves

pluralnumber

the

take

may

prathamdh, d, am,

"|

"^5 agrimdfy,d, am,

"

ddimdh, d,

"H,

am,

"^,dvitiyab,
d, am,
d, am,
:, "tTT,"^, tritiyah,

the first.

the second.
the third.

chaturthdh,z, ^77?^,"j
d9
turtyafy,

I the

am,

fourth.

"",turyah,d, am,
0""T,
"?t,
pafichamdh,
:, ""ft,

the fifth.

i,am,

", shashthdh, z, "w,

sixth.

the

""T, saptamdh,
:, "ift,

i,am,

the

seventh.

"4,ashtamdh,
:, ""ft,

i,am,

the

eighth.

the ninth.

navamdh, i,am,

the tenth.

"JT, dasamdh, i, am,


"Jft,
f,

the eleventh.

ekddasdfy,
i,am,
,

am,
S the

t,unavimbdh, i,am,
,

"*, dnavimsatitamdh, i,am,

m^,
^
i, "#,
^NH:,

MHi^rt,

I, am

(Pan.v.

vim"atitamdh

"* MmM*,

r,"",

nineteenth.

2,56),1

twentieth

am

"4,trimsattamdh,i,am,
""ft,

l
the thirtieth"

$ft,"^T,chatvdrimsdb,i,am,

"H, chatvdrimsattamdh,i,
:, ""ft,

^
am,

0$ft5"3T,patichdsdh,i,am,

'M^'I^MHJ,

*H"H

M^i^ns^Mtpailchdsadbhir

Ordinals.

J 259.
H,

ancestors.

horses.
with fifty
liayaih,

t,

ekadasa

vimsatih and the rest


fq^ifni
may be
Hence
f"i^|fdt
vimtatih fatrundm,
^ic^di

^Trf
$\mi

or

pitarah,a thousand

agreeingwith
adjectives,

as

substantives.

as

Exceptionallythese cardinals

r,

plurals.

and case,

in number

a hundred
phaldni,

TfHT ^uflnl6atam

fi^ri'Ct
sahasram

";"*i"^l

as

the gender; ""*!"; 31 niOi


distinguish

f=J5lfff!
^lei^'.vimsatih

or

satam
boys; ^Tff MirilfH

elders

and
gender,if possible,

treated both

three

3 to 19

ace.

women,

the

dual, all the rest from

as

cardinals after four do not

The

ace.

While

125

NUMERALS.

259.

"4,panchdsaitamdh, i, am,
""ft,

fortieth

126

J 260-

NUMERALS.

shashtitamdh,the sixtieth *.
t

h, 1

ekashashtitamdh

.,

\ the sixty-first.
:

ekashashtah,

saptatitamdh,the seventieth.

riH:

ekasaptatitamdh,]
"

the

seventy-first.

ekasaptatah,

asititamdh,the eightieth.
1
ekdsititamdfy,

:
7

,,

*/*,

\the eighty-first.

'i

d"tdfr,

"jf,
*ft,
navatitamdhji,am,
ekanavatitamdht\

,,

the

"

ninety-first.

ekanavatdhj

the ninetieth.

"if,
Satatamdh, i, am,
:, "*rt,

the hundredth.

the hundred
: ekasatatamdfy,
:

sahasratamdb,the

2,

57.)

first.

and

other Derivatives,

j, twice.

ekadhd,in one way.


ffTVTdvidhd or ^VT dvedhd,in "two

J, thrice.

f^"n tridha

^f\ sakrit,once.

(Pan.v.

thousandth.

Adverbs

Numerical

260.

and

^cRVT

^"T chaturdhd,in

chatuh,four times.

ways.

three ways.

four ways.

five times.
panchakritvahj

Tfowpanchadhd,in

six times,"c.
shatkritvah,

-qto shodhd,in six ways, "c.

:
:

^"n tredhd,in

or

five ways.

(or

ekasahyone- fold.
isah9 two-fold.

(Pan.v.

"c.
three-fold,
f^r: tri"afr,
"STf dvayam

"fi[
trayam

or
or

4,

43.)

ffinfdvitayam, a pair. (Pan.v.

2,

42.)

fdd4 tritayam or gifi'^rayz,a triad.

^^"44 chatushtayam, a tetrad.


a pentad,"c.
^(^nr^panchatayam,

These
then

form

are

also used

their

as

pluralas

in
adjectives,

as

feminine;

commentary

by

The

another

to

Pan.

ordinals from

numeral, both

t satatamah

but
v.

sense

of five-fold

"c., and

or tNTnr panchataye
"^n^fllpanchataydJ},

VFR^panchat,pentad,^r?^dasat,
used

the

both

words

I, 59, and

sixtyadmit
forms

only(Pan. v.

are

2,

of

one

decad

occur

in the

allowed

57).

form

(Pan.v.
likewise

i,

(J283).

60),are

generally

masculine

as

may

in

the

Kasika-Vritti.

only,that is

(Pan. v.

TfT:

tamahj but

satam
2, 58). !Jfif

forms

if

preceded

its ordinal

as

261.

PRONOMINAL

AND

PRONOUNS

CHAPTER

IT? mad
(incomposition)

ADJECTIVES.

Pronouns.

Personal

261.
Base

VI.

PRONOMINAL

AND

PRONOUNS

127

ADJECTIVES.

(incomposition)
R^

Base

and

and

tvad

y"T^ yushmad.

asmad.

SINGULAR.

N.

*n" ahdm,

A.

*rfWm,

I.

*RT

wayd, by

D.

TO

mdhyam, ^

Ab.

*n^wa/,from

G.

TO

L.

*cfa mdyi, in

wd,

ftf tvdm,
m

me

OTT

me

to

me,

tvd,thee
thee

tvdyd,by

tubhyam, ^
Tjwi

me

from

me

mama,

/ram, thou

of

we,

te, to thee
thee

tfava,W te, of thee

me

in thee

me

DUAL.
/

N.

^rni dvam,

we

two

A.

^rref^v^m,

waw,

I.

W3T"li

D.

VHNI*qf dvabhydm, "ft


waw,

two

us

dvdbhydm,
by

to
us

dvdyoh,^ft?zaw,

of

G.

SUN

L.

VHN*ft:dvdyoh,in

Ml:

two

us

dvdbhydm, from

Ab. WTT"ri

*pfyuvdm, you two


g^fyuvdm, ^f vawi, you two
yuvdbhydm, by you two
*pn"li
yuvdbhydm, ^f vaw, to you two
5^T"rf
yuvdbhydm, from you two
g^T^rf
g^ft:yuvdyoh,^f vaw, of you two

two

us

two
two

us

^4 "TlJyuvdyoh,in you

two

us

two

PLURAL.

vaydm,

N.

yfydm,

we

A.

asmdn,

I.

D.

wa^,

^:

asmdbhih,
by

asmdbhyam,

Ab. ^ro\ a"ma/, from

^:

us

yushman,

us

waA,

"HWli

asmdkam,
IT: w"A,

L.

"srsm

asmdsu,in
substitutes

7T

te, ^f v^m,

sentence, nor

or, ^

eva,

^:

us

of

in the

vaA, you

yushmdbhyam,

^:

you

vaA, to

*pn^ yushmdt, from you


yushmdkam, ^: vah,

us

you

of you

su, in you

even

no

they be

indeed, ^ ha,

^:

yushmdbhih,by

us

vaA, have
can

to

us

G.

The

you

cases,
accent

followed

^r^ aha.

*n

and

md,
are

we,
never

used

7?aw,

at the

as
by such particles

beginningof

cha, and,

"^T

vd,

128

Pan.vi.
u^ tad, he, she,it. (Accent,
(incomposition)

Base

262.

*H sdh

A.

i(tdm

HX

I.

^T

IHIT

tctm

WTt

HT^tdt

TTF^ td'n

irn tdh

Wrf"Ttdni

cHT Una

%: taik

infa:t

%: tain

tdsmai

tdsmai

i:

tdbhyah
ff"H

tebhyah

nt"lit tdsydh

ta'sya

"rfTOT frf'sam

tdsya

W^f
Wg

tdsmin

tdsydm

L.

W"i
tdbhyah

tdsydh

G.

ITTf^tdni

tdh

ff te

^aya

Ab.

182.)

NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

N.

i,

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

D.

" 262"

ADJECTIVES.

PRONOMINAL

AND

PRONOUNS

teshu

DUAL.

N. A.

NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

WT tau

TTWf

I. D. Ab.

tdbhydm

tdbhydm

rTT"n

tdbhydm

infttta'yoA

G. L.

(incomposition)

" 263. Base

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

FEM.

MASC.

^TT

sydh

N.

A.

"FT ^"/^"i

WT

syd

mr:

tydh

#y^m

'Itydbhih mi

wt

tydsmai

tydsyai

7TO

T?w

TIw

Ab.

mWTi(tydsmdtm^TTI tydsydh j\W\^tydsmdt


?T^TTt tydsydh7TO

tyaih

tydsmai

D.

tydsya

NEUT.

FEM.

Wm

W"l"
tydbhyah

tytbhyah7TW*

tyebhyah

W^f tyeshdm mi^lftydsdm TH'^f


tytshdm

tydsya

G.

mW

L.

dm mftR^tydsmin mjlty"hu
10X31 tydsy
'mfeff*[tydsmin

mTQtydsu

TT^tyeshu

DUAL.

N. A.

NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

7TT

I. D. Ab.
G. L.

mT"lf tydbhijdm

mi^TT

tydbhydm

T*nft*
tydyoh

W*ftltydyoh

tybhydm

Possessive Pronouns.

are

" 264.

From

formed

by

the bases
of

means

of the three

personalpronouns,

^T 2ya.

"^rr,"V, madtyah, yd,


JT^fan,

yam,

:, "*n, "^, tvadiyah,yd, yam,


)

adjectives
possessive

"T^ytadiyah,yd, yam,

mine.
thine.

his, her, its.

"^T, "^ asmadiyah, yd, yam,

our.

:, "irr,"*r,yushmadiyah,yd, yarn,
,

Other

derivative

possessive
pronouns
dsmdkah,

Idvdkah, thine; ^n^RT"R:


*

your.

"4, tadiyah,yd, yam, their.

Pan.

iv.

our;

3, 1-3;

are

*n*?"R*

mdmdkah,

^^RTcfi:
yaushmdkah,
iv.

1,30;

vn.

3, 44.

mine

your.

riN"=K

Likewise

130

PRONOUNS

AND

I 370-

ADJECTIVES.

PRONOMINAL

DUAL.
MASC.

FEM.

N.A.V.

imt

f dbhydm

I.D.Ab.
G.L.

^TP*rfdbhydm

has

and

^ idam,

^HT^ftj
andyoh

vrn"4\Jandyoh

andyoh

when
" 270. l"^etdd and 'Zftiddm,

preceding^rf^etad

im6

repeated in
in the

vary

second

with

sentence

reference

^"f
following
cases, by substituting

ena,

to

which

accent.

no

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

A. IJ

MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

A. 4i"tl"\ewaw

ewa/w

I. "n"T

""1*(i

enayd

NEUT.

FEM.

^TH

"niTn

ewaA

endni

enena

DUAL.
FEM.

A.

enau

JMJfl:enayoh

G.L.

^ri""""u*iMln

Ex.

^"TMU

enayoh

vydkaranam adhitam, enam

the grammar

payay

enayofy

has been

studied

by

this person,

teach him

chhando

'dhyd-

prosody.

anayoh pavitram kidam, enayoh prabhutam


the

271

familyof

Base

these two

persons

svam,

is decent,and their wealth vast.

(incomposition)
^Qadas,

(mediate).

that

SINGULAR.
MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

N.

asaii

A.

^TT

I.

v"ijr|iamtind

amum

D.

amushmai

Ab.

amund

5)

amushmai

amushydh

amushmdt

amushydh

amushya

L.

29,

amushyai

amushmdt

G.

I.

amushya

amushydm

amushmin

amushmin

PLURAL.
MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

J
.

N.

ni

A.
I.
D.Ab.
G.

amuni

^FftfH:amibhih
^Wt*i:

: ambhih

am"hyah

VH*^1*!
amishdm

amibhyah

amubhyah

amushdm

L.

amushu

DUAL.
MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.
I

N.A.V.

I.D.Ab.

amubhydm

G.L.

amuyoh

-J

PRONOUNS

274.

AND

PRONOMINAL

131

ADJECTIVES.

Relative Pronoun.

272.

Tf^ydd,who
(incomposition)

Base

or

which.
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
MASC.

NKUT.

MASC.

NXUT.

FEM.

N.

IHy"a

*Hy"/

*T^y"fc

$y"

TOy""

A.

*}y""m

*liyam

*n^yrf"

*H"^y"/n

TJT!

I.

M"T

^*Ty^na

*h ya/A

TTfWt

D.

*Tw

^"T:ytbhyah

TWt

ydbhyah

Ah.

T^JT:
T"RXI^ydsmdt

TJW.

ydbhyah

G.

^TWyasya

L.

""t*ii
""fw^ya5"nm
ydsydm

y^ha

ya'y^

Tm

T^ ydsyai T^ ydsmai

ydsmai

ydsydJi'H\"\1(ydsmdt T"Tt ytbhyah

T^^lydsydh

ydsya

T"Q

ifa

yjni

"ufn yon"

ydfe

ydbhih*h ya"3i
ytbhyah

TW.

y"hdm

WT

DUAL.
MASC.

FEM.

T^

N.A.V.
I.D.Ab.
G. L.

^nt

yayo^

'n:

yrfyo^

Tt

ydyoh

Pronouns.
Interrogative

f% ^m,
(incomposition)

273. Base

Who

or

which 1

SINGULAR.
MASC.

PLURAL.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

NKUT.

FEM.

N.

TXlkdk

TXlkcl

f*Mm

%*6f

W.kcth

A.

3ikdm

-atikctm

f^ktm

"S^kcln

^FTt kdh

I.

^k^na

WRkdyd

%:kafy

"SK^lkd'bhih%t

D.

"I35R kdsmai

"Pw

cR^ kdsmai

^""IJ
k"hyah

oRfl*n

^^^(kdsmdt

:"H\ktbhyah
IKW.Ubhyah

W*r.k#"hyah

^if

WTT

kdsyai

ktha

Ab. TQ"^kdsmdt

iK"CMsydh

G.

"B^I Aroisya

"=HMK kdsydh "K^T Araisya

L.

"F^fJtasyrfwi
kdsmin
^ftR^Ara.mm
"liftR^

k"hdm

^fTSktshu

IfW.
kd'bhyah

Ara's^m

4IUI

kath

ktbhyah

kfshdm

cRHJAr/"tt

DUAL.
MASC.

N.A.
I.D.Ab.

NEUT.

FEM.

'a"fam'

^1*^

"5KT"n^y(fm

^BT"n

^i*"f
-361*6
kd'bhydm

kdbhydm

G. L.

" 274. Pronouns admit the interposition


of ^!"Jfak before their
denote
WJT

contempt

or

dubious

relation (Pan.v. 3,

tvayd. ^^^\l yuvakayoh,Of


,

"c.

you

(See Siddh.-Kaum.

last vowel

tvayakd,By
71).
^Wotilf*?:
asmakdbhih,Wiibus

two

vol.

i.

p.

706.)

r^HRT

or

thee!
!

to
syllable,

instead of

^^4 ayakam.

132

PRONOUNS

AND

PRONOMINAL

Compound

ADJECTIVES.

Pronouns.

to
" 375. By adding igs^dris,
^fdrisa, "^driksha,

certain

or

bases, the followingcompound pronouns

have

formed

been

tddrisa,wr^f tddriksha,such like.


tddri$9irnjsr
T etddrisa,
ScTT^ etddriksha,this

idriksha,this

tddrik,m.
formed

n.

are

tddrisi,f.;
TTT^ft

like?

followingcompound

"

see

many,

the declension of

On

}^^

"

in

'^vat (J187).

iyan"

"fiflT
How
Arrfri,

tdti,so many,
many? TfflT

and

Tfa ya7i,as

231.

chit,^R
" 277. By adding fq-f^
f^ir
kirn,it is changed into

pronoun

formed

much

How

been

iyat,so much,

feni%"/,

Similarly

pronominal bases, the

implyingquantity,have

nouns

much,

as
,

certain

to

like
^declined

much,

so
,

*n^ ya^

ril^cf,

"1

much,

so

"

i.

or

and

va#

pronouns,

3Tfil

in

feminine

i,am.
"^T,tddrisah,
HT^r:, "5ft,
like
me, like thee,"c.
HT^^I mddrisa, F^T^T tvddrisa,
;

J 276. By adding

Note

genders,forming the

declined in three

are

like.

like.

kidrisa,^ft^ Mdriksha,What
These

like.

yddris,Mld^f yddrisa,HldKJ yddriksha,what


idrisa,^^

pronominal

c^aw",

^ft "p^, to

or

the

interrogative

indefinite pronoun.

an

some
kaschit,WiT^kdchit,
fsK^f^kimchitj

also

one;

'affai^kachchi

anything.
kaSchana,

kdchana, f"fr^"T
kimchana,

oFT^"T

fohHfq kimapi,some
Aropi,
^*, ofrrfTT
In

the

kaddchana, once

ddchit9 ch^m

one.

one.

indefinite adverbs

manner

same

some

formed

are

A:v",Where

; n

oin*T

"T

"ac?a,When

W"*

na

kvdpi,

anywhere.

not

Sometimes
it indefinite
Likewise

y"A

the relative pronoun


:

IT:

TK

^B:

yah kah,

is

prefixedto

whosoever

iRS

the

"fi^T

"irf^y^^kaschit,whosoever, or

to render
interrogative,

yasya

IT: ojrg

kasya,whosesoever.

yah kascha, or

in

"*"$H

kaschana.

The

relative pronoun,

meaning : iffiy:,zn
the relative and

^T,

if doubled,assumes

indefinite or rather distributive

yad yad, whosoever.


"/o y"S, y" y"^,
*T?T^,

demonstrative

yattad,whatsoever.

an

pronouns

are

combined

for the

Occasionally
same

purpose

-f 278.

PRONOMINAL

AND

PRONOUNS

Adjectives.

Pronominal

} 278.

the

Under

which

but

by Pronoun,

grammarians

native

of

name

which

share

in

of declension.
peculiarities

They

may

Tit sarva,

I.

both; 5.

Tfft tar

Which

1
1

^"R

6. W9R
8. TJR
^nrc

20.

and
of

many?

adhara, west

5flma

^Kt antara

or

inferior ;

or

antard

even,

means

clever ;

nor

dakshind

clever
gdthakdfy,

ubhaya,

4. TOTJ

formed

of two?
;

10.

12.

apara,
22.

own;

the

suffixes

"3S?TR katama,

"sfa
nema,

half;

subsequent;

15. v"para,
south

other

right;

or
or

inferior ;

^TfT antara, outer,

garment).
(scil.

^f0f*!T
; nor
pronominaladjective
kinsman

sva, if it means
nor

by

any

of the
or

seven

space

or

from
Hence

wealth

; nor

purva

to

"nvj"*K
"fttJ*U!

"$^J uttardfykuravah, the northern


svdh,greattreasures (Kas'.i 1 35);
prabhdtdfi

minstrels

antare

lower

relation in time

Kurus, (aproper name); THJirn^T*

grdmayor

*va,

it is not

interval,
"c.;

adhara,unless theyimplya

19. ^TTC

^T

21.

puh, suburb,)or

equalor

means

prior;

or

subsequent;

means

if it
,

9. words

dakshina,
posterior; 17. ^frspff

or

of
peculiarities

ubha, two;

fan sima, whole

1 1.

^ pdrva, east

uttara, north

dakshina,if it

^rvn

14.
west

avara,

all ;

these

by

Adjectives,

senses.

katara,Which

9. qftX

as

real pronouns

anyatara, either; 7. jifcitara,other;

^araraT

*nr sama,

10.

eka, one;

(except^rHl ^:
If OT

tama, such

the

sarva,

mentioned

pronouns

be called Pronominal

(some add w?^ tvat,other);

T"TH

freelytranslated

beginningwith
with

common

fira vtiva,all; 3.

2.

other; 6.

any a,

tva, other

8. w

13.

^rsr

all;

in certain

used

only if they are

declension

been

real

the

affected

they are

that

remembered

it is to be

and

has

class of words

included, besides

words
before, the following
certain

which

Sarvandman,

reallymeans

have

133

ADJECTIVES.

; TWn:

vasati,he lives between

Accent, Pan.

vi.

i, 191.

the two

villages.

134:

PRONOUNS

AND

PRONOMINAL

" 279-

ADJECTIVES.

I.

^f^TT sdrvayd

^T^WT sdrvdbhydm

^rflfatsdrvdbhih

D.

*rf^ sdrvasyai

^"=rt"*ri
sdrvdbhydm

^T%"n sdrvdbhyah

Ab.

*t5tHitsdrvasydh

^TtPTT sdrvdbhydm

^HtTWKsdrvdbhyah

G.

"i"it"ii!
sdrvasydh

^T^fttsdrvayoh

tf"=n*ii
sdrvdsdm

L.

"5""*fsdrvasydm

^rt^ftt
sdrvayoh

sdrvdsu
^^TCJ

NEUTER.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

^1% sdrvam

N. A.V.

1$

^qiP"y sdrvdni

sdrve

rest like the masculine.

The

" 279.

W*J

f^/in

take
Nom.

Masc.

Sing,of

masc.

is used

w5^"

N. A. V.

in the Dual

-"ftubhau,
I. D.

Ab.

J 281.

Sing,and

Plur.

cRnr

katama,

fern. ;

neut.
^ran^emya^

only :
ubhdbhydm,

Tm"n

G. L. "gwft:ubhayoh;

neut.

"4
ubhayah,0"$t-yi,

T"nr:

katara,

cRTR

the neuter

^rarrawya,

w^^e, N. A. V. fern, and

in the

any ah,

^rfT itara,

any at ar a,

Acc.Yoc.

Nom.

the

Sing.^n*n

" 280.

^rsfiTT

awya,

-y"m,

Haradatta

is

used

never

in the Dual, but

only

the Dual.

admits

MASCULINE.
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

N.

"WI*

A.

"JWT

I.

"SH^tT ubhayena

^TOJ

D.

"3WTCR

^3^^Wt

" 282. The


pronominal

ubhayah

ubhayasmai, "c.

senses,

^n^a/;

from

take

may

in the Loc.

or

^WTT*^ ubhaydn

ubhayam

nine words

ubhaye

7VR

"c.
ubhayebhyah,

^Hfcantara (14 to 22),though

jjzt/rato

in the Nom.

ubhayaih

Plur.

^f!

^z"or

in the Abl.

ahj

used

in their

Sing.WV?(smdt

or
Sing.ftR^smiw
^".

DUAL.

SINGULAR.
N.

"^Ipurvah

^[%T
purvau

A.

^^

tj^T
purvau

I.

T$l$purvena

purvam

PLURAL.

^l

D.

^w

^tl"npurvdbhydm
"^^HWf
purvdbhydm

^f"Jt
purvebhyah

Ab.

Tjfwn^w/rasma*
purvdbhydm
^tn^pMnja^"^tr^rf

Xj^fa:
purvebhyah

G.

*"****purvasya

L.

^fw^^Mrvaswm

purvasmai
or

" 283. The


(Pan. 1.
J

1,

^[%^Ipurvayoh
"^^ftt
purvayoh

purve

followingwords

may

likewise take

^ft "A

or

i in the Nom.

Plur.

masc.

33.)

prathamah, first,THWi
nn

or

purvaih

prathamau, iniT prathame

or

n"4*iit

prathamdhj

fern.

prathamd.

charamah, last,^T?U

charamau, ^T"

charame

PsnM* dmtayahy two-"^l,


fern, fgrnfl
and
dvitayt,
three-fold

or

^TflTt

similar words

f^TTW tritaypor f^H^TTt


tritayah.

charamdh.
in IHT

#aya y

fWrPTt
tritayah,

-J 285.

PRONOMINAL

AND

PRONOUNS

dvayah,two-fold,fern, T^ft dvayt,and


I alpah,few, fT^Y alpe or

ardhah, half,*tffardhe

tt

cases

these words

V^Tt

Hya

?HH

trayah.

ardArfA.

"TTH nemdh.

or

regular,like ^fa: kdntah.

are

and other words


" 284. ftrufajdvittyah
the Dat. Abl. and

in

"*fdM^katipayeor ^PnMMi; katipaydh.

katipayah,some,

nemah, half, "T*T neme

In all other

similar words

alpdh.

*K-HI;
or

135

ADJECTIVES.

in

are

declined like ^ifa kdnta,but

in

*ftsarva.

follow

Loc. Sing, they may

tfhltfya

MASCULINE.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

N.

fedlM: dvitiyah

fsnW

doittyau

fgrtl^Tidvitiydh

A.

f^ldl4dvittyam

Psrt1"iT
dvittyau

fgnlMl^dvitiydn

I.

HSdl^H dvitiyena

PS nlM

I *4

idvltiydbhydmTS nl M idvittyaih

fsnl"4"*f
fSdl^lfl
or
doitiyasmaiT^mTWT
dvittydya

D
.

ism*!*'!! dvitiyebhyah
dvitiydbhydm

id^ I**41dvittydbhydm
PSr/1
frf
M^I
I"\dvitiyasmdt

Ab.

ifl
Pi dl ^ If(dvitiydt
or fjj ^ W

G.

ferri
JJ44J dvitfyasya

L.

feff^^nftt
fkri*ft"fofrfye
rrfHl^rm^rfmViyo^mm
dvittyayoh fsnl^M dvitiyeshu

dvitiyebhyah

fsnlM^J dvittyayoh fsn1""i"ii


dvitiydndm

or

compounds the Sarvanamans

At the end of Bahuvrihi

to him
Sing."ftn^H^nT^nyo"Aayaya,

Dat.

end

at the

of

compounds

mdsapurvdya(Pan. 1.

such

1, 30).

both

are

treated like
dear

(Pan. 1.

ordinarywords
1,

29).

the Norn. Plur. these Dvandvas

^"R^"Iuttara-purva, north-east,the

as

(Pan. I.

terminations

i,

may

take

In

addition to the

the Sanskrit
is effected,

pronominalbases.
sense.

language

possesses

in their

by

which

suffixes which

other
use

the

Ace.

fat;chiram,

Instr.

P^"u chirena,in

Dat.

P"RH4 chirdya,for

Abl.

long ago.
fa^u^chirdt,

Gen.

TTC^T

Loc.

f^T chire,long.

adverbial terminations
1.

rTCtah, with

are

used
frequently

2.

^ tra, with

3.

^T dd, with

tdt,with
4. UTi^

locative

long time.
long time.
a

long time.

time.

are,

local.
meaning,becoming generally

meaning.

temporal meaning
a

chirasya,a long

ablative

an

locative meaning.

declension

differ from

Thus

Other

the compass,

throughouttake

certain words, and

to

too,
case-terminations,
ordinary

The

may

"j5m"

the pronominal

Declension.

regular case-terminations

by being restricted
chiefly

terminations

last element

^i;

28).
Adverbial

" 285.

same

earlier ; Dat. *liti^i"4


mdsapurvah,a month
M"UUi
of former and
Dvandvas; j51
purvdpardndm,

in

purvdpareor ^=imUt purvdpardh. Only in compounds expressiveof pointsof


such

The

irti^J

as

Likewise

31),though in

later persons (Pan. 1. 1,

to whom

are

also raised to

the

of

nouns

ordinary

to
particularly

in

an

adverbial

136

PRONOUNS

5. 1R thd, with
6.

AND

meaning

8.

expressiveof effect.
"UTR^sdt,
and ^rrf^
^TT
dhi,local.
"f|rhi,temporal and causal.

9.

1P"tar, local.

7.

10.

"5ha, local.

Kt tah,with

ablative

an

tatah,thence.
,

asmattah, from

bhavattah,from

W"K

us.

temporal sense). Vf

or

round.

grdmatah,

5rRWt

iti,thus, j[^iva,as.)
(cf.^flf

amutah,
VSHJcU

thence.

HJ

mattah, from

*^J

^^

Honour.

your

me.

purvatah,

sarvatah, always, ^(Jrt* agratah,

^3r5?!f:
abhitah,around, near.

before,like ^T?T fl^e.

from

(" 260).

^rfJ itah,hence

yatah,whence,

Whence
opH frwtaA,

TTftw:paritah,all

adverbs

forming numeral

meaning.

Tin

hence.

for

before (ina generallocal

2.

tham

See also the terminations

IHf I

modality;likewise ^

of

" 285-

ADJECTIVES.

PRONOMINAL

WTitt

from

the

both sides.

ubhayatah,on

village.^sJM'H. ajndnatak,

ignorance.

cl ^ra, locative

c^T trdtas
originally

TfW tatra,there.

ya^ra, where.

'^

there, in the

world.

next

in

gotdi purushatrd,amongst

""fWAw^ra,Where

V"ffi ekatra,at

and Tf^f satram, with (see^

men.

^Tcf a^ra, here.

^T|W

amutra,

place,together. ^T^T sa^ra, with,

one

saAa).

temporal.
3. ^T rfa,
taddnim.
ri^THlT

IT^Ttadd, then,and
another

^HfT

sarvadd, always, at

sac?a,always. ^T idd, in the Veda,

^T
4.

time.

"a"fcf,When?^"H^l
cIT^T

when.
*Tr?Tyarfa,

all times.

later

^oft^T ekadd, at

any

add,

time.

one

^m*) iddntm,

now.

local.
ITTi^^,
in front.
W^fJT^prdktdt,

base in

Frequentlyafter a

s :

before,

vi M ".tn i

t, below.

f^ adharastdt,below,

afterwards.
msaif^parastdt,

TMf"8 vt^uparishtdt,
above.

thd, modal.

tathd,thus.
both

^SRT*IT

ways.

y"/Aa, as.

"R^ katham,

How?

^ft^n sarvathd,in

anyathd,in

^rK^I itarathd,in

ways.

6.

T^TT

another

the other

^r*Tittham, thus.

ubhayathd,in

^R^T

in
anyatarathd,

""!""" nvm

way.

way.

every way.

^TT vrithd,vainly(?).

Or "*T#Aa, in ^HI

Or

of two

one

tham,

in

aMa, thus.

efPective.
^TTi^saf,

(TT$ft$\ftlf
rdjno'dhinam,dependent
"M^H"^ra/asa^,

on

reduced

king.)H

w^Il i^bhasmasdt,

reduced to fire.
^b*\*\\t(^agnisdt,

^iHfc
dhi,local.

7. ^TT d and

^f^Wf^
or

to ashes.

the

dakshindhi,in the South, or

T^T

uttard.

purd, in the

^TiTTT antard

dakshind.
^Hsjiiu

(or "t -ram^

or

in
^'rKlH^
uttardhi,

"T! -re,

or

East, in front,formerly,(or JJIS


purah and

"T^

the North,

-rena),between.

^TT

before.)
^*jf\\^purastdt,

1"Rpa"chd, behind, (or **vt\"^paschdt.)


Adverbs

such

obsolete

as

nouns

^pn mudhd,

in

vain, JplTmrishd, falsely,


are

ending in consonants.

instrumental

cases

of

;138
info pachati,he cooks;

e.g.

^"fffyajate,he
These

but

swelling;

dismisses

or

away

off

wrath;

active

or

Sanskrit

middle

in

others;

Par.,
^^f^avridhat,
Others
certain

take

3,

" 288.
pada.

Causal verbs

forms

without

two
if

g.

74).
in

Greek,

learnt

as

Greek,

verbs

some

krodham

or

middle

are

grows,

(Pan. I.

3,

enters

compounded

fiTq^n ni-visate,he

but

Aor.

91.)

accordingas they are

Atmanepada

only,but

with

in.

enters

follow
generally

to them

of the

and

in

^srTO

forms

in the four

is

moods

forms
is

(Pan. i.

3,

90).

always Atmanepada
; the

with

modified
few

and prefixes
Atmanepada,
In the other tenses

tenses.

the
exceptions,

thirteen

and

of the

different

same

those

as

from

the

Specialor ModifiedBase.
ATMANEPADA.

^W%

3. The

Optative(Lin)

H^TI bhdveyam

*^H bhdveya

4. The

Imperative(Lot)

H^rftr bhdvdni

H%

Formed

from

the

General

or

dbhave

bhdvai

Unmodified Base.

PARASMAIPADA.

ATMANEPADA.

babhuve

5. The

Perfect (Lit)^33
Reduplicated

6. The

Perfect (Lit)^fksf ^$5


Periphrastic

7. The

First Aorist

^nffftridbodhisham

^wfafa dbhavishi

8. The

Second

(Lun)
Aorist (Lun)

^*"$ dbhdvam

^rftr%dsiche

9. The

Future

(Lrit)

Hfmmfir bhavishydmi

Hfa*T bhavishye

Cf. Siddhanta-Kaumudi,

the

Latin.

^sw4 dbhavam

II.

the

of the

forms, correspondingto

vfebhdve

Present

The

always Parasmaipada.

the terminations

in Sanskrit

Formed

simpleroot (Pan.1.3, 62).

of the

both

have

specialor

of Greek

the Pada

in it ya, which

one

passiveare,

are

ay

Parasmaipadaand Atmane-

in the

(Lat)
Imperfect(Lan)

The

stated,

'3"favardhati;
but

H^lfH bhdvdmi

2,.

as

vinayati*,

in certain tenses

never

PARASMAIPADA.
I.

on

vinayate, he turns

possibleto appreciatewhen

he grew.

conjugatedboth

are

passivetakes

The

I.

The

well

by practice. Thus

*TJ TM "f*(fit
gandam

fVn*^

it is

avardhishta, Atm.

ya, which

Atmanepada.
" 290. There
tenses

is best

voices

expressionsas

Atm. ^ffi vardhate, he

fV^lfwvisati,he

ending

intensives have

yd

g.

3,

as

17.)

Denominatives

if

in

as

^Rffo

Desideratives

" 289.

e.

well

as

realize; and in Sanskrit

to

or

(Pan. i.

generalrules.

Parasmaipada

the

prepositions
; e.

(Pan. i.

other

or

middle

in such

Sanskrit

in

in ^H
Atmanepada,

as

any

well

as

cases,

subtle distinction which

but difficultto bring under

Again,in

appliesto Causals

analyse

and

active

Parasmaipada

as

Mififyajati,he sacrifices;

for himself;

cooks

same

it is difficultto

of the

Greek, the right use

carries

The

rest in many

however,
distinctions,

"rf\
nt,to lead, is used
he

pachate,he

SMCI

sacrifices for himself.

peculiarconceptionswhich
in

" 288-

CONJUGATION.

babhdva

W$5

babhuva
choraydm

ed. Taranatha, vol. n.

p. 250.

^ choraydm
vft"n[

cha

Colebrooke,Grammar, p. 337.

1 1

The

1w*fr"T dbhavishyam
(Lrin)
Future (Luj) Mflrdifw bhavitdsmi
Periphrastic

The

Benedictive

The

10.
.

12.

lih)
(As'ir

(Let)occurs
Subjunctive

$291. 1.2.

in the Veda

Command

Tenses

to the

b. Wish

; e. g.

vedam
7rl*nfhqffaj

T"r

Veda

study the

e.

e.

g.

people would

perish.

will
studies,

tvam

act

thus.

such

e.

cases

persons

bhunktdm,

I wish

ReduplicatedPerfect

6. Certain verbs

The
common

which

are

the
your

First and

Second

historical tenses

devcLS ched

honour

H*H

couldst

thou

ninderann

as

second

the

is

person

third persons

used

are

ichchhdmi
HTT^^ii

eat.

something absolutely
past.

allowed

Aorists

Brahmans

^^T *f m$ yach
that

not

g. 3*41 ft

e.

may

to form

refer

in narration.

of

They

"l^friydvaj-jivamannam
2

verb.
auxiliary

an

generallyto

time

take the

past,and

are

the

Augment ("300).

e.g.

vapsydmah,

varshishyatidhdnyam

form
reduplicated
perfect,

the

means

called the Indefinite Future

^N-nil^H^

far

first and

Optative;

denotes

not

The

i.e. by
perfectperiphrastically,

Future, also

rice.

*TW

; e.g.

as
explanation,

placeof

world,

the

revile Krishna, is wonderful

should

tuda, Strike !
g. ijj^
in

bhavel

na

niggardly.

^pnsrfH^dfmra yat tddrisdfy krishnam


^rll"$li:

concerned

their

pleasesthe

whatever

frraddadhe,I believed

na

chen

^ilM^r^yafypathet sa dpnuydt,he
*("l^^Hf^W^W^^^KHr^r. yad yad rocheta

not

Imperativerequiresno

bhavdn

asau

H
T^T^

~m

dependent sentences

kuryd

evam

dscharyam,that

9. The

them

to

dandab

punishment in

not

were

dadydd amatsarah,

in relative

cha

5. The

obtain.

tad

givethat

one

in many

bhaved

of the Veda, because

student

EM^glXm: IHTTt

the

4. The

tarkam

adhiyiya,uta

M"^*ft
3"MK*ft dHHIM!^

vinasyeyurimdfyprajdh,if there

It is used

7.8.

H^wfo

^N

g.

viprebhyastat

f.

sit here!

study logic?

shall I

or

loke

let

go, i.e.

Brahman.

Condition ;

who

mayest

ihdsita,Let your honour

vedapdragobrdhmanatvdt, he probablyis

e.

accent.

gachchheh,thou

grdmam

bhavdn

Supposition(sambhdvana)
;
he is

alwaysthe

Optativeare,

^nfhftn

g.

adhiyiya,Shall
d.

has

explanation.The

village.

mif^m!*

Inquiring; e.

Moods.

and

Imperfect requireno

?frjppw *T^: tvam

; e. g.

go thou

c.

of the

senses
principal

*ftprta bhavishiyd

only.

(J300),which

Augment

the

Imperfecttakes

and

Present

The

Hfaing bhavitdhe

bMydsam

^m

Signification
of the

3. The

^wfir"" dbhavithye

Conditional

13. The

a.

139

CONJUGATION.

291.

if it rain, we

ddsyatiy as

shall

long

as

sow

life

140

SPECIAL

will

lasts, he

bhoktd

kadd

is used, instead

might have, but

that

Future
Periphrastic

the

have

happened (Pan.in.

not

in

wish

fft
13. The

is used

Benedictive

The

general; e.

g,

for

Sanskrit

The

he

Singular,Dual,

in

has

Plural,with

and

live

AND

GENERAL

Sanskrit

293.

terminations

of the

and

the

root

same

will be

HTS^bhlds,"*f bhram, *%?{kram,


to the
i,
to

Bhu

and

Div

CLASSES

TEN

all verbs

their

into

ten

undergo

roots

retained with
different

before

the

Imperative.

alterations.
slight

some

Thus

classes.

"TS^ bhrds,

belong
^3( tras, cJ7trut, H1^
bhrd"ate or WT^m
bhrdtyate,"c. (Pan.in.
lash

^jJT klam,

classes ; "T$IW

classes,

70). Again, ^sku, w^stambh,ffcHstumbh}


*^fo^skambh,
^tskumbh belong
the Su and Kri classes;^rfiPff
skunoti or ^rrfwskundti (Pan.in. i, 82).

J 394.
root

The

will be

four tenses

and

Thus

the

ModifiedTenses
root

fa

chi

is

dchi-nu-ma,we
^rf%"pr

chitdh,searched, or
searched,without
of the

the

specialtenses.

the

searched.

ReduplicatedPerfect
nu.

We

call f%

But

the

rest

Hence
the

the
in

changed

and Imperativeinto fqvj


chi-nu.
Imperfect,
Optative,

search;

modification

requirethis

which

moods

called the Special or

Unmodified Tenses.

we

numbers,

VERBS.

OF

Imperfect,the Optative,and

belong to

may

three

in each.

THE

which

Present, the

One

mood

and

divided

have

modifications

division is very useful,and

long !

persons

AND

TENSES

This

happy!

be

he

VIII.

grammarians

certain

according to

bMydt, May

tense

CHAPTER
SPECIAL

also

only.

each

three

JI41rilftl
ayodhydm

but
only a blessing,

srimdn
^fhfTRJjni^

verb

been

have

proceed to Ayodhya.

in the Veda

Subjunctiveoccurs

g.

subhiksham

would

TO
g. 'snfaflT

e.

expressingnot

chiram jivydt,May
*i1mif^

292.

wilt to-morrow

praydtdsi,thou

"vah
12.

Definite Future

or
Periphrastic

The

11.

rain,there

e.

Augment ($300).

the

takes

Conditional

The

plenty.

139);

3,

abhavishyattadd

died

abundant

been

had

g. *K^T H^W

if thingsare spoken of
Optative,

6f the

szwmM^

abhavishyat,if there

e.

Future

will he eat?

H^ffi bhokshyate,When

or

Conditional

The

10.

with
optionally

used

be

may

this

circumstances

certain

Under

food.

give

" 29!-

TENSES

GENERAL

AND

of the

General

the

or

Present,

chi-nu-mdli,
fa"jR:

Past

f^nr:
Participle

chichy-u^ they
fa^aj:
chinu,the
chi,the root, f^fj

have
base

-$ 296.
J

THE

AND

295. Verbal

bases

CLASSES

TEN

first divided

are

OP

into two

divisions

I. Bases

which

in the modified

tenses

end

in

II. Bases

which

in the modified

tenses

end

in any

II

insert g nuy

which

Bases

a.

division is subdivided

second

This

"9

141

VERBS.

*1 a.

letter but

a.

into,
*ft nty between

or

u,

the

and

root

the

terminations.
II b. Bases

which

the terminations

take

without

intermediate

any

element.

I. First Division.

J 296. The
1.

The

first division

(the first with

class

Bhu

v^rf^bhvddi,because
iQ

a.

is added

vowel

b. The

The

Guna,

bhd,

to

possible(i.e.
longor

where

i, u, ri,(i,if followed by

by them
be).

short

t, u, r",

consonant).

one

he knows.
^tvfiTbodh-a-ti,

in

accent

rests

on

of the

verbs

the radical
"

Bhu

class

vowel, except where


such

derivative verbs,

Many

in their lists is ^

called

H^firbhdv-a-ti,

to be ;

$"M,

is.

he

language)

grammarians,and

the first verb

of the root takes

Ex. yi budh,to know

"

native

classes:

last letter of the root.

to the

if final ; short

Note

comprisesfour

(as we

know

it is drawn

causatives,HmMiir

as

on

from
the

the ancient Vedic

augment.

bhdvdyati,he

be;

to

causes

desideratives,^J?rflT
bubhushati, he wishes to be, from
he
pada, ^faildbebhidydte,
he
^ftiVdHlfa
lohitdydti,

Tud

The

2.

cuts much
"

(thesixth

class

^r

is added

b. Before

to the

Note

The

"

root.

changed

to

T^

^ri

to

^ri

to

ft^rty.
^rjr ($no).

and

^l

are

ft ri,to go;

^ mri,

them

tud, to strike).

^ iy.

by

die ;

to

uv.

CUlTd riy-d-ti. \nd,

fa^

to

mriy-d-te. tf kri, to

kir-d-ti*
foff^fw

accent

in verbs

Div

class

of the Tud

(thefourth

r^mf^divddi,because
Ex.

in their lists is ip

called

class rests

on

the intermediate

^?

hence

never

of the radical vowel.

3. The

a.

^i

tud-d-ti.
to strike;ij^fif
"g^tud,

scatter

grammarians,and

to

nuv-d-ti.
praise; yMfcf

Guna

native

first root

^ i and
T

Ex.

this class.

last letter of the

a, final

this ^

*"bhu; intensives in the Atmanedenominatives,n*n"fiinamasydti,he worships,

follow

with

the

U^rf^tudddi,because
a.

red,

grows

and

IT

ya

is added

t^;nah, to

Note

"

The

traces to show

grammarians,and

native

the first root

in their lists is

in verbs of the Div


some

called

by

them

f^divyto play),

last letter of the root.

bind ; H^fri ndh-ya-ti.


^

accent

that

to the

with

class rests

verbs of this class had

budh,
on

to awake

the radical vowel

the accent

on
originally

budh-ya-te.
"3"rffr
;

though there

1 ya.

are

SPECIAL

Chur

The

4.

AND

(thetenth

class

GENERAL

with

yiigfchurddi,because

them

grammarians, and

native

the

" 297-

TENSES

called

in their lists is

first root

by

chur,

to

steal).
^HT ay

a.

b. If

the

to the last letter of the

is added

ends

root

lengthenedto
Ex.

dal,to

If the

c.

these

Ex.

in

^T

",

simple consonant, precededby ^ i, -gr u, ^

while

Guna,

take

embrace

fg^"fcA,to

sr

is

^l^^fdddl-dya-ti,
(many exceptions.)

ends

vowels

simple consonant, preceded by

d.

^n

cut ;

root

in

root.

^ri

%tnrflT6lesh-dya-ti.^

mrish, to endure

chor-dya-ti.^

cMr,

#,

steal ; ^Ulfff

to

*rl^W marsh-dya-te.

rt, o"

$^ir.

becomes

cfi^W",

to

kirt-dya-ti.
praise; GR^S^rrr

^i, ^,

d. Final

"3 u,

fwyn,togrow old; ^

Ex.

an"i

"35^,^H"

Vriddhi.

"^[r^take

"ftm^, to walk; ifRnrflT


fajray-dya-ti.
mdy-dya-ti.

|m\

to fill; ^RTfir pdr-dya-ti.


^ dhri,to hold; vn^rfK dhdr-dya-ti.v^pri,
Note

if not

Many,

"

secondaryroots,and

as

throughout,in the unmodified


Par.

well

accent

II. Second

J 297.
It

is

in

end

specialtenses,
certain

terminations,all

radical

vowel, or

verbs

but

This class differs

of ^R

ay

a.

verbs

which

do

not, in

"Jnu,

u,

division

second

to

nd

*n

the

it

in the

before

that,

of
requirestrengthening

rftni, strengtheningof the

strengtheninggenerallytakes place by

"ftni is raised

are

tenses, except in the Benedictive

the first^

on

this

belongingto

they take

syllables.This

of these

Guna,

if

grammarians,

Division.

of

distinguishingfeature

native

the terminations.

before

^T a

rests

comprises all

division

second

The

modified

in the

as

The

and the Reduplicated Aorist.

by

belonging to it,keep their modificatory


^HTaya
syllable

verbs
as

this class

causatives,denominatives, "c.

with

in form

identical

inasmuch
classes,

other

from

arranged under

all roots

Kri, and ^

to

*T na

their

vowels
of

means

in the

Rudh

class.
We

shall

inflective

call

base,

base ;

strong

the

them, the weak


a

rule,the

the terminations
an

terminations

vice

the

which

require strengtheningof

terminations, and

weak

and

strengtheningof
As

the

versd,

base, the

the

base

the

terminations

which

and
strong terminations,

before

them,

do

not

the

base

the
the

require
before

base.
accent
are

falls

weak,

equilibriumbetween

on

base

the first vowel

on

of

strong terminations,or,

the strong base, thus


and

termination.

if

establishing
throughout

-$ 299II

J 298. This
The

I.

(thefifth

"ftwo before weak


Ex.

lu,

nu,

with

native

The

out

iMltytanddi, because

them
7

*fto before weak


Ex.

with

called

by

strong terminations,

sing.Pres.

ist pers.

grammarians,and

native

called

by

in their lists is ir*^tan).

the first root

to the last letter of the

is added

grammarians, and

*frp: su-nu-mdfr,ist pers. plur.Pres.

(theeighth class

class

Tan

in their lists is *| su).

the first root

su-n6-mi,
^ffffa
a.

classes

comprisesthree

terminations.

suy to squeeze

VERBS.

last letter of the root, before

to the

is added

OP

CLASSES

class

^rf^ svddi,because

them

"Jnu

take

first subdivision

class

Su

which

Bases

a.

TEN

THB

AND

root, before strong terminations,

terminations.

JG^tan,to stretch; inpn tan-u-mdh,ist

plur.Pres.

pers.

rttftfa
tan-6-mi9 ist pers. sing.Pres.
Note

All verbs

"

Kri

3. The

class

(theninth

ctylty
kryddi,because
"ftni is added
before

"H nd

this class end in

belongingto

native

with

to

J 399.
i.

The

Ad

The

class

b. The

pers.

plur.Pres.

the terminations

with

be

called

ad,

to

by

with

them

eat).

last letter of the

the

with

consonants

base ;

consonants,

consonants, the

phonetic

observed.
carefully

terminations

weak

vowels, vowels

("107"145)must
the

grammarians,and

immediatelyto

vowels, and

before

classes

in their lists is

first root

of vowels

contact

base

native

joinedimmediately.

are

comprisesthree

added

are

plur.Pres.

pers.

kri-n-dnti,
3rd

the

explainedabove

strong

them

vowels.

sing.Pres.

class with

because

with

consonants

rules

beginningwith

pers.

division

(thesecond

in the

and

by

strong terminations,

kri-na-mi,ist

to which

terminations

The

called

I do.

terminations,

second

^ify adddi,
a.

grammarians,and

ist
kri-ni-mdfy,
buy; "aftarfa:

II b. Bases

^fkri,JiOfH karomi,

in their lists is "aft


kri).

the first root

*{n before strong terminations


Ex. "aft
W,

one,

last letter of the root, before

to the

weak

"^n,except

takes

Guna

where

possible($296, i. b).
Ex.

lih,to
f?5^
thou

lick

lickest

fc5TO lih-mdh,we

($1 27);

lick ; ^ftr leh-mi, I lick ;

ctftettdhd,you

lick

Tyf^flek-shi,

(J1 28); *c*"^diet,thou

lickedst

($1*8).
The
weak

accent

is

on

the

when
terminations,

first vowel
the accent

of the
falls

on

terminations, except in
the radical vowel.

case

of

144:

2.

The

class

Hu

terminations

Ex.

hu,

sacrifice:

to

sacrifice.

is

accent

the terminations

(Pan. vi.

i,.

whether

in

vi.

same

as

if

ydt of dad-ydtis
The

ground.
on

dddhati
"f*nfff
dddhdti; ^vfff

Benfey,who

1,3, vart.

vowel,

2);

but

whether

or

it confirmed

by

then
longer ajadi,

the radical vowel

class with

to join:
*[*{yuj9
accent

falls

on

native

the

The

the

question is
termination

Pratyudaharana
ddd-ita must

tia, in

grammarians,and

terminations

we
gr*n yu-n-j-mdh,

tf na, wherever

is raised to 7f

it appears, unless

class,with native grammarians, Bhvadi,

Tud

class,

Div

class,
class,

"

Second

class,with

Tan

class,

native

Ad

class,

Hu

class,

Rudh

class,

I class.
class.

Divadi, IV

class.

Churadi, X

class.

Division.

grammarians, Svadi,V

class.

Tanadi, VIII

Kri class,

"

Kryadi, IX
Adadi, II

"

class.
class.

class.

Juhotyadi,III class.
"

"

rudh,

na.

it is attracted

VI

Tudadi,
"

called

I join.
join; g"lft*T
yu-nd-j-mi,

Bhu

"

are

which
"{n is inserted,

First Division.

Su

be

class.

the final consonant

and

terminations

augment.

Chur

Agama

the

the first root in their listsis

in the Ad

as

before weak

strong base

in the

is doubtful..

at first accentuated

Boehtlingkand Bopp.

see

if

weak, likewise

verbs bhi"hri,bhri,hu, mad, jan, dhan, daridrd,


reduplicated

added

are

this class.

OptativeAtmanepada

Prof.

(Pan.in.

no

are

the

(theseventh

terminations

b. Between

The

to the

view, and

former

terminations
Ex.

vowel.

like
the first syllable,

them

The

Ex.

the

dadhttd.

and

^vrf^rudhddi, because
rundddhi, to obstruct).
T^qffg

a.

possible.

ju-ho-mi,.I
sj^frfa

sacrifice ;

ajadi,
beginningwith

adopt the

class

Rudh

by

where

precedingthe terminations, if the


syllable
fwfff bibhdrti,
but fwfif UbJirati (Pan. vi. i, 192).

Ex.

3. The

the Udatta

jdgri have
weak.

with

begin

dddhita
on

treated

189. For

i,

the

ajadion

i.

Guna,

takes

Parasmaipada,follow

verb,if

this rule extends

Whether

accent

the

doubt, avidyamanavatsvaravidhau

Agama

is ta with

conjugatedin

Rig-vedaboth

tta is to be

by

lists is fr hut

192.)

i,

strong, but

placesthe

siyutis,no

called

class.

terminations

of the
the first syllable

189"190).

dadhitd,now

given

on

are

find in the

We

in the Ad

as

"299-

VERBS.

in their

first root

the

OF

grammarians, and

native

*J"H!ju-hu-mdh, we

(Pan.vi.

intensive verbs,

The

added

are

CLASSES

TEN

" 302.)
reduplication.(Rules of Reduplication,

takes

root

The

THE

with

class

strong base before the weak

b. The
The

(thethird

AND

"Spftarf^

The

c.

TENSES

juhotyddi,because

them

a.

GENERAL

AND

SPECIAL

Rudhadi, VII class.

by

the

146

General Rules of

$ 303.
with

syllableof
vowel)is repeated.

first

The

Reduplication.
e.
(i.

root

" 303-

TERMINATIONS.

AND

REDUPLICATION,

AUGMENT,

portion of

that

it which

ends

is exceptional
in forming^t^babhu. (Pan.
v$J)hu
budh=z'3^^bubudh.
vn.

73.)

4,

$ 304. Aspiratedletters

their

by
representedin reduplication

are

responding
cor-

unaspiratedletters.

fwfa^bibhid.
T^dhu,to shake,=^dudhu.

fas bhid,to cut,

" 305.

Gutturals

palatals
; ^

by *(j. (Pan.vn.

root

chakhan.

laugh,

as, to
a

dig, ^^R[

to go,

chukut.

^^7

corresponding

62.)

4,

sever,
to

If

their

in reduplication
represented
by

are

^Z kut, to

$ 306.

begins with

than

more

consonant, the first only is

one

reduplicated.
ipi kru$,to shout, ^JST chukruf.
to throw,
fqpikship,
faffcp^
chikship.
=

$ 307.

If

tenuis,the

root

tenuis

begins with a sibilant


only is reduplicated.

followed

by

tenuis

or

aspirated

^J stu, to praise, "$% tushtu (J103, i).


W^stan, to sound, irer^ tastan.
=

??nlspardh, to strive,
=

WT

sthdjto

stand,

'^cf^paspardh.
tasthd.

if^n

^3g\Schyut,to drop, ^gi^ chu"chyut.


=

But

" 308. If
shortened

to

^ff 5mn,

the

radical

in the

pine,

TTCR

vowel,

sasmri.

whether

final

or

medial,

is

long, it

is

reduplicative
syllable.

jagdh.
i?T^gdh, to enter, "TTTT|
^ kri,to buy, fsnftchikri.
=

to strike,
^ stid,
^^
=

" 309.
is ^fto

or

If the

radical

^ftauy

it becomes

%^ sev,

vowel
(notfinal)

to

a,

Roots

taking^r

with
a

or

^ i; if it

ftr^sishev.
dudhauk.
approach, J^cfi
=

%ai, ^ffro,
are

treated

reduplicative
syllable.
=

gai, to

^ ai, it becomes

^ dhe, to feed,

u.

final *e,

in the

is TJ

worship,

^c^dhauk, to
" 310.

sushud.

^ftdadhau.

sing,
=s

^ft^o,to sharpen,
=

like roots

ending

in

-$312.
f 311.

followingroots

The

BOOT.

SING. EEDUPL.

PERS.

FIRST

PERF.

WEAK

of the

account

liable to

are

Samprasdrana.)Pan.

called

(Thischange is

vowels.

which

147

TERMINATIONS.

slightlyirregularon

are

they contain,and

which

semivowels

AND

REDUPLICATION,

AUGMENT,

be

into

changed

i, 17.

vi.

Fomt-

WEAKEST

FORM*.

to sacrifice,
(dja,
iprnr yaydja.)
(for
^ tj.
to speak.
uvdcha,

uvdda9

to say.

^J^

tick.

dd.

dh.

to sow.
uvdpa,

wish.

fo,to
vas

vah

to
uvdsa,

TTW

uvdha, to carry.

ytfig

dwell.

uvdya,to

uh.)
(zu.)

weave.

to surround.
vivydcha,

f^nv

fzpar^vivyathe(Pan.vn.

vivyddha,to

68).

4,

(fvidh.)

vividh.
fafa^
f^T^ vivyath.

strike.

f^HlM sushvdpa,to sleep.

to swell^f.
$u$dva,
to cover.
vivydya,

old.

w, to grow

(Pan.vi. i, 33).
fat (Pan.
vi. i, 29).

;a, to call

f"pipye,togrow

ft^rtriv?.

to take.
-^j^jagrdha9

"

(Pan.vi.

vavrdscha,to cut

TO^

i,

7). ^^

ask.

paprdchchha9to

TRF"paprachch

^il^ babhrajj.

to fiy.
babhrdjja,

In

againstSamprasaranaby
beginningwith

Roots

change ^

to ^

va

J 312.

^i a +

u.

Ex.

The

is

t The
been

forms appear

weak

Guna

double

ending

in

2,

5.)

consonants, do

not

vavrite; ^^ vavridht.
a, and

short ^

ending in

singleconsonant,

ad,

to

""u"{arf.

eat,

in all persons of the

neither Vriddhi

where
perfect
reduplicated

required.

weakest

added

but

(Pan.i.

tected
pro-

into 5TI d.
^F"

nor

reduplicated
perfectis
consonant.

va9

^^

in the

the final double

beginningwith

Roots

contract

form

the last three verbs the weak

vavrtich.

as

forms

of these

verbs do not belong to the


of the

useful hereafter for the formation

but
perfect,
reduplicated

have

the
the benedictive,
past participle,

passive,"c.
J ^T{vay

is

substitute for

^ve,in

does not take place,then

(1Pan.

vi.

^ve

the

(Pan.n.
perfect
reduplicated

forms

^T

vavau,

IF Or

i, 38, 39.
U

^t

vavuh

4,

41).

(Pan.vi.

i,

f^ITO^svdya(Pan.

If that substitution

40).

vi.

i, 30).

148

AUGMENT,

" 313.

" 3T3"-

TERMINATIONS.

AND

REDUPLICATION,

Roots

beginningwith short ^r a, and ending with more


consonant, prefi^^T^dn. (Pan.vii. 4, 71.)
^rt
dndrch.
(Also^rsi as (Su), ^T"!^r
^H^ arch
dna"e.)Pan.
=

J 314.
Other

The

Guna
and

ri

are

tf

one

4, 73.

vii.

perfectas WT^
reduplicated

of the

(Pan.vii.

prefixw^ara.

4,

dr.

71.)

to thrive, ^TRJ"^a/zn^"
^TPpfdn-rij. "^p^ridh,
treated in fact as if they were
"c.
-zw^ardh,
'W^arch,

Roots

beginningwith ^ i or
+

"$ u

into

Vriddhi,i{y

or

the base

roots

i + i and

forms

obtain,

to
^^r^',

" 315.

^j

beginningwith

roots

These

root

than

and

^
^

i and

^R

between

^ + ^

^i or ^r u take
reduplicative
syllable

radical

if the

but

inserted

are

contract
long),
(notprosodially

"su

the

the base.

(Pan.vi. 4, 78.)
^g: ish-dtuh,they two
^^A
^^(iy-esh-a
(Guna),I

have

gone.

have

gone.

"

^^

ukh

"grwg:ukh-atuh) they two have withered.


T^ftsfuv-okh-a (Guna),I have withered.

As to roots which

be

cannot

rujes given for the formation

otherwise
or
are
see the
reduplicated
irregular,
of the Reduplicatedand Periphrastic
Perfect.

SpecialRules of Reduplication.

"3 1 6.

So far the process of reduplication


would be the same,
to the bases of the Reduplicated
Perfect or to those of the Hu
are

pointson

some

In the

1.

which

ReduplicatedPerfect,radical

representedin reduplication
by

are

In the bases of the

2.

classes of

these two

medial)

Hu

REDUPLICATED

class.

But

there

bases differ;
viz.
reduplicated

ri, -^ri,whether

final

medial,

or

^r a.

class,final -^ri

representedin

are

applied

whether

and

(theydo

^ri

not

occur

as

reduplication
by \i.

PERFECT.

Hu

CLASS.

PRESENT,

"c.

V[ bhri,to

bear,
=

root

^ri,

" 317. The

to go,

three

babhdra.

^ bhri

TOCTC sasdra.

" hriy to take,


The

-qvrn:

sri,to go,

vf^Ttijahdra.

sri

^ hri

^rf"iy-arti;^pn, to
and
f^^nij,
f"^vij,
f^ vish

forms

verbs

fWiff bibhdrti.

ftmfS

"

sisarti.

f^fS jiharti.
fWa
fill,
of

the

piparti.

Hu

class

Guna

take

in tfr$red^plicated;
syUahle. (Pan. vii. 4, 75.)

f*1^nij, to wash, ^T% nenekti,%f^


to pervade, TTJ? veceshti.
f%\vish,
f 318.
the

The

verbs

two

TT ma,

"

han,
*""^

send

change their

i?T hd, to go, of the

initial consonant

Hu

class take

^z

in

jahghanydte.(Pan.

vii.

W*fNTiTjeghiydte.(Pan. vii.

3,

if

they are reduplicated.


desiderative ftTO^rfwjighdmsati,and

in the

Likewise
(Su),f*m\"*jigh$yq.

the intensive

separate,^rf^ vevekti;

76.)

Likewise
kill,*in\*ijaff1idna.

intensive "nT3W

ft[hi,to

4,

to
f%*tvij,

(H*flri
mimitej ^T hd, f*T%fft
jiMtt.

319. Certain roots


to

and

to measure,

reduplicative
syllable.(Pan. vii.
*TT ma,

nenikte;

the

55.)

in the
3,

56.)

desiderative

f"nrt^fTT
and
jighishati,

-$

ftfji,to

(Vl'IIH
jigdya.Likewise

conquer,

desiderative

in the

P"i""u"4
chichdya
optionally

gather, has

or

intensive

in the

applies to the desiderative,but

149

TERMINATIONS.

fwfMn

jejtydte.(Pan. vn.
always ^hftTTTT

is

intensive,which

in the

fa c/tt,to

AND

REDUPLICATION,

AUGMENT,

3^1-

3,

jfyishati
; but

not

57.)

P^^IM chikaya. The same


option
^W)"in
have
we
chechtydteonly.

(Pan.vii. 3, 58.)
Terminations.

J 320.

the verbal

having explainedhow

After

the terminations

they receive

before

different ways

terminations

$ 331.

The

subjectto

table of terminations

givingthe
real

different classes of
in which

of

changes which

fanciful

or

that

accordingto

or

they

beginner should

to

after bases

^i

to

the termination
such

forms

as

at first any

in

^T a

in the

the

attached

of

2,

First Division

is

questionsas

to how

they came

undergone in
in that

verbal

dthe

^rr$dthe
take

Chur

Present.

^Tjiyam^"f^ani
^i

Imperfect.

^*

$se

*m

Optative.

ithe

as

to memory

Imperative.

^ft'ya

^e

J^ttlithdh

^(it

ijta*

^te

If ta

^Rava

"^iva

^T^T ava

W^avahe

W"4

ff tarn

^lfitam

"fttarn

ithe

^TT

3. 1ft tah

Ifftarn

itdm
^iff

WT tdm

^n

ite

itdm
^iff

i.^Rlamah

^Rama

^Rima

^"T

^HR^amahe^SKf^amahi^f^imahi

z.lftha

If ta

^if"Va

If ta

In the second
sense

changed

Classes.

1(t

the

is

DIVISION.

^lih

the

they are.

lh

fart

than

ATMANEPADA.

Imperf. Optative.Imperat.

^m

what

-*

3.

The

the termination

as

simplerto

the

form

base.

paradigms rather

to be

PARASMAIPADA.

2.f*si

each

rians,
gramma-

"ftvvi
bodhethe, fgmuj dvishdthe, ftwivjmimdthe, without asking

Bhd, Tud, Div, and

i.^"faamt

to

of

explainingthe

give them

the ^TT d of

81),it

Instead

; but still simplerto commit

FIRST

Present.

have

taking^rre

learningthat

(Pan.vn.

the

the verbal bases

system of native

actual

the

Instead

pers. dual Atm., and

2nd

the whole

on

the terminations.

useful to

more

memory

different sets of terminations.


of the

be

of the

(SecondDivision,A.),or nothing
and

supposed to

they are

table
moods.

and
comparativephilologists,

mechanicallybe

commit

tenses, though

accordingto

verbs, it will

may

and

tenses

in ten

tenses,
special

give a

variations,
accordingas

certain

or
Division),
(First
"Jnu, ^ut"^ni
(SecondDivision,B.) between themselves

take ^?

of the four

modified

specialor

for the modified

terminations

for all verbs,are

same

so-called

for these

modified

are

we
Imperative,

Present, Imperfect,Optative,and

the

roots

and

is benedictive.

ama

third persons

thdh

^W

ithdm

U"

dhve

*4 dhvam

nfe

nT nta

TR1(tdtmay

be used

Ifftarn,

ita

avahi
fi$
^f^

^R^

irahi

arahai

^ttlRiydthdmJpRithdm
iydtdm
^Minf

^131idhvam
iran

as

sva

termination

^TTTitdm
WH$_ amahai

l4 dhvam
nffntdm
after all

verbs, if

150

AUGMENT,

EEDUPLICATION,
SECOND

TERMINATIONS.

AND

DIVISION.

Su, Tan, Kri,Ad, Hu9

Classes.

Rudh

and

PARASMAIPADA.
Present.

ATMANEPADA.

Imperfect.Optative. Imperative. Present.

Imperfect. Optative.

Imperative.

I.

Uf dhvam

^TrTf
atdm
enclosed

terminations

The

terminations
Note

which

f^ hi

is added

the

are

squares

requirestrengtheningof

When

"

in

weak, i. e.

unaccented

base.

the

immediatelyto

the

final consonant

it is changed to fv dhi (Pan.


vi.
(inthe Ad, Rudh, or Hu classes),
See No. 162). The verb J hu, though endingin a vowel,takes fqdhi
of f^ hi, for the sake of euphony. (Pan.vi. 4, 101.)
root

Kri verbs

155.

Pan.

In the 2nd

pers.

(See No.

no

ending in

form

consonants

in.

i,

pers.

sing.imp. in

4,

101.

instead

WT

ana.

83.)

sing.imp. Parasm.

termination,
except when

is

verbs

of the Su

precededby

and

Tan

classes take

(See

conjunctconsonant.

177.)

No.

Note

Note

^rvq^f

plur.pres. and imper.Parasm. verbs of the Hu


ati and ^nj atu.
bases,take ^rfir
abhyasta,i.e. reduplicated
plicated
the 3rd pers. plur.
imp. Parasm. verbs of the Hu class,redu-

In the

"

class and
"

In

3rd

pers.

bases,and ft^vid,to know,


in

2nd

the

of

after

vowel, requireGuna.

take

is used

"gt uh

uh,,before which, verbs

7:

after verbs
optionally

ending

in *"\ a, and

to hate.
(Pan.111.4, 109"112.)
f"^dvish,

$ 322. By

of these

means

terminations

understood

all

how

regularverbs

the

verbal

in Sanskrit

bases

student

Imperative in

Present, Imperfect,Optative,and
of
Atmanepade

the

are

and

is able

the
any

prepared in

ten

to

form

the

Parasmaipada and
one

who

has

different

clearly

ways

receivingtheir terminations,and who will attach to these verbal bases


terminations
as
given above, accordingto the rules of Sandhi,will have

for
the
no

in writingout for himself the paradigms of any Sanskrit verb in


difficulty
four of the most
importanttenses and moods, both in the Parasmaipadaand
in the formation of their
Atmanepada.Some verbs,however, are irregular
base ; these

must

be learnt from

the

Dhatupatha.

$322'

151

'i

"
i

I
r
o

""

152

""
*
(-H

-8
.0;

ji
ve

ifkttll

rim

"

154

t
S'xs

!"s)h"

f 1 SI

-g

"

I
1

"
ar

^
l^"^

te

3-

r
fa

""

-i
"*"

v!
fl

"

-"S

\"s"

.8^
^

HilllMJ
4
s-

""o

PS
^1

mil

*|^

PL,

"

"""

-t^e

"r"

155

immmsi

fit! I

'5

'%
"

iiti!.

"tj
"

J5
"Jl

-41

i
i

o
09

"

t-

""
o"
":

"%

ft*

15 fl ""lH*l

(*

lj

I
1

1 el "!

ri
'^

sri

Pi

156

Ig

"

""

'.g
vs

tvr

"

."

g
^

"7

I4%

QJ

$
o

7!
'?|
P1
^e

$3*2.

157

*"."

r-

v?

2
a,
W

"g "Kr'TS
'

~"

""

?
r

""
5?

^^52 I
o

ir^S

"S

V-e
xe

^2
"

J5 X2

IfHi!
~

"^-

Bl

B"

1^1 P^
'S3

"l
1

.1
6-

J?S
lir^
^

KS

fe)^

fc

=8

158

"

4
"5

't

'is
"Q

1045

-1

-J

GENERAL

OR

UNMODIFIED

TENSES.

CHAPTER
GENERAL

$323. In

the

OR

which

tenses

Perfect, the First and


and

PeriphrasticFuture,

the

All verbs

vanishes.
modified

"c.,

tenses

removed

are

remain,

the

Second

Aorist, the Future,

Reduplicated Perfect,
distinction

Benedictive,the
alike,to

from

the

to which

roots

their

preserve

had

in the

"jnu, *u97ft ni,


attached

been

in

the

in

verbs

the

Imperative. Only

dya throughout, except

^R

phrastic
Peri-

classes

ten

they belong

inserted

they

the

Conditional,

the

of the

class

whatever

Imperfect,the Optative,and

class

Chur

of the

TENSES.

features,the
distinguishing

the

again

Present, the

the

and

UNMODIFIED

treated

are

X.

Aorist

Benedictive.

and

ReduplicatedPerfect.

J 324.

The

root

have
reduplication

$ 325.

The

*T

its

been

given

or

d:

'S^und,to

which

roots

such

as

Verbs

3.

of

of

($302"319.)

above.

be

can

begin

with

of all

formed

prosodiallylong

vowel

any

fr id,to praise; *vedh,

verbs, except

to grow

but

to light
;
jp^indh,

wet.

roots,
Polysyllabic

2.

rules

reduplicated. The

is

primitivestate

ReduplicatedPerfect

Monosyllabic

1.

in

the

such

Chur

'l*w"(chakds, to

as

class

derivative

and

be

bright.

verbs,

such

as

Causatives,

Intensives,Denominatives.
Desideratives,

J 326.

Verbs

which

Perfect by
Periphrastic

So

do

(Pan.in.

likewise
i,

form

cannot

of

means

^TI day, to

the

Perfect

pity,"c., ^n^

to

ay,

The

hu

in.

i,

38); and,

(fswrnbibhaydm),-%thri
(^^jihraydm)^ ^
Pan.
juhavdm.
in.
("SJ^T
i, 39).

verb

drnundva
^5
forms

as

drnu,

to

cover,

to

after

sit down

cation,
takingredupli-

bhri

allows only
although polysyllabic,

of

its Perfect.

richh, to fail,
although its base

only VMM^

dnarchchha.

Terminations

in the

Perfect

It is treated, in fact,as

of

the

ends

in two

consonants,

if ^^archchh. ($31
3.)

ReduplicatedPerfect.

SINGULAR.

2.

as,

I,

tftbhi

^T^

go,

35); also WR(kds, to shine


viddm),
burn, (^faioshdm),fas vid, to know, (fe^T

to wake, fapvftjdgardm,
Pan.
*TFJ.M0T""

and

the

composition. (J340.)

37),WR(kds,to cough (Pan.in.

^re ush, to
(Sar.);optionally

form
by reduplication,

ishe

160

GENERAL

OR

TENSES.

UNMODIFIED

DUAL.

iva

ivahe

1.

2.

^rgt athufy

3.

^BTgja"w#

i.

^IT ima

PLURAL.

imahe
or

These

terminations

native

or

here

are

given,without

comparativegrammarians, in

added
mechanically

will be

the initial^ i of certain terminations

" 327. The accent


Atmanepada,
except
the accent

falls

followingrules
Vowels

1.

by

falls

in the three

in

form
The

the

to

which

rules

they

therefore

be

may

the omission

on

in

the

Parasmaipada

singularParasmaipada.

persons

of

systems

of

given below.

terminations

the

on

the root, which

on

that

roots.
reduplicated

to the

regard

any

is

In

and

these

strengthenedaccordingto

the

capableof Guna,

Guna

take

if followed
throughout the singular,

consonant.

one

f^T^ bibhed-a.
bibhed-itha,
fa^bhid9 f^T^ bibhed-a,fsftf^q
bubddh-at ^ftftTO
bubodh-itha,^r"rtv bubddh-a.
"j^fai
**F^budh,
medial

a
*fatjiv,
long

But

vowel

being liable

not

P"f"flcf

forms

Guna,

to

P*|"fl^
jijw-a, PH jflfavjjy
iv-itha,
jijiv-a.
Final

2.

vowels

Vriddhi

Vriddhi

take

only in

Guna

or

the third person

nindy-a or

in

the

second,

in the

Guna
first,

singular.

PHHH nindy-a9 PHH^ ninetha

or

PfHP*4"inindy-itha,

ninay-a.
3.

if followed

^r a

Guna

takes Vriddhi

singleconsonant,

in the second, Vriddhi

only in

Note
root

If the second

"

if with
In

termination.

the third person

singularParasmaipada

person

^ZJitha, the
this

accent

the

case

fall

may

radical

vowel

on

any

is formed

" 328. As

there is

in

may,

first,

singular.

before
circumstances,

Atmanepada.Here
Roots

like impat,

singleconsonant,
initial consonant
with

tendency

in which

which

without
with

any

in their

verbs,

be

to

base

is

without

in the three

weaken
of the

the

on

the

Guna,

persons

base, under

Perfect,Parasmai

must

be observed

is

preceded and

falls on

accent

3.)

terminations

followingrules

i.e. roots
and

the other

the

aspiratesand

is

there

by ^ftha,the

certain

tendency to strengthenthe

singularParasmaipada,so
certain

i.

in the

Guna

but generallyit
syllable,

PiT^T
but P"P"=I
f^3*1viveja,
f%*(vij,
(Pan. 1.2,2;
vivijitha.

and

or

or Wttjaghdn-a,^qfaRjaghdn-itha,
v{*FRJaghdn-a.
hanS3"K*{jaghdn-a

the

by

followed

by

syllable
reduplicated
repeat the

change (thisexcludes

gutturals;roots

roots

beginning with

beginning
'Zv,

and

162

THE

Roots

ending in

Most

u, ^

change these vowels always into f*(w).

u,

ending in ^ri, change

roots

we
niny-ivd,

have

two

ri**K^ttastar-dthuh,you
you
p chakar-dthufy,

spread. 5

CHAPTER

$331.Before
Perfect
to

by

of

means

unmodified

the other

to be

has

with

difficult

chaptersof Sanskrit

rules

paragraphsto simplifythese
The
of the

insert the vowel

pointof

view

^ i between

it would

representthe ^

no

of

an

as

an

doubt

be

omission.

But

majorityof verbs, it

i. e.
exceptions,

state the

denning the

termination

only,that

intermediate 35i under

In

yet

Sf

become

the

in which

cases

to

the

the

or

fixed,and

(ashas

been

an

historical

the rules which


done

terminations,and

to

S{* has

in

$ 326)

give the
prevailed

may

to

employed, instead

not

be inserted.

In the

Veda, however, this 3[i,too,

omitted; e.
occasionally

further

$RT"i sasrdtuh,"c.

speak of

to

consonants,

keeps the
3rd pers. plur.Perf. Atm.,^tire,

of the

is

following

the terminations

from

and

the ^ Hs

in which

it must

most

easier,for practical
purposes,

will be

cases

the intermediate

as

all circumstances.

fri,"[dri, and "^ pri a

being shortened

^ i than

integral
part of

in the

vast

correct

more

intermediate

requireits

not

objectof

which

possible.

as

termination

and

base

rules which

has

of the

beginningwith
generaltenses, originally

or

requirethe addition

One

one

in
and

base

rules

generaltendency,and, so far,the generalrule,is that


unmodified

and

The

^ i form

it is the

much

as

the verbal

consonants.

of this
and

Reduplicated

root, it is necessary

the

between

inserted

grammar,

the

ReduplicatedPerfect

in the

insertion

require,allow, or prohibitthe

of

paradigms of

the

beginning with
originally
terminations,

the

to

form

^i, which

tenses

you
^fJTJ! yuyuv-dthufy,
have praised,
two
eg#/"",

^ i.

joiningthe terminations

intermediate

consider the

^ stri,

XL

proceed to

can

we

done.

have

two

yw,

INTERMEDIATE

THE

u).

4,

scattered.

have

two

(Pan.vn.

"^.ar

fa "ri,fyfeiftra
we
6i"riy-ivd,

led.

joined. ^ stu, "^f^l tushtuv-dthuh,you

have

two

to

chakr-dthuh, you
have

two

the vowel

have

two

*f kri, ^m^l

gone.

" 331-

^ i.

INTERMEDIATE

shortening may

(Pan.vn.

4,

12.)

take

g.

gpr

duduh-re.

place; ^KJJ! sasardtuk

-$ 332.

then, that there

Let it be remembered
i.

When

is it necessary

3.

When

is it

3. When
For

knowledge would

optionalor

before

both

changed, and

at different

minute, would

the

as

starting-pointthe

with
beginning originally

representas

beginningof
The

vu.

^t

on

2,

not

(Note

The

language

that
the

say, that

state the

enormous

35) that

2,

every

the

takes

be cut off from

should say, must

we

literary

which we
^ "",
i.
exceptions,e. the cases

(except ^ y)

as

the

on

rules,however

no

(Pan.vu.

axiom

proceed to

has

fancies.

and

general

number

India

of

admit

that
long history,

have

been

collected by
carefully

allowed to take the intermediate

tenses, before terminations


"

extensive

laid down

indeed

is to

the

insertion is either

the

the

it.

the termination.

verbs, which
following

10),are

the

only knows

different parts of that

be inserted,or,

account

no

omit

anything but

obligedto

are

consonant

portionof the termination,we


must

will

all its freaks


register

termination

the

its

safe if he

in which

in

much

so

this

in which

those

equallyright to

differ;that

periodsof

suffice to

" 332. Taking

the

be

may

grammarians

differed

writingSanskrit

except

after Panini

of ^ i authorities

of India

for

grammarians have

and

native

even

optionalinsertion

in which

Even

cases

verbs

the

Native

necessary.

country, and

all

student is obligedto know

safelybe inserted,
although,according

^ i may

know

to

\ i?

^ i.

in

be considered

the ^ i ?

a
particularly
beginner,is

him

rules,but

language

to omit

omitted,nor
^ i is necessarily

reading enable
of

the

and
therefore,

in which

cases

the

grammarians,it

of native

student

omit

to

pointsto

\i?

to insert the

for
sufficient,

is necessary,

views

or

163

t.

three

are

readingSanskrit,all that

of

be

the

optionalto insert

it is necessary

omission

to omit

is it necessary

the purposes

is,When

to

INTERMEDIATE

THE

or

"

grammarians(Pan.

in the so-called generalor unmodified

affixes beginningoriginally
with

in
perfectand its participle
reduplicated

native

^^rcrsare

(except*(y).

consonant

not affected by these rules ;

" 334.)

see

1.

All

2.

All monosyllabic
roots endingin

roots endingin
monosyllabic

(23,41). (Note
2,

"

^ t, except ft*sri,to
laugh,must take ^

ftRsm*,to

$ftsi,to
4. All

"

rest

^f,except ^

Pan.

in the Desiderative.

df,to fly(22,72

vu.

(24,24);

to
"jjnw,

Aorist

These

2,

36). (Note

"

the

snu, to flow

and
26,26. anuddtta),

vu.

2,

(24,23;

not

31,9); ^rw,

to sound
TSJfoAt/,

(24,29),takes ^"

*J stu, to praise,and *}sw,

Parasmaipada. Pan.

refer to
figures

mix

praise(24,26; 28, 104?);

T9JJkshnu, to sharpen(24,28).
(Pan. vu.

(24,22).

to
roots ending in *5u, except *fyu,
monosyllabic

to sound

attend (21,31)*; fa 4vi,togrow

74-)

roots ending in
monosyllabic

3. All

^f[d.

to pour,

take

in

(24,27);

Parasmaipada
"

in the First

72.)

inWestergaard'sRadices LinguaeSanscrit*,1841.
Dhatupaflia
Y

164
5. All

vn.

2,

take

Desider. (Pan.vn.

In the Benedictive

8. Of roots

^5

ending in
loose

(Pan.

take

to go, take

(28,136);

(Pan. vn.

ri and

i in the

beginning

43).

2,

ai, ^fto.
roots
above, all monosyllabic

ri,must

take

not

ending in

i.

(26,78; 27, 15).

be able

(23, 27);

^f^pach,to cook

ch,

and

ending in cjfJc,TfT^fak, to

much, to

may

mentioned

exceptions,as

vowels, except the vowels


7. Of roots

take

may

in TJ e,

ending

monosyllabic

few

2,

Atmanepadaverbs ending in

First Aorist

and

roots

with
Thereforej

(Pan. vn.

to hold, and ^n,


49). ^ dri,to regard,"jc?An,
(Pan.vn. 2, 74, 75).

conjunctconsonant

44). ^ bhri,to carry,

ri take

2,

i in the Desider.

with

^J

70).

^ svri,to sound, may


^

in ^T sya, all verbs in

Cond.

in the Fut. and

332-

choose (31,38).

roots ending in ^Jn", except ^t?n,to


monosyllabic

Important exception:

6. All

i.

INTERMEDIATE

THE

*^vach,to speak (24,55); ipf

to leave
to sprinkle
(28,140); ft^n'cA,
fa^sich,

(29,4);

'fa^wcA,separate(29,5).
to

9. Of roots

to
ending in "^chh, Tf^prachh,
(Pan. vn. 2, 75).

10.

Of roots

sanj,to adhere (23,18); ^(bhaj,


sacrifice

(23,33);

(29,7);

to let off
*n^sn)',

Desider.)j

or

29,

Of roots
to eat

endingin

find

to be
f"^khid,

28, 132);

to know
endingin V(dh,
*3p(budh,
aww, to love (26,65),to keep
^5T5J

strike (26, 72);

hungry (26, 81), except


vn.

2,

52);

to
^JVswdA,

achieve (27, 16) ;


13. Of roots

ending in

70); likewise
14. Of roots

Part.

clean

2,

"c. (26,61
distressed,

(28,137);

droop (28,133) ; ^
24,

56);

and

Ger.

sad,to perish

to cut
fo^bhid,

(29,2);

swear

ASlfVlr4l
kshudhitvd (Pan.

to succeed
ftr^sz'dA,

(26,83); ^TTVsadA,

to anoint

to

(31,37).
(24,2),except the Fut. and Cond.
to think

(23,31

(Pan. vn.

2,

(26,67).

to pour (10,i ?); 1"{srip,


fft*{tip,

are

28, 142

(26,80); ^1 kshudh, to be

be angry

to go

^^drip,which

ad,

to fight
(26,64); ^ rudh,
Ijftyudh,
to grow
(26,71; 27, 16);
(29,i); TT^rddh,

'Q^badhj*"[man,

f"{lip,

to strike (28,
(26,79); "g^tac?,

(23,14); Jf^tap,to heat

26, 59); 'SRvap, to

to
to reach (27,14); f^Jcship,
sleep(24,60) ; ''Srr^ap,

fflj/npand
vii.

(26,82);

r^w,JR^han,to kill

(23,16; 26, 50); STU/op, to


to cut

skand, to step (23,10);

(26,63);
off

"WfVrTkshudhita

^6awc/A,

\p,

not

13;

"^fcrwdA,to

to bind

its substitute

endingin

svap, to

(28, 4, except

kshud,to pound (29,6).

T5H*

Of roots

^H("ya^, to

sad, to

(28,138? 29,

chhid, to divide (29,3);

with

bake

(29,16).

^^

to sweat
to be (26,62); "fe^sm'd,
"fa^w'eJ,

to
(28, 134); f^vid,

12.

(26,60) ;

to go

i); "55nud, to push (28,2

f^

(23,8);

d, "^ had, to evacuate

(24,i)j ^pad,

29, 12);

separate

(26,68),to join

to bend
to break (28,123);V[*{bhuj,
to dip (28, 122); *^*{ruj,
Tr^majf/,

to break
(28,124),to protect(29, 17); lfc(bhafij,
1 1.

f^w/, to

(25,n);

23); [Kas'.
^mri;]; *[*{yuj,
(26,69; 28, 121); ^^bhrajj,to

not

(23,30;

colour

worship (23,29); T^ranj,to


to clean
f^^nij,

in the Desider.

leave (23,17); ^T5T

to meditate

(25,12;

28,9,

to

^i

take

must

to
(23,7); fV^tyaj,

embrace

ending in *(J,
W^svanj,to

36, 58); TS^yo;,to

(28,120). It

ask

(28,139); ""^chhup,

generallyincluded, may

throw

to touch
take

sow

(23, 34);
(28,5) ;

(28,125). (Note
",

"

according to Pan.

45.)

15. Of roots ending in "T bh, t"(rabh,to desire (23,5); ""*Xlabh,to take

n).
coire(23,

(23,6) ;

T*T yabh,

_$ 333-

go

Also

W^kram,

to nourish

please(26,75) ;

(23,12);

2,

73). If^cm,

Desider. Par. (Pan. vn.

to
^J^rfftl,

(26,73

J^dusA,to

distinguish
(29,14);

$J(daih",

(23,19);

see

; not

28, 6);

touch

(28,128);

to shine
ffr^tvish,

pervade(25,13),to

17,

(28,3);

to

(28,131).

(23,21

to

2,

2, 36).

28, 127); ft^rftV,show

draw

to

50)j

separate (31,54; not 17,

to dry (26,74); Tfttush,


to
Jjf{4ush,

(26,77); fjf^uA,

to embrace
fe^tftsA,

spoil(26,76);

to pound
fq^pish,

(23,32) ;

(29,15).

endingin ^s, ^^t?as,to dwell (23,36),except Part. ^Cnn; ushitah and Ger.
TfoFTTushitvd (Pan. vn. 2, 52) ; T"^ghas,
to eat (17,65, as substitute for W^cwJ).

19. Of

20.

incline

(Pan. vn.

Put.,Cond., and

(20,26) ;

ft^vtsA,

hate (24,3) ;

47)J ^push,

to rub
iJSJmrtf,

(28,130);

fg^dvish,

to

^*

in Aor.

Par.

step (13,31),in Atm. (Pan. vn.

to
endingin "^sA,
ff^krish,
to

165

t.

(26, 70;
fo"S^Ji/,
hurt
to
to
(28, 126);Fpjaprtf,
(28,126); ft^rtf,

to enter

Of roots

^
of

to be small

18.

^"

to

(23,20) j
to hurt

before

to shout
1{4,"J^Jtri^,

17. Of roots ending in


to bite

three take

these

it takes

(23,13),but

58).

But

(23,15).

cease

*^ro,
T^ram, to play (20,23) ; "T^nam,to

in

ending

16. Of roots
to

INTERMEDIATE

THE

roots

Of roots
to

ending in ^ A, ^? ruA, to

sprinkle(23,23) ;

f"^dih,to
" 333- Other

^
(23,35); J^

vah, to carry

lih,to lick (24,6);


(24, 5); fc5^

smear

there are, which

roots

dah, to burn

(20,29) ;

grow

must

take

not

duh, to

not

17,

87);

naA, to bind (26,57).

(24,4;

milk

fo^miA,

(23,22) ;

only of

in certain

the

general

tenses.

A.

In the future

(formed by

and
desiderative,
take

", if used

the

Desid.
B. In

the

td\ the future and

in
participle

in the

to shape, Fut.
gr^^/ip,

ITT

Parasmaipada. (Pan. vn.

"h rWI

Fut.
kdlptd,

(V|^i%rn

Part.
cJiiklipsati;

and

future

conditional

2,

2, 15;
2,

(formed by

44),the verb

*ya),the

must
Jf^klip

not

60.)

oF^rfif kalpsyati,
Cond.

t^akalpsyat;

"" rn"

giTKkliptah.

(formed by

in IT ta,the following
four
participle

(Pan. vii.

(Pan. vu.

cT ta

conditional

**T

verbs must

sya),the
not

take

desiderative base, and

*, if

the

pada.
used in the Parasmai-

59.)

Desid. rq^rofn
vivritsati;
Fut. "TO^favartsyati,
Cond. ^GRF!(avartsyatj
to exist,
^!(vrit,
Part. ^: vrittah. (Pan. vn.
2, 15; 56.)
Desid. fq^wfn
vivritsati;
g
rowt"ut.'5j"fKvartsyati,
^(vridh,to
Cond.^31Q3(avartsyatj
Part. ^: vriddhah.
Desid.
Cond. ^^4i^^asyantsyat
;
^^syand,to
drop,Fut. ^Wft syantsyati,
Part.
sisyantsati;

5J^ ^tc?A,to hurt,

t"iq;

Fut.

Mritsati; Part.

syannah.

fritartsyati,
Cond.
314*)

^!M, ^n,

(Pan. vn.
to
^L"Att,

2,

Desid.

sriddhah.
^fSf:
in the

C. In the desiderative bases, and

7w,

^^i"3i^
asartsyat;

^rl,

and

hi
participle

?T^^"A,to

take, and

W /a,

roots ending in
monosyllabic

^uA, to hide,do

not

take

i.

12.)

bubhushati;
be, "yjjrfiff

Part.

^IH

MtftaA.

f=H^H|fAjighrikshati;
rule,cf.Pan.
Part. *prfa:$rn"AftaA
(longf by special
ITfi/rraA,
Pan. vn.
Part. *J":gudhah (cf.
2, 44).
5f guh, 'SfflQfftjughukshati;
See
in
and
liable
to exceptions.
are
" 337. Pan. vn.
(Verbs ending
^rt
*J0ri

vn.

2,

2, 37).

38-41.)

formations.
Participial

D.
i.

Roots

which

it in the

may

be without

in If ta.
participle

the ^

"

in any

one

of the

generaltenses,

must

be without

166

THE

in K
(Remark that the participle

disposedto

INTERMEDIATE

the admission

ta is most

7T ta,

(Pan. vn.

""Zw,to

to

to

form

(Pan.vn.

form

protect,may
its

which

2,

(Pan.vn.

TOTt
participle

native

by

in the

future

verbal

base.

n.)

2,

(Except^pu, "

W^M

as

335, II. 6.)

gdh-i-

44) the future

If ta

marked

as

(Pan.vn.

with

or

"

\t do

or

take

not

16.)

2, 14,

wJ^ic^

"T na

take

not

(Pan.vii.

2,

lagnah.

and

for specialreasons

in

specialsenses

i.
See " 332,

n.)

2,

14.) See " 332,

shake; ^"art
Jcshubdhah, if it

to

technical ^TT

f^Ilft
fritvd. (Pan.vii.
fritah,T'JdqT

to swell ; SHT: sMwaA.

*frfWT#qp-i-fa
or

f"i(*"*=!
svinnah.
t;i nishvidd);Ptsrq*

do

go ;

2,

(marked as vTlwil olaji};H^J

in
of Participles

"^prkshubh,

the participle

guptak only.

K ta.

(marked

*"to be ashamed

"fa"w,

44) the

grammarians are

in
participle

to sweat
'c?,

f^Tsri,to

3["before
weaken

to

its participle
TT2't gddhah only.

hence

List

tend

^Wt vri-tah,'^nm^vri-tavdn,
^r^Tvri-tvd.

enter,may

hence

5ft

do not take

which

u.)

2,

"ft, to cover,

Roots

terminations

cut, cg"T:
Zw-wa#,"""HI"llu-navdn, eSFTT Zw-taa.

2.

other

perfectis most
reduplicated

5[".)

of

join,JIT:yu-tah,^jf^l^yu-tavdn,
fFTTyu-tvd.(Pan.vn.

yu, to

before

nor

the

opposed,as

roots endingin ^fu, ^u, ^n", ^ri,


Monosyllabic
in

333-

2.

18.)

(Pan. vn.2,
churning-stick.

the

means

2.

See " 332, 15.

T3"^ svan,

to

; ScJTlfJ

to be near;

fTOT virebh,to

sound

vdh, to labour
,

to

^T^ard, with
2,

with
^I^arc?,

vddhah, if it means

try;

grow
oFlft

if it means
Jcashtah,

the prepos.

note.

effort.

an

bold.

(Pan. vii.

2,

19.)

arrogant.

strong. (Pan.vii.

HfY"|"sJ
parivridhah,if it

indistinct.

excessive.

^"1 dhrishtah,if it means

means

without

tVsfUjcU
visastah,if it means

difficultor

2,

20.)

lord. (Pan.vii.

means

2,

impervious. (Pan.vii;

ghushtah,if it does not mean


TJT?t
^ saw, f^Twi,f^1t?i,
^rfharnnahj

21.)
2,

proclaimed.(Pan.vii.

22.)
2,

23.)

*i*i"5t
samarnnah, plagued.(Pag.

24.)
^rfa aZ"My WIWi

the prepos.

(ascausative),WJ

mid, to
f*fc"

be

by technical

vrittah,if it

means

abhyarnnah,if it means

^TT

a.

or

fa^J minnah

near.

(Pan.vii.

2,

25.)

read.

soft,though having a technical

meditah
as
"iP^nJ
participle
marked

7g"ldridhah,if it

to manifest

vii.

fetatt viribdhah,if it refers to

; ^PSTt

parwrih, to
to

darkness.

attached.

Tfife:
phdntah, if it means

praise;

to grow
drill.,

to be confident
,

dhvdntah,if it means

lagnah,if it means

W?T*

to prepare

the mind.

speak indistinctly
mUshtah, if it means
; ffn?J

mlechchh,to

it

^flTtsvdntah,if it means

to sound

13^ dhvan,
^,

sound

(Pan.vii.

W
2,

a,

may,

17).

The

in certain senses, form


same

appliesto

its

all verbs

-$

Intermediate

"

precedingrules, prohibitingin

The

334.

generaltenses, do
which

omit

must

not

fact,has the

in

Perfect.
Reduplicated

i in the

i in all other
of the

use

prohibitedfrom

affect the

takingit.

number

of roots

reduplicated
perfect.Most
general tenses, do

i become

These

in the

omit

not

2,

2.

^ sri,to

3.

^ bhri,to bear,f$3

4.

^vri

J5^

flow, tjt^

srw, to

J^T

8.

to hear, ^^^T 4usru-va.


^ ^irtt,

IQ tne

ram-rat,

Atm.

vavri-vahe,

^p^

SMsrw-ra.

second

susro-thn.
3JH"ftVJ

perfectPar. the \
singular of the reduplicated

person

i before

(The

form

"*"H

is considered the

vavar-tha,however, being

rightform.

See No. 142, in

Dhatupatha.)

the

In roots

endingin vowels, which

2, 61.

vn.

See " 332, where

*TT

yd, to

go ; Fut.

3. In roots

ending in

roots

are

are

given.

and

having

in the future

^?

an

Pan.
(iTT
td),

for their radical vowel, which


2, 62.

vn.

See

are

" 332, where these

given.

Tf^pach,to
he
"pH(V
krishati,

(Bharadvajarequiresthe
^

roots

Pan,
(ifT
td),

in the future

ydtd; 4JJJIVJ yayd-tha.


chiche-tha.
^UT
chetd; P'l'S'q

Mini

consonants

without ^i
necessarily

without 5["
necessarily

are

these

f% cA",to gather; Fut.

i in the

cook

drags;

Fut.

^Kfpaktd;

Fut.

ctff
T karshtd; 'qcuPHN

of

omission

future
periphrastic

sf'H'q
pechitha,besides

allows

chakri-va; but

^pf

samchaskaritha.

tush^o-tha.

before.
eightroots, enumerated
restricted to the Veda, ^^^vavaritha

without

pers. dual

dudro-tha.

the

But

absolutely

be left out,
necessarily

*T /Aa must

2.

only are

susro-tha.
tjtaTiv

In

choose, Par. ^^

g*W

dudru-va.

7.

1.

perfect. So general,

eightroots

vavri-she.

6. "5 dru, to run,

335-

most

just enumerated

babhri-va.

tushtu-va.
?*Jstu, to praise,IJJ^T

"

of the verbs

or

sasri-va.
tlljq

go,

and ^rnVi*),
to
ty^vrirl

^"4
5.

for all

13),

If kri, to do, (unless it is changed to ^f skri),ist


t"^"a(Vq samchaskariva; 2nd pers. sing.t^WX**

1.

the ^

it in the

that
perfect,

(Pan. vn.

are

167

J i.

INTERMEDIATE

THE

335*

i after roots

(Pan. vn.

2,

papaktha;

MH"T^

HMTH

with

papak-tha.

chakarsh-i-tha.

only,which

ri

63),except

root

are

necessarily

ri itself. Hence

besides
iyajitha,
^MPiiN

he

^I" iyashtha:

^ftnryayitha,f'UfilVIchichayitha,
"c.)

also

All other

4.

and

so

verbs ending in consonants


do

all verbs

with which

with

any other radical vowel

i is either

optional or

but ^

a,

require^*,

in the
indispensable

future

(ltt
to).

t?nn,

t?arane,

Su.

^t?r"n,(34,8) SHN"jJ

dvarane, Chur.

rrt",

sambhaktau, Kri.

(31,38) WW
t The

(27,8) ^TTET

form

"H(M vavarivay which Westergaard mentions,

the rule of Panini


root "^vri,

being restricted by the

commentator

may

be

derived from

to ^Trrin and

another

168

THE

^ i.

INTERMEDIATE

Exceptions:
In

1.

and ^S^drif,
the
Iffisrij

^(srij,TO?
The

2.

omission is optional.

UtjfaTVI
sasrijitha.

sasrashtha, or

^rf% atti,^rflfarti,awfffvyayati must

verbs

^Tad, ^nf^Tdd-i-tha,(exceptionto
^ri,

""! i

Tables showing the


and

No.

in which

cases

No. 2.)

the intermediate

the Terminations

of the

^i. " 338, 7.

3.)

fa"M PHV vivyay-i-tha,


(exceptionto

^T vye,

Root

fvq dr-i-tha,
to
(exception

take

so-called

No.

2.)
be omitted

i must

General

between

the

Unmodified

Tenses, originally
beginningwith

Consonant, except *^y.

" 336. In these tables Jtta

"

tive ; ^T sya

for the

for the First Aorist

Future

f"3

I. For
Omit

stands
and

Conditional

all General

Before Ttta,
In

In

fti^sich,
fc5^lin

y^klip,if

332.
WT td:

Parasmaipada. "

333, A.

by

fwfri and

verb

are

others enumerated

in

the

In eightverbs,mentioned
Before "Htha, 2nd

pers.

All verbs of " 332


All verbs of

J^ guh. "

333, C,

marked
a

with ^TTa,

\t,

*.

generallist," 333,

~"u

or

D.

Perfect,
Reduplicated

"

"

334.

sing.:

ending

1 ifwithout ^ "

in vowels

endingin

332

with

consonants

Optional insertion
" 337' F"r practicalpurposes,
would

be wrong

to

the

use

different grammarians,

or

as

was

intermediate

the usage

stated

or

may

student may

The

be

^Ta

as

radical vowel

in the

future.
/periphrastic

of ^ i.
before,it

is sufficient to

know

^*,-for in all other cases, whatever

of different writers,it is safe to insert the

As native grammarians, however, have been

grah, and

^ i,
Before all terminations,except ^C ire

must

rt,
^

^, ^

native grammarians

II. For

2.

"3!u,

ta:

All verbs which

b. The

333, B.

."

verbs ending in T,
monosyllabic

5. Before Tf

1.

if Parasmaipada. "
^?(vrit,
^fivridh,
l"^syand,
yfts^idh,

In

a.

rTT td,

'Q^san,^sya,

Before 7f ta, ^H^ saw

Omit

Future
Periphrastic

Tenses, except the Reduplicated


Perfect,

"

3. Before IT ta, *R^san,*?? sya

4.

td for the

; HT

\ *',
In the verbs enumerated

2.

Participle;
ff^san stands for the Desidera-

lin for the Benedictive.

Before Ttta, *fi^sare,


^(sya,

1.

for the Past

at much

collect the

painsto

inserted,a short abstract of their rules may

cases

when

the

i.
in which

here follow,which

i is optional.
"

^i

the early

safely
pass by.

technical "ZRu shows that in the other generaltenses the

it

views of

337, 1. 2.

170

THE

5. Before the gerundialtermination


In verbs

having

technical

T^T tvd

(Pan. vn.

"31u.

Slftfri
I samitvd
3I*/am (flQgamu),
6. Before the gerundialtermination

f^P^RK

or

^pu.

(Pan. vn.

sdntah
quiet,^itcH

fill,
^jSt
purnah

^Ttpur,to
c?"5,to

touch,

to

chhad, to

to

^"

in

D.

333,

damitah.
^f*Trf:

or

note) :

2,

(Pan.

vii.

2,

27.)

puritafi.
"%ftjK

or

dastah

or

or

cover,

aw^aA

hasten,

t jnapitdh.
^rPTff

or

^PunJ rushitah. (Pan.vii.

or

2,

28.)

^i(*irtt
amitah.

or

turnah
IT^J

rqf^nJtvaritah.

or

hush, to shout, UMV*


D.

take

or

to go, WrH

am,

It must

^rf'Trf
J samitah.

or

hurt, ^TT?i rushtah

i, to

klishtah.
fjf":

(see also "

"ffwa.;

or

inform, ^Ijnaptah

to

or

t ddsitah.
^iftnf
*Mlf$M:spdsitah.
^"re: spashtah
chhannah
chhdditah.
"(i(^fT!
"SfflfJ

perish,^cTJ

If ta

cH ddntah

$T*T/am, to

50.)

%*[dam,to tame, ^f

In the verbs

in IT ta
participle

74).

2,

terminations
7. Before the participial

"^

the

51.)

2,

desiderative(Pan. vii.

the

^T^f\ sdntvd.

^^Alpavitahor "JTTt
putah.
T$t31putvd,

pavitvd or

n\*tt*\

2,

56.)

2,

ffrfspf:
klisitah
f^ifT
klishtvd,

Misitvd

In the verb

or

r^T tvd and

(Pan. vn.
fjfR^klis.

In the verb

$ 338-

^ i.

INTERMEDIATE

sahghushtahor

sanghushitah.(See " 333,


^'^PMdt

2.)

"9"^^s"an,to sound,

vti

taintdsvdntah

or

vfi^rrtn;dsvanitah.

(See "

333,

D. 2.)

^mA,

to

(Pin.vii.

^?J
rejoice,
2,

or

^f^W"hrishitah,if applied to horripilation.

29.)
*.
honour, "smF*frrt
apachitahor ^TH^irMnt apachdyitah

apa-chi,to
8. Before the

hrishtah

of the reduplicatedperfectin ^[pas.participle

In the verbs

TH

to go,

#am,

^fH1
H "ll^jagmivdn

^"^ Aaw, to kill,^ P"q \J(jaghmvdnor

vividivdn
PqP3i\crir|[
V, to enter,WV%^T"^ vimswdn
dadrisivdn
ris,to see, ^"T^TTP^

to know,
ia7.,

or

Necessary
" 338- ^
nor

"

be inserted in all verbs

allowed
only optionally

be mentioned
i.

must

Before

(Pan. vii.

2,

"f*l"4

[^jaganvdnf.

i^T^jaghanvdn.

M
or

vividvdn.
f"cfc|g^

or

f%Pq*a l*^vivisvdn.
^STSTT*^dadrisvdn.

insertion

in

or

of ^

i.

which, as stated before,it is

neither

prohibited,

35). Besides these,the followingspecialcases

may

of reduplicated
perfect:
^^pas, participle

In the

verbs

In the verbs
^TST

as, to

In the verb

Other

ending

verbs

in ^TT d

reduced

to

(Pan. vii.

2,

67).

singlesyllablein the

*TT pd,

perfect(Pan.vii.
reduplicated

eat, SsiI P^|"(


i*^dsivdn.

to
fR^ghas,

eat, "i

P"j
"( \*{jaksMvdn.

rejectit.
Pan.

vii.

2, 30.

f Pan.

vii.

2, 68.

2,

67).

-$
2.

THE

34*.
T*T*yaof the future

Before

and

conditional

In all verbs ending in ^ri, and

'

Parasmaipada (Pan.vii.

the

in

the verbs
to

fFJstu,

(Pan.vii.

2,

In

70).

JTl^am, if used

in

58).

a,

(fa^sick)
:

the

^J stu, *Jsu, ^jdhH in

Parasmaipada (Pan.vii.

72). Thus

2,

(First Form), ^unlfqM astdvisham;

Aorist

praise,First

171

han

of the firstaorist
3. Before the terminations
In

^ i.

INTERMEDIATE

but

from
in the

Atmanepada, vmflfM astoshi.


4.

the terminations

Before

TpT^am,

of the desiderative

if used in the

6. Before FTT tvd

in

(Pan.vii.

termination
participial

^^

2,

74.)

(Pan.vn.

K ta.

2,

afich,to worship;

52-54.)

"y^/u"A,

only:
old ;

^[jrt,

7. Before iftha, 2nd

W^arf,

pers.

eat;

to

2,

55.)

sing,reduplicatedperfect:

to go;

thus

3[ i

vye, to

Wlty"!
dditha,against" 335,

cover.

3;

PqcMPM^ vivyayitha.

335, 3, note;

vowel

The

to cut. (Pan. vn.


'^{vras'ch,

^n,

""n(V'H
dritha,"

J 339.

75); and

(Dhatupatha 28, 22).

to grow

In

a/.

^HT

2,

58).

2,

to dwell; Ijftkshudh,
to hunger;
'3R(vas)

to confound

In

^*^otij,and

n,

tvd and the

5. Before the gerundialWT

fR^prachh (Pan.vii.

Parasmaipada (Pan.vn.

ftiRsmi, ^pu, ^

In the verbs

In the verbs

(*P^"an):

and
^f krf, *lffrt,
^ dji,^dh^-i,

In the verbs

inserted

is

liable

never

to

Guna

or

Vriddhi.
Insertion

J 340. Long ^ i

be

may

long \ i.

the

of

substituted

for the

subjoinedto

short when

the
ending in ^" ri,also to ^ vri,except in the reduplicated
perfect,
aorist Parasmaipada,and the benedictive. (Pan.vii. 2, 38-40.)

verb

nrfaT taritd

Per. Fut.
teritha

TtftriT
"c.; but
taritd,

or

I. Aor. Par.

3rd

^ vri;

Aor. Par.

" 341.
or

c(0in varita

Per. Fut.

or

avdrishuh
^SHifoj:

In the desiderative and

pers.

sing.

plur.^H H IPI.M:atdrishufi; Bened.

pers.

tarishishta
3rd pers. sing,'rffimlif

Perf. 2nd

*.

Tfcn

varitd; but

Perf. ^^^"v| vavaritha;

'cifWtevarishishta.

Bened.

in the aorist Atm.

and

benedictive Atm.

these verbs may

^[* (Pan.vii. 2, 41-42),which, if used, is liable to be changed to ^ t; not,


I can judge,in the benedictive Atmanepada.
fnii(V."irir
titarishati ; rddOMPrt titarishatijfrtiflSfif
titirshati;Aor. Atm.

not have

may

however,

far

as

"fftri; Des.

as

^fift^ atarishta,and ^Ti^" attrshta; Bened.


atarishta,

PvHl9 tarishishta,

tirsMshta.

vjij

Des.

fqqfVMcivivarishate; feiqOHfivivarishate; ^^
avarishta, ^Tq"1s avarishta,and

vuvurshate; Aor. Atm.

qf"M*l8varishishfa,

^T^TTavrita; Bened.

vrishishta.

The

verb

?^ ^rraA,too,

and
desiderative,

?T^grah;
*

The

certain tenses

Per. Fut.

forms

takes

the

of the

long

the
i, except in the reduplicated
perfect,

passive.(Pan.vn.

2,

il^HI grahitd; Inf. ij^lij


grahitum;

given

starishishfa,
are

in

the

wrong.

Calcutta

edition of Panini

(See Pan.

vn.

2,
2

39.)

37.)
but Perf

vn.

jagrihima.
"fjf^T

2, 42,

MOMlV

varishishta,

172

PARADIGMS

" 343-

PERFECT.

REDUPLICATED

OF

Perfect.
Periphrastic

$ 342.
form

Verbs

^rf dm
perfectby affixing

their

abstract

in wr

noun

perfectof

$325,cannot

which, accordingto

d)to

form

base,and

known, ^hWHehTCj

make

reduplicated

^J?, ^ira, chakdsdmchakdra, babhdva,dsa.

shine,^cinflM"*K,
to

feminine

babMva, dsa.

?,to wet, "g^NcFR, 'sr*$$,^rrer, unddmchakdra,

bodhaya,

this the

addingto

^r?(as, to be*

to do, *^bhuf to be, or


"cfkri,

?,to

of

termination

(an accusative

the verbal

reduplicated
perfect,

^TTH,

^^,

bodhaydmchakdra,

babhuva, dsa.
After verbs
is

which

but
Atmanepada,

conjugatedas

Hence

from

*j\rff edhate,

edh-amchakre

^VT^sR

passiveall

the

of Guna.

admit

never

but

which

chakdra

in the

Parasmaipada.

take

and
the

dsa.

^TW

Atmanepada.

it before

^srf
dm;

desiderative bases

(" 339.)

bubodhish, desiderative
^J^frfVr^

But

follow

Guna,

take

can

base
frequentative

w^bobhu,

^ bM

and

^*j$ babhtiva

verbs
auxiliary

three

bases

Intensive

" 343.

as

^^

"fkri

grows,

"N

In

he

verb
Atmanepada,the auxiliary

in the

used

are

of

*^bM, ^T^T^cUR

base

of

bobhavdmchakdra.

"c. bubodhishdm^V budh, '^sTlfVjMMohK

"c.

Paradigms of the ReduplicatedPerfect.


Verbal

i.

bases

in

^TT a,

requiring intermediate

i, to

i.

place.

PARASMAIPADA.
SINGULAR.

ATMANEPADA.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL,

DUAL.

PLURAL.

DUAL.

dadhimd

dadhtf

dadhivdhe

dadhimdhe

dadhdthuh

dadhd

dadhisM

dadhdthe

dadhidhvt

dadhdtuh

dadhuh

dadht

dadhdte

dadhirf

dadhwd
or
"

2t1

\3$W
^u

3.

dadhati

Verbal

2.

dadhitha*

bases in

^i

and

^",preceded by

one

*ftni, to

(_Mti^

nindya

\ r*iH*(
nin"ha

or

consonant, and

i.
requiringintermediate "5[

lead.

ninyivd

ninyimd

ninyf

ninyivdhe ninyimdhe

Prj^fq:

frf^T

f"ff^^

f"i"Mi"i Prjf^^ or ""s(" ion)

nmyishf

ninydthe mnyidhveor-c

f*T^

f'f^T'if frfpsq^

niny"

ninydte

2.

L P*l"lP"4^wmay^a*
ninydthuh ninyd

3.

f*frfl}J
nindya

^*5*
P"i**i^[J
ninydtuh
*

ninyuh
" 335.

2^ and

" 335, 3.

ninyire

vy

"'

-$

PARADIGMS

343-

3. Verbal

bases

in

OF

REDUPLICATED

preceded by

ri,

and

consonant,

one

173

PERFECT.

requiringintermediate ^

t.

to hold.

Vdhji,

f ^VTT dadhdraor
dadhdra
[f^rt,

"prQ dadhdrtha

2.

4. Verbal

dadhrvod

dadhrimd

dadhrt

"r^3*

chakdra
chakdrtha

^RTO

^fSRi'C chakdra

3.

5. Verbal

bases in

^t

qiMM

^WTM

^T"w

dadhridhve'

dadhrirf

dadhrdthuh

dadhrd

dudhrishe

dadhrdtuh

dadhruh

dadhre"

dadhrdte
not

consonant,

one

or

admittingintermediate ^

^^

^*^j^

^"p*f^

chakrimd

chakrt

chakrivdhe

chakrimdhe

^BT*J*

lf"

^"^

^J"IN

1^'?

chakrdthuh

chakrd

chakrisht

chakrdthe

chakridhvf
^l^K
chakrirf

^^T

1'^'^

chakrivd

^3"^"

^"5*

^"

^J^iH

chakrdtuh

chakruh

chakre"

chakrate

\f,precededby

or

two

-dhtf

or

t.

do.

*" Art,to

2.

dadhrimdhe

dadhrdthe

bases in "^J/"/,
preceded by

chakdraor

dadhrivdhe

consonants,

and

intermediate ^
requiring

t.

"aft
krt,to buy.

J f^rWT
*" 1

\^%*\
._.

chikrdyaor
T

-T

chikrdya
chikre'tha

chikriyivd chikriyimd chikriye' chikriyivdhechikriyimdhe


fa fdiJJ
VJJ f^fjli^ f^f^if^ fcfsfiJJIVfn^f^ifm? or "^

or

-dhv"
[f^"r"4^ chikrayithachikriydthuhchikriyd chikriyisht
chikriydthe
chikriyidfivtor

'

3.

fWfliiiJ
chikrdya

6. Verbal bases in TM

or

fa"tHH$i r^fju^t f^f^W

P"ir""4in

chikriydtuhchikriyuh chikriyd

chikriydte
chikriyire"

"31u,

precededby one

or

two

yu, to

P^rj"rM"

consonants, and requiringintermediate ^i.

join.

J^MI"Iyuydoa

^^Pqq

^*jfaH iffl3

^^^q^

L^^0'yuydva

yuyuvivd

yuyuvimd

yuyuv"

yuyuvivdhe yuyuvimdhe

yuywsdthuh

yuyuvd

-dhv"
or
yuyuvishe' yuyuvdthe yuyuvidhve*

yuyuvdtuh

yuyuvuh

yuyuve'

or

7. Verbal bases in^M,

preceded by one

or

two

^^fq"i^

yuyuvirf

yuyuvate

intermediate ^".
consonants, and not admittingthe

*J stu, to praise.

L (H^

tushtdva

" 335" 2" and

tushtumdhe

tushtuvd

tushtumd

tushtuve"

tushtuvdhe

tushtuvdthuh

tushtuvd

tushtusht

tushtuvdthe tushtudhcf

tushtuvdtuh

tushtuvuh

tushtuvt

tushtuvdte

tushtuvirf

" 335, 3.

t If 3 yu is taken

from

Dhatupatfia 31,

9, it may

form

(See " 335,


JpffaywyrffAa.

Westergaard, Radices,p. 46, note.)


I Bharadvajamight

allow

tushtavitha
fJHfq'"|

even

againstPan.

vn.

2, 13.

2, and

174

PARADIGMS

8. Verbal

in

bases

REDUPLICATED

OF

^J ri, preceded by

consonants, and

two

" 343-

PERFECT.

intermediate
requiring

f f^tTR tastdra

nwf^q

'fi^cffiJH

HHT

cUtlTi,^

I fftrtX tastdra

tastarivd

tastarimd

tastare

tastarivdhe

tastarimdhe

tastardthuh

tastard

tastarishe

tastardthe

tastaridhve

tastardtuh

tastaruh

tastarg

tastardte

tastarirt

tastdrtha
"cTCcr^?

2.

9. Verbal

bases in ^T
cF

[^ofT^C

chakdra
chakaritha

^nKT^f

2.

intermediate
requiring

n,

kri,to

10.

3[*.

chakarivd

chakarimd

chakare*

chakarivdhe

chakarimdhe
H

^R^t

^^f^

^^Ttt^

-4 "hCI ^

chakardthuh

chakard

chakarishe

chakardthe chakaridhvt

chakardtuh

chakaruh

chakarts

chakardte

Verbal

bases in consonants,

"*R.SET
"e
or

chakarire'

intermediate ^[".
requiring

lf^
ijm^ tut6da

Verbal

ii.

^5*^^

33'V**

"$

ggfq^^

^4^*'^

tutudivd

tutudimd

tutudf:

tutudivdhe

tutudimdhe

tutuddthuh

tutudd

tutudishe

tutuddthe tutudidhvt

tutuddtuh

tutuduh

tutude

tutuddte

bases in consonants,

having

1J e, and

tutudire'

requiringintermediate ^

i,

to stretch.

I rift 11

tat

ana

or

1,4

|_fTfTrTtatdna
dMV(

2.

3.

tenivd

tenimd

tene"

tenivdhe

tenimdhe

tendthuh

tend

tenisht

tendthe

tenidhve

W^t

?T*f

tenuh

tene

tenitha

tatdna
ii(i"i"J

12.

rf"T^[J

Verbal

bases in consonants,

having Samprasarana, and requiring


^

TWyo/,
iyaja
J 5[^rr5f
i.

^TTT^1

or

*.

sacrifice.

^w

S^Wqtj

'^f^'H^

ijimd

tje

ijlvdhe

ijimdhe

^5f

^ftf^

i("TTT

^ftT^

ijd

ijisM

ijdthe

ijidhvt

^*fij*

t[5*

^"TTn

^f"R

tjdtuh

ijuh

tj"?

ijdte

yire

or

'\^f3[Hiyajitha
ydthuh
^Tflifiydja

to

*f"TT

\^lf*fiydja ijivd
J5pPH?iydshtJia ^'T^J

3.

-dhve'

scatter.

tud,to strike.

or

cJiaTcdra
or

f ^fom*.

".

stri,to spread.

UK

or

or

-dhve*

-$

PARADIGMS

344.

OP

REDUPLICATED

bases in consonants,

13. Verbal

175

PERFECT.

requiringcontraction, and

intermediate

i.

^"^ han, to kill.

J *! *4 1 ^\jaghdnaor

"^fiji-i

aiiHM

Ifn

flii^^

[ *\n"\jaghdna

jaghnivd

jaghnimd

jaghnt

jaghnivdhe jaghnimdhe

"fH
[fpfajaghdnthaoT
WIT^I
[ *\M PHVjaghanitha jaghndthuh jaghnd

jaghndtuh

jaghnuh

base

14. Verbal

**$yv"4babhuvitha

2.

"SfflT1^

1HIM

jaghnisht

jaghndthejaghnidhvf

jaghnt

jaghndte jaghnirt

babhuvivd

babhuvimd

babhuvt

babhuvivdhe

H"J5^;

^*"?

H"JJ^H

^"J5TM

babhuvdthuh

babhtivd

babhumsht

q'JJ^ufor^
babhuvdthe babhucidhv"or-dhi;"

babhuvdtuh

babhuvuh

babhuce

babhuvdte

AND

STRENGTHENING

J 344.

It

be

between
differ from

which

each

other

by

"^

The

by nasalization.
to

ri

dropping of

nasal.

be

strengthenedor

to

change

in

one

weakening, as,
and
far

intensives
as

for

are

cannot

be

only of

these

instance, all

will

minute

to

and

verbal

strengthenor

many

to

weaken

the

under

vowel,

placeby shortening,
by changing

to

^T

ir,

by Samprasarana, or

roots, however, which

weakened,
sets.

derivatives,

place chieflyby Guna, but,

takes

tinguish
dis-

details,to

by Vriddhi, by lengthening of

Some

derivative

which
(in the Atm.),

their bases

terminations.

enteringinto

consonants,

There

BASES

TENSES.

tendency either

weakening

before

ir, or,

babhuvirt

VERBAL

general tenses, moods,

specialcircumstances, likewise
or

THE

GENERAL

strengtheningtakes

The

base.

their

of

sets

OF

REMAINING

useful, without

two

babhuvimdhe

XII.

WEAKENING

SIX

THE

may

TfWT

^JbhH (irregular).

CHAPTER

IN

"lfHH"

and

which

therefore

resist both

are

cannot

liable

strengtheningand

bases, causatives, desideratives,

generallyhave

allow,previouslyto

either

by

their

been

as
strengthened,

taking the conjugational

176

STRENGTHENING

The

base

AND

1.

The

Future.

2.

The

Conditional.
Future.
Periphrastic

4. The

Benedictive

1.

2,

strengthened,and,

in
Participle

The

1.

The

Atmanepada.

ending in conson.
not
taking interm.
12. vn.
2, 42.)
n;

Gerund

ta

in

if

(unlessit

takes

(unlessit

takes

i).

3f*).

Passive.

4. The

Benedictive

5. The

First

6. The

Second

Parasmaipada.

Aorist,IV.
Aorist.

(Except verbs
Per.Fut.

strengthened.

in i"n tvd

3. The

Conditional.

Future.

intermediate

Base

is not

" 344-

BASES

weakened
possible,

5. The First Aorist,1. II.


(Except First Aor. II. Itm. of
verbs ending in conson.,
^ ri,or
"350-352.)
I. Root.

VERBAL

intermediate

3. The

Pan.

base

i.

(Except bases
^ ri, and
or

OF

The

is, if possible,

strengthenedin

^i.

WEAKENING

in

ri,"c.

" 364.)

Ben.Atm.

First Aor. I.II.

(Except bases ending in


not taking interm. ^ "'.)
cons,
Atm.

bhavishydti dbhavishyat

bU

bho

tud

tod

div

dev

chur

dchorayishyat chorayita chorayisMshtd


choray chorayishydti

krt

kar

bhavishishtd

dbhavishta

(tutsishtd)

dtautsit

ift^
dtotsyat

so

su

tottd

^P"nu
VHtjP"|*Mi^

^P^ifte

^"Hfl

ddevishyat

devisMshtd

ddevit

devitd

dkanshyat

karitd

^T^fhUT^

tTlrtT

dsoshyat

sotd

karishishtd

dkdrit

^dP"i*Ui^ fiPniti
dtanishyat

tan

tan

tanitd

tanisMshtd

%
kri

kre

dvekshydti

dvish

dkraishit

dkreshyat

ddvekshyat

dveshtd

1
dhaushit

dhoshyat

ho

hu

-..^-..1^

*H
rodh

rudh

Caus.

"F

Des.

^
kri

Int.

drautsit

drotsyat

^ToFRPH1^^

kdrayishydti dkdrayishyat kdrayita

WT
f^T^"^f%c|HfH^ttPrfwf^olftfH^ni f^offtf1^

chiMrsh

kri

rotsydti

"*i"^ ^"KP*i"MPff
kdray

kri

VUrUlfl

kdrayishishtd
fWohTT^tftv

chikirsUtd
chikirshishishtd
chikirshishydti
dchikirsUsJiyat

^"SftP^^n
-"(rfil^

"ei^unlPM'Mn ^wtftRfT ^rfTIPM'Oy

dchiktrsMt

-ef-qjn^f^

dchekriyishta
chekriyitdchekriyisMshtd
dchekriyishyata
chekrty chekriyishydte

178

guh

guh

BASES, "C.

VERBAL

OF

WEAKENING

AND

STRENGTHENING

J 345-

ghokshydti

dghokshyat

godhd

(ghukshishtd)

guhishydti

dguhishyat

guhitd

guhishishtd

or

srij

sraj

srakshydti

dsrakshyat

srashtd

mi

md

mdsydti

dmdsyat

mdtd

nas

nams

nankshydti

dnahkshyat

namshtd

srams

srams

sramsishydte dsramsishyata sramsitd sramsishishtd

bandh

bandh

bhantsydti

Base

II. Root.

not strengthened,

Ger.RTtoa,

dsrdkshit

dmdstt

mdsishtd

dbhdntsfa

Ben.

Passive.

Par.

Sec.Aor.

mrishtdh

mrishtvd

mrijydte

mrijydt

guh

guh

gudhdh

gudhvd

guhydte

guhydt

^f5*nr

^^if^

snj

srishtdh

srishtvd

srijydte

srijydt

f*ir^i

*i!*i^

*nmr

mitdh

mitvd

miydte

meydt

was

nashtdh

nashtvd

nasydte

nasydt

dnasat

srams

sras

srastdh

srastva

srasydte

srasydt

dsrasat

bandh

badh

baddhdh

baddhvd

badhydte

badhydt

ft

Pan.

vi.

4,

89.

Pan.

As to the long 3iM, see

10

or

vi.

Roots

4, 24.

which

w^srams

may
:

while

Pan.

But

"

vi.

marked

with

beginningwith
vrimhitd.
if it means

Or

i, 50.

vi.

guhitvd," 337,
'jf^r^T

thus drop their nasal,are


others which

Pan.

i, 60.

vn.

written

in the

1.

2.

Dhatupatha

with

written

retain their nasal throughout, are

their

nasal,

without

the

an

vowel, but not

to

to

53) :

its

nasal, even

affixes;

retain its nasal

in the

24, vart. 3,

4).

causative
The

same

"c. (Pan. vi.


T^fffrajati,

(Pan. vi.

anchitah,worshipped; otherwise

4,

30) and

^T3u

before

terminations

varhayati,but
^ij ^"t^ffT

intermediate

rajayati(Pan.vi.4,
sport; TJrfirfff

worship,must

^N^ff*

Or

before the

T^raw/,to tinge,may drop

drops its nasal before sdrvadhdtuka

II

Pan.

mdrjitvd,not Hf^r^Tmarjitvd.
^i, Hlf'Sfll

with

128.

38.

drops its nasal


(Pan.vi.4,24, vart. 1,2). ^f vrih,^fftvrimhati,

deformed

2"

i,

indicatory
^ i; ^f^ nad, "c. (Pan. vi. 4, 24 ; vn. i, 58). Two verbs thus
withstanding
by ^ i, c3fHlag and "fif^
kap, may, however, drop their nasal, the general rule notf^cfrfiTfT
burnt ;
if used
in certain meanings, f^^fTTT vilagitam,
vikapitam,

nasal,but

means

dghukshat

II. Atm.

and

mrij

mi

First AorJV.

without^*,

mrij

fa

dsramsishta

banddhd

dbhantsyat

Part.Wte,
without ^i.

dguhit

(i.e.before
root,like
4,

26).

or

vowel),
others,

if it
^^(anch,

^ i (Pan. vn.
^f^lfj anchitah, bent.

take the intermediate

aktah

some

d'T
sjfsg

-f 347.
Note"
their

The

beginning with

verbs

Per.
^fcmfdkujishydti,

to fear,
finery,

a),

^H"tfrntt,to

(Pan. i.

which

cover,

Fut.

do

may

marked

are

I.

2,

i).

Alftlfll
w"W(Pan. i.

Per. Fut.

w"5fqnivrnavitd

urnuvitdor
^Nijfqni
;
optionally

so

be

fT hif, to

(Pan.
*^f\J(dlcuttt

Aor.

";

strengthen

not

by *^flor ^n;

First
$fzdlkutitd,

before intermediate ^

Guna

takes

never

ku( (Dhatupatha 28, 73-108) do

terminations

before

base,except

bent, Put.

3"

179

AORIST.

3).

2,

CHAPTER

XIII.
AORIST.

J 346. We

formed

Aorists,one

this

"

in Sanskrit,
as
distinguish

can

take

the

J 347.

The

which

Augment,

First Aorist

nation,
termi-

terminations

the

Udatta, and, with

Imperfect.

in four different ways.

the First Aorist.

of

First Form.

1.

ATMANEPADA.

PARASMAIPADA.

^^ isham

^^

$ltft

^#

^^ishtdm^lishuh

In

and

root

by addingthe

always has

of the

is formed

Terminations

between

kinds of

two

Aorist.

terminations

the
modifications,

some

sibilant inserted

call the Second

we

Greek, between

another,formed

"

Aorists

Both

of

means

call the First,

we

base, this

to the

by

in

ishva
ishtam

^QR ishma

ishi
j^fa

^Tiishta

^T^ishthdh ^m"u

take the

all the

intermediate

in fact,by
differ,
the latter to verbs

^ i.

this

the

verbs

The

which

that

ishdthdm

^$4 ^

take

the former

is

Second

sam

^R

sva

sma

-(

or

If ta

4,

which

note.)

Wf^

^f\|svahi

smahi

\or^ITt thdh
^rsffl

^: stth

[or HT

verbs

First Aorist

s/m
sit

of the

tarn

-{

^IHI

[oriT^a

"

satam

the

liable to

verbs

are

(See$332,

re

part of

as

ATMANEPADA.

ft?si

idhvam

ishata

^ i stands

forms

or

Form.

PARASMAIPADA.

^TT

to
peculiar

^ i.

idhvam

or

this form

second

intermediate
reject

2.

ishmahi
^**if^

intermediate

first and

only,that

ishvahi

^'mniishdtdm

ishta

^S

this first set of terminations

because
terminations,

^^H?

THT sata

take,

180

J 348-

AOKIST.

Third

3.
There

verbs

some

are

terminations

taking the

terminations

usual

which

add

^ i, viz.

of the

"c.

They

are

before

root

after this ^ s,

which

^4 isham,

end

the

to

Aorist,and

of the

with

Form.

employ

the

conjugatedin

the

Parasmaipadaonly.
PARASMAIPADA.
s-i-sham

(forffSm sish(a)h)

s-ih

ftt"*i
s-ishva

ftro

fftf?s-ishtam

fav

(for
f^^^sish(a)t) faST s-ishtdm
Fourth

4.

Lastly,there
by ^

*,

u, ^

few

some

are

ri,which

take

s-ishuh
ftnf:

Form.

verbs, ending

in

^ s, f^sh,^ h, preceded
mediate
followingterminations,without an inter-

the

PARASMAIPADA.

tTTq

ATMANEPADA.

sdvahi

r"

*ITH

sava

T^T

sama

si

"TT^ vahi

^Trf sa/am

*TrT sata

$ 348. For
dldvisham

(Pan.vn.

For

final

For

medial

The

vowel,

vowel

Vriddhi

or

in

Form

of

the First

Parasmaipada*.

c3

Aorist.

/w, to cut,

Atmanepada. "^ hi,^r??f^f^ dlavishi.

in

both
(ifpossible)

Guna

vowel,

^Vf\ni dbodhisham

followed

in Par. if the verb

dkdnisham

; Par.

^r a,

by

beginswith

dkanisham
^rsfiftj^

f.

consonant

2,

to
5). "^l^wrwM,

cover,

(Pan.vn.

or

may

a,

not

may

Atm.

and

Par.

Atm. ^TTtfafadbodhishi.

singlefinal consonant,

in

7);

or

may

take

not

may

take

kan, to sound, ^ToFTAtm. ^rcfiftufa


dkanishi.
"F^T

Except f^f svi, to swell,^Tni*lTf^


asvayit; vTFIjdgri,to wake,

(Pan.vn.

santa

i).

Guna

initial

know

budh, to

2,

or

the First

vowel, Vriddhi

final

^K

W ta

or

Special Rules for

*^ dhvam

[ or
^TTirf
sdtdm

sadhvam

J f hah

Ml

'ttsan

f^?4

^TT^n 5"^aw

[ or
^tftsatdm

sathdh

~_

^fTHT^ samahi

or

Wilsat

s-ishta

(ksa).

^ i

r: sah

s-ishma

Vriddhi;

^"TT'

"

i.1 ojdgarit
f^

Wi ^"iTi^
aurnuvit,or

^TRV^J^aurndvit,
(Pan.
^rr^qRT^aMrwat?^
2, 6).
or

vii.

t Roots ending in ^c^aZ


to

burn,

(Pan.vii.
and

^'*n"ft?(djvdKt
(Pan.
2,

3). Roots ending in

verbs of the Chur

to
^f^grah,

throw,

2,

2).

^ A,^"",^y,the

class,roots with

dvyayitj "^TJTkshan,
^^ifl1?^
", to

vowels,

vii.

Likewise

hurt,

to

Parasmaipada ; ^"^jvalf

speak, and

to

to go
'Gfi^vraj,

to hurt,^R^"as,to
T5prjA;sA"m,

TJe, do not take Vriddhi

technical

to

in the

^vad,

roots

take, ^lf^J[^dgrahit
j
fQ^syam,
stt ;

Vriddhi

^:ar always take

or

sound,

breathe,

(Pan.vii.

2,

5).

to
TSR"*ftf{dsyamft;
'"F{vyay,

dkshantij "^^
^"SHUI1?^

svfls,

to

breathe,

to suspect, *Z(T?f\J(aragt
to minish, ^n*flf('f(jiunay(t
;
"3i"T^Mway,
TJl^rag,

shine,^ft

vet-

", to

according to the rules

on

desire, and
intermediate

^fr^Tdaridrd,to be
^ft.^[T
daridrd,
^
t ;

poor,

drop

their

final

-$ 35"5"

Guna

No

349.

181

AORIST.

placein desiderative

takes

bases,

Desid.

"^budh;

"

dbubodhishisham.
^TJ^tfvfrnt

Aor.

Intensives

drop

in

their final

^y.

dbebhidishi.
TO'^faf^ftT

bhuyishi.Denom.

is

^y

precededby

vowel,

in

*Jy may,

is left between

^y

the

to cut; Int. base 4"iv{bebhidy


Aor. Atm.
fal^bhid,
Aor. Atm. ^^jftrfa dbobe; Int. base "^j^bobhuy

^t.

*^bhd,

to

l"it*^namasy, worship ;

base

denominatives

must, certain

consonant,

intensive

If the

the intermediate

and

final vowel

precededby

if

^y,

to

VSprf^CR dnamasy-ishamor "8MHfiHM

Aor.

dnamas-isham.

" 350.

Vriddhi

^fhidsaisham
Pan.

i.

the First Aorist.

i); v*(pach, *rmfa(dpdkshU(Pan.vn.

2,

if
Atmanepada,

12);

2,

of

Parasmaipada. f^^kship, ^Brips


dkshaipsam; fyi",

in

(Pan.vn.

in

Guna

Form

the Second

SpecialRules for

otherwise

ends

verb

the

change

no

base

Terminations
in

ends

beginning with

short

vowel

^ri|Tf
dkshaip-tam,3.
f^^kship;
But

2.

dkrithdh,3. p.
sing.Atm. "H"$VJT:

p.

" 352.

The

pity,*f dhe,
terminations

roots

to

drop

except

nasals.

but

f^ 2r.

their ^*

Ex.

rt,

if the
p. dual

2.

of
plur.^fr%R
dkshaip-ta,
Atm.
sing,^fudkritayof
ifkri,
p.

dmamsta.

*HHW

feed,^ do,

cut, change their final vowels

to

Atmanepada(Pan.i.

of the

"^r^ becomes

"/^^, to stand, ^rc?a,to give,VT dhdy

FTT

(notin

^sth

or

consonant,

7, "31

Final

^T%"rf
dkshaip-tdmy 2.

p. dual

JRT^ mdnyate,

from

in

or

^ET st

z,

f^r si, ^r^tfodseshi

of vowel,

dkrishi.
fq^kship,^rftff^r
dkshipsi;^ "rz,^i^rfa

J 351.

in ^,

3).

2,

ffupdsthi-shdtdm. In the

17).

2,

into ^ i before the


\\\fald

sthd,3

WT

to
^rfe,
place,

to

updsthi-ta
;

the Second

Parasmaipadathey take

Aorist.

($368.)
" 353-

The

iftmi (mindti),
to hurt, fa

roots

decay,instead of taking Guna, change their final vowels


cl^fr
/*,to stick,does so optionally(Pan. vi. i, 50-51)*.
amdsta;

from

di, 'W^i^cf addstaj

Parasmaipada these verbs

take

the Third

aldsta

or

to

Atmanepada; and
and fa mi, "w*iiw
In

aleshta.

^^H?

the

Form.

its nasal

" 354" "%*{han,to kill,drops

*ftmi

from

Thus

c5^ /",^""iw

from

in the

into ^TTa

$ di,Atm.,

and

to throw,
(minoti),

mi

in the

Atmanepada (Pan. i.

2,

14); V^H

ah at a,

ahasdtdm, "c.

" 355- 'T^^ffm,to


^JT^cT

or

stshta

" 35^' ^
meanings;

or

drops

go,

yam
3";""n

^1*1 1 (Vi
M*T amdsisham

50.

The

Dr.

in

rule

same

Atmanepadaoptionally
(Pan. i. 2, 13);
applies to the benedictive Atmanepada
;

the

^t^fh?gamstshta.

Prof. Weber

Panini.

The

agamsta.

drops

its

2,

similar

Kellner,however, was

substitution of ^TT d takes

excepting in Sit forms.

15);

2,

its various

vpdyata, he espoused,OP

"JMi^n

16).

vol.
(Kuhn's Beitrage,
and

accordingto
optionally,

or
nasal, necessarily

udayata, he divulged(Pan. i.

updyamsta (Pan. I.
*

its nasal

vi.

p.

forms, and

right,as

102) blames
denies

will be

placewherever

seen

that

Dr.

Kellner

these

from

there would

forms

for

having

are

the commentary
otherwise

have

admitted

authorised
to

Pan.

vi.

by
i,

182

" 357-

AOEIST.

f 357.

to

nam,

ending

roots

in H

SpecialRules for

see,

cf. Pan.

They

(Pan.in.
" 361.

i,
The

which

roots

d,

in

or

remains

Form.

c^tli,to stick,in taking this form,

verbs

I hurt ;

TF^yam,to hold, T^rawi,to rejoice,

Form

this form

2,

of

73.)

the First Aorist.

end

must

in SI ^

this form

verbs, such

Other

remains

radical vowel

as

only if

to
(asto ^j(dri$9

any vowel

intermediate

rejectthe

takes
fig^sUsh

aslikshat.
^{f^renT

this form

the Fourth

take

which

Their

45.)
root

take

47),T{sh,1(s, ^ h, preceded by

i,

in.

be

must

^TT

^rr

Second

the

take

^Hlftreayamsisham, "c. (Pan. vn.

Aor.

bend,

$ 360. The

This

substitute.

verbs

in

end

(or ^Trt1! alaisham). " 353.

tf aldsisham
Three

Aorist

Ex. ^faifViMamdsisham, I threw, and

into ^SRT a.

their final vowels

likewise

the First Aorist.

the

of

their

as

of

verbs *ftmi, to hurt, fa mi, to throw, and

" 358. The

" 359.

form

Atmanepadathese

In the

unchanged.

change

take

which

diphthongs

taking this

verbs

Most

Form

the Third

SpecialRules for

z;

but

"

^T, ^n

a.

17"20;

332,

unchanged.
it means

and
"tjftpush

to embrace

sush,
Tjre

are

(Pan. in.

i,

46) ;

excepted.
specially

(" 366.)
" 362. The
(Pan. vn.

3,

to lick,TR^guh,
to anoint,fe^lih,
to
Z^duh,to milk, f^TeftA,
take in the Atmanepada

roots

73),may

If ta

gf]duhj

?4

^Trf sata.

"

They thus approach to


Ex.

^rf^vahi

thdh instead of *T*n* sathdh.

1RI

p.

sing.Atm.

^g'^Ttadugdhdh

3. p.

sing.Atm.

^^V

2.

1.

p. dual

2.

p.

Atm.

plur.Atm.

dhvam

of

tu^f^sdvahi.
TOI

sadhvam.

of the firstaorist in most, but not in all persons.

Form

the Second

instead

hide

adugdha

or

aduhvahi
^Ig3ffl"

^VTSpITt adhukshathdh.

or

'STV'^fTadhukshata.

^V^T^f^

or

^npl"!adhugdhvam

or

adhukshdvahi.

adhukshadhvam.
vi^isjSel

AORIST.

FIRST

First Form,
intermediate

with

a.

Verbs
Vriddhi

ending
in

in

3Ji-

vowel;

Parasmaipada, Guna

in

c" lu, to

cut.

Atmanepada.

PARASMAIPADA.

fq "*t dldv-ishva

^rcolPei'^T
dldv-ishma

1.

^T?5Tf^

2.

^Tc5T^J dldv-ih

^?rtlf^^dldv-ishtam

^Ic^Tf^F dldvi-shta

3.

^Ic^T^fTdidv-it

^051^81

dldvi-shuh
^TrtlPq^t

dldv-isham

^co

dldv-ishtam

ATMANEPADA.
1.

^Tc4'P"lfll
dlav-ishi

dlav-ishvahi
^TcoTqwif^

dlav-ishmahi
^?"5ft^Tf^

2.

^r5f?l"Ttdlav-islithdh

^Tc^r"i1miqTdlav-ishdthdm

^?c5T%l^dlav-idhvam

^rafel?dlav-ishta

^r^f^^TUT dlav-ishdtdm

^cofqmi

3.

dlav-ishata

or

"^-dhvam

-$ 362.

183

AORIST.

ending in

b. Verbs

Guna

wvbudh,

consonants;

know.

to

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada.

in

PARASMAIPADA.
1.

"vianPt"M
abodh-isham

^WTttV1^ abodh-ishoa

2.

^Bnfftfh
abodh-ih

W^tfVn?

3.

W^hrh^a"orfA-f/

^H""riP*4"i
abodh-ishtdm

abodh-ishtam

WqlP*!1!?abodh-ishma

W^fViB

abodh-ishta

abodh-ishu/i
^TTtfv^:

ATMANEPADA.
1

^BpfVfvftf
abodh-ishi

vi^P^t^p^abodh-ishvahi

^T^ftfv^Rf^
abodh-ishmahi

^"f\PM"iJabodh-ishthdh

^T^tfVmxjiabodh-ishdthdm

TO^ffVl**J
abodh-idhvam

^I^tfw

^ToTlfMmrff
abodh-ishdtdm

VH^PyMrf abodh-ishata

2.

3.

abodh-ishta

Second
without
a.

Verbs

ending in

Vriddhi

in

Form,

intermediate

consonants

i.

to
f^^ Ar^z/?,

Parasmaipada,no change

in

throw.

Atmanepada.

PARASMAIPADA.

vjtsj'^i
akshaip-sam

"fB|MS

2.

vj^tdjakshaip-sih

^T^fff
akshaip-tam(" 351)

^T!pT akshaip-ta

3.

akshaip-sit
v^^tilf^

^I^Trt
akshaip-tdm

^\^^lakshaip-suh

akshaip-sva

"s^K|^3kakshaip-sma

ATMANEPADA.
1.

^TTTSfftl
akship-si

^TT^T^f^ akship-svahi

""iPe$M3Hn"
akship-smahi

2.

vfPBj^xflJ
akship-thdh

^rft^Tnrt
akship-sdthdm

^T^Pf akshib-dhvam

3.

isfPsiN
akship-ta

^P^tiifli
akship-sdtdm

^TPnjtirt
akship-sata

b. Verbs

ending in
Vriddhi

in

vowels

(^,^ z, ^r, ^ ^);

Guna
Parasmaipada,

in

tftwi,

to lead.

Atmanepada.

PARASMAIPADA.
1

^Tn

*fanaisham

^In^

anaishva
anaishtam

"ci^**!
anaishma

2.

vf"iHiJ anaishih

^fn"

3.

^sH'fli^anaisAft

^T%1T anaishtdm

^Tn?

anaishta

*I^Jtanaishuh

ATMANEPADA.
1

2.

"SfrPHaneshi
^MiBit

3. ^fn"

aneshthdh
aneshta

c.

Vriddhi

Verbs
in

aneshvahi
vffiw^n^

^ti^P^

vt'imMi aneshdthdm

")H^anedhvam

vifiUmt aneshdtdm

^HMif

ending in

Parasmaipada, no

n;

aneshmahi

aneshata

^f Arz,to do.

change

in

Atmanepada.

PARASMAIPADA.
i

xt'cRm

akdrsham
akdrshih

--Scfciu^
akdrshva

rM=fl^ akdrshma

%M"*|5
akdrshtam

xM4l^ akdrshta

^nfinll
akdrshtdm

184

" 362,

AORIST.

ATMANEPADA.
1.

'^ifaakrishi

2.

^I^iV

3.

^T^irf a"rzta

I? akrithdh

vi

"fepm"fTakrishdthdm

^^f"

akrishdtdm

^TOi^TUT

d. Verbs

akrishmahi
fifc

akrishvahi
'ST^i^f^r

ending in

^TT

akridhvam

^TOi^ll

^?r a;

Atmanepada
only j

"ym

^r

da,

akrishata

give.

to

changed into ^

t.

ATMANEPADA.
1.

^Hl^iMadishi

^TT^^f^adishvahi

adishmahi
^?f^"^Tf^

2.

^ff^rnadit hah

adishdthdm
^rf^m^qi

^%"

3.

ac?^a
^rf^lT

^rf^^TrTf
adishdtdm

vif^qnadishata

Verbs

e.

ending

Vriddhi
In

Atmanepadathe
^i

is

If

is not

insertion

Guna

then
inserted,

If

^ i is optional. (See "

(" 348)

then ^n
inserted,

^ */r^jto

stretch.

Parasmaipada,with intermediate ^i.

in
of

in ^jr?/

adidhvam

and

337, II.

Pan.

4.

vn.

2,

42.)

lengtheningof ^i. (" 341.)


optionally

changed

to

^T2r. (" 350.)

PARASMAIPADA.

^eiWlW astdrisham, "c., like


First

Second

vitclO? astarishta

"wWliM

astarishi

or

astirshthdh

^TOft%astirshta

astarishta

or

3[i'

astirshi

vtwIeK

astarishthdh

or

Form,

without

SINGULAR.

^RarfanJ astarishthdh

or

or

^ i.

"*nsi*3"n?
astarishi

or

Form.

ATMANEPADA.

Form,

with

First

DUAL.

1.

^wft^fifJ

2.

^Kri'fXmvjj
'^wOMfifi
or

3.

^i tsl

1.

^SMHlX^n^or -^wO^Hn^

^T4df^"c(
"^ or ^HWtH"f "^astaridhvam

U.H i nT

^^TT^^f^

or

^IwOmin

or

astarishvahi

astarishdthdm
astarishdtdm

viWl ^"f^asttrshvahi

astartshvahi

or

or

^HWlSl^lastirshdthdm

astarishdthdm

or

^tfliHtclT astirshdtdm

astarishdtdm

PLURAL.

3.

astarishmahi

^JMriPlXri
astarishata
^r^cTirt^Tf
or
with

Peculiar

Vriddhi

in

^n^l^\k astirshmahi

astarishmahi

-dhvam

astaridhvam -dhvam

or

""iWic astir dhvam


vjtflUn astirshata

astarishata

penultimate^

Verbs

f.

or

or

ri /

Parasmaipada,no

change

"n/,
in

to

let off.

Atmanepada.

PARASMAIPADA.

3.

asrdksham

^^TSS

\lasrdkshih

^TFT?

asrdkshva

asrdshtam

^TWrKfasrdshtam
'STOTSffa^asra"s^

^t*H5^

^H5m

asrdkshma
asrdshta

^T^rr^tasrdkshuh

ATMANEPADA.
1.

asnJfo^z
^njfrSf

2.

^T^fFTJ

asrishthdh

asrishta

asrikshvahi
''H^iyr^

asrikshmahi
"^^"*if^

asrikshdthdm
^^VijIVjl

vujsc

^W^ITftasrikshdtdm

^ti"|n

asriddhvam
asrikshata

186

$363-

AORIST.

ATMANEPADA.

aghukshdoaU

aghukshi

I.

[laghukshathdh
or^PJcFKagudhdh
^ H|'V|

2.

41

3.

^nrefcf aghukshataor

also follow the

It may

(I337

agudha

^^

I"

aghukshdmahi

aguhvahi

or

^H gHjIVJ1aghukshdthdm

Form, ^nrf^ agdhisham and

First

aghukshanta

aghukshdtdm

vi^im

*Jf *icr

or

aguhishi.

!")
/"A,to
fc^;

smear.

PARASMAIPADA.
aliksham

alikshdva
^?fc5^T^

j aliksJiah

alikshatam
^rfoJ^iT

alikshata

alikshatam
^rfc^^rrf

alikshan

^f"^l^alikshat

alikshdma

ATMANEPADA.

^av^m^

alikshi

i.

2.

alikshathdh
^rfc4H|'m*

3.

""i

PC*ej n

alikshata

alikshdvahi

alidha

or

alikshdmahi

^"*i\**\alikshdthdm

aUdhdh

or

alihvahi
vtrcodr^

or

fra"SjI ifi alikshatam

or

alikshanta

milk.

to
PARASMAIPADA.

adhuksham, "c.
ATMANEPADA.

f^ adhukshdvahi

adhukshi

I.

adhukshathdh

2.

WJ^nt

3.

^f^fcT adhukshata

or

^SI'f^aduhvahi

adhukshdmahi

"f^'^Tt adugdhdh

^87V

or

or

or

adhukshdtdm

adugdha

anoint.

c?^, to

adhukshanta

PARASMAIPADA.

adhiksham, "c.

ATMANEPADA.
.

^rftff^
adhikshi

adhikshdmahi

adhiksMthdm

or

or

adMkshdtdm

or

SECOND

J 3^3- Verbs
terminations

or

adopting

this

form

(FirstDivision)of

in ^r ", like those

of the Tud

aghukshadhvam

adhukshadhvam

adhikshathdh

adhikshata

or

or

or

or

the

adhikshanta

AORIST.

take

the

imperfect to

verbal

attach
base

alikshadhvam

adhugdhvam.

adhiksMvahi

adhikshadhvam

alidhvam.

or

or

adihvahi.
or

the

ending

form.

adigdha.

and

augment,

aghudhvam.

adigdhdh.

6
^rfarSEJ

adhigdhvam.

-J 3*7-

1*7

AOKIST.

sich,to sprinkle. Pres.

nnchdmi

Impf. wftK

asincham.

PARASMAIPADA.
asichdva

asicham

asichat

asichah

agichdma
nail-lintn

am

asichatdm

asichat

asichan

ATMANEPADA.
asichdvahi
: asichat hdh

s anchdmahi

asichethdm

asichata

asichadhvam

asichetdm

ve, to call. Pres. ^rqrfH hvaydmi ;

asichanta

Impf. ^T^TT ahvayam

General

base

PARASMAIPADA.
ahvam

ahvdva

"Hd^i ahvah

2.

ahvdma

aJivatam

ahvata

ahvatdm

3.

ATMANEPADA.

ahvdvahi
t ahvathdh

2.

ahvethdm

alivata

" 364.

vi

ending in

Roots

in

ending

base

substitutes

in short

ig M;O,

^^ic?m,to

see,

^? a:

^365.Roots

"

Bopp

^sn',to go,
with

^, ^

e,

ahvanta

^ i, drop these vowels, and

Roots

asvam.

(Pan.vn.

4,

ending

16),and

^STTO^asarfltf;
^5T driktto see,

are,

^^'M avocham, I spoke,from

aorist,
f 370,
reduplicated

^^os,

to

throw

Kas'.on
perished,

take

this form

(^rTO dstham),"Q^vach,to speak

The

verbs

^^

vach

(according

avavacham);

^rni

aorist
reduplicated
Pan.

4,

120

^n^ ^"*;

WTO

vi.

(^I^T avocham), WT
in.

or

ending

for

(possibly
dstham,

are,

(^af akhyam), if the agent is implied. (Pan.


fe^Zip,to paint,"ftr^sicfc,
to sprinkle,
d" Jive,to call
and

base

root

(Pan.vii.
4, 17.)

^"s.
which

the

^^T^a"?ar^a/.

for ^^ci^

contracted
a
(possibly
itf^pat

apapatam) ; ^3R^fanesam,

" 367. Roots

H, and

form

fv" 6vi

askadam.
skand,to step,^ragi"*
nasal,dropit: T3fi"[
penultimate

contracted

threw, from

in ^

then

substitute

ahvam
"??a^

substitutes 3^ Ava, Aor.

xMHH^ranana"am); ^5?%^a"isham, I ordered, from

for
I

ahvadhvam

fii
ahvetdm

Ave

Guna

take

apaptam, I flew,from
VHIMri

Q^

^rr

Aor. ^nS

forms
J366. Irregular
to

iihrumnhi

in
optionally

Atm. (Pan. in.

i,

i,

Myd,

to

speak

52.)

^2^ ahvam), in Par.,


(irregularly
Atm. -wfcaHnalipata
53, 54). Par.^feHi^aftpaf,

vifcoH alipta.
classed

as

"^f^pushddi,
beginning with "$\push(Dh. P.

'dyutddi,
beginningwith ^^rfyi/^
(Dh. P. 18),and
in the Parasmaipada.(Pan. in.
i, 55.)
B

those

marked

26, 73-136),^mfV
by

technical

"^ /t,

188

^ sri,to

verbs

The

marked
technically

verbs
Optionally,

Atm.

Par. and

Parasmaipadaonly (Pan. in.

in the

but

t^abTiaitsit.

or

or
^w^l^
C^^f^l^astabhat

stiffen

^ScPT stambh,to
Optionally,*[jri,to fail,

or ^rafNh^amrocMtf),
"jr^mluch,togo,
(-Wyi^amruchat
to go (^Pcf^ agluchat or
steal,r^^gluch, to steal,*l"^$rZttnc^,

to
^J^mrMcA,

to

go

f^["z,
agluncUi),

" 368.

to grow

There

are

the

Tt uh

these
Atmanepada

^TT d to

change

the

d, *J e, ^STto, which
to be.

^bhu,

also

Parasmaipada;

aorist in the

in ^TT

verbs,ending

few

final vowel, except before

rejected. In

in the

"""")" DU*
(irregularly
^HST?^

Parasmaipadaonly.

i, 58.)

(Pan. m.

second

(^nttfram),in

^J ri,to go

by ^ir,

^5W wl
^fatC^abhidat

57).

i,

^TP^sas,to order, and

go,

1,56.)

(Pan. m.

and

" 368-

AORIST.

They

before
pers. plur.,

3rd

of the

in ^TT d take

verbs

this form

take

retain

throughout

which
Form

the Second

the

of the

the

long

final ^?T d is

of the first aorist,

3[".
Pres.

^T da, to give.

daddmi;

^Tf

adaddm.

Impf. ^^

PARASMAIPADA.
1.

^njfarfaw

^r^T"^arfawa

2.

^T^Tt arfa/f

iH^Irtaddtam

3.

^R(Tf^a^

addtam
^si^ini

^6^w,

^mPH bhavdmij Impf. Wft

Pres.

to be.

addma

^TT

abhavam.

PABASMAIPADA.
1.

^S^

2.

3.

abhuvam*

^*$$

abhuva

^^

abhuma

^T^r:"5MA

^*J?

abhutam

^^

abhuta

^*"j{abhut

^T^WT abhutam

Verbs

which

IT #a, to go

TIT # W,
Optionally,

to be.
do, to cut; *j^bhu,
to smell

destroy.(Pan. n.

to

" 369. The

are,

^T c?",to give; "IT c?A",to place; *U pa, to drink

guard;

to

this form

take

^^^abhuvan

nine

4,

to
e?Ae,

drink

4,

^ftso,

to

^ c?e,

77.)
sharpen ; "sft
chho,to

cut ;

^fft
50,

78.)

of the Tan

roots

(Pan. n.

sthd, to stand

WT

class

ending in

"fTn

or

Tff n
\

may

form

2nd

the

and

3rd

pers.

sing.Atm.

stretch; Aor.

(Pan. ii.
second

4,

in ^IT: thdh

79). These

forms

Uta,

before

which

^TiTlf atata;

or

might

be

the final nasal

is

rejected. If^tan, to

^IirfVn?TJ
atanishthdh

considered

or

^-Nri^i: atathdh

irregular
Atmanepada

as

forms

of the

aorist,or of the first aorist II, with loss of initial ^s.

Second

" 370.

roots, the
base

and

vjnPrigatanishta

in

the

terminations

few

or

Reduplicated Form

verbs, and
primitive

denominatives

and

causatives

aorist,taking the

of the

imperfect.
ist pers.

the Second

the very

second

Irregularin the

of

class

numerous

in

augment

^ro
as

sing.,dual,and plur.,and

Aorist.

ay,

of the

reduplicatetheir

before,and

in the

Chur

3rd

pers.

the

plur.

usual

-$374" 371.

which

primitiveverbs

The

fof/ri,to

to run,
go, "Jrfru,

agent. Ex.

the

189

AORIST.

fa
Optionally,

^H

to

wt,

this form

take

are,
to love

flow, ^^kamt

sru, to

fa M asitriyat.
f^i
r^
^ dhe, to suck
grow,

(Pan. in.

i,

(Pa?, ill.

I,

48),if expressing

49),if expressingthe

agent.

or
364,(or \t^4\"^adhdt
^MMl"1i^a"M""sft.)

Ex. Wpfltadadhat, "

far
as
Their reduplicative
syllable,

consonants

as

concerned, is formed

are

like that of the

perfect.
reduplicated

^"^ i^adudruvat, he

tj he went.

grew;

$ 372.

call,forms
verbs

The

^ho

*eto^i;

would

"

modayati

^T

In the

d,ty,^

e, ^

: wr

to ^

^ri. (Pan.vn.4,

$^frto

do not admit

roots, which
exceptional

are
ait'md,'?fto,^au

this

in the
represented

7.)

shortening
process,

syllable
by
reduplicative

atilikam.
^ifc"f;cF
zte"folikayati,

amamdlam.

mdlayati, ^rmrft

vowels

amumudam.)
ij^mud, (Aor.^njjj^

"

"

49).

amimadam.)
if^mad, (Aor.1"nftiT^
fw^bhid, (Aor.vtffa^ abtbhidam.)

become

bhedayati

" 373.

simplebase

^,^ar,to^H;

to *u;

JTlr^frt
mddayati

Thus

to the

i,

(with certain exceptions*)

and

"n{ay drop ^r^ay,

in

and Vriddhi vowels

their Guna

reduce

^V^arfarfAa^,
First Aor. "Wll^afoaytt(Pan. in.
and
vimi^fl"af
its Aor. Caus. W*\"W{ajuhavat
(Pan.vi. i, 32).

Sec. Aor.

also

2^hve,to

he flowed.
-wtj^qi^flstm-Hra/,
fvjJJ|^asiiviyat,
"W f^|
he

ran.

he sucked.

f, he loved.

alu/okam.
cftcFTrfTT
lokayati,^?$"\3;

J 374.

In the vast

leavingbases

with

majorityof roots, however,

short

base,with
reduplicated
which

^i

the

a,

is not

either

Where,

as

the vowel
in roots

of the

"

thus
takes place,
shortening
the

or

tendencyis to
"

Hence

Those

in which

the

make

the

all roots

lengthenthe
long by position,

syllable
(amdmudai).
reduplicative
leave
position,

Here

iy ^u}^ri.

augment,

vowel

the shortened

the

vowel

vowel

is

of the

long by

short (ararakshat).
reduplicative
syllable

beginningwith

double

consonants, the vowel

of the

it is not changed into


is necessarily
syllable
reduplicative
longby position,
*

These

Certain

exceptionalverbs

denominatives

are

From

(Pan. vn.

Hlc4l

mala,

4, 2,
a

Red. Aor.
with

"""

31 31 1 "

t[^a"a3dsat.
W^bddh, to

technical ^Jn-

the

3),

garland,is

formed

Caus.
mdlayati,Red. Aor. ^*\*{\"A^amamdlatj "$f\1{6ds,

Those

in

hurt; Caus.

the

*iioiMrrt

denominative

he punishes,
^utf^fn
sdsayati,

"^PHlfTT
bddhayati;Aor.

SH^HIVTi^

ababddhat.
to shine, VX^bhds,to
^dX^bhrdj,

live,*ftc^
mil,to meet,

to vex,
tfrSpid,

shorten their vowel

"\ababhrdjat futiifi^abibhrajat
(" 374).
to surround, ^"^ cheshtay,to move,
take
%F^t?es^f"y,

'SRfc

to lighten,
to
to speak, tf*{dip,
"SfNyfr,
shine,*H^bhdsh,

i "i

or

optionally.Ex.

*ff*{bhrdj;

^M

either ^ "" or

in

the

reduplicative
iH f"4^
8 ^aviveshfat.
syllable
or
; ''Z"R'tn^avaveshtat
inn^rfyo/ay,lighten,
to

takes

^t;

^?f^f iadidyutat.
n

190

" 375-

AORIST.

long vowel (achuchyutatnot achuchyutat).In

beginningand endingin

roots

(achaskandat).

broken
consonants, this metrical rhythm is necessarily

two

" 375.

In the roots

which

do not

^ i, ^ uy ^J ri

^T a,

Second

or

and

all

cook, M H

to

syllable
by
reduplicative

the

where
lengthened,

ReduplicatedForm
I.

pack,

shorteningprocess,

representedin

are

^i, "3 u, T(i;

resist the

Aorist.

the Second

of

"

necessary.

-Mfri

pdchdyati;

id, to cut, ^Tj^bheddyati;

moddyati ;
jft^rfff
rejoice,

to
,

rit9to exist,^t^lfw vartdyati;


H dmimrijat.
mdrjdyati; ^*fl*J"1
rij,to cleanse,JJTihrfir

-sftwqfnkirtdyati
rit,to praise,
; ^r^\^lT?(dcMkritat^.
The

lengtheningbecomes
because

the

two

before
superfluous
make

consonants

beginningwith

roots

nants,
conso-

heavy (guru].

vowel

the short

two

;
iq^ tyaj,to leave,Tm"RflT tydjdyati
;
^TT^ bhrdj,to shine,yi'H^fribhrdjdyati

M i^
ip,to throw, "^TTTfw
dchikshipat.
Jcshepdyati
; ^Tp^ PH|

^ftTT^fTT
fall,
chyotdyati;

to
,

svri,to sound,

Tlinfrf
svdrdyati;

rakshdyati;
protect,iHinfrf

to
,

bhiksh,to beg, fvnsprfir


bhikshdyati;
" 376. If the

begins and

root

ends

with

double

consonants,

this

rhythmicallaw

is

broken.
to
,

ask, H-"**i Pit


prachchhdyatij
^RWSSj^dpaprachchhat.

skand, to step,"tai^"4fii
skanddyati; *x
with

" 377. Roots


the

"

or

radical ^ri

'TO^ gandy and


"nW?^ djaganat.
t The

kathdy
cFTO^

followingverbs

aorist in the causative


^R

take

*3fa

same

followed

take

instead of

by

consonant, may

take
optionally

or

^i

^T

or

or
optionally; ^*(\*\1"1{djigan

\i in

the

of
reduplicative
syllable

^WT"*(

verbs which, as will be shown

mrad, ^c[stri,

fffsmdrdyotij
hereafter

^, "35 u,)in the desiderative by "3"w,take

T"

Aor.

(" 474),reduplicate^l^av,(the Guna

instead

of

^*

in the

reduplicatedaorist:

A or. of Caus.^R ^C
Des^^^v^fiKnundvayishatij
"^nujCaus. ^\\^^tindvdyatij

Radical

^R

is

the

smri,"? dri,13T. tvar, TT^prath,


^

fQsmri;Caus.
The

*5h^ dchaskandat.

forms.

"

^n,

or

reduplicatedby

^T

if the root ends in

double

consonant.

of

-J 380.
^W vrit,to be, tli*

"5SFH

M/,

beginningwith

Roots

have

in the

the

dchikirtat.
wfrnflfrl^

or

internal

same

desiderative

reduplication,

bases.

This after throwing off


^r^as forms the Caus. *n$fi{dsdy.
the vowel, becomes
and shortening
w^a"; this reduplicated,

Thus

In the

same

" 379.

and

with augment
lastly,

and

Are

({476.)

irregular:
slightly
forms

dptpayat}.Pan.

4,

vii.

dpipyat(insteadof
^"Ml*"4i^

as

4.

aorist

its causal

its causal

forms

smell, which

to

aorist

its causal

forms

stand, which

sthd, to

ghrd,

ay,

d$-i6-am.
termination,^nfifllfr

'WtfW archicham, vftfMiraubjijam,"c.

manner,

/"f,to drink,which

WT

vowel

hereafter

will be described

which

TTT

(Pan. vn. 4, 7.)


^iqqflf^aoacar/af.
"j
HlAnfrtindrjdyati;xi "i1"j
"i
i^dmimrijator ^i*i"i 1 f^dmamdrjat.
or

kirtdyati;TI V) "yn i^dchikritat


praise,4fc)ft^frt

to

J 378.

vartdyati;W""jn i^dvivritat

to cleanse,

TOmry,

191

AOKIST.

aorist

^rnf"Mi dtishjhipat
(insteadof

as

or
^ djighripat

as

djighrapat.
AORIST.

REDUPLICATED
PARASMAIPADA.

1.

1"iiI'5tM

ds'israyam

asifraydva

asisraydma

2.

vif^i^Mt
a6israyah

asisrayatam

uslsrayata

3.

vi

f^i
^ ^
i^atisrayat

asisrayan

asisrayatam
ATMANEPADA.

f^ asisraydvahi

asisraye

2.

asisrayathdh

As

in

Greek,
do

forms

However,
is

and

of Sanskrit
the

of

they are

each

and

verb;

are
complicated,

not

number

limited,three
The
As

generalrule
barred

is that verbs

the

of verbs

classes

or

to

rules

the

of

the

adopt.

teach
effectually

can

follow

they take

that

by generalrules

of verbs

which

ending in

roots

fourth form
to

given as

which

grammarians,

unfrequentlycontradicted by

the

from

take
JT

m,

and

roots

aorist,the

roots

which

first

the

form

of the

first aorist,

diate
of the interme-

of the first aorist.


of the

ending in

^T

first aorist is very


d.

of very limited
must

this

aorist,unless

employment

the third form

of the first aorist is likewise

second

the

first form

the

^ i. Verbs, thus barred, take the second


The

been

authors.

and
specially
prohibited,

unless

have

Sanskrit,too, practiceonly

actuallyoccur
minute

however
usage

in

so

rules

certain verbs

of the aorist which

forms
particular

asisrayanta

as'israyetdm

preceding "" occasional

the

asisraydmahi

a"israyadhvam

asisrayethdm

asisrayata

" 380. In

or

may

use

see

follow

"360.
it

are

192

" 381-

FUTURE.

indicated

" 367, and

in

which

Roots

the second

follow

allowed

only,are

which

the roots

are

take

the

form
reduplicated

of

$ 371*

aorist in

the second

so

be

to

aorist

conjugatedin

or
optionally,

first

the

in the

Parasmaipada
the

aorist,subjectto

general

rules.

CHAPTER

AND

FUTURE,

PERIPHRASTIC

CONDITIONAL,

FUTUKE,

XIV.
BENEDICTIVE.

Future.

Terminations.

$381.

PARASMAIPADA.
SINGULAR.

DUAL.

1.

i^*miH
ishydmi

2.

3^4

3.

^Hjfrr
ishydti

(Viishydsi

PLURAL.

Sf^TRJisJiydvah

3pR*{\ishydmah

^3T*Kishydthah

^wfH ishydtha

ishydtah
S^tQTI!

^"4ffl
ishydnti

ATMANEPADA.

The

1.

^$tishy6

2.

^W

3.

^HT ishydte

have

ishydse

the ^ i of

in which

cases

in

stated

been

the

the

See

regulatedby

are

though

ishytie
sfSTcT

^^TTishydnte

^snfaishydmi "c.
the

of the radical
strengthening

their

two

in

and

*r

sa,

see

$ 100

the

seq.

seq.

the terminations

and
futures,the conditional,
of

*(i is

in which

of

the benedictive

givingweightto

the

of certain
peculiarities

base,
verbs.

and $ 345 (mdrkshydmi).These


$ 344 (bhavishydmi)

be learnt

must
peculiarities

sha

be omitted

may

cases

undergoes before

that
generalprinciple,

one

the

or

chapterXII, $ 344

vowel, see

varies accordingto
application

illustrations

be

must

For

seq.

change of

the base

strengthening
tenses,the

Atm.

^f"l ishyddhve

On

$ 382. The changes which

^*MIH^
ishydmahe

^^faishyethe

chapterXI, $ 33

$ 340.

changed to ^ ",see
On

ishydvahe

$*MI^

but
by practice,

changed

^TT

few

generalrules

may

here

be

repeated:
1.

Final

e,

$" ai9 ^\

are

to

d;

gai,

to

sing, JllHJlfa

gdsyami, "c.
2.

ri and ^" ri,take Guna


to conquer,
\i, ^u)^uj'^
; f*tji,
^mifajeshydmi;
karishyami;
*%bhu,HfcujifHbhavishydmi;
^ kri}g"ft"5|rftT

Final ^ i and

dri,to tear,^fXmifHdarishydmi or ^^NnfH darishyami.

usual

There

are

the

cF ku, to sound, ^f^RTfTkuvishydmi. (J345, note.)


exceptions,

3. Penultimate

^ i, ^u9

^ri, prosodially
short,take Guna;

%$ir; ^ budh, ^tfv^nfifbodhishydmi ;

^ri

becomes

$384-

FUTURE.

PERIPHRASTIC

ATMANEPADA.
1

J*tq

aishyadhvam

aishyathdh

"jwfqit

2.

aishyanta

aisJiyetdm

aishyata

3. JrofiT

aishydmahi

aishydvahi

aishye

PeriphrasticFuture.

" 384.

The

terminations

are,
PARASMAIPADA.

2.

^niPwitdsmi
itdsi
^ruP**

^dl^t itdsvah
itdsthah
$HIW

3.

^cTTltd

itdrau
^rillJ

itdstha
\ itarah

ATMANEPADA.
i.

3.

itdhe
i^HI*"

^ itdsvahe
^fli*3

3[HT""a

^rtl'Uitdrau

terminations

These

suffix for

clearlycompounded

are

forming nomina

and
agentis,

is,however, with regardto


ist and

On
On

2nd

retention

the

the

persons,

itdsmahe

and
or

of
strengthening

no

TTT

the

distinction

the radical

gender in

to

the

^ i

or

common

to be.

There

gender in

and

the

3rd person.

i,

see

J 331

seq.

" 382.

vowel, see

*ry^budh,
with

of

of number

intermediate

of

the
(base^ tfn),

verb ^rc^as,
auxiliary

distinction

td,no

omission

of in td

know,

intermediate

i.

PARASMAIPADA.
SINGULAR.

1.

"BM

fVci i Ujf

DUAL.

PLURAL.

bodhitasmi

2.

^tfwrf?? lodhitdsi

3.

"ilTMriI bodhitd

bodhitd'stha
"nPviril^|

bodhitdsthah

bodhitdrau

bodhitdrak

ATMANEPADA.
1.

2.

WTTVffll^bodhitdhe

bodhitdsvahe

"Tl
PMn

bodhitdsdthe

itf

bodhitd'se

bodhitd'dhve

WtfvnTO bodhitd'
rau

3-

without

intermediate

bodhitd'rah

"'.

PARASMAIPADA.

tdsmi

etdsvah

etdsmah

etd'sthah
"ni"J

etdrau

J etdrah

-" 388.

195

BENEDICTIVE.

ATMANEPADA.
i

etdhe
FrT!^

JgrilH^ etdsvahe

^rtlfietdse

"ni"im

2.

etdsdthe

":niCfetdrau

3. ^TTT e/d

etdsmahc

*ni"HC

3711*4

etddhte

"niC

et

draft

Benedictive.

J 385. The
optative. It

so-called
differs from

the

and

the

3rd pers. sing. Thus,


if,

Ben.

TK,

tions.
"^s before the personaltermina-

an

inf,

Trnrf,

*n*r,

*rnr,

TTT^,1TTO, 1T^,

^IWI,

ydt, ydsva, ydstam,

ydstum,
ydsma,

verbal

In the
"t\*(t{ydst.

seems

In *TH

*JTO,

of the modified

compound

Veda

similar

ydh and

base

compound

the
Atmanepada

and

Pan.

stands

ydsta,ydsuh.

with

second aorist

ancient

an

base

of the unmodified

of

contractions

we

vm.

an

with

an

"n"^y"fos

(See Bollensen, Zeitschrift

y^.

73"74.)

2,

beforethe

of the

terminations

^ITiya. Besides this,the personalterminations


th take

have

we

TR}:.

irer,

Tffl^ydt have

the 3rd pers. sing, is HI

G., vol. xxii. p. 594;

or
beginningwith j(Jt
^

additional ^s.

Cf.

optative,
originally

Thus, instead of

$351.

fs, ^n:, fw, f*ft", ty^" t^" t1^*


iydtdm,imdhi,
iya, fa/A, #a', foa'Ai, iydthdm,

Opt.

3:,

iTTt,

g. T"nstyainstead of

e.

verbal

full modified

1TO,

first aorist of *TT yd.

In the

of

the

analogy to

ydh, ydt, ydvayydtam,ydtdm,ydma, ydta,yuh,

As the optativeis

der D. M.

close

ydm,

of the root IT yd, the benedictive

and

in

instead of

TTT^,*TR,

ydsam, ydh,

ancient

formed

Parasmaipadathis ^s stands between the TTT yd of the optative


signs of the persons, being lost,however, in the 2nd and

actual

Opt.

is

by not admittingthe
optative

the insertion

base,and, secondly,
by
In the

benedictive

t^l"

idhvdm, trdn, we

have

TR^T, "l8it, ?ft7, filqf^,


'*OilUHi,
til^P^,?fh^, "i"lv.^"
^ilqiteqi,

Ben.

siydsthdm,
siydstdm,simdhi, sidhvdm, sirdn.
is really
Atmanepada
optativeof the first aorist. Thus

siy"x,sfshthdh,sishtd,sivdhi,
The

^bhu,

benedictive in the

an

^wfq fa abhavishi, Ben.

Aor.

HfclMl^bhavishfya; from

Aor. ^cft? astoshta,Ben. W*l'il


K stoshishta;
stuvita,

Aor.

VN^iMtf
akreshata, Ben.

" 386. Verbal


terminations

bases

of the

from

^J stu, Opt.
"S^Arf,
Opt. Atm.

from

Atm.

'

^TT^ArresA^ran.

ending in ^H^ay (Chur, Caus.

benedictive Par.:

"c.) drop ^Tay

Denom.

before the

but
Ben. *"ft^nf
chorydsam;
^ft^choray,

in

Atm.

"

chorayishtyd.Denominative
Ben.

^"1"4 1

" 387.

tt

putriydsam; but

The

benedictive

The

benedictive

benedictive

bases in

^y drop ^y

the

strengtheningforms

Atm. ^fWN
fa"qiti
chitydsam,
benedictive

the rules

" 331

takes

intermediate

seq.
a

the

to

weakening, the

($344).

Hence

from

chetishiyd.

Parasmaipada never

Atmanepadagenerallytakes

provided for by

in the Ben. Par.

fMMll putriyishiyd.
^cfl

Parasmaipada belongs

to
Atmanepada

f^chit,Par.
" 388.

in Atm.

intermediate ^ i.
^

t.

The

Exceptions are

196

Weakening of the
" 389. Some
benedictive

"

390.

intensive

of the rules

Base

of the base

While,

in the

here be

influence

weakening

Tw, before

the

lengthened(Pan.vn.
fa chi,to gather;
Final

4, 25),but

do

In

(Pan. vn.

vn.

4,

Also in ^n,

as

appears

^smri,to remember

to the

apply

of

benedictive, passive,and

in

ending

important,though

one

3[i,^

u,

^J ri.

Final

intensive,are

benedictive,passive,and
Guna.

28.)

4,

Pj**4H
kriydte. (The

Pass.

conjunct consonants, final ^

^R

(Pan. vn.

ar.

Intensive

^nO^n

has

strengthened
actually

ia

r*

29.)

4,

Int. Wfwflrt sdsmarydte.


T"fasmarydte;
W*\\i[smaryc[t
^^(arydt;Pass. ^f*fiT arydte; Int. ^C(5n ardrydte.

Ben.

Ben.

to go;

that

27.)

roots,however, beginning with

by Guna, and

rules

base, there is

regardto verbs

strengthenedby

kriydt;
(VhHli^

Pan.
chekriydte.,

the

Pass. **ft*tt
chechiydte.
-*ftm'i\chiyd't;
chiydte;Int. ^T^falff

Ben.

Ben.

required in the

base,

is

of the

the verbal

on

terminations

not

^J ri is changed to ft ri.

^ kri, to

y.

which

together with

terminations

rule with

of the

^y

of the

passiveand intensive.

only apparent, exception to this


and

stated

generallyspeaking, the

exercise

beginningwith

beforeTerminations

regulatingthe weakening

Parasmaipada, may

weakening

^i

$ 389-

BENEDICTIVE.

Pass.

and, after labials,to ^.ur.


fjfr,
to stretch; Ben. *sl\*\\^stirya[t;
Pass. WlAd stirydte;
Int. iNcfWft
testirydte.
^stri,
to fill;Ben. ^Tf^purydtj
Pass. "$%purydte;Int. ^^fl popury ate.
^pri,

Final ^Tn

is changed to

Exceptions : l$siis changed to

^ftsi,to

He

TJP^s'ay.

does
down; (Ben. $\m\i\sayydt

Pass. "^H^ffsayydte; Int. ^tI^1^^"


sdsayydte. (Pan. VIT.
does
3[i,after prepositions,

^", to

lengthen the

Ben.

"#[^uhydt;

Ben.

ti^^iiIT

is
prepositions,

tanydte; Int.

final vowel
it

4,

23.)

their final

"^w, and then lengthen the

WHTI^sdyd't
orW^^anyat;

Pass.^T'Tfl'

sdydteor 'ff^

sany ate;

samsanydte.

khdydt
'^1^41^

^KNI^rt

*\"*njanydtej

or

janjanydte.

"TW^TiT

Pass.
^khanydt;

!?("*{
I

or

khdydte

"sii*ifl

or

"?r*mi

chdkhdydte or ^""""n chahkhanydte.


stretch; Ben.

Pass.
n"*\"(^tanydt;

#ay^e

ni"qn

or

n"Mn

ffrT^Rff tantanydte.
a

generalrule,roots ending

the general tenses

into

drop

not

may

or

Ben.

" 392. Accordingto


^TT d retain it:

(Pan. vn.

uh.

43.)

the passive only, fT"^frw,to

diphthongin

or

^^Pmf
or
sdsdydte

khanydte;Int.
In

4,

or
jdjdydte

dig;

to

7^

Pass. Himtijdydte
"P*ffity'arey""
"SfT^m^/ay/jf

Ben.

^*{san,toobtain; Ben.

^*{khan,

to

24.)

(Pan. vi.

tiitiiMrt

shortened

4,

Pass. t4"j^in
samuhydt;
samuhydte.

*F[jan,to beget;

Int.

in the benedictive.

Pass. "Zv"lt
uhydte

" 391* The following


roots may

Int. **R*fmft

5fi

vn.

after
uh, to understand,
"35^

precedingvowel.

final

Atmanepadin);

22.)

4,

but ^T*\Wi(^samiydt.
\Hit(iydtj
(Pan.

Ben.

go;

not

the verb is

occur, because

not

^TT d:

into

"TT^a,TTTff pdydte,he

\f in

the

is

"Wf

dhyai,UTnTlf

protected. But

passiveand intensive;

unchanged before gerundial1 ya.

in ** ai and

(Pan.

vi.

4,

change

dhydydte.

Roots

the followingroots

into "Ze in the benedictive

66,67, 69.)

then*

ending

change

Par.;

final

and

in

their

keep

-$

*"ghu*,and

six verbs called

The

the

to

s/H

WT

measure

BENEOICTIVE

f.

GERUND.

";"{l"4n
dediydte

IpRl^deyctt
Tf$\H praddya

'ffaTfl'
miydte

*i"il"4H
memiydte

*fami mey""

pramdya

TFTR

Wtan sthiydte rfulqi)


teshthiydte 'Wm^stheydt
UWHT

stand

to

OMII diydte

IJTddy to give
mdy

followingverbs
INTENSIVE.

PASSIVE.

ITT

197

BENEDICTIVE.

395-

ifbfKgtydte wfanT

l\gai,to sing

prasthdya
^Tf^geycltWmpragdya

jegiydte

TftTftpiydte

^Mlqi)pepiydte

^T Ad, to leave

^I^H Afy"ft"?

^IJInj'eAfyrffe
^Tn^Aey"" HfRpraWya

*ftso,

^^(siydte

tlH)"u)
seshiydte

TRpd, to

"

drink

to finish
The

393.

followingverbs

speak; ^^waptH,

to

"4"iif^
yajddi,i.

e.

those

to

dwell; % vc, to

f^Gf
sut||,to

uchydte;

gerund,and

" 393, note

"i

in the second

in consonants

(Pan.

1.

1,

change

sow

vah, to cany

T^ro*,

rarf,to speak;

the

benedictive,
passive,participle,

As

W^sca

to

grihitdh; Ger.
grihydte;Part. Ji^lfft
JJ^lii

f^T^sish, in
(Pan. vi.

the

aorist.

benedictive,passive,participle,

34.)

4,

f^t?t"shtdh;

Part.

$ishtvd
(31^1

Ger.

VT dhd;

20).

Hence

weakening

not

into ^e

^T^and

fffrnt

^^,

diyate,it is

in the

or

send

to

"JTfrT
ddti,he

i.e.

Pan.

given;

but

belonging to

as

vi.

cuts, and

^mnddyate,

diphthongs,and beginning with

benedictive

sleep,takes

more

optional(Pan. vi.

Par. is

gleydt
or
jpffi^
^fT^T^gldydt.
to

(Kit,Nit,

terminations

4,

24).

Thus

J^IM, ^Rff,^T,^, f*H^, and *te,all varieties

six roots
but

(which is reallywritten

nasal

^TT khyd,to call

J ^fl^svdp,

^mfinddy at i,

it is cleaned.
than

68).

one

sonant,
con-

" glai,to

^im^khydydtwmi(khyeyd't.
or

Samprasarana

4,

of

in the

aorist (Pan. vi.


reduplicated

18). ^f^^asushupat.
|| ^^

intensive

svap,
also

f^ifvi takes
or

tt^t?/

Ger. TW

to fry.
VlTS^bhrajj,

ask;

preceded by

before

nasal

comprises the

term

the

I,

the

||.

t In other roots, ending in ^IT d

and

^ir^im^osisAa^.

ending

the radicals "JTdd and

wither

3$ hve\\,to call;

cover;

Samprasaranain

rule, substitutes

to

the root) lose that

he cleans

u^""A

Part. T1K

fijl
Pass. f^PRffsishydte
U|| i^tishydt
;
;

This

20), to wish;

i,

0 '^t$l d jarigrihydte.

gerund, intensive,also

Roots

(Pan.vi.

^t?a/

sacrifice;^*{vap, to

Pass.
J|^IIc^grihydt;

" 395* ^T^ s",

take

to
Tf^prachh,

see

rye,

grihftvd;
Int.

Aor.

104),

to fail; **F^vyadh,
to pierce;"H^t?yacA,
to surround;
take; 'vlfljyd,

Ben

Ben.

4,

grow.

vratch, to cut;
and

(Pan. in.

intensive. (Pan.vi. i, 16.)


to

benedictive

15.)

^t?ye||,to

weave;

|followingverbs

The

" 394.

the

pra*/ya

HFR

following
*H^ yaj.

Mlif^are, (23,33-41) i"^yqj,


to

The

1,

sleep;

to

Pass.T^
T^TTT^McAy^;

Ben.

HW^seydt

Samprasarana in

take

and gerund. (Pan. vi.


passive,
participle,

^racA,

VKFlprapdya
Tfrtfl(jpeydt

to

sleep,^tpT

sound, and

to

rye,

take

Samprasarana

fql^n
^PHWIn sesimydte,
(Pan.vi. i, 19); tftMU^ soshupydte,
Samprasarana optionallyin

^THlt^H
sesviydte.%
forms

syam,

hve forms

Int.

the

intensive

(Pan.vi.

^\"*Wjohuydte(Pan.

Mcfclnlf
cheMydte(Pan.vi.i, 21); ^pydy,

vi.

in

the

veviydte.

i,

30);

so"ydtc
^i\a^Mn

I,

33).

In the intensive

^TNTT pepiydte
(Pan.vi. 1,29).

" 396-

PASSIVE.

198

Ger.
Ben. HWi^
srasydt,
^R(srams, Part. "*$: srastdh,Pass. ^TR^ srasydte,
Ben.
Int.T"ft"QR sanisrasydte,
;
fromt^ranj,
^on.^B^dsrasat
srastvd,
Part. t3K raktdh, Ger. TiiT rctoa
(or tw ranktvd, Pan. vi. 4, 32).
Pass. "Tl|ri rajydte,

from

$ 396.

"3u,?$ri

left

are

(f344).

Guna

and

Final

generalrules

the

as

to

Remember,

seq.

^ i,penultimate^ i,

intermediate

in other

ri,too, remains

see

$ 348
particularly

take

not

unchanged,whereas

tenses they take


strengthening

unchanged, and ^ri

^ ir,

becomes

to fill,
fq^kship,to throw, ftfml4 kshipsiyd;^pri,

4r.

labials,
^

after

base,$ 344,

benedictive Atm. does

that if the

or,

the

of
strengthening

the

Atm.

benedictive

the

regard to

With

Benedictive.
PARASMAIPADA.

1.

budhydsam
"JUJTtf

2.

^TH

3. TURff

budhydh
budhydt

^HITO budhydsva

'3p$m budliydsma

^*HHfl budhydstam

^"irai

J ^M IW

budhydstdm

budhydsta

^*Hi^tbudhydsuh

ATMANBPADA.
1.

'^IfM^^ bodhishiyd

bodhishivdhi
^flfVM'HfV

2.

^fFmflaU bodhisMshthdh

HtlVll^lW

bodhisMmdhi
^Vftml*tf^

^tfVT^?4 bodhishidJivdm
bodhishiydsthdm
bodhishirdn
^i(VfMii5^

"T bodhishiydstdm

XV.

CHAPTER
PASSIVE.

5 397. The

passivetakes

the terminations

of the

Atmanepada.

SpecialTenses of the Passive.

" 398. The


formed
as

and imperativeof
optative,
present,imperfect,
to the

by adding IT 2/a

it is in

Div

the

root.

verbs, so

that

This
the

if ya is added

Atmanepadaof

in the
Div

in the accent)identical with the passive.


respects(except
Atm. "T^fff
ndhyate,he binds ; Pass, rf^ nahydte,he

" 399. Bases

in

^T^ ay (Chur,

Caus.

Denom.

"c.) drop ^T^

the

ay

passiveare
manner

same

is in

verbs

all

is bound.
before

ya

of

the

passive.

"*tt*n^bodhdy
', to make
chordy"to steal j
**TV"*^
Intensive
without

bases
any

ending

in

^y

intermediate
,

know;

one

^"n

^tWrf bodh-ydte^
he

chor-ydte,he

retain their

1y,

is made

is stolen.

to which

the

lya

of

vowel.

to cut much

to knuw.

3fico*snloluyydte,
he

is cut

much.

the

passive is added

199

PASSIVE.

ending

Intensive bases

in

*^y,precededby

to
qfal^bebkidy,
sever

shine, q^

"fhft
didM, to

consonant, drop their

^(*iwn bebhidydte,
it IB

severed.

q(V."'
daridrd,to

vevt,to yearn,

^y.

be poor,

drop their

final vowel,

usual.

as

i.e.
it is lightened,
didhi,^teti
^t*ft
didhydte,

$ 400.

As

the

to

benedictive,
J 389

of

weakening

the

it lightens.

base,

the

see

rules

given

for the

seq.

Passive.
SINGULAR.
2.

I.

3.

vj$bhdy6
Impf. *ng$dbhdye

WgW.

Opt. VgWbMyfya

tgWCbMytthdh

VgfrbMytta

*j*tt bhuydsva

*gllft
bhuydtdm

$TH*bhuydse

Pres.

^bMya(

Imp.

"07*bMydte

dbhdyathdh

*T"qTT dbMyata

DUAL.

^q^ bh"ytthe
^T^^lfdbhuyethdm

vgtt^bMydvahe

Pres.

Impf. ^T^lT^f^dbhuydvahi

^4*1^bhuytuahi
*JJJN^
bhtiydvahai

Opt.

Imp.

*"" bhuytte
^J^iff
dbhuyetdm
^Tnrf bhtiyfy"tdm
^iH bhuyttdm

"J5^Rtbhuyfydtkdm

*J^zn
bhuytihdm
PLURAL.

Pres.

^TR^ bhuydmahe

*$$"bhuyddhve

^-qiTbhuydnte

Impf.

^UJTHHf^dbhuydmahi

dbhuyadhvam
^T*J?T5"I

^NJjTiTdbhuyanta

Opt.

^l*lf^
bhuytmahi
^Twt bhuydmahai

^^

bhuytdhvam

V^f^bhuy^ran

^^

bhuyddhvam

^TiTfbhuydntdm

Imp.

Tenses

General

f 401.
certain
the
the

In

the

exceptionsto

generaltenses

be mentioned

of the

therebyfrom

passiveand
retained

the derivative

verbs,which, with
in the

are

certain

passive,
^ya

hereafter,there is
of the

those

passiveis treated,in fact,like

which
(vikaranas),

and

of the

generaltenses

the Passive.

of

of

one

in the

the

is
no

dropt,so that,with
distinction between

Atmanepada.The

class-marks
conjugational

specialtenses

only, and

of causative, desiderative,
and
syllables

remain
exceptions,

ifya of

throughout both

it differs

intensive

in the

special

generaltenses.
ReduplicatedPerfect.

The

reduplicated
perfectis

the

same

as

in the

Atmanepada.

Periphrastic
Perfect.
The

periphrastic
perfectis

verbs
auxiliary
as

well

as

^ kri.

as

and

(J342.)

^ bM

the

same

must

as

be

in

the

Atmanepada,but

conjugatedin

the

the

Atmanepada,

200

$403-

PASSIVE.

Aorist.

$ 402.

Verbs

admit

which

The

J 403.

aorist

Atmanepada

In the third person

(but^r

is

the

from
differing

to be used

in

first aorist

paradigms given

purelypassivesense

Vriddhi
requiring

of medial

consonant.

one

dldv-i.

1
"

,,,.

^T^tfv? abodhishta,

*.

fixed in the

Guna

final,and

of

find

we
dlavishta,

been

has

singulara peculiarform

followed by
lengthened),

Thus, instead of^wfay

of the

forms

three

singular.
is not

ending in ^ i, and
passive,
vowels

without

the third person

above, except in

the

conjugatedin

and
Atmanepada,

of

second

be

may

abodh-i.

"

^rfojTT
akshipta,

First Form.

akshep-i.
anay-i.

^T^rTakrita,

akdr-i.

"

^iftjaddy-i.

"

astirshta,

Fourth

Form.

addh-i.

"

adikshata,
TBrf^Tf

Form.

^T*rf^asarj-i.

"

adagdha,

^xv

Second

^HsTTftastdr-i.

"

asrishta,

fc

"

agtih-i.
alikshata,

adhukshata,
^rftrepadhikshata,
"

404. Verbs

ending in
"fTda,

^TT d

or

aleh-i.

"

adoh-i.

"

adeh-i.

"

diphthongs,take T^y before

"H^|ftl
addyi,instead

of

adita.
^fq'ff

ending in ^*{ay (Chur, Caus. Denom.


the generaltenses, after the droppingof
be used as passive.
i.e. the Atm. may

" 405. Verbs

in

t, though

may

reappear,

"HV*I bodhay, ^^nf


In

dbodhi;
these

the other persons

either

case

"c.) drop ^f
the

ay before the

passiveHya,

the

either drop

^^ay

or

retain

original
^P^ay

it,being conjugatedin

of the firstaorist."

abhdvisM, ^^ilVsiJ abhdvishtJidh,^MTf% abhdvij

or

^MTf^fabhdvi.
fJ abhdvayishthdh,
" 406. Intensive
Int.

Intensive bases

Desiderative

bases

in

T^yadd

the

passive^[i,without

Guna.

^T^t"jftr
abobMyi.
Tft*$l(bobhuy,

ending in ^y, precededby a consonant, drop ^y,


abebhidi.
Int. ^fWST bebhidy; Aor. ^T^rftrf^

and refuse Guna.

bases,likewise,refuse Guna.
Des.

This

Aor. ^R^rfvfa
abubodhishi.
^hf^fbubodhishj

would

passive

^\X*T choray,^ef^TKachorij TT*fQrdjay,


^Ujf"iardji.

verbs may

after the firstform

the passive2[*.

follow if Jcartari extends to Pan.

in.

i,

54, 56.

202

" 411-

PASSIVE.

Dual

r.

pers.

-?Hc*lP^Hf^
aldvi-shvahi,
by

the

i aldvi-shdthdm,

Plur.

i.

pers.

^cSfamdl alavi-shdtdm.

"

"

the side of

^TcSTfaTf^aldvi-shmahi, by

"MlP"4Mffaldvi-shata,
Fut.

c^TPM^JIdvi-shye,

by

the

Per. Fut.

^Jc5p^ aldvi-shye.

"

oSlfcrilj
Idvi-tdhe,

Idvi-tdhe.
c^P^ril^

"

fyrP^t^ Idvi-sMya,

f% chi, to

gather,3rd

pers.

-4Mipjjachdyi; hence

^T^P^PM achdyishi,besides

^?^f^ acheshi,"(i.

Fut.

M iP"M^ chdyishye,

^"^ cheshye.
SH^ul acheshye.

Per. Fut.

Ben.

"

^r-cftPnui
achdyishye,

xjiPuHI^
chdyitdhe,

"

^TTT%cheiahe.

"

^iP^Mln chdyishiya,

^"^hl cheshiya.

"

inghrd, to smell,3rd pers. sing.Aor. Pass, ^mfa

aghrdyi; hence

Aor.

SHmHuPM aghrdyishi)besides

SHUlPu aghrdsi.

Fut.

i||Pi|u)
ghrdyishye,

TTT^ ghrdsye.

Cond.
Per. Fut.

"

Pnul aghrdyishye,

-*{|||

^.syif^
aghrdsye.

"

MlfMril^
ghrdyitdhe,

UMI^ ghrdtdhe.

"

uiPijtflii
ghrdyishiya,

Ben.

l||^^

"

ghrdsiya.

to hurt, 3rd pers. sing.Aor. Pass, ^wsnft adhvdri;


i^ c?^t;n,

Aor. ^rc^rfcfaadhvdrishi,besides
Fut.
Per. Fut.

t^lfc^dhvdrishye,

"nfbn^ dhvdritdhe,

Ben. "nfbrfa

From

Pass.

Aor.

Cond.

From

e3P^*flnIdvi-shiya.

"

sing.Aor.

dhvdrishiya,

"^.

side of c*P"^tM
Idvi-shye.

Ben.

or

^c-ifMMH aldvi-shata.

"

-flrtlfciui
aldvi-shye,

Cond.

From

aldvi-shmahi.

"

3.

From

"swfV^ng

aldvi-dhvam
^roFfes"r
^K"ifasafaldvi-dhvamor^^dhvam

%.

From

alavi-shvahi.
"Hc*P"iHP^

'HoiiVmvjjaldvi-shdthdm.

"

"

^TcSTfr^Tiri
aldvi-shdtdm,

3.

side of

adhvrishi
^Ifi|f^

or

hence

^ruiftftadhvarishi.

isrftw dhvdrishye.

"

i9%1%dhvdrtdhe.

"

sq^dhvrishiyaorvstfttvdhvarish

"

^"?z,to kill,
3rd pers. sing.Aor. Pass. ^iinP^ aghdni; hence
Aor.

besides
^HlPnPK aghdnishi,

(^

Fut.

MlPn^ ghdnishye,

^Pnul hanishye.

"

Per. Fut.

TfiffTdl^
ghdnitdhe,

Ben.

yifHMl^ ghdnishiya,

"

"

to see, 3rd pers. sing.Aor.


~^5{dri",

Aor.

^n^tfa adarsishi,

Fut.

^f^^1darsishye,
darsitdhe,
^Pjlrii^

Per. Fut.

^P$|*(hl
dar"shtya,

Ben.

See

besides

"

332,

"

"

"

PyPn avadhishi).
Pan.vi.4,62 t-

^ffrthantdhe.
vadhishiya).
(c|Pififln
Pass.

^f$t adar"i;

^rfP"fadrikshi.
fiss drakshye.

-5^^drashtdhe.
^l

drikshiya.

5.

f Siddh.-Kaum.

vol. n,

p. 270,

seems

to allow

^P*

ahasi.

hence

-J 414.
From

TRyrah,

take, 3rd pers. sing.Aor. Pass, ^nft

to

Wil^lfMagrahishi.

Fut.

?rrfT*f
grdhishye,

inf^*fgrahishye.

Fut.

Trfziri^grdhitdhe,

IF"lrikgrahitdhe.

Ben.

yifgiflq
grdhishiya,

i|^1*rlq
grahishiya.

^Klfa ard/we

or

Aor. mfcCM aramishi

Aor.

Certain verbs of

412.

Thus

"

delight,Caus.

to

JTT^ramay,

Atm.

intransitive

pers.

other persons,

udapatsdtdm,theytwo

" 413. Other verbs of

(*i\*M
jdyate,he

burns, Div,
is

born, he

form

same

it is

up ; but

regularin

Div
the

i, 60.)

(Pan.in.

"c.

arose,

3rd pers. sing.

in the

Atmanepadaof

of the

he sprang

intransitive character take the

an

("j1u|d
dtpyate,he
(Hu, Par.)"to

sing,present

arose,

"KHfafo aramayishi.

passive^*

the

meaning take

J^Mltyudapddi,he

o^MWini

Pass.

sing.Aor.

pers.

^Tifirfaardmishi, besides

utpadyate(3rd

IrqClff

3rd

t1^ram,

hence

or

an

of

becomes
verb),he arises,

jan

agrdhi; hence

"{{jif]gfa
agrdhishi,besides

weft arami

"

203

INFINITIVE.

Aor.

Per.

From

AND

GERUNDS,

PARTICIPLES,

(Pan.HI. 1,61);
optionally

fM adipi ^"OrMKadipish^a.
Atm.),"*"1
is,Div, Atm.; it cannot be formed from Iffy'an

^l"Tf*T
ajani
beget),

or

^enifneajanishta.

or

(^"W budhyate,he is conscious, Div, Atm.),^TTtfVabodhi


VJl
he fills,
Chur.), ^T*.
Wjfn? apurishta.
apuri
^L^frt
purayati,
or

""

Bhu,
(TTRff
tdyate,he spreads,

abuddha.

or

of

form

Div
Atm.; really

Tan),"Mlfa atdyi or

atdyishta.
dyate,he

xi"qif"l
grows),
apydyi

of
$414.The participle
of the ten

classes.

the present, and

droppingthe

which

the Pada

and

rules

(J182).

where

it

of the
cases

was

The

in the

and

H^f?T

be

can

remains

the feminine

if that

Nom.

S.

falls

If the accent

does
participle

Ace.

"T^

the

on
participle

not

suffix receive the accent.

H^TT

accordingto general

easilydeduced

in the

3rd pers. plur.

and
participle,

the Vikaranas

by takingthe 3rd pers. plur.of


This givesus the Ahga base, from

final ^ i.

base

accent

present Parasmaipada retains

easilyformed

It is most

Bha

INFINITIVE.

AND

GERUNDS,
the

-"*mrM8 apydyishta.

XVI.

CHAPTER
PARTICIPLES,

or

take

on

the

last

syllable
all Bha

nasal,then

(Pan.vi.

HWTf

syllable

same

"

I,

173.)

Instr. "T^HT

Thus
"c.

bhdvanti

bhdvant

bhdvan

bhdvantam

bhdvatd

tuddnti

tuddnt

tuddn

tuddntam

tudatd

dtoyanti

dfvyant

dirynn

divyantam

dtryatd

204

^K*J"^

Norn. S.

$415-

INFINITIVE.

AND

GERUNDS,

PARTICIPLES,

^TCTIT

Ace.

Instr.

chordyant

chordyan

chordyantam

sunvdnt

sunvn

sunvdntam

"c.

"qioiifi

chordyatd

"c.

tanvdnt

tanvdn

tanvdntam

WtWi^

"BfalF^

"c.

krmdn

krmdntam

krinatd

addn

addnt

adatd

krmdnt

"s^i^

^fifrTT"c.

addnt

am

(" 184)
aJ"^riT
juhvat

jtibvati

juhvat

juhvatam

rundhdn

rundhdnt

rundhdnt
Intens.

*TT*J^T^

"fl*j"if^ ^JTff

"37*j^ni(" 184)

bobhuvat

bobhuvatd

^fatq-^

Norn. S.

takingthe 3rd
accent, with
followed
form
and
1.

the

That

base

Bha

Pada

and

bases,it

vowel,

ending

been

naturallychanged

That, accordingto

countingthe

"3:

the rules

uh,

P. Plur.

Instr.

Sing.

This

sh.

are

best

into

the

" 204.

the

as

it is

forming

by
and

in form

base,it

Bha
In

s,

formed

always

is easy to
the

Anga

Nom.

before

T:

uh,

semivowel.

monosyllabicin

^ i,all verbs which, without

the

3rd

pers.

plur.,insert ^

i.

Optional^ i, " 337, 8.)

Sing.

babhuvushd

babhuvdn

ninyuh

ninyushd

ninivdn

tutuduh

tutudushd

tutudvdn

Ace.

Sing.

Instr. Plur.

babhuvddbhih

nintvdmsam

ninivddbhih

tutudvdmsam

tutudvddbhih

didivdmsam

didivddbhih

^nT^TTTTf^T^T^f

^ftonHTfirafg:

"3^fk"

tJl^SlT^

f^r^"ji"^

f^f^t
didivushd

didivdn

^TIj'nTPgJ ^K*(T*Jt4jlit
^TKTn^TMFT^T^
choraydmdsuh

vowel, which,

that

intermediate

babhuvuh

didivuh

be

both
corresponds,

Having

restore

on

(See Necessary ^ i, " 338, i


3rd

bhavishyatd

remembered,

roots

Instr. Hfcufri'l

bhavishydntam

bases, accordingto

in

fa *M rf

participle,
only that
to

principle.

same

reduplicatedperfectmay

of the

be

must

the

on

Ace. H

that tense.

vowel, is changed

Anga

Pada

had
2.

by

the

the

plur.of

pers.

Hftra^
bhavishydn

of
participle

The

b6bhuvatam

is formed

the future

bhavishydnti bhavishydnt

" 416.

rundhatd

am

bdbhuvat

of
participle

The

415.

juhvatd

choraydmdsushd choraydmdsivan choraydmdsivdmsam

choraydmdsivddbhih

PARTICIPLES,

3rd

P. Plur.

Instr.

AND

GERUNDS,
Nom.

Sing.

205

INFINITIVE.

Ace. Sing.

Sing.

Instr. Plur.

fTO
sushnvuh

sushuvdihsam

sushuvushd

sushuvdn

cT"jm

7ff"TTF*^

tenushd

tenlvdn

ten lilt

tushuvddbhih
"v

teniva/hsam

fafag:

tenivddbhih

P*iftl"iiti

chikriyuh

chikriytishd

chikriodn

^IJtn

^Nlf^l^

ddushd

ddivdn

*J?^^T

^Sc|[c^

dduh

chikriodmsam

chikricddbhih

ddivdmsam

ddivddbhih

*lf'-ffe*

juhuvuh

juhuvushd

juhuvdn

juhuvdmsam

juhuvddbhih

rurudhuh

rurudhushd

rurudhvdn

rurudhvdmsam

rurudhvddbhih

In five

" 417.

forms
get the following

3rd

the insertion of

verbs, where

P. Plur.

"

is

before ^

optional(" 337, 8),we

Instr.

Nom.

Sing.

Sing.

Ace.

Instr. Plur.

Sing.

or

jaganvdn

jagmuh

jagmushd

jagmivdn

jaghnuh

jaghnushd

jaghnivan or

vividuh

vividushd

vividvan

or

vivisuh

vivisushd

vivisvdn

or

dadrisuh

dadrisushd

dadrisvdn

jagmivdrhsam

jagmicddbhih

jaghnivamsam

jaghnivddbhih

vividivdn

vividvdmsam

vioidcddbhih

vivisivdn

vivisvdmsam

vivifvddbhih

dadrisvdmsam

dadrisvddbhih

or

jaghanvdn

or

dris

" 418.

The

by dropping

of
participle

^T ire, the

^TT"T
substituting

termination

dadire

mdna

for verbs

of

the

3rd

pers.

formed

plur. Atm.,

and

dna.

chakrire

The

dadrisivan

reduplicated
perfectAtmanepadais

the

babhdvire

J 419.

or

^L^M:

"

^?W^n:

"

chakrdndh

daddnah,

^R:

"

babhuvdndfy

present Atmanepadahas two terminations, ITR


participle
dna for verbs of the Second
of the First Division (J295),
^R
"

Division.
In the First Division

drop the

termination

In the

Second

Atm., drop
*

we

same

the

^ nte, and replaceit by

Division

the termination

The

again take

may

we

may

^nr

optionalforms

likewise

ate, and

run

3rd pers. plur.present Atm.,

JfRt

take

mdnah.
the

3rd pers. plur.present

replaceit by

^TR!

all the Pada

and

through

dnafy.

Bha

cases.

206

AND

GERUNDS,

PARTICIPLES,

J 420-

INFINITIVE.

Second

First Division.

bhdva-nte
tudd-nte

sunv-dte"

bhdva^mdnafy

VRJTR:

"

IJ^TRJ tudd-mdnah

"

Division.

dpnuv-yte

^rnreff

: tanv-dnd

chordya-nte iJUquUU: chordya-mdnah

krm-dte

"

tudyd-mdnah

tudyd-nte ^HMt
bhdvdya-nte HN+HM:
Des.

Int.

ad-dte

^f'^HS ad-dndh

"

uhv-ate

^^bubhusha-nte^JWT": bubhusha-mdnah
bodhuyd-nte "^JtWHt bobhuyd-mdnah
^ft^l^

rundh-dte

"

jfftaiFT:
krin-dndfy

"

bhdvdya-mdnah

"

dpnuv-dn*

^MI^HM:

divya-nte" ^Nmr^r: divya-mdnah

"

sunv-dndfy

g^R:
"

juhv-dnah,
^3^1~*{\

"

%VT"f:
rundh-dndfy

"

"

" 420.
:

in the

mdnah

the future in the

of
participle

The

is formed by adding
Atmanepada

manner.

same

bhavishyd-mdnafy
bhavishyd-nte ^P^U|Hri!j:
"

neshyd-nte T^iMHRd:neshyd-mdnah

"

totsyd-nte iftwui^: totsyd-mdnah


"

i edhishyd-nte ^Puu(H|iii:
edhishyd-mdnah
"

J 421.

of
participles

The

in the

adding *TRt mdnah

the

same

present

and

future

passiveare

formed

by

manner.

bhiiyd-nte IJJJHH* bhtiyd-mdnafy


"

bhdvishyd-nte-bhdvishyd-mdnah

IURT^T: budhyd-mdnah

^i4^budhyd-nte
"

"

stuyd-nte ^TRTT: stuyd-mdnah


"

ndyishyd-nte ndyishyd-mdnah
Or like the Part. Put. Atm.
"

kriyd-nte f"q*TO; Jcriyd-mdnafy


"

HT^ bhdvyd-nte"HTsq^R:
Past

The

to

the

the Gerund

formed

masc.

in i^T tva.

by adding

tdh

IT:

or

eft ndb

^f?n kritd, fern.; epf kritdm,

lundh, cut.
/i","g"T:
"J[

This

termination

or

which

Besides

must

being

termination

tendency to

weaken

$ 423.
MfaHl
The

is,as

that verbs

so

to the

averse

their past

gerund

of

if ta

insertion

always

verbal

most

which

insert ^ i before

ta, having

The

saw,

we

without ^ i,always form

of verbs

root.

7T ^a

much

^ iy so

been

in 7H tah and

^ fai,^r?f:kritdh,done,

root.

neut.

with

ParticiplePassive

passiveis
past participle

The

J 422.

bhdvyd-mdnah

bases.

the

the insertion of intermediate

opposed to
may

form

small.

is very

of intermediate

Udatta, is

one

generaltense

one

any

without
participle

it.

The

number

($332, D.)
^ i} the participial

of those

which

have

FTT tva

to

(See$ 344.)

simple verbs

?f kri, "ag^Rkritva3having done,

is formed

by adding

"^pu, Tg^lputvd or, from

the

Tf^pun,

pavitva,having purified.
rules

as

to the

given before.

insertion

With

of the

regard to

the

intermediate

^ i before

?=rT

tvd have

strengthening or weakening of

the

-"

base, the generalrule

In

Udatta.

great extent, though

not

I. H:

"

the

case

If IT. tah takes

424.

and

ta

always

has

point,it will

this

tvd

iWT

It

18).

2,

on

^ i weakens, with
the

be

venient
con-

as
they agree
together,

to

altogether.

t ah

I F7T

"in

intermediate

intermediate

v;\, with

in certain verbs

it may

3[",

? i.

produce Guna.

In this

before r^T tvd is regular.

Guna

^ftsi,to

specialrules

more

the terminations

take

to

few

givinga

intermediate

(Pan.i.

root

207

INFINITIVE.

tvd without

is that WT

^ i strengthens the

intermediate

AND

GERUNDS,

PARTICIPLES,

430.

lie

^|f"4ni
fayitdh(Pan. i.

down,

avid,to sweat,

sveditdh
^jtyrit

meditdh
mtrf,to be soft,^f^TTJ

19);

2,

(V"lf|!
svinndh

or

$ayitvd.
^ff^HIsveditvd.

31 forai
;

i^ni meditvd.

lit kshveditdh; a^i^rmkshveditvd.


drip,8^1^
dare,vftlf*dharshitdh; Vnti^T dharshitvd.

k thrill. to
to
,

bear, fftwt marshltdh (patient),


(Pan. i.

to
,

purify,^f^lf*pavtidh(Pan. I.
with

" 425. Verbs


*, if

penultimate T

2,

from ^[^/wn. See


MP"ii"n^amW,

22) ;
or

may

marshitvd.
20) ; Hf*li"ll

2,

take

not

may

" 426. If
18),or

theyare

intermediate

tod takes

WT

at all events

does

produce

not

^",

it

Verbs, however, beginning with

*^yor ^t",preceded by ^, "^ror


IJ^mmA,

^5^A:m,

taking intermediate

" 427. Though


the

weakens

base, in ^

viditvd;
Ig^mush, to
to

rud,to

" 428. Roots


before

nasal

(Pan.

1.

25);

ruditvd
tjRrqi

2,

7);

2,

same

^crtV,to

23). ^

in any

15). SH*

tvd

Roots

(i.e. ^^pun)y

pu

singleconsonant
2,

26) :

saw,

to

except

to
Ip^cfyttf,

"jfar^T

trishitvd

not

(Pan. I.

*J^gra.h,to

or

37-)

nf^rqitarshitvd.

produce Guna, but, if possible,

f^ md, to know, (%f";rm


take, J]^1r"li
grihitvd;ifcmrid,
2,

mrirf,to rub,

8) ;

mriditvd;^TV^urfA,
to
"jH;i"ii
speak,

to

"^fAor "^pA,precededby a nasal,may or may not drop the


(Pan. i. 2, 23); iifVrti
granthitvdor 44 fan i grathitvat,
having twisted.

and

nasals

WT

tva, without

lengthen their

vowel

intermediate

2,

24);

i.

before WJ tah and

r^T ted

(Pan. vi.

4,

sdntvd.
rest, ^TTTr:sdntdh,T^rfi^T
step, may

or

kram, "ZRtf: krdntdh,jfclHI


" 430. The

to

in

endingin

Arram, to
JfP{

4,

(Pan. i. 2,
exist,qfrfrti

to pluck (Pan. I.
appliesto the roots ^^vafich,to cheat, and rJ^/ancA,
vanchitvd
vachitvd.
^f-Hr^
or
I

" 429.

ai.)

dwell, ^fm^fiushitvd.

ending

WT

2,

to thirst
option appliesto Jfitrish,

same

2,

i.

optionally(Pan. i.

*, rTT tvd does

steal,^fm^lmushitvd

II. Kl tah

vi.

shining.(Pan. i.

klisitvd;
to hurt, f^iP^IHI
gudhitvd;
JjPviHI
f^iS^"fr/,
^vad,

uditvd;'3R(vas,to

WT

cry,

mriditvd(Pan. i.
delight,ijf^r^T

cover,

The

been

mediate
inter-

general rule, Guna

ending

Guna

dyotitvd
dyutitvLThe
or
shine,tflfriril
'^PriHl
to attenuate

(Pan.

and

consonants,

"31u, take
"3",

bear;

before Tf fa with

of the base.

weakening

any

has

requires,as

vartitvd.^^srams,to fall,tjiftfrm
sramsitod
sfqrqipavitvd
(Pan. i. 2, 22).
purify,

to

Guna

156.

used

impersonally.
Pnn dyotitdm,
it
to shine, ^fnndyutitdm or iTl
Wi{dyut,
^

No.

may

lengthen

not

krdntvdor

followingroots, ending

in

its vowel

before

i^T tvd

(Pan. vi.

kramitvd.
"air^T krantvd;also ^iP"irGU
nasals, drop them

before

WJ taA and

WT

fp"

4,

18).

208

PARTICIPLES,

GERUNDS,

AND

" 431-

INFINITIVE.

TJ^yam,to check,TcH yatdh,Tfft[yatvd*;


T^\rom, to sport,TTtt ratdh,TJ^T ratvd;*R
bend, 'ffttnatdh,^^[natvdj

to

'%*fkan,

go,

to

think, *HTt matdh, IfFRmatvdj

ask; TT^faw, to stretch,fTTH fa"a$, ffi^T tatvdj and

ending
Note
and

Of

"

insert

the

nasal

"

in

verbs those

same

ending

l^tjTHTTT pramdtya (Pan. vi.

before the gerundialHya;

431.

the other

"^^van, to

verbs of the Tan

class,

5^w.

the

The

to

'

gatdh, lli^R gdtvdj l"^man,

TlTt

namt

J"znhatvctj
T* gam,
kill,^TfTtAafrfA,

to

4,

11*171

in

"^w drop

before the gerundialHya

the nasal

38) : those ending

in

1(m may

or

drop

not

may

pragdtya or WFRtpragdmya.

verbs drop final *{n, and lengthen the


following

^ff^jan,to bear, ^Ttfljdtah,*\\ri\jdtvd:W^san,

vowel.

obtain, OTtTi sdtah, '*Hril sdtvd;

to

^t^ khan, to dig,^Trf: khdtah, Tsllril khdtvd.


Roots

1.

ending

in

t|cM,

"^v,substitute 3^^ and

or

(Pan. vi.

"3iw.

19.)

4,

f^div,to

ask, TJFIprishtah (" 125), ifflprishtvd;

to
,

play,fpTJdyunah,

dyutvd.
Roots

2.

ending

l^murchh,
"
^i

The

432.

to

^r", drop

or

4,

their final consonant.

faint,^J murtah;

verbs change
following

(Pan. vi.

u.

"^rc^A,

in

their

^v

with

to

Roots

21.)

precedingor followingvowel

into

20.)

iv,to dry,^JTHsrutah, t|r"l


I srutvdj

" 433.

the

*{r"T
jurtvd;13Ttvar,

4,

#wr", to strike,wftjturnah.

ail,*T*!fcjurnah,

to
,

(Pan. vi.

to

hasten, "^t turnah, Hr^Tturtvd;


protect,^Tft wtaA,

to
*8*{av,

w^a;

wrqi

bind, 1JTHwi^aA, ^^r^Tmw^.


ending

substitute

d; ^

dhyai, to meditate,"UTTfT: dhydtah,


*ft?H
Iftr5TT
Final TJ e and
^TT a, too,
dhydtvd: or ^
^^"^,
gai, to sing,
^i^a.
J pitah, M!rq i pitvd; v dhe,to suck, Vhfttdhitah,
changed to \i; fftpd,to drink, tjtff
in ^

ai

^TT

I ," T

are

"

434.

The

roots
change
following

c?z^a
f^TTt
f^rfl
rf"7"^,

do, to cut,
5toa;

*TTma, to

their final vowel

(Pan. vn.

4,

into

40) ; ^ftso,

(*ii"l!
ftlft
mitvd;
rnzYa/^,

measure,

i.

f^Tr^Tsthitvdj VT rf^a,to place,f^cf:


AzYa^,f^T

to

finish,ftfWJsitah,

sthd, to stand, f"Tftl


sthitah,

l"l

(Pan. vn.

Ai^a

(^*T:Mwa^), f^r=lT
Az^a
(Pan. vii. 4, 43).
'JJTWo,
to sharpen,and ""t
chho, to cut, substitute ^ i,or

4,

42); ^T M,

to

leave

" 435.

$ftso, %JT:AVa^

or

si'^a
sdtah,f^JHI
^TTrT:

" 436. Exceptionalforms


"JTda, to give,forms ^:

sphdy,to

/ai,to
up

to
,

vi.

i,

^FRii'KJ
sphitah(Pan. vi.

i,

4,

46).

22).

Mfeilri:
prastitah(Pan. vi.

i,

23) and Trert??:


prastimah

i, 24,

grow,

^ft"Tt
s^a^,
sinah,and ^ftrT"

cold

but

'H^flT^Jsamsydnah, rolled

25).

forms

but
fft^lpinah;

"OfR:

pydnah

after certain

prepositions(Pan.

28).

" 437. The


*

41).

54).

2,

curdle,forms

(Pan. vi.

4,

a.

ai,to call (with Tt pra),forms

(Pan. vin.

(Pan. vii.

$llrilsa^a

dattah^, c^STTdattvd (Pan. vii.

forms

grow,

or

the regular^TT

take

See verbs

verbs which

without

take

Samprasarana

intermediate

3[t.

before Kt tah and

(" 332,

ending in vowels, ^ da may


t After prepositions

13, and
be

WT

mentioned

taahave

been

the final

3[" and

16.)

dropt,and

prepositionlengthened. H^rtl pradattdh,fffil prattah; "Q^'*sudattah,^^J

suttah.

of

210

PARTICIPLES,

AND

GEKUNDS,

" 443-

INFINITIVE.

^rt o; ^W bhuj (^ftbhujo,Dhatupatha 28, 124),to bend,


indicatory

an

^T7f:bhugnah.

beginningwith

6. Verbs

ending in

and

double consonant,

d, or

^1

J?

e,

T*

at,

57);

2,

"%^,

^TT

changeableto

in
participles

and
*""pilr,
while

with

then

optionalform

an

of
participle
T^priis

the

^far:kshinah, from

"s^,

be

in

^Nr: hrmafy
"

443.

their

Native

and

sinah
^fhr:

ashamed;

with

contact

grammarians

meaning they may

take

2,

from

27);

2,
2,

57);

to
f^.dit;,

lagnah,from

cIP^Tt

18); also

(Pan.viu.
words

certain

enumerate

from

c^T

be

c*^ laj,to

rather

than

56).

2,

which, though by
participles

as

are
place of participles,

the

if derived

but $ffa:s^a^, cold;


sydnah,coagulated,

9^H:

hritah, ashamed
^tlf:

or

*
dyutah)
;

(Pan.vii.

grot

dytinah,from

^R:

In

optional;

(Pan.vii.
^fTTHptiritah
be trS:purtah (Pan.
viu.

waste;

it is inn

play,(notto gamble, where


/a^,to

said to

to

is

^S: ptirnah,only

wa/L-

"T:

2,

khydtah.

proclaim,WTW:

to

to protect,TRghrd, to smell,the substitution


^(trai,
trdnah or ^nr: fr*a/0#(Pan.viu.
2, 56.)

7. Miscellaneous

(Pan.vin.

^n

Except ^ dhyai, to meditate, w?r:

faded.
43) 5 fl^fl*"JJW gldnafy,

dhydtah (Pan.viu.

o,

being a semivowel,

of them

one

by

their

formation

to

be

"T^itpakvdh, ripe;
"tflRtkshdmdh,weak',
H tctl
1 1prastimdh
206);
(Pan.vi.
dry
i,
T"$Kkrisdh,thiYi',
^^ilsushJcah,

classed

substantives

or
adjectives

as

participles.Thus

as

kshivdh,drunk,
crowded; "J^:phulldh,expanded; isffat

"c.

J 444. By adding the possessivesuffix "^vat ("187) to


in w ta

being

and

"T nay

in fact

who

has

done,

sd kritavati,and in the neuter


declined

but

kritavdn, he has

katam

take

IT ya

*"3\bMtva,we

j 446.

Verbs

conquer,

forms

Pan.

gambling;
a

the

mat

as

definite verb.
feminine

in the

or

fTrepTT^^kritavat.

They

are

^
*rr

regularly

viu.
see

verbs, but

not

in "q ya.
verbs

the

precededby

negativeparticle

instead of ?^T tvd.


Thus, instead of
(withoutthe accent),
find H*$$sambMya; but ^rftfi^T
not havingconquered.
ajitvd,

ending in

short vowel

take

fartijitva,
having conquered;

carry, vp^T bhritvd


which

^K\ kritdh,done, becomes

in
throughout like adjectives

j 445. Compound

to

Thus

is formed,

occurrence

generallyused

made

Gerund

^T a,

common

very

participle
perfectactive.

kritdvdn,one
sa

of
participle

new

participles

the

but

but

tya instead of
f%fww

2, 49, allows

tJ"Tcfywwain

Dhatupatha 26, i.

different root, f^f div, to

all

senses

?J"Tdyuna

pain,Dhatupatha

and

33, 51.

of the root

ya.

f*f

vijitya. ^ bhri,to

TOfFIsambhritya, having collected.

TRsfaprakshiya,
having destroyed(Pan.vi.

if

4,

f^

kshi,
Except frsy

59).
div,except in that of

"4P".^H(
paridyuna, pained,

come

from

-"453" 447. Causative bases


before T ya
assemble.

having

caused

^ ( (Pan.vi.

to
to

4, 69).

" 449. Verbs

or

ghu (" 392


"*J

agamy

or

^m,
to
"T^"am,

"thd,to stand,*TT gd,to

WT

measure,

But TRpd,
prasthdya.

sthd,HWR

take ^JT d, not


finish,

to

wf\ftpraptya(Sar.).
of intermediate

admit

do not

which

or
H"u
bow, Vk*$+*\prandmya

dgdtya.Other

WMIi^

to the Tan
belonging

"SfR

or

prapaya

to

avaddyaOT

do,to cut, ^H^TO

Jim*f

Ex.

*),*TT md,

^T hd, to leave,?ft*o,
protect,

to

or

endingin

*Tm.

\i,
tan, nnm
"ifr^
or

suffix^H{ ay

reach (Pan.vi. 4, 57).

drink,may form

^SMIW|

causative

4,

to go, TJTpd,to drink

droptheir

penultimatevowel, keep the

*l"i*i"H sunyamdyya,having caused to


56): WlWlfrisahyamdyati,
ifiMifii
tdrdyati,
nn\*\pratarya,
forms UTO
UHnifffprdpdyati
advance.
prdpdyya,
prapya and HIM***

(Pan.vi.

$ 448. The verbs called

to

short

Otherwise the causative suffix is,as usual,dropt


:

having caused

singor

with

211

ADJECTIVES.

VERBAL

verbs

pru

", may

ndtya

or

may

T^^am, to

not
go,

of intermediate
not admitting
endingin nasals,

class,always
drop their final nasal. Ex. ^Aan, Tf"lprahdtya;

pratdtya^.?f"^khan

v"[janform

and

^n^I

khdnya or

khdya,

^TT

j/ya.

" 450. Verbs ending in ^n


vittrya,
havingcrossed ;
" 451. Certain

verbs

^p
are

into
fr tr,and,afterlabials,

change itto

"3Rdr.

Ex.

having filled.

sampurya,
in
irregular

taking Samprasarana.

not

Thus

ve, to weave,

Wmpravdya;
upajydya ^vye,to cover, H"**m pravydya,
^ft^^IparivJy
^ f^^M
but after ijftpari
I*1parivydya
(Pan.vi. i, 41"44).
optionally
*ft
he
rntndti,
mf, ^liifff
" 452. Some verbs change final ^ i and ^" into ^TT d. Thus

forms

"^\jyd,to

d M
fail,

N
-rt|

or

to destroy,
and fH mi, f*l"l\fff
mindti,he throws,form f"i*ii*i
nimdya; ^ ctf,
destroys,

c5^/I,to
upaddya;

or f=ic4l*lt?i%a
f"lc6l*Ttn/tfya
(Pan.vi.
melt,optionally

CHAPTER

XVII.
ADJECTIVES.

VERBAL

Verbal

in
Adjectives

cf^:

^tfhi:aniyah,a/w/ IK yah
tavyah(ortavyah),

(oryah

" 453-

and

yah).

in meaningto the
adjectives
(called
Kiitya)correspond
Latin participles
in ndus,conveying
the idea that the action expressed
by the
verbs ought to be done or will be done.
"*uul4Ukaraniyah,
"*ri^: kartavyah,
cfir":
"F^: dharmas tvaydkartavyah,right
kdryahJ, faciendus. Ex. VHMm
is to be done by thee.

rare

These

i, 50-51).

verbal

ifH3(*H*i1
irfHHfn:I rPJ
^fcTCg^rWT

t Versus memorials

of these verbs

% Another

is ^cOT
forming verbal adjectives

occurrence;

suffix for

to
Tf^pach,

cook, wf"?J*n TRiC

brickie,fragile.
bhidelimali,
(Pan.in.
E

pachelimdmdshdh, beans fit to cook;

i, 96,vart.)
2

which is,however, of
eliinah,

212

J 454"

In order

future,and
Thus

instead

gai,to

to
f^Tjz,

sing

the

periphrastic

^TW^ft ddtdvyah

gdtd

TTrf^J

gdniyah

gdtavyah

*?ferTT
bhavitd

t bhavaniyah

bhavitavyah

do

^eyaA

'TO

*m*f\q:jaya

STcT^K jetavyah

conquer

of kri,to

tavyah, take

ffst,:

of KT td put risq: tavyah.

TTtfT

*".bhu,to be

to
/rl,

in
adjective

the

^THT ddtd

to give
^T c?o,
n

form

to

$454-

ADJECTIVES.

VEEBAL

: kdryc

karantyah

kartavyah

old

grow

kshvid,to
kshveditd

sweat

budh, to
^J"I

know

kshvcdyah

kshvedaniyah

kshveditavyah

V*t1**ibodhaniyah
"Hf^l
H'"MJ bodhitavyah "ft

bodhitd

i,to draw
kuchitd

meeze

mih, to

sprmkle

"nV,to

gantavyah

rashtd

drashtavyah

^FT damshtd

damshtavyah

see

uchyc

medhavyah

'TTfT Crania

hs, to bite
Caus.

medhd

T^T

to go

P"iri**|:kuchitavyah ^^l"fl"4t
kuchaniyah
'^i

darsaniyah
"

damsaniyah

,to
to be

cause

bhdvayitd

bhavaniyah

bhdvyah

^rcfhr.

I^T:

bubhushitd

bubhushanfyah

bubhushyah

bobhuyitd

bobhuyaniyah

bobhuyyah

^riH"f"f)^;

"nH"qt

bobhavitd

bobhavaniyap,

bobhavyah

to
I^bubhush,
wish

to be

Int.-sft^bobhu
Int.

^i^^rflu:

^fftrir
bebhidy
bebhiditd

"455. In

order

sufficient to take
intermediate

^nl^t

aniyah have,
be

causative

and

verbs
;

are,

no

it appears

as

before

putting ^"rfa: aniyah


of

course,

occasion

the

adjectivein ^Trfhj:aniyah, it

the

the

for the

inq:

before

Guna-vowels

for their final element, and

intermediate

after consonants

generally

however,
tavyah,omitting,

instead.

semivowel

is

The

3[ i.

of intensives

and

^n( ay
other

of

the

derivative

yah
usual, rejected, '^^budh,^tvqfif bodhayati,^tVTfat bodhani-

as

f"?"*
bebhidaniyah.
bhidy"srftrenr
bebhidyate, "3rf*r"*rffan

" 456.
1

karshtd

Never

This

the root

^ i, and

can

there

form

to

bebhidyah

bebhidaniyah

In

or

order

krashtd.

takes

termination

Guna
is

to

form

the

adjectivein

irt

"c.) it
yah (i"jinyat,

karshtavyahor krashtavyah.

(" 345, note),except before terminations

" 456, 3.

which

have

or

is

-$ 456generallysufficient
ani.

Thus

adjectivein

the

take

to

213

ADJECTIVES.

VBKBAL

becomes

HqHl*T. bhav-am-yah

^nffar.aniyah and

Final

1.

^TT

itaai,
Final

2.

few

be

a,

e,

*ft o, become

cz,

^z

and

Guna,

take

conquered, different

destroy,^^: ksheyah,
vi.

81).

i,

changed

Final

to

*r^

and
after

or,

avy

bhdvyah
be
as

Final

pure.
^

3. Final

m^
^friHl

before

Vriddhi

i^gu,

^"r"

instead

of

before

vi.

to
filji,^W.jeyah,

the

as

when

^^^m"":

or

sound, 'NHl
ya/t,but

wA:

Guna.

before

uv

of

high degree

bhavyah

T^

(Pan.

circumstances, are

same

avafya,
H*i:

destructible

kshayyah,

Tspzn

wsr^r

*r:

65.)

4,

viprena "uchind bhdvyam,

to

give, ^itfdeyah

^T rfd, to

under

^,

if it appears

"nya;

and

be mentioned

to

jayyafy, conquerable; f% kshi, to

necessityis expressed,to ^n^ dv;


f^w

here

vpfaaniya;

from

15

have

98;

i,

^m:

different

"f|i|Hl"j:
bodh-ani-yah, ^m:

e.

before

as

from

(Pan.in.

sing,*m: geyah.

to

^i

specialrules, however,

more

off

cut

bhavyah; ^rfffffar.
chet-ani-yah,

H*n

%W: chetyah; qq"flq: vay-ani-yah,$n: veyah;


bodhyah.

to

avasya-

Brahman

must

VMl*J anfya, appears

guvaniya, i^Qguya.

before

not

kdryah ;

trnfc

w"fN:

aniyah, take

(Pan,in.

pdryah.

i,

124.)

120,

4. Penultimate
Guna

ri, which

before

(Pan. in.

^:

with

yaA,

no).

takes

Guna

few

vfiMlq:aniyah, does

before

take

not

exceptions; ^m: vridhyah, "%$m dri"yah

But

to do, forms
to
W"T.
kalpyah; ^(^chrit,
tf^krip,
kill,^5: chartyah (Pan.in. i, no) ; ^vrish, to sprinkle,
^q: vrishyah
or

i,

varshyah (Pan.in.

^q:

i,

120),

Penultimate

^^;

becomes

^re

ferity"|i^: kirtyab.
c|7^
5. Penultimate

and

^e

take

g'w

fs^vid,^ivedyah;
6. Penultimate

^r a,

is

aniyah,
i,

remains
*T?T.

derived

Panini

forms

from

short

The

in

^sah,
WTt

^ khai,

Sarasvati

final

laugh,

^pw:

to bear

to

dig ;

yah,

cyK

/a6A,
from

(Pan.in.

i,

hant

i,

w?ffan aniyah;

among

vah,

(Pan. in.
vdhyah.

TRH

The

labhyah.

c?"i:

labial

^a^,

99),and

vadhyah

W.

^^

the

char, 1H

Sakadi

verbs,

in

other verbs*.

Tmq:

yam,

^J

able ;

be

to

some

or

WH*N:

before

not

in), which, however,

only 1^ gad, T^ mad,

(in. 7, 7) includes

is

hdsyah

fakyah,

but

consonant

*TRm:

kheyah (Pan.in.

(in. i, 100) mentions

preposition.

to

the

^"0^ sapyah

curse,

sahyah, from

^f^khan

has,

likewise

before

ij: ya/^,as

$fta:soshyafy.
yj^tush,

lengthened,unless

$r^ s"jo, to

before

prosodiallyshort, before

98; 124); ^

But

Guna

be

may

ghdtyah.

if used

$T^

without

s'ak,^

sah,

214:

VERBAL

The

" 457.

guh, to
3Ji|

followingare

hide, may

"Jf*TT

brahmodyd kathd,

composition (Pan. in.

find

We
verbs

againstthe general rules:

story told

^T^

107.

i,

udyah,

1, 109,

Kasika);

take, *l^l grihyah, after TTHT prati and

?J^graJi,to

vad, to speak, 73TJ

op*/

in

composition (Pan. in.

by

Brahman)

*J,bM,

106; 114.

i,

be, "JIJbhuya, in

to

brahmabMyamgatah,"Yr\.ved atBrahmahood)

TH*

rule, f^T^T*
s'ishyah,
pupil.

to

^T^sas,

yah, formed

iTS'.guhyah or llt^K gohyah (Pan. in.

form

cherish,^fmijushyahj

to

derivatives in *tt

few

" 457-

ADJECTIVES,

IT " inserted

before

*l" f/a$,in

analogy

to the

in 1

gerunds

jra, in the

following

^ i, to

go,

^mt ityah; ^

praise,^JW* stwtyah-

S^M" *"

choose,

to
"3^vri,

^WJ vrityah;

c?n, to regard, ^Wt drityah; *[ Z"^ri,to bear, ^m: bhrityahj *" kri,to do, ejfiq:
"""
But

krityah.
considered

following 1
bhuj, to

occur

g^i:duhyah

ch

verbal

regular
and

change their
"^./

or

bhogyam,

of

pravach,

the

gutturals. Likewise

(Prakriya-Kaumudi,p.

base

has

The

before

the

infinitive
the

K*n\

(See J 454.)
Krishna

55

and

if the

pdkyamj

Hin"w

(Pan. vn.

69).

3,
do

guttural

^pT

admit

not

^^^fl/,TR^ydch,^T^rMcA,

that

pass.,
;

from

twice

over.

eaten, he goes

the

verbal

KT

ta

of the

tydjyam,

wirq

Verbal

Adverb.

the

J 403),a
pd,

verb

verbal

to

(Pan.in.

vrajati,he

goes.

22).

to

see

verbal

This

*p^ bhuj,
vfof 33Tfcf

adverb

is most

bhojam vrajati,having

It is likewise
divided

passive^

From

Ex.

general

as

the

is formed.

?T"ffiT
*ThT "rftf
bhojam
4,

which,

before

assumes

adverb

goes

eat.

drink, irnipdyam.

first eaten, he
Ex.

accent.

no

periphrastic
future,or

suffix ^f am,

unaccentuated
which

has

bodhitum.
adjective. "|*rbudh, ^ftfVTJ

to

in

which

by adding g to",

is time

form

archyam,

Thus

turn.

dvaidhamkdram, having
compounds; %VcfiTt

loudly.

pravdchyam, W3?

kdlah,it

bhojam vrajati,having

frequentlyused
eaten

is to be eaten

drashtum

of the

eat, *hr bhojam

agre

"^Spach,

^affrr krishnam

bhoktum

means

to

the

^ratf
^

"RTc5:

added

of

tdvyah

(3rdpers. sing.aor.
to

vowel.

'T ^

or

b).

before

as

be

and

^TJ guhyah

into cF A:

beginningwith

n"4 \ "*!

is formed
form

same

Ex.

"f

J 460. By
rule, is

final consonant

following verbs:

in
Infinitive
The

not

must

^^vanch(to go).
^H^ aj, '3*{vraj,
^^ricJi,m*{tyaj,'%*{puj,

Mii^iydjyam, *TRT ydchyam, Xt^T rochyam,

J 459.

and

senses,

adjectives.Thus

";ft5*f
bhojyam, what

but

in certain

"ftT?n
dohyah, "c.

are, however, several exceptions. Verbs

substitution

TR^

the

only used

are

(nycit)
requiresthe lengtheningof the

ya

enjoy,"rW

There
the

both

ending in ^T

Verbs

forms

supplanting

as

*fltjn
gohyah
" 458.

of these

many

used

at the

end

of

TincRTt uchchaihkdram,

-"

46"-

CAUSATIVE

CHAPTER

XVIII.

CAUSATIVE

J 461. Simple roots

vowel, and

of their radical

treated
^Tir ay

as

Thus

a.

^V

The

accent

is

" 462. The


follows
1.

the

on

of

mfa

that

of

^i

bhdvi

final ^ i.

The

in the

appears

and

Guna

by

Vriddhi

root

is then

specialtenses

bhdvdyati,he

^T^Trrif

qtaiifribodhdyati,
he

and

or

to

causes

know.

to

causes

as

which

the vowel

either Guna

takes

Vriddhi

or

are

as

Final
Thus

\i and \i,'Su and "31 tf,^ ri and ^ri take Vriddhi.


f*3H
smi, to laugh,wi"4"*fci
smdyayati,he makes laugh.
"ftm,

lead, niMMPn ndyayati,he

to

^plu,to

swim,

V^bhu,to

be, ^m^ffl bhdvayati,he

"i i q

Medial

^", TM, ^n,

""5" followed by

makes

swim.

vedayati,he

to know, q^n
t?fc?,

Thus

budh,

fU

makes

^T

followed by

singleconsonant

to sit,*u^*ffn
TfffJ
sac?,

sddayati,he

to scatter.

is

take

Guna;

^rf

becomes

know.

makes

he causes
to cut, ^R"4ifl kartayatiy
A;ri/,
^Tff
he
to be able, "n"4Mfnkalpayati,
JSj^klip,
3. Medial

to make.

singleconsonant,

know, "uv*4rn bodhayati,he

to

be.

to

causes

lead.

to

causes

"4 fff
pldvayati,he

kri,to make, cBK^fn kdrayati,he causes


"8f
kri,to scatter, cFK^frtkdrayati,he causes
cjT
2.

bases

dya.

accordingto

rules

causal

the addition

^fv bodhi
a

into

class,so

becomes

\^bM
becomes

budh

be ;

by

Bhu

followingthe

VERBS.

changed

are

215

VEBBS.

to

know.
cut.

renders fit.

lengthened,but

there

are

many

exceptions.

sets.

fall,^TTHifir
pdtayati,he fells.

to

Exceptions:
endingin W^aw

verbs

I. Most

do not

lengthen their vowel

^TPTgram,to go, 'i*mfiigamayati, he makes


"aW

Verbs

in

kram, to

stride,ai^MPn kramayati,he
do

which

^X^am

lengthen the

vowel

kdmayate, he

to desire,4rH^?f
cli^Jtam,

go.
causes

to stride.

are,

desires; Caus.

cFTTTfiTkdmayati, he

makes

desire.
^SW am,
^*T

wiTn amati, he

to move,

cAam,
,

but

to

if it

eat, ^nrfTTchamati,he
means

but

to see,

it

means

eats ;

Caus.

^i*iMPndmayati,he

makes

SIH*lfHchdmayati,he
sees;

Caus.

makes

move.

eat.

^n*mf" sdmayati, he

shows;

quiets.

to eat,

*IH*|(Hyamayati,

; Caus.

^IIWjflT
sdmyati,he

^nPjflrr
samayati, he
unless

moves

he extends;
Caus. ""i*iMfiiyamffyaf"*,
Tf^fftyachchhati;

he feeds.

216

CAUSATIVE

"TH nam,

*f1*1*4fr ndmayati
vowel

^^vam,

"i*f^Pff
namayati, he

or

to remain

always ought

short

(Dh.

if it is used

bends.
P. 19,

the vowel

^*T*tfrf
vamayati,

or

class of verbs

collected

19, i),do

lengthentheir vowel.

not

in the

vowel

3rd

contains the

pers.

by

native

sing,aorist

19,

verbs

same

of the causative
these

preceded by

If

vomit.

(Dh. P.

The

without

preposition
;

the
preposition,

67).

grammarians, and

important among

more

he makes

short

to remain

always ought

If

if it is used

vomit, optionallylengthens its vowel

to

q"*i"4Pn
vdmayati

II. A

its vowel

bend, optionally
lengthens

to

$462-

VERBS.

verbs

without

preposition;

precededby

preposition,

67)*.
ftf ghat (Dh. P.

beginning with
may

optionallyretain their short


The

passive(" 405).

followinglist

CAUSATIVE.
Eoot.
1

THf

ghat

2.

3rd

Pers.

to strive
fear

vyath,to

TEf"2[
mrad,

aghati

vyathayati
'

to be famous
3. Tf^prath,
4.

Passive.

3rd Pers. Sing.Aor.

Par.

ghatayati

^T^T

Sing.Pres.

to rub

avyathi

prathayati

aprathi

mradayati

amradi

akrapi

5. "a^ro;), to

pity

krapayati

6. FTC

hurry

tvarayati

atvdri

jvarayati

ajvari

7.

"yar, to

with

burn

W^j^"r,to

fever

'

8. "nr nat, to dance


9.

natayati

to kill
^T*^*rfltfA,

10.

^prJtMm,to actf

11.

*3c*jval,to

12.

13. ?

to

smn,

shine

srathayati
pravanayati
"f"

prajvalayati

fc^prdjvali

H 1 5e|"I

or

asmari

smarayati

regret

c?n,to respect,
(notto tear)

";""4fa
darayati

14. ^IT sra, to boil

srapayati

^TOTnJ

or

to
to slay,to please,
15. '^TTjna,

adari

^i.

or

asrapi

%i9rftf
ajnapi

or

to perceive
sharpen (?),
1

6. T^

cAa?,to tremble

17. T^ mac?, to
1

8.

chalayati

"c.
rejoice,

sound,
"el^c?^aw,to

to

madayati
ring

achali

or

amadi

or

dhvanayati

adhvani

or

19.

^"^ dal,to

cut

dalayati(optional)

or

adali

20.

^W

cover

valayati(optional)

or

avali

vaZ, to

21.

to drop
Hdc^skhal,

22.

W^trap,

23.

"^ kshai,to
*

to be

skhalayati(optional)

ashamed

trapayati

Dhatupatha

19,

only,

nothing
t

mit
optionally
else.

Without

seems

indeed that the verbs

(i.e.short-voweled),while

See, however, Colebrooke, Sanskrit


a

^TGtlPM atrapi

or

^HJtP'if
akshdpi

67.

^MHI*i5IT^ft)It
"iIT^
-^ '""riM
are

or

"jM"4flT
kshapayati

wane

'iHjaiPco
askhali

or

and
preposition,

optionallywith

with

prepositionsthey

Grammar,
a

without

p. 317, note.

preposition.See

note

*.

prepositions
are

mit, and

218

collect,f^nftfif
chinoti; Caus. *nnqP7T chdpayati,or

6. fa chi, to

^rqqPd chdyayati,he

(Pan.vi.

to collect.

causes

54.)

i,

he
^m^Prf chhdyayati,

Caus.

regularly

7.

chhyati;
^ chho, to cut, "SFlfw

8.

Caus. *wwfajdgarayati, he
to be awake, W*tf%jdgarti;
*R*[jdgri,

9.

to conquer,
-ftr/i,

makes

he
1 1

he
*wfajayati;Caus. vWFtfnjdpayati,

^fr^Tdaridrd,to

10.

12.

be

poor,

daridrdti
^ft^rfrT

doshayati,he
^faqfif

Caus.

dushayati,he
^^qfcf

(Pan.vi.

vpai, tfTOfwpdyati, to

to protect,mfa pdti;
iCTjt?^,

TTTPptrfTT
pdyayati,he

Caus.
be

6.

to love, Tfanfir
iftpri,
prindti;

7.

bhrijjati
; Caus.
^R3^bhrajj,to roast, ^J^5rflT

19.

f?Tm^

to

"rrT^ bhdpayate or NlquH bhishayate,

Caus.

2,1.

^
he

causes

iftmi, to

to

ufaffriyate;Caus.\cnrflT
repayati,he

to go,

grow,

T^frrrohati;

to grow.

(Pan.vn.

3,

43.)
root

24. "3ft
vz, to

to make

means

25.

obtain,^fk #e^

^ve, to

conceive.

if it
PrTvdjayati,

Caus. ^Tq^rfiT
vdpayati or

(Pan.vi.

I,

cover,

Pd linayati,

55.)
causes

^^(vyayati;

Caus.

he
^[T^?(vydyayati,

sad, to fall,
^ftrrwsiyate; Caus. ^iri^Pri
$dtayati,he

(Pan.vn.

3,

$fts""

31.

to succeed,"teqfrr
sidhyati;Caus.
fw^sidh,

but

32.

*f)so,

sharpen,^irfcf
syati; Caus. ^ll^^Pri
sdyayati,he

^hnrfirsedhayati,he performs sacred


to

to

fells ; but

cover.

choose.

not, if

42.)

30.

to

weave.

to

causes

29.

move.

to

vevite; Caus. M^nPrf vevayati.

he causes
to choose,fjififnvlindti;
jj^tf/z,
Caus.^qqfftvlepayati,

to

shakes.

^nitrfifvdyayati,if it

28.

it means

1,48;51.

he

means

/a,also

c5T

; seePan.vi.

^fRvayati; Caus. ^HRfw vdyayati,he

weave,

26. ^^t vevitto conceive, ^^^


27. ^ vye, to

vfi^ ^

takes the form

The meaning varies


f7Te?niffTM/0y"^(Pan.vii.3539).

blow, *%\favdti; Caus.

flow.

makes

"|^qPffrohayati, ft^rfffropayati,

Caus.

and riH^Pri Idyayati;and, if the


Idpayati,

to

56.)

destroy,PHHlfrimindti, form

lindti and ctftawUyate; Caus. oilH


3ftU, to adhere,Poifflfif

23. ^T^a,

I,

like *TT m"^.

T:tri, to flow,or

22.

he makes
^r^irflTbhrqjjayati,

gi^ 6Ary.

throw, fa^Tilminoti, and

^o.

ruh,

drink;

to

causes

he delights.
iftTprfif
prinayati,

Caus.

from
"TWTfif bharjjayati,

their Caus.

to shake.

causes

also regularly
Hl^^lfdbhdyayati. (Pan.vi.
frightens;

he

sin ;

to

causes

W5*lfTT pdlayati,he protects.

Caus.

fear5f^Hfirbibheti;

shine.

dry.

roast, or

to

causes

91.)

4,

Caus. VfT^rfwdhunayati,he

pibati;
14. JJTjoa,to drink, ftRfiff

8. tft bhijto

daridrayati,
^(X.$qfr

he
^fanifrr
didhayati,

demoralizes.

dhunoti
to shake, "JrftflT
13. i^dhu,

15.

rouses.

to conquer.

causes

Caus.

to sin,g^fff
dushyati;
"j^dush,

also

Caus.

to cut.

causes

poor.

didhite
^hftc?^2, to shine,^hflrf

also

" 463-

VEKBS.

CAUSATIVE

destroy,^rfr 5y"^; Caus. m^Pd

causes

to

sharpen.

Tnwrfifsddhayati,he performs;
acts.

he
sdyayati,

causes

to

destroy.

-$ 466.

CAUSATIVE

^pc sphur,

33.

^Mttmfh sphorayati, he

^ORnsphdy,

34.

to

to

makes

WN^fri

smdyayati) he

Arz, to be

%Ave,

38. -^Aa/i,

J 464.
class, there

is

verbs

retain

formation

of the

imnifiT ghdtayati,he

in

^ kri, as

verbs

the

kdraydnchakdra,

($ 342) ;

-chakre

uifd, "T^, kdrayishyati,-te;


Per.

^Rfqril kdrayitd; Ben.

Fut.

J 465.

If

causative

remains

but the root

ohliVfr
kdryate,he
grow.

The

verb

the

same

is made

In

get

forms
Fut.

Cond.
Per.

Fut.
Ben.

First

Aor. 1.

the

auxiliaryverbs

causative

^n^

ay

may

or

bhdvayishye or

mfV^

iHmcjfijuJi
abhdvayishye or
HNfrdlf! bhdvayitdhe or
MHfrtflJI bhdvayishiya or

1.

p. ^MHfufa

2.

p. ^WNfuai:

3. p. ^Wli^

abhdvayishi or

the

p.

ruh, he

-ta ;

Fut.

Pres.

is made

regularly.

to

The

Atmanepada.
n

ya

not

of

the

reappear,

198, note):

bhdvitdhe.
Hlf^ril^

bhdvishiya.

^MtfVf^ abhdvishi.
or

Atm.

Hence

bhdvishye.

Mrf^mln

and

dropt (J399),

^HHifVuj abhdvishye.

abhdvayishthdh

abhdvi.

ay is

formed

may

the

Opt.

^n^ay.
CT

in the

throughout (seeColebrooke,

^mfrut

with

where

bases, and

kdrayishishta.

passive,^m

been

and

akdrayishyat, -ta;

"^,

imperative are

general tenses, however,

the

($401),the

two

have

Chur

achikarat,

do ; Clmrt ropy ate, from

imperfect,optative,and

disappears
thus

it would

Like

Pres. Par.

"*!Ml?
wtfft\kdrydt
;
in the

Chur

Perf.

^obKf"Mm,

to be used

as

to

perfectis periphrasticwith

J 466.

has

Red.

iH^cfc^, "u

Cond.

the

of

of their

causative, forms

Aor.

kill.

perfect periphrastically.

formation

-tdm

call.

tfce reduplicated aorist

form

is the

kdrayatu,
Imp. cFTC^, "lff,

-ta ;

makes

to

to

causes

"ZFUMfrf,
"7fr,
kdrayati,-te; Impf. %4"*im^, "J[, akdrayat, -ta;
kdrayet,

he

causes

complete paradigm.

they

verbs

Thus

aorist.

and

causative

he

conjugated exactly like

are

Parasmaipada

in
only difficulty

The

^Mlfffhrepayati,

grnHTfo hvdyayati,

Caus.

throughout, except

^n^ay

astonishes;

he

smdpayate,

by something. (Pan.vi. i, 57.)

smile

necessityfor giving here

no

benedictive

the

causes

36.)

verbs

causative

As

they

3,

kill,T$fnhanti; Caus.

to

WIM^

Caus.

causes

call,^[^hvayati;

to

fidjihreti; Caus.
faff!

ashamed,

(Pan. vu.

ashamed.

37.

and

grow.

also

36. ^

sphdrayati

miiqqfa sphdvayati,he

Caus.

sphdyate;

WHTUTT

grow,

tuUUlfd

sparkle.

to smile, w*fb smayate


"fars?tti,

35.

Caus.

sphurati ;
sparkle, FJ*f?r

to

219

VERBS.

^wif^8T: abhdvishthdh.

passive
and

we

220

XIX.

CHAPTER
DESIDERATIVE

will have

of which

the peculiarities
by reduplication,

and
separately,
wish

bubhush, to

be, ^^

to

VERBS.

formed

are

treated

to be

^bh49

from

Thus

bases

Desiderative

$ 467.

" 467-

VERBS.

DESIDERATIVE

by adding ^

to be.

The

the

to

is

accent

root.

the

on

syllable.
reduplicative
bubhu" 468. These new bases are conjugatedlike Tud roots.
^J^TTfo
bubhtishasi,
bubhushati, yj]TO: bubhushdvah,"c.
shdmiy "gij^fa
^"]tflT
$ 469. The roots which take the intermediate ^ i have been given before

("33
to

34") as

Iy

we^

know, fefef^rvividish,to wish


to wish
firRfcttitartsh,

or

" 470. As
in

budh

^V

forms

chikarishati;

from

TT

Thus

f%^ vid,

from

titarish
finrfT!^

tri,to cross,

to cross.
to

be stated

it may
exceptions,
if

strengthened by Guna,

be

may

the

they take

But

2,

12).

ending
Thus

i.

also

kri,
"|r
f^ftTf^rfk
bibhitsati (Pan. i.

fa^bhid,Des.

jughukshati (Pan. vii.


*J"3^frf

that bases

intermediate

didevishati:
div,!^P*f*lPiT

bubodhishati
^r"nfvflPil
u^
didarishati.
^dri, f^fc^flT

10); 3J? guh,

2,

to know

generalrule,though liable

consonant

one

^ i.

take intermediate

which

those

as

In

fact, no

cases

the

Guna

without

mediate
inter-

?[i"
" 471. But

base of the

desiderative

weakened

rud,

or

which

which

Verbs

*$"ritdjto
to
2.

In many

^^f^^fw rurudishati. Other bases may


f^rftflf^TI
didyutishate
didyotishate.
strengthenedoptionally
; lp^ dyut, f^jfrf^fi

Certain bases

1.

important exceptions.

are

strengthenednor

is neither

be

there

Verbs

do

do not

cry,

not take

take

intermediate

rurudishati
l^jft^frt

may

or

may

and having

3[i

T3i$vid,to know,

(Pan. i.

2,

i.

n^Ni^MuTvividishatij*|^mush,

8.)

and ending in any

"3"u for their vowel.

or

intermediate

Guna, though they have

not take

beginningwith consonants,

Verbs

actuallyweakened

are

Guna, though they have

steal,^rnHfn mumushisJiati.
which

^i

(Pan. i.

intermediate

singleconsonant,
2,

3[*.

except TI y

or

2,

49);

v,

26.)

didyotishate.
didyutishate f^ftfw^Icf
Pt^Prmfl
^(^dyutf
or

But

f^

div,

didevishati
r^r"mflf

f^fiT^TIvivartishate
l^rrif,
3. Verbs

ending

and

f*{ji,

^ri

in

become

to conquer,

"fkri,to

^i

or

^T w, not

or

after

jigishati;
^

do, P^iqi^rnchikirshati

^ mri,to die, *J*J^nTmumurshatij

without

*,

dudyushati(Pan. vii.

taking intermediate ^[i,lengthen their vowel; final ^[

t^ir,and,

Mt'iT^nr

^^5^
vivritsati.
fe"JNirrt

or,

"

IT

labials,"3ft ur.
yu, to

mix,

tri,to cross,

(Pan.

vi.

4,

ri

16.)

^^HiTlyuyushati.

(anl^Ta titirshati.

"^pri,to fill,
*J^*ni pupurshatL

If,however, they take intermediate 3{i,they likewise take Guna.

fcT^fciUrt
to
pipavishate;
f^Rsmi,to
smile,ftrwftRW sismayishate ^pu, to purify,
t^gri,
swallow, f*fl[ri^ff[jigarishatij
~"dri,to respect,f^U^ln didarishate.
j

472.

DESIDERATIVE

*1*{gam,to

4.

as

go,

before the

substitute

for

wishes

go, and

5. 71^ tan,

f^Aan,

kill,lengthentheir vowel

to

16.)

4,

read

to

but

ftflftncfir
jigami$hati,he

to go.

T^han, f"iMI*

fri
jighdmsati,he wishes

stretch,lengthensits vowel

to

fii
cii^fcr
titdrhsati or
"fl^tftn,

to kill.

optionally.(Pan. v.

fflrtUfHI
titariisati;but

4,

17.)

rrtrtfHMfil
titanishati. (Pan.

also

2,49, vart.)

vn.

6. ^H^san, to obtain,drops its *^n and

(Pan. vi.

lengthens the

vowel

before the

^*

of the desiderative.

42.)

4,

TO^san, ftisi " Pn sishdsati;

but

take, 1"{svap,

to
?T^3TaA,

7.

^", to

of the desiderative.

(Pan. vi.
^s
^rfvfn'iitirt
he wishes
adhijigdmsate,

IT^yam,

221

VERB"

(Pan. I.

Samprasarana.

(VmfnMfn

sisanishati.

sleep,and

to

Hi^racAA,to

ask, shorten

their bases

by

8.)

2,

tjjjtifii
sushupsati.
*3TR.sca/",

jsgrAfifoAalt.
#raA, flT^TKjflT
3"T^

piprichchhishati.
frnjf^a^fif
TX?^prachh,
8. The

J{t(Pan. vn.

to

"

before the

^*

of the

insert
desiderative,

the reduplication.
54),and reject

4,

and fatitfif
(HTHlfci
mino/t, to throw), Des. ("miTm mitsati.
mindti,to destroy,
r*i"ilri
TTrf mayate, to change),Des.
(TlflT
wia^',to measure,
mimite,to measure,

*ftrni
md

their vowel

shorten

followingverbs

farwfii
mitsati,l"irwn mitsate.
^

to
(^rfk rfarfa^',

da

do,Dh.

P.

26, 39

; but

(^Vlfir
dadhdti,to

VT c?A"f

to

to go

P. 24, 51, because

66), Des.

it is not ghu,
frt
rW
f"{
f"Jcfhl
ditsate.
ditsati,

f^Hin ripsate.
fcoti

lipsate.

(^T^tflT
sakyati),Des. ^151^ sikshati.
saknoti,^r^fif

pitsate.

Des. ^tifn
(-*n"flfK
(psa/i.
dpnoti),
^ Prt
(siJIM
jnapayati),Des.

to command
,

sflnffn
jfttpsati.

frfsart.
Des. ^rSfrf
(^flftfff
ridhnoti),

to grow

to deceive
to free

for

Iffifc?ya/",
to cut,

:
reduplication

Des. Psro
(T"XH padyate),

to obtain

P. 22,

P. 22, 32;

Des. far" frf


(Wfil^fl^^),
pifsa*i.

to fall

without

Des.
(77HTTlabhate),

to be able

Dh.
rfrfw,

to cut, dap, Dh.


^Tfac?a/",

Des.
begin (T"Trtra""ate),

to take

P. 25, 9,

place,Vlflfdhayati,to driuk),Des. fVrofn dhitsati.

desideratives formed
,

not

Dh.

^ITfr
day ate, to pity,den, Dh.

cf. " 392;

9. Other

give, c^w,

dhipsati.
dhtpsati fVr^rfk
(^ftft
dabhnoti),Des. vfHrfiT
or

munchati),Des. H^Hfdmokshate
(*J^flT

or

^g"|rimumukshate, he

wishes

freedom.
spiritual
,

to finish

(Pan. vii.

4,

" 472. Certain

in the
Des. nfd Oli^fd prati-ritsati,
(THflfK
rddhyati),

otherwise
54, vart.),
verbs

which

are

ful r" fd rirdtsati (not f^w

commonly

considered

to

belong

sense

of

injuring

Pn riritsati).
to the

Bhu

class

are

reallydesiderative bases.
he
chikitsate,
it,fafchrHrt

cures.

he bears.
titikshate,

gup,

Tlt^ man,

jugupsate,he despises.
'$*l**M

HlHltlHmimdihsate, he investigates.

222

^^ badh,

"^WTT

" 473-

VERBS.

DESIDERATIVE

^\^(ddn,^^THn diddmsate,he straightens.

he loathes.
bibhatsate,

sisdmsate,he sharpens.

" 473.
the

Besides

Reduplicationin

Desideratives.

generalrules

given in " 302-319*,


reduplication

the

followingspecialrules
to be

are
syllable

Radical

^r

observed

and

(Pan.vn.

^n

with
in

of

regard

and

^B^ av

by 5[
represented

"

^TT^dv, standing

Guna

as

Vriddhi

or

reduplicative
syllable

of

radical ^

4,

Caus.

are

p, TR

ph,

80).
"l

lflIH i^apipavat.}See " 375.

mrimfri bibhdvayishati,
(Red. Aor.
"ftnrf^
and
1 Pn yiyavishati,

"SRw,

or

reduplicativesyllable,
providedthey be precededby ^

in the

f*l"l(lf
fq"n*r
(Red. Aor.
pipdvayishati,

yw,

i in the

reduplicative

tishthdsati.
sthd, PriKiuPff

^qr

m, Hy, Tr, ""Z,^t",^j (Pan. vn.

base

79).

4,

fri
pipakshati;
if^pach, films;
" 474.

of the

desiderative

forming the

representedby ^

are

vowel

the

to

abibhavat.)
^nrfaRT^

f"f
*4 1 q f*"
H fif
yiydvayishati.

Desid.

(Red. Aor. ^^il"i "m^ ajijavat.)


*"ju,fnni "i P*tq HrjijdvayisJiati,
But

^j"iIq PqH (n nundvayishati,(Red. Aor.

"5WM,

"**

See " 375 f.


"j^i"n^antfna0a".)

to flow, ^"ru,to hear, "grfrw,


to run, T"pru,
to approach, "plu,
" 475. Roots f^sru,

swim, ^g cAyw,

to

fall,
may

similar circumstances

under

take ^
optionally

or

to

in the

reduplicative
syllable.
nfrisisrdvayishati
or
tjtsmfVHrfi
susrdvayishati
; but
^Jt^n
,

J 476.

susrushati

sushvdpayishati.
^J^TtrfirqfTf

forms

beginning with

to
reduplication,

vowel

was

made

allusion

forms

^f^T5T+ ^fila"is

at forms

+ 5[^fTT
"/^
^rfr^
forms ^rf%^
+ ^ft

" 477. If the root ends in


letter is

In

ubj, "

"^Hrs%the

double

CBSU

from

$ 378.

Thus

(Pan.vi.

I,

2)

+ ishati.

+ ishati.

achiksh

ishati.

uchichchh
^^fll

ishati.

consonant, the firstletter of which

is

"^w,^d, or ^

undid-ishati.
"^ und, ^(^r^Hfn

archich-ishati.

1*11*1*1111

ubjij-ishati.

last consonant

is

reduplicated.

Pnirshyiy-ishati
In the verbs

in

of internal

peculiarkind

reduplicated.

^T^arch, ^nK^^n
o*j\

^fc-cd 4-

forms

uchchh

then the second

have

which

aA;5A

tive
simpledesidera-

only.

the Caus. of ^{svap,

Roots

the

beginningwith cn^fi

or

$/Hifi^fii
(Pan.
irshyish-ishati.

vi.

1, 3, vart.)

Jcanduyati(" 498) the final ^y is reduplicated.

kanduy, ""^T^fVrMHPcl
kanduyiy-ishati.

in MciiHn
besides
occurs
chikishati,
Exceptionalreduplication
"N chi (Pan. vu. 3, 58) ; in f^TEThrfTf
M (Pan. vn.
jigUshatifrom fi?

^fsin

3,

chichishati,

56),"c.

~$ 481.

223

VERBS.

INTENSIVE

CHAPTER

XX.

INTENSIVE

{ 478. Intensive,or,
meant

are

to

receive
intensive

the

bases

idea

of

liable to be

are
syllable,

be

cannot

exceptions.

Thus

he wanders
vui"k|H aldtyate,

into

intensive

about

Verbs

bases.
There

1.

By

two

and
peculiarreduplication

i,

Chur
some

vowel,

u.

p.

one

forms
^

rt,

tfrnu,
16); ifl^

22).

forming intensive

of

ways

of the

TO{ a", to eat, VH^ll^ a"dsyate;

drnonuyate(Pan.in.
**uT"JM^
are

Some

however,

are,

to

There

times
some-

consistingof

beginning with

though

go,

and

consonant,

5^ ardryateand 1wrfir
vol.
ararti (Siddh.-Kaum.

$ 480.

action

intensives.

as

to go, "enj
cover,

the

"c.
reproach or disgrace,

intensive verbs.

into

at, to

^T7

if used

motion,

tortuous

turned

changed

of
frequentrepetition

or

beginning with

bases

bases
called,frequentative

Simple verbs, expressiveof motion,

the idea of

convey

$ 479. Only
class

simple verb.

the

expressedby

sometimes

are

intenseness

an

convey

they

as

VERBS.

adding *i yd

verbs
the

at

end.

This

yd

has

the accent.
2.

the

By

without
peculiarreduplication

same

portionof

the

the accent

Bases

formed

in the latter way

ending

tenses

in

the

ending in

is

Hya

to

Parasmaipadaonly,though,according

d is

$$.ir,
or,

consonant,

is

be formed.

may

'ql^fribobhoti.

intensive base

drop

it.

Hence

in the

general

bobhuyitd,
^fojifaiTT

(Pan.vi.4, 49.)
the

effect

benedictive

Par.

added,

on

the

base

($389).

is

Thus

generallythe
final

same

vowels

are

to

after

changed

followinga

or

of the

consonants

^i^iir:
labials,

fill,
tfl^5d
poptiryate. Final

When

of

hear, sft^d
gather,^rvflu^chechiyate
; ^J 6ru, to
dedhiyate. ^ ri
changed to \i : VT dhd, to place,^frqrr

lengthened: fq chi,
becomes

admit

retain the TJ ya

passive and

"o"ruyate. ^TT

has

bobhute.
*ft*J7T

be

in vowels

roots

When

frequently. It

Atmanepadaonly.

of

bobhaviti
v^bhu, qflHcTird

sosuchitd.
'-Hto^faHT

$ 481.
as

admit

way

grammarians, the Atmanepadaalso

some

but

less

occurs

reduplicative
syllable.

Atmanepadawould

Roots

latter form

in the final

^^J5Tff
v$J)hu}
bobhuydte.

Ex.
The

The

in the former

formed

to

the

on

Ex.
Bases

base.

modification

any

to

double

tf rt, not
consonant

tri,to

cross,

ri, however, when


to

TTiTfinr
tetiryate;^prit

following a

simple

ft ri : ^ kri,to do, MdHqii chekriyate.


to
it is changed to we
m
srtiri^
ar:

224:

INTENSIVE

sdsmaryate. These
remember, jTimffii
of the Div

bases
that

in

^ i, while

intermediate

from

in

conjugated like

are

should

observed,however,

be

retain

vowels

before

off the

throw

consonants

*r

the

ya

of

bobhu-y-itd;
^J?I bobhuya, ^tJjftnrT

from

bebhiditd.
^rfozx
bebhidya,^rfaf^iTT

" 482. When

T^ya is not

of the Hu

class.

that verbs

with

final

in ^ri

in

base

treated

are

of their
therefore

ar, and

like bases

Observe, however,

same.

peculiarforms

ri have

from

start

bases
the

are
reduplication

penultimate^j

or

verbs

intensive

added, the

rules of

The

490),and
($489,
^TT"

in

ending

roots

altogether.Thus

specialtenses

the

ending

roots

bases

intensive

Atmanepada. It

class in the

general tenses

the

" 483-

VERBS.

own

have

tdtarmi; 3rd pers. plur.


tCTjar,cTTTTf*
reduplicative
syllable.J^tri,

in the

tdtirati.
IfTfirtfiT

" 483. Accordingto

($297).

Guna

Hence

bobhumah.

Remark,

T^ftfl bobodhmi
remark

weak

bobudhimi;
^t^ftfo

or

further,that

terminations
do

"^fanJrfVl
abobudham.
bobudhdni, ^{"sfl^^
PRESENT.

3,

sing.Pres.,2.

require

^fawr: bo-

^t^t

but
3. p.

sing.

:
or

bobhavimi.
^t*f=flfH
likewise before

^ i, and

intensive

87).

but

bobhavdni

^TtfH bobhomi

vowel,

(Pan.vii.

Guna

3. p.

this intermediate

beginning with
take

not

before

1.2.

inserted
optionally

be

may

in

that

however,

Impf.,3. p. sing.Imp. \i

And

^twtfvr bobodhmi;
ift^^bobudh,

from

bobhomi, TTfwfrr
^^ bobhu, sftoftfa

From

budhmah.

terminations

class,the weak

the rules of the Hu

ending

bases

in

sonants
con-

^tyftfabobudhimi,

Hence

f%^vid,

From

IMPERATIVE.

IMPERFECT.

or

vevedmi

^iw

or

avevet

^f%c(tfir

or

vevetti

^T^?^

vevidishi

or

^"f^TJvevidvahy

to take

The

avevet

by adding IT ya,
and

then

Guna

avevidit

to form

in the
to

the

to

change

^{ a

the

vowel

to ^TT d

it into

passivebase

generalrules
of the

(Pan.vn.

gather,^ffarchiya,^^NNrffchechiyate;^%fw
to

veviditu

Intensives.

the
possible,

82),and

or

is
of intensives,
reduplication
peculiar

general tenses,

4,

or

vevettu

according to
reduplicate,

(Pan.vii.

^T^

veviddva
^fc|^|'c(

of Reduplication
for

to raise,where
lastly,

syllable
by
fq chi, to

used

or

^TTfol1 avevidva

"c.

simplestway

the base

veviddhi

avevidih

or

Rules

f 484.

or

%f^fe

^nf%^t:

^T^Ti^^P"|"(lf^

veviditi

or

veviddni

avevidam

Tf^tfq

or

vevetsi

^%fw

vevidimi

or

4,

of

cation,
redupli-

reduplicative
83).

checheti.

chokroshti.
abuse, ^[qkrusya,'^Tsfiifft
chokru"yate;^sffaitffc

trauk, to approach, ^R

totraukti.
traukya,TTt^l^dtotraukyate; ff^^ftj

226

" 490. The


vii.

appliesto

same

^TTtfiTcha

krij

vye, to
T vus,

^ft^ffffcharikarti.

ri kariti.

^Tfarft charikarti.

regard,^NftiW cheUyate; M*Pn

to
,

to

A"n,

jeghriyate;ll"iPnjdghrdti.(Pan. vn.
smell, %TTta7T
blow,

^TWT^lTff
dddhmdti.
dedhmiyate; ^TWnfff
;

derivative

From

verbs

Thus

to

then

wish

to exist

formed

causative

new

yishati,he

and

Charkarita, have
their

rise to

(Pan.i.

By
i,

this

great deal

63),except

grammarians

82-92.

differ.

Atm.,

About

Thus

but

and
chekiyate,

the

the

form

allows

commentary

moot

Intensive

changes

which

Intens.

changes,

authorities

form

wfff cheketi (p.332),because


in favour

of

^fflT

it is in the

the Perfect should

point among
grammarians ;
bobhuva,others ^TT^ bobhdva.

among

some

be

the

considered

to be

base

pressed
sup-

by Tj^yaii

Anangakarya,

as

of the root

so-called

grammarians.
has

in the verbal

that

to take

are

mentioned
distinctly

Par., are

extended
directly

Prakriya-Kaumudiforms

argues

are

native

Atmanepada,

changes produced

not

^rfiffi
sesinte"because

*lPtf"ffl
sesimyate. Whether

property

he
bibhdvayishati,

Parasmaipada, or

in the

discussion

the

also in the

19, prescribes
soshupyate;other
TFnjpfiT

sdsvapiti.Colebrooke

o1

^jrnr bobhuyate, he

intensive

reduplication.Changes

as

other

of

sign of

certain

the base, such


phangesnot affecting

4,

the

Intensive

the

suppressionthe

only in the Intens.

the

grammarians^than

most

desire of real existence.

theory "T^yah, the

cj^iluk.

31.)

4,

formed,

is derived, f^HHf^MPlT

from

conjugationof

given

vart.)

22.)

be

may

30.)

20.)

2,

4,

i,

31.)

4,

vm.

vi.

^jfrRfiTbobhuyishati,he wishes to exist really;


he causes
be formed, ^^pimrPrf
a
bobhuyishayati,
desiderative,
^jfj-mP^fabobhuyishaagain a new

to excite the

formation

cease

may
and

really
;

wishes

Accordingto

So

existence.

cause

really,is

to

21.)

HH^Pri bhdvayati,the causal of ^ bM,

from

desiderative

new

derivatives

new

the creation of

rather

are

be,

to

causes

declines

i,

4, 30,

seseti. (Pan. vii.


down, ^H^^Mri sdsayyate; ^t^rfrf

spoken language.

Panini, vii.

20.)

(Pan. vii.

^HTtiiM
ff jegilyate WT^TfS
jdgarti.(Pan.

which, however,

placenot

19.)

vi.

swallow,

by

i,

(Pan.vi.

to

$ 492.

The

cheketi.

(Pan. vii.
jeghniyate;^TZfajanghanti.
kill,^Jll-M^

to lie

exists

(Pan. vi.

to

to

1,

or

to

wishes

of their base *.

m*MiPn_p^py^".
^fi^jMgrfytife;
i, 29.)
(Pan.
sesveti. (Pan.
^i*yl*4n
sosuyate
swell,31)94*1*1}
sesmyate; ^nSfflT

of the

the formation

to grow,

peculiarin

are

vdvasyate; m^Ps vdvashti.

'"IN^n
desire,

to

sw,

charkarti.

to sound, ^?Ptu-Mn
sesimyate;but ^T^TTff samsyanti.
q"fl*lrt
vdvydti- or (" 483) "n*tPnvdvyeti.
veviyate;but qi"qiPfl
cover,

syam,

Parasmaipada.(Pan.

(Pan. vi.
soshupyate; but ttKflPxsdsvapti.
sleep,"hf^*trf

to

^P^ svap,

i,

in the

if used

cha ri kariti.

bases
" 491. A few frequentative

would

n,

^%fS

kariti.

cha

^J

92-)

4,

he

in

ending

roots

" 490-

VERBS.

INTENSIVE

to the

Intens.

*flHlPNsoshopti,
because

by
Par.,

Pan.

vi.

only UUjlPHsdsvapti
Pan.

vi.

cheketi.

i, 21,

But

Atm. only that

prescribes

Colebrooke

Pan.

vi.

(p.321)

i, 19,

or
reduplicatedis
periphrastic

allows

likewise

bobhavdnchakdra,others
forming "sffa^facKTC

-" 496'

DENOMINATIVE

CHAPTER

XXI.

DENOMINATIVE

" 493.

There

are

bases*,and

nominal

treating

some

like
a

hawk

from
; from

syllable.Thus

Krishna

from

These

of

are

denominative

rare

would

rules,
however,on

their formation

" 494. By adding ^ yd


These

wish.

verbs

and

might

like

one

without

formed

are

behaves
at

base

iftgo,

of

any

and
pleasure;

the rules of native

than

many

grammarians,

These

in

like

father.

verbs should
A

grammar.
here be

few

given.

Parasmaipada.
a

denominatives

noun,

formed

are

Jnqfirgavyati,he wishes

cow,

be called nominal

like

generalmeaning,may

in ^ ya,

to the

From

some

and they never


desideratives,

for

cows.

govern

accusative.

new

J 495. By addingthe
lookingupon
Thus
a

treats

be formed

rather
dictionary

Denominatives

expressinga

pitdrati,he

by

the

expressedby

he behaves
krishndti,
ifm krishnd,;"*nfif

be sanctioned

for in the

behaving like,or

is

in the national literatureof India.

be looked

from

3*H"*M syendydte,he behaves

denominatives

verbs,however,cannot

occurrence

therefore

from

have

we

Some

of

meaning

yflWrtputriydti,he

son,

son.

the

derived
clearly

are

doing whatever

or

father,fmnfn
f^pitri,

of those which

even

have
generally

putra,

derivative
;

in Sanskrit which

h/ena,hawk,

^TR

he wishes for

or

son,

which

VERBS.

like,or wishingfor

one

Thus

noun.

verbs

many

227

VERBS.

from

treating
somethinglike

or

as

if one

were

in

kutydm bhikshuh,the beggarlives


" 496. Before
I.

Final ^T
for
t

and

They

one's
expressing

subjectexpressedby

the

noun.

and

firer:prdsddiyati
palace; HHU^I^frfffigjf
in his hut

as

if it

were

palace.

this H ya,
^TT d

are

changedto

he
\i;*pTTsutd,daughter,^Jdl^PH
surfyati,

wishes

daughter tmaster, McflMffl


pattyatiyhe
lengthened;rfftpati,
he wishes to be a poet.
kavi,poet, "FV)*l fit
kaviyati,
^u

are

called in Sanskrit

are

dhdtu,root.
^ dhu, for *TfiJ
t Minute

the

formed

are

fsntf
putriyatisishyam,he treats the pupillike
ijcfhrfa
from mn^prdsdda, palace,
prdsddiyati,
process imrr^W?f

similar

to behave

means

denominatives

Hya,

"^fputra, son,

By

son.

same

distinctions are

time,and ~4i^|11

*fif!

made

fc^T linga,it is said,a

lidhu,from
fc5"{

(Carey,Grammar,
between

p.

is greedyfor wealth,and

he
^^"^hrfff
asaniyati,

and

craves

he
V"ffafHdhaniyati,
G

asks
2

master;

crude sound, and

543.)

asandyati,he is ravenouslyhungry;between

for water, and ^ ^ ^ fri


he starves
udanyati,

treats like

for water; bet


for

some

wishes

to eat at the proper

he
"J^ "nTMiff udakiyati,
ween

money.

wishes

V"1l"lffi
dhandyati,he
(Pan. vii.

4,

34.)

228

^ rt,^fto

becomes

^ri

3.

he
pitriyati,
for

like

treats

*"^av,
father;

he treats
"flJjfrf
rdjiyati,
for milk

like

man

$497. A
expressedby

of

in if ya,

like

hawk

differ from

They

noun.

by

base.

the

^i"^|"Mrisabddyate,he

is

bases

generallydropt, and

2,

and

3. Final

^ i and

is

5^n

ri,^rt o, ^

u, ^

Some

dropt,and

treated

ushmdyate, it

nominal

bases

like nominal

the

milk, "MU^W

in ^j

xnTFTW

or

apsardyate,she

xsmi^i^H

apsaras,

bases

payasyate

verbs

beginningwith
it

Those

They

generaltenses

Nouns

ending

that may

^T^ kyash, the


or

Kandu.

the

through

(" 501).

classed

are

rest

-te, he becomes

take

base

i of

taken

behaves

like

take

in ^T

both

(Pan.

in.

behaves

like

wise

man

native

it before

Apsaras ;

from

13.)

i,

from

^TT

grammarians

and

Thus

from

Atmanepada

brihat,

12.)

applying to other

"*Tya.

be

milk ; from

as

Kandvadi's, i. e.

Parasmaipadaand Atmanepada,

in

n)

from

becomes

an

i,

vidvas, wise,
(Vg1^

great. (Pan. in.

Parasmaipada

i,

(Pan.in.

must

from

paydyate, it

*T ya, both

Thus

J 496 ; ^f%

lengthened; TTJf^ rdjan,


king; ^'fcH^ ushman, heat,

like

the restrictions

drop

in

as

is

others

Hence

a.

together by

under

by ^T^ kyan.
red.

pure.

like

i(t may,

great, ^^|i|Hbrihdyate,he becomes


" 498. Some

heat.

out

and

treated

are

precedingvowel

sends

in ^s

au

Pc|^||i|7i
vidvdyate,he behaves

vidvasyateor

final

The

masculine

the

becomes

king, '"M|i|ri rdjdyate,he behaves


"f"4^THW

much

36"41.)

he
suchiyate,
"SJ^t^

"uchi}pure,
4. Final

3,

sound,

becomes

ruminates.

he

behaves

makes

he
instead; ^pT^t kwndri, girl,'$HKl4ri kumdrdyate,

girl.(Pan.vi.

of the

plots; tfoHr romantha,

kashtdyate, he

oFFnTff

ruminating,dH"ITilrfromanthdyate,
feminine

modification

in the

bhrisdyate,he
vpfrnfir

bhrisa,much,
*jpjr

is

Thus

sabda, sound,

$T^

has

preceding class by generally

difference

by adding

he
lengthened; ^frfsyena, hawk, $7)r(m7i
syendyate,

kashta, mischief,

OFF

Atmanepada.

what

sounds

he

19).

behaving like,or becoming like,or actuallydoing

final letters of the nominal


is

15); "i"it^namas,

4,

yd,

and
followingthe Atmanepada*,

i.

payasyati,

T*

the

^r

i,

denominatives, formed

of

class

second

meaning

milk, MM^fK

^^vdch, speech,^T^Tfcfvdchyati(Pan.

Denominatives

Final

wishes

unchanged; "J"f"^rdjan,king,

king; nm^payas,

namasyati,he worships (Pan. in.


worship, "fHmfiT

1.

ship,^TRlflf
ndvyati,he

remain

final consonants

other

dropt,and

is

he wishes

the

father,
f^pitri,

^TT^Tay;

becomes

au

"TT waw,

ship.

4. Final "T
^1

becomes

" 497-

YERBS.

DENOMINATIVE

are

denominatives

and
in

^TT^ agada, free

said

to be

formed

keep
Tya
from

by

"fl lohitdyati
c^tf^W
red, c5Vf^rrr^flf
lohita,
or

-$

DENOMINATIVE

502.

is free from

aaadyati,he

illness,vf'itirt

he givespleasure; from

illness

"

499.

Thus

W"

denominative

verbs,which

in ^
express

he desires
lavana,salt,wsKUt^fn lavanasyati,

longs for the horse

and

^HT sya

sya.
a

wish, take

^TO

longs for

cow

in the

asya,

sense

instead of 1 ya.

sya

child longs for milk

Likewise

salt.

^T

from

"4*"Q

fulfill
ascasyati,the

WH4

the bull

of extreme

(Pan. vn.

i,

mare

Some

52).

desire,after all nominal

*PJmadhu, honey,H^t" Pnmadhusyati or TScHmflTmadhvasyati,he longs

from

Thus

"jm^fd

the
vrishasyati,

admit

authorities

for

sukhyati,
*pl sukha, pleasure,*pwftf

"n kanduyatior -te,he scratches.


kandu, scratching,"H|MPn
or

the
T5|fa
kshirasyati,
kshira,milk, JSil^t^fn

from

bases.

from

Denominatives
Certain

229

VERBS.

honey.
Denominatives

" 500. It is usual


kdmya,

4IWJ

the wish

for

son

Put.

"j"a

dropt. (Siddh.-Kaum.

to be

$501.

from

kdma,

VR

""

vol.

n.

p.

kamya.

by compounding
Thus

love.

I P*-q
n i putrakdmyitd.

Here

^"a "*
the

i*""

nominal

base

with

Pn putrakdmyati,he has

^y, it is

said, is

liable

not

222.)

in ^ ya

denominatives

The

"ni**j

desiderative verbs

to form

denominative

in

conjugatedlike

are

verbs

of the Bhu

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada.Pres. y dim ft putriydmi,Impf.


putriydni,Opt. "J^Hnc
putriyeyam. Pres.
aputriyam, Imp. ^l^rrfin

class in the

kyendye,Impf. 4J$i|HHJ asyendye, Imp. ^Hltj Syenayai, Opt.


but

when

may

not

generaltenses

In the

fyendyeya.

the
be

denominative

dropt in

the

the
is

base

is

^f\\putriyor ^Hl^

preceded by

(Pan.vi.

generaltenses

consonant,

4,

TJy may or
50). Hence, Per. Perf.

putriydmdsa ("325, 3),Aor. xH^lfMM aputriyisham, Fut.


Per.
putriyishydmi,

Fut.

Ben. ^iMIfi
putriydsam.
g^ftinputriyitd,

^nin"S Syendyate,Per.

From

Perf.

^HI^IHI^Ityendydmdsa,Aor.

Fut. ^JHlfrtMsyendyishye,
"c.
a"yendyishiy

samidh, fuel,^TfJTvrfiT
samidhyati,he
^f?T^

From

wishes

for fuel ; Per. Fut.

samidhitd,"c. (Pan.vi.
samidhyitdor ^rfJTfVnn
Denominatives

" 502.

denominative

Some

They generallyexpress
verbs

of the Chur

in the

Atmanepada

from

implied by

They

^H^ay
and

class
are

the

in the

base.

aya

to

They

Parasmaipada
general tenses

mundayati, he

(Pan. m.

(Dhatupatha
i, 21;

may
and

modified

accordingto

the

be looked

bases.

the

as

upon

Atmanepada,

under

causatives (viz.benedictive

he unties; from
^TT^Tpdsa,fetter,r^m^iMrnvipdsayati,

sound

certain nominal

some

limitations

Par., reduplicated

rules applying to

the

(" 296,4).

he
sathvarmayati,

retain

of the Chur

the nominal

50).

aya.

by adding ^SR

conjugatedin

are

only. They

class

formed

are

their radical vowels

aorist,
"c.)5and
verbs of the Chur
Thus

the act

class.

that apply to verbs

verbs

in WT

4,

25).

arms,

shaves
33,

40);

w*{varman,

(thefinal "^n being dropt); from


from
from

^P^

sabda, sound,

armour,

shaven,
^Smunda,

he
^i^MPns'abdayati,

fifW mis'ra,
mixed, fii^^fnmisrayati,he

makes
mixes

230

PREPOSITIONS

verbs

of these

Some

lifts up

utpuchchkayate,he
is to be added

to

(Pan. in.

formed

the

nouns

affixes

vin, these

the tail

by

be

must

i,

"

Tp$ puchchha, tail,

from

Thus

always Atmanepada.

are

" 503

PARTICLES.

AND

20).

secondaryaffixes*H(mat,^l(vat,

tsrf'q^
sragvin,having

From

dropt.

garlands,

srajayati.
If ^HT

(Pan.

white

vi.

before

same

^HT

^TO

denominative

without

where

it exists

Guna,

where

Thus

authorities

some

as
possible,

softens

g^

dura, far,

any

of the

Bhu

class.

in the Bhu

satydpayati,

Affix.
base

^T

be

may

of the
is added

Division, and

to the

base, except

medial

base ; other final and

into

turned

First

take

vowels

class.

he behaves
like Krishna; from 5RT?ST maid,
Jcrishnati,
^Wt krishna, effHUfH
Aor.
*Uc*5lflT
mdldti,it is like a garland,Impf. vi*iic5if^ama/a",
garland,
from

olffe
kavi, poet, cRTPrfff
kavayati,he

amdldsit; from

bird,^rfffvayati,he
like
4,

bird

from

like

behaves

poet ;

f^ vi,

from

pitarati,he
pitri,father, PMn ^.fn
fxnj

he is
TT"f^ rdjan, king,TT"TRflfrdjdnati,

father ; from

flies like

like

is

king (Pan. vi.

15)-

CHAPTER

XXII.

PREPOSITIONS

" 504.
called

do the
superlative,

satya,true, ^KMiMMirr

nominal

every

the final of the nominal

alreadyas

of the

he explains.
arthdpayati,

ordinaryverbal terminations

verbal base

WiQ

WinnTfr

artha, sense,

by adding the
like

base

treatingthe

to

from

Thus

dpaya.

^T^PT

Denominatives

verb

ishtha

^"

removes.

he speaks truly;from

" 503. According

before

soft, ^*tPn mradayati,he

ijgmridu,

aya.

take

bases

nominal

their base

change

^cf^fcf
davayati,he
Some

her

makes

36).

3,

adjectiveswhich

Certain

he
T^ffisyeni(" 247),white, 3"4imfn
syetayati,

From

base.

masculine

generallyreplaced by the corresponding

bases,they are

to feminine

is added

aya

The

Sanskrit

off.

^5itj apa,

down

'Siw ava,

uddtta

J 505.

be

on

Certain

(sometimesft pi),

the first

^ sam,

4,

d, near

to.

together. ^

^rfa abhi, towards.

T^ ud,

if pra,

"w, well.

after.

up.

^TJ

upa,

fa: nih, without.


Trfif
prati,

before.

They

all have

the

syllable
except ^rfa abhi.

adverbs,called

Upasargas(Pan.i.

W(

then

are

" 148).

tjftpari, around,

away,

f% vi,apart.

fVrni, into,downwards,

g: duh, ill.

back,

joinedwith verbs,and

(sometimesfv dhi). ^Tcjanu,

over

^srftj
api, upon

58"61

4,

(sometimes^va).

next, below,
para,

(Pan.i.

^rfv adhi,

^rfcfati, beyond,

back.

PARTICLES.

following
prepositions
may

Upasarga in

"q^

AND

60),may

Gati in

be

Sanskrit,a

term

also
applicable

to the

like prepositions,
to certain verbs,
prefixed,

to be, ^R(as, to be,


to *^bhu,
particularly
ofkri,to do, and i\p{gam,to

go.

-$

achchha

addressed,

between.

astam;

^TCcr

alam;

^J?*
e.

e.

e.

olaAkfilya9having
^ic^T1'

g.

g.

prddurbhuya,having
expressingregard or

($89, II.

Words

known.

(Here
final

like

the final ^r

^BT a

contempt

ri is

changed

e.

e.

clearingone's

" 506.

Several

and

to

them

(Pan. i.

The

4,

changed

"ftri; final lG{an

The

ablative
bhakteh

U^iT

rained

is

is

nishke
adhi

certain

changed

^1;

to

like iit^ urt, in

imitative
TQRl(khdtt

khdt, the sound

J 503

in

They

the

of

produced

also used

are

with

called Kar-

then

are

which

noun

after;

is

governedby

^rfa abhi, towards;

^q

for

Vishnu

Hara

(4 UMH

^T*J^ft^Ut

Ex.

upon.

upa,

beyond Govinda;
H

"

vishnu-

harim

anu

surah,

Hari.

prati, Tjftpart,
governedby Tfflf
amritam, immortalityin

from

away

^:

f^TTW^ft ^

^R

^rcr

apat ^rr d-

for

return

faith;

H%:

Ex.

d
Jpffc

wr

vrishto devah, it
trigartebhyo

apa

xrft;
f^TTW: pari trigartebhyah,round

Trigarta,or

touchingTrigarta.

Mrshdpanam,

Karshapana

panchdleshu brahmadattah,
There

lengthened;

are

Words

like

cases.

was

locative is governedby TQupa

" 507.

Words

anu,

venom

worshipped after

praty

without
Trigarta,
The

are

ati ne"varah, Is'vara is not

t.mtyoh,until death;
has

"W^as

governed by ^rfirati,beyond;

less than

are

TM

king.)

mentioned
prepositions

prati haldhalam,

manvarchyate, he

gods

white.

83).

govindam

haram

^ i and

and

they frequentlyfollow

accusative is

the

Final

d.

to ^n

around; ufiff
prati, against;^rg

part,

and

suklt,in SJ^l^d
suklikritya,
havingmade
^raft

said to govern

and

mapravachaniya,

g.

throat.

of the

then

are

e.

^nn^ asat, when


regarded.
Wtir^HJ asatkritya,having dis-

khdtkritya,having made
g. i"fir"j"7T

e.

fin::tirafy;

TRgiprdduh;
e.g.

*n^ sat

g.

g.

sound

i).

having

rest,

sdkshdtkritya,
having made
Ul"J!r"sjit"J

g.

rdjikritya,
having made
TT"ri^[rw
having assented.
*^"jw urikrityay

nouns,

to

ofyr$"ukla is changed to ^ i. Sometimes, but rarely,

d is

^TT

or

manifest.

become

Uiqif^sdkshdt;

in

ornamented.

dvirbMya, having appeared,


wfa"|jl

puraskritya,having placed before

e.

adahkritya,

^:^?l

g.

fir^pjtirobhuya, having disappeared, ip: purafy;

g.

e.

Wfei'lflastahgatya, having gone

g.

^nfa: dvih;

set.

^nj: adah

e.g. ^wftW antaritya,having passed


vrir^antar;

it thus,

having done

231

PARTICLES.

achchhagatya,havingapproached($445);

g. fUMIfl

e.

achchhodya, having

e.

AND

PREPOSITIONS

5"7'

are

many

other

and
is

^rfvadhi.

more

than

Brahmadatta
adverbs

Nishka

governs
in

fH^fi4IMIMIU

Ex. ITT
;

over

Sanskrit,

vpa

the Pafichalas.

some

of which

used

as

may

here be mentioned.
i.

The

accusative

of

in
adjectives

the neuter

may

be

an

adverb.

232

^: mandah, slow, ^

from

Thus

compounds, ending like

Certain

such
these

of

3. Adverbs

slowly,slowly;

mandam,

mandam

accusatives

of neuters,

yathdsakti,accordingto
TreT^rfli

as

the rules

see

$%

g^fdhruvam, truly.

^fftrttghram, quickly;
2.

" 507-

PARTICLES.

AND

PREPOSITIONS

used

are

one's

bially,
adverFor

power.

composition.

on

place:

^rTT antar, within, with loc. and


between, with

WO

ace.

antarena, between,with

SHiTOl

ace.

between, with

gen. ;

antard,

without,with

ace.;

WKTi^ drat, far off,with abl. ^fff: vahih,outside,with abl. UH'41


f^T"F^Tnikashd, near, with ace.
Tqft.upari,
samayd, near, with ace.
"5rih
tft^h
uchchaih, high,or loud,
above, over, with ace. and gen.
ace.

nichaih, low.
with

gen,

^WT

adhah, below,with

fro tirah,across, with

W^samaksham,

before.

from.

^iv:

ijTSpurah,

ace.

^RT

gen.

loc.

^re:

iha, here.

the presence.

amd,

avah, below,
t(rTpurd,

'3"R\^(sakdsdt,

sachd, *nofT sdkam,

^r^T

with instr. ^r5T7r:


abhitah, on
samd, ^TTV sdrdham, together,

with

ace.

from

all sides,

gt duram, far,with

near,

with

abl.,and

4. Adverbs

or

^^^(sdkshdt,in

before,with

abl.

gen. and

ace.,

of time

both

ubhayatah,on

'WTrf:

sides,with

ace.,

sides,

iwwn^samantdt,

ace.

and
abl.,

all

^rfrTcjf
antikam,

gen.

ridhak, 1^"* prithak,apart.


"ty\)ch

gen.

prdtar,early, ^rnf say

f^T diva,by day. -*Hj"|i|


ahndya,
by day. ^fardoshd, by night. Tfiinaktam, by night. T^T ushd, early.

nidi,

g7?^ yugapad, at the

am,

at

time,

same

^f?r:purvedyuh, yesterday.
to-morrow.

eve.

jyok, long,
Tzfto^

adya, to-day. "?r:%"A, yesterday.

^nr

^:

fqt chiram, "Nr^Tchirena, f^TTR chirdya,

chirdt,fro*T chirasya,long.
fgTTT^

*Hlt^sandt, ^Rl^ sanat,


sanaih, slowly. ^j?r: sadyah, at
quickly. -51%:

perpetually, ^it "r"m,


once.

^glfk paredyavi,

JvaA, to-morrow,

TOffw samprati,now.

^RT

*awa,

15^j9wwar, gj: muhuh,

^:

bhuyah, ^rt

vdram, again, ^r^ sakrit,once.


"gtTjowm, formerly. ^ purvam,
before. -gK"urdhvam, after, ^n^ sapadi,immediately. iren^a^M^,
with abl.
after,

^inT iddnim,
^Tc5

5. Adverbs

once
*rnj./a/w,

now.

^T

a/am, enough, with


of circumstance

upon

5ac?a, ^mi
dat.

or

time, ever,

santatam,

^ifVf^anisam, always.

tushnim, quietly. *pn vrz//"a,yn


akasmdt, unexpectedly,
^^TWTTf

cirrtkdmam,

now.

instr.

ipn mrishd, fi^in mithyd, falsely.*nTTojrmandk,

mithah, together. m*r:

^npn adhund,

mudhd,

^^"/,
|ifi^

almost,
pray ah, frequently,

in

little,

rranflf

*nfa 5am^, half.

in vain.

-^fsjupdm"u,

whisper, firo

ingly,
^nfhr ativa,exceed-

aft^josham, gladly, -ei^^ avasyam,

certainly.

234

This

retained.

may

be

and

would

it

The

3, 34

(Pan.

suffix ;

to be observed

of

is treated

an

feminine

by losing the

vi.

3,

If the

41).

3,

suffix

34);

feminine

as

compound

appellative,

^*T:

kathibhdryah,

forms

predicate,

mere

TjffrR"Tr"t
sobhanabhdryap,having

beautiful

wife

words

with certain modifications,

been

rice,as

bahuvrihih,possessingmuch
one's

like Hrg^J:

into

as
strength,

an

have

substantival

as

^"aH^:

iWltyfffi
yathasakti,

compound.

adopted

different

sion,
divi-

of
principle

six different heads, under

under

man,

^rir"pjjft
agni-

oxen,

and
adjectival;

adverbial

an

grammarians,however,

classingall compounds

classed

substantival,

tatpurushah,his

lotus, f^n^ dvigavam, two

smoke, might have

fire and

divided

been

words

Thus

blue
"ftcSfaranllotpalam,

accordingto

have

might

adverbial.

and
adjectival,

Sandhi

of external

those

are

seq.*

24

$ 512. Compound

Native

priorelements

42).

phoneticrules

dhumau,

in the

daughter (Pan. vi.

beautiful

its feminine

explainedin "

as

case

for one's wife

generallyloses

(Pan.vi.

of

mother

Kathi

the

when

meaning

its distinctive

lose

kalydnimdtd,the
having

the
is chiefly

feminine

gender

the sign of the feminine

"511. Sometimes

" 511-

WORDS.

COMPOUND

the

of

names

Tatpurusha,Karmadhdraya, Dvigu, Dvandva} Bahuvrihi,and Avyayibhdva.


I.

is

Tatpurusha

in which

compound

for

precedingwords,

last word

the

instance,Wr^^J

is determined

tat-purushah,his

the

by

or

man,

rdja-purushah,king'sman.
As

subdivisions

of

determined
The

by

words, if dissolved,would

in other

last,the
The

alwaysa

for two
*

be called

in which

numeral

lengthen it

the first word

is not

in the

ending

in

middle

of

particle"^ ku, which

bad Brahman,
consonants

vada, and

grass.

The

lotus

same

case,

dvigufy,
bought
fg^j:

or

oxen,

Karmadharaya,

in general,
adjective

an

long

vowel

compound;

the bases

it,and

shorten

bases

substitutes
:

cfftlkad

in

^r^5Jkadushtrah,a

trina
TJJJT
same

is intended

to

^i^^J kadrathah,

is
particle

changed

contempt,

express

to WT

camel.
a

in

T^ udci),
"Z^udan (i.e.
Tf^pad,and ""

determinative

bad

ending

bad

short

3"("kudaka,water, ^TT^pdda, foot,

or

with

is

governed by

of the

^t*T:hridrogah,heart-disease, ^^TCto:hridayarogah. (Pan.


a

last word

for fire.

subdivision

figFR dvigavam,two

heart, frequentlysubstitute
.hridaya,

The

Karmadha-

in the
is

two

oxen.

bases
Occasionally

vowel

stand

fire-wood, i.e. wood

king,or

Dvigu again may

being a compound
but

the

Tatpurushas the precedingword

of the

man

in which

The

e. g. Tfcyfajcfc
ntlotpalam,blue
precedingadjective,

component

whereas

(Ib) and Dvigu (I c).

Tatpurusha compound,

the

Tatpurusha compound comprehends

Karmadhdraya

is in fact

raya

the

generalterm

vi.

same

51-60.)

^WTSr^TJkubrdhmanah,

as

compound

The

3,

before words

^f^pathin

and optionally
before ^jTC purusha. (Pan. vi.
kdpathaJi,

and

3,

beginning

place before

takes

kattrinam, a
carriage; "*^UI

kd before

hrid.

101-107.)

T^f

bad

^TCf aksha:

ratha,

kind

of

-" 513-

COMPOUND

three classes of

These

be

may

Compounds,while the

class,called Dvandva,

consists of

of the

three kinds

nom.

plur.masc.

nom.

sing.neut.

called
class,

next

which

word, and

used

are

which

smoke

as

be

may

slightchanges in

last

indeclinable

another

or

adhistri

The

word.

neut.

ace.

the last word

i.

that

class

or
participle

Compounds

^Wfw:
instead

an

like

the

that of

by

indeclinable

by joiningan

in which

duties

are

for

of the

in

as

woman,

the

againindeclinable,

ordinaryterminations

the

adhi-stri,for
^rfvfi^f

They

women.

may

Compounds.

last word

The

precedingone.

would

the first noun

sritah.

pain,instead
f. n.

having

to

of

be

substantive

noun.

be in the Accusative:

atitah.

duhkham
JtlsWdld:

the

be

may

generally

Krishna,

m.
duhkha-atitafy,
|:*flrf1d:

enjoyed a

reached

in which

Krishna, dependent on

to

gone

^stfftnr: krishnam

f. n.

rdjd,king.

conforms
adjectives,

if capableof governinga
adjective,

varsha-bhogyahym.

prdptah,m.

Compounds.

in which

having overcome

Thus

they belong.

formed

adverbs, in

f. n.
m.
krishna-frritah,
of

some

of accent, sometimes

comprehendscompounds
(Tatpurusha)

governs

last

possessive
compounds,

the first element, is

household
grihakdrydni,

called Adverbial

" 513. This

of
predicate

resultingcompound,

I. Determinative

into

which

to

particle
alwaysforms

ends,
generally

nom.

the last word.

class,called Avyayibhdva,is

with
particle

and

may

the substantives

gender of

to the

the

Compounds.

be turned

change, except

any

expressedby the

wife,scil.4.1*n

handsome

compounds, like
genderof possessive

The

IV. The

notion

rice,scil.^^K desak,country

much

compounds

without

collective term

pounds
grammarians,comprisescom-

adjectives.The

rupavad-bhdryah,possessing

sometimes

native

by

Determinative

nouns,

fasa-kusa-paldsdh,
3T$r$3IMr4l$u:

be called Possessive

bahu-vrthih,possessedof

the terminations

compounded
as

determined,forms
variously

may

words

two

or
plants,
sasa-kusa-paldsam,
3l$l$3IMc4l3l
be called Collective Compounds.

Bahuvrihi

subject.They

other

the

of

will

They

of

singular,
being treated

agni-dhumau,fire and
^rfr"njfll

or

in which

compounds

the number

plural,
accordingto

or

the terminations

III. The

under

Karmadharaya (Ib)

the compound takingeither


simplyjoinedtogether,

of the dual

be

comprehended

determinatives.

next

are

or

be

may

as
the Dvigu (Ic) as
appositional
determinatives,
distinguished

numeral
II. The

compounds

of Determinative

generalname

235

WORDS.

year

f. n.

"nUfl'"ji

long.

JjlHJirff:grdma-

of

?jn}UTH: grdmam

instead
village,

236

prdptah

it is

(Pan.ii.

such
prepositions,

or

adverb,

an

or

by

of

means

^fjrflftL
atigiri,
past the hill,used

as

the first

would

noun

: sankuld-khandah,m.

ddtra-chchhinnah,m.
Idbhih}.^l^f-gJTC

^rfaj|^

in the Instrumental

be

f. n.

(chhinnah)
by

cut

supposed auspicioussense,

pitri-samah,m.
fxj^nr:
nakha-nirbhinnah9

f.n.

m.

f. n.

f. n.

svayam-kritah,m.
in which

Compounds
IM^UV

yupa-ddru,n.

would

noun

(ddru)for

when
;

e.

g.

Compounds

5.

in which

gone

Compounds

from

the first

in which

would

noun

f.n. fallen from

purushah, the

would

the first noun

(kdrah)of pots (kumbhdndm)


in which

the first

*J"Uj"U:
aksha-saundah, m.
produced on

Hence

Most

words

^TT^T

bhettd, breaker

heaven.

be

(chorebhyah).
apa-grdmah,

^TJJJW:

in the

instead
the

sakhah.

Genitive

devoted

of

to

be

rdjnah,of

king'sfriend.

hundred

in the Locative

dice.

the

king,

In these

cgHcRK:kumbha-kdrah,

jft^nr
go-satam,

would

noun

f. n.

in

"Jtri or

"R ka

katasya kartd, maker

of towns.

pujakah,worshipper of

thieves

TCfa":

of

cows.

uro-jah,m.

f. n.

the breast.

ending

^TrTT

be in the Ablative

rdja-sakhah,m.

tT5TH^"

man.

compounds,

instead of tasya,of him, purushah, the man*.

his man,

is changed to
compounds sakhi, friend,

Compounds

Determinative

village.

the king'sman,
m.
TTafJ^: rdja-purushah,

6.

iftf^TT:
(ytipdyd).
go-

sacrificial stake

(bhayam)arisingfrom

fear

the

m.
TTTJ^: tat-purushah,

maker

be in the Dative

for Brahmans.

m.
r: svarga-patitah,
m.

worshipped by all.

as

chora-bhayam,n.
f. n.

(nakhaih).

of the masc., fern.,and


take the terminations
possessive,
finrr^TT
*RT*r: dvijdrthd
yavdguh,fern, gruel for Brahmans.

treated

neut.

intended

nails

m.f.n.
(gobhyah).(V*H":dvija-arthah,

for cows
hitah,m.f.n.good (hitaJi)

i.e.
object(arthd),

^frl!*^:

by oneself.

done

the first

wood

be

to

with

(Dieu-donne).

pitrd samah.

by the
(nirbhinnaJi)

cut asunder

visva-updsyah,m.

gods give him

father,i. e.

like the

f. n.

the

may

knife

^^w:

hari-trdtah,
^ft^Trf:
m. f.n. protected
by Hari.
(trdtaJi)
(ddtrena).
or
as
a proper
name
deva-dattah,given(dattah)
by the gods (devaili),
the

as

(arthaK)
(acquired)
by grain (dhdnyena).
a piece(khandah)
(cut)by nippers(sanku-

wealth

dhdnya-arthah,m.

determinatives

ultramontane
'^frffnfX:
atigirih,
adjective,

an

in which

Compounds

MlvtiflH: prdptagrdmah

say

"c.
facing,

abhimukham,
2.

as

to

formed

4). Similarlyare

2,

adverbs

usual, however,

more

" 513-

WORDS.

COMPOUND

the

There

are,

gods, "c.

are

of

not

allowed to form

mat, not

however, many

compounds

of this kind.

o^oF'STkatakartd; $TT
such
exceptions,

as

H^T

^""l"lu

purdm
deva-

COMPOUND

237

WORDS.

" 514. Certain Tatpurusha compounds retain

the

case-terminations

in

the

governed

noun.

done
T: sahasd-kritah,

oneself (Pan. vi. 3, 6).

sixth with

labdham, obtained

learned
gehe-panditah,
in the

khecharah,moving

proper
To

" 515.
"element

is

class

vi.

the

of

i). They

changed

Bases

to conquer.
ftfj'i,

upon

the second

final

for the

portion,such
instances

some

such

as

great king.

kimrdjd,a
dear

masc.

bad

friend.
the

the

governing

the fore-teeth

(Pan. n.

" 517.
base,no

change takes

diphthongs, as usual, are

tftHMIsoma-pdt

cloud;

same

purpose

subdivision

the first

of the determinative

portionstands

m,H

as

the

IrH I parama-dtmd,
a

the

as

night,from

masc.

the

Saka-king,explained
king of
sarva,

the

Sakas.

whole,

and

cf. ^trra:
purva-rdtrafy,

to rdtra;

masc.

midnight; yiwu^:

holy night. i^TTW dvi-rdtram,

"c.

^tn,

Compounds.

like,not

whole

the

^T a,

are

neut.

space

numeral

compound (Dvigu). H^Kl"T. mahd-rdjah,masc.

In

compounds

(Pan.vi.

parama-rdjah,

that

fore-night;*T"lTra: madhya-rdtrah,

nights,is

JT^TwaM

which

compounds
appositional

of

would

Sakas

the

punya-rdtrah,masc.
two

battle,

in black-beetle^
sky-blue,"c.

as

is changed
rdtrih,night. Rdtrih,fern.,
the

in

all-conquering,
J(JtPq*a f"ii(visvajit,

them

the blue lotus.

sarva-rdtrah,masc.

SHUd:

masc.

cf.

sdka-pdrthivah,masc.
spirit.3llomiPlH;

king

pond, water-lily.

part of the night, i.e. the fore-

long vowels, except

or

suffixes used

neut.
nila-utpalam,

in

is a verbal

AppositionalDeterminative

followingare

as

first

form
compounds (Karmadharaya)

These

supreme

in

person.

contradict him.

can

purva-kdyah,the fore-partof the


^[5"bi"";

compound

compounds (Tatpurusha).In
The

referred

are

Karmadharayas;

as

take
generally

Other

I b.

predicateof

speech.

ignorant

an

one

i. e.
*Tc$g^jalamuch, water-dropping,

short vowels

endingin

J 517.

of

sing,^ffam: somapdh (" 239).

Soma-drinking, nom.

from

sake

of

yudhishthirah,firm
jfvf^TJ

compounds

determinative

in consonants

Hence

^\d.

no

teeth,lit.the king-teeth,i.e.

of

better be looked

placein bases ending


to

of

rdjadantah,the king

" 516. If the second part of

goat,

tKJVui!sarasi-jah,
born

air.

^5"lcf!
purva-rdtrah,the

fore-body;

would

gods,

i.e. where

home,

at

the firstplace. Ex.

supposed

for the

9).

3,

number

to take

JJ^iK

night ;
2,

this

the

body, i. e.

(Pan.

word

qi^rMPn; vdchas-patih,
lord

hridi-spris,
touching the heart.
a

the
dlmand-shashtha/i,

(Pan. vi.3, 7,8). $ *4"lgJf krichchhrdldifficulty.


^SHp*}^'svasuh-putrah,sister's son (Pan. vi. 3,

with

devdndm-priyaJi,beloved

name

riiw"tlH":

parasmai-padam,a

swm;

lord of heaven.
dioas-patih,
23). (^eitHCri:
l

3).

3,

of verbs

transitive form

i.e. the

another,

suddenly(Pan. vi.

these
3,

king :

king (Pan.v.
*T% sakhi is

highestday.

but

4,

these

as

a
good king,
4}{j*Usu-rdjd,

69, 70).

changed

In

inahat, great, always becomes

{W*{rdjan9king, Tf*fi rajah;

46), and

supreme

*nr?T

of

to ?re:

f!m"4i: priya-sakhah, masc.


sakhah.

compounds

^5^

^THT^:

parama-ahah,

ahan, day, becomes

238

for

substituted

Jcu-purushah,

before
(dchdryd)

or

i.e. not

horse.

^nT^iTW

and

In

" 518.

ghana-sydmah,m.f.

Bharata

$ 519.
follows.

non-

non-horse, i.e.not

cloud-black,from ghana, cloud,

n.

the

f.

n.

little brown,

sdmi-kritah,m.
srrfo^fT:

word
qualifying

rdjddhamah, the

They

is

numeral

is

f.n.

lowest

placed last.

king; H^if^ro

bharata-

great man

they

also

may

without

or

Compounds.

first

to ^ am,

and

go,

feminines,and

meant

or

thus
adjectives,

form

(Pan.u.

neut.

i,

an

five

ships.

from
fingers,

an

and

in

kapdlam}

to

to express

three

4,

the

The

compounds.

neut.

the four

what

of them

are

has

ahan
f.

i,

from

am.

panchan, five,

the

imgava
as

iv.

i,

of

measure

an

ahah

a.

offering(puroddsah)

an

from

panchan, five,and

tri-loM,fern.
88). f"^c5J"*l
takes the fern, termination

takes

assemblageof

two

(Pan.n.

21). f^J^f tri-bhuvanam,neut.

Dvigu compound

for

being changed to

changed to

n.

compartments,

(Pan.iv.

termination.

the neuter

ten

youths,

the

"^fn

chatur-

ages.

followingrules applyto

Very few

or

tNg: pancha-guh,

Dvigu compound

dasa-kumdri,fern, an
"^$l$HlO
yugam,

changed to ^z

are

in

dvinauh, bought
92). flg^fb

days ;

i, 51, 52;

here the

here

changed to ^ i, fern.,or

angulih,finger;final

five

aggregate

an

worlds

ndva.

TTR

(Pan.v.

space of two

(Pan.n.

the three worlds

becoming possessive

compound) is changed to

cows

dish with

neut.

to express

aggregate

23). ^GRTTTc^: pancha-kapdlah,m.

made

which

noun

of five cows,

dvi, two, and

"gr^:dvy-ahah,masc.

is

^r a

^n

dvy-ahgulam,neut.

ST^cS1

are

numeral,

aggregate

tftnau

23),and

worth
adjective,
two

Final ^r^

iftgo(inan

cow.

is

secondarysuffixes.

neut.

Tfarrepancha-gavam,

which
the

aggregate compound is formed, final

cases

portionof

always the predicateof

generallyneuters,

are

with

compounds,

Determinative

compounds, the

The

Dvigu.

aggregates,but

" 520.

krita,done.

TT^TTVtt

Numeral

c.

Determinative

called

i,

masc.

a
tiger-likeman,
^v^CTTn purusha-vydglirah,

teacher

a prime cow.
govrindarakah,

an

a-brdhmanah,

^frXRcS:ishat-pihgalah,m.

Brahman;

white
best

the
freshthah,

some

an-asvah,masc.

^T"TO

appositionalcompounds,

some

vipragaurah,a

If

Brahman.

sdmi, half,and

half-done,from

f^^:

been

has

-*\d\$(W.

and pingala, brown.


ishat,a little,

from

are

fore-QOon.

who

one

formerly(pro).

black.

sydma,

man,

the

is

ahna

^r

cfirg^: kdpurushah,.TTT^T^:pra-

or

teacher,i. e.
hereditary

dchdryah, masc.

Brahman,

bad

masc.

Sometimes

day.

^tr^: purvdhnah,

ahan;

^^

last

the

uttamdhah,

cf. drHl^t

^Tjf aha;

" 518-

WORDS.

COMPOUND

the

changesof

the

final

generalas requiring
a change

in
syllables

determinative

without

regardto

any

the

-J 520.

COMPOUND

precedingwords
while
special,

being
1.

in the

compound.

The

rules for the formation

of

the

within

^^richt

sphere of

final ^

(Pan. v.

74);

4,

after the
nfa"\pathin
2.

negative^a;

7T^

wr0s,

means

Likewise

pratyurasam,

isf\5f
erArsAt,
eye,
window

5.

but

but

(Pan. v.

compound

expresses

""H"\ brahman

becomes

Brahman

that substitution is

7. n"j"^ takshan

final ^T

takes

animals, with
throw

which

*U"1"^sdman, hymn,

with
11.

the hair

fTP^tamasbecomes
tamasam,

12.

H?^

raAas

blind

after ^fnT

compared

and
^T

darkness.

"^^varchas

(Pan. v.

M^H

varchasam, the power


14.

becomes
'ft^o
five

15.

cows

of

ships. (Pan.v.
16. "n nau,

4,

4,

4,

ship, after

kdldyasam,black-iron;

of

name

4,

country ; *}"jgtf":

104). After ^

and

ku

TffT

and

"FT7 kauta;

141*1(1*3*
yrdmatakshaJi,

after certain

words,

the

not

of

dkarshasvah,a dog

of

names

die,a

bad

a?;a,

rtl*i

4,

85.)

/owia after Unf

at the

v.

adv.

75.)

4,

TTsam, and ^V

andha;

^""in*i*i

andha-

79.)
^"^

^8ft ava,

anu,

and

1TR

lapta; ^J^T^Tt

(Pan. v.
end of

numerical

an

fH^TAasf/;""q^t*

and

brahma

after *^(

Brahman.

it forms

and

^T*T sdma

81.)

ndva,if it forms

TTO

five ships: not when

final ^f

94.)

4,

hair, become

"lt^Jt
ponchaguh, bought

"ft
nau, ship,becomes

76.)

4,

prddhrah. (Pan. v.
prepositions
; TO*!*

after

varchasa

*T3gava, except
but

(Pan. v.

105).

4,

^JlafiH^I*

after ^T^

anurahasah, solitary.
(Pan. v.
13.

'i"fiQftgavdkshah, a

"nicoi"4"f

(Pan. v.

v.

(Pan.
regularly.

T^TT rahasa

becomes

HrfJM"

anulomaJt, regular; ^T"Jo5ta


anulomam,
*j^rt\"t*

aray

!T*TO tamasa

becomes

excellent

an

is expressed;

eye.

Brahman.

name.

ati,and

after

cOm*^ loman,

grain,i.e.

or

*Rf

95.)

adhva

^TUI

and

pro^",^Tg anw,

rdja,^J^ aha,

97.)

4,

becomes

mean

(Pan. v.

after ?JTH ardma


4,

it is

(?). (Pan. v.

adhvan
9. ^Tl"n^

iron.

of Surashtra

final ^Ta

THT

lake, take
iron,^TO^sffras,

ayas,

optional(Pan.
a

villagecarpenter. (Pan.v.

iJJ^/tfan,
dog,takes

to

brahma, if preceded by the

WCf

optional with

Vinftuiascorasam,

eye of

forms

or

sadayah, a pieceof good


*i^"*J

mahd

10.

kind

is

vfai: apanthdJi.

or

urasa;

ceases

^m^

stone,

a*m"w"

This

82).

4,

j^f5J*tlifK|
brdhmandkshi,the

surdshtrabrahmah,

8.

half-verse.

if the locative
TTf?T/"r"/i,

^HSf aksha, if it

becomes

cart, TOS*^
^frft^anas,
if the

6.

the chest

on

compounds

grammar.

aputham

TT^I

after

more

91.)

4,

chief, becomes

the

dhur, charge, vfal^pathin,


path,add

XIM"I

mahdrdjah. (Pan. v.

if it

horse (Pan. v. 4, 93).

4.

left out, such

are

king, xi^aAan, day,*rfe sakhi, friend, become


"j*i"\nf)'an,
sukha; H^KIH*

3.

of

ardharchah,

"WM1^:

afterwards
given first,

are

singlecompound

one

town, VT^ap, water,

^pur,

verse,

generalrules

rather than
dictionary

239

WORDS.

brahma-

78.)

4,

Dvigu.
adjectival

for five

(Pan. v.

cows.

numerical

aggregate;

adjective
; s^ntt

M'S'iq

4,

panchagavam,

92.)

^^ni^panchandvam,
five

panchanauh, worth

99.)
^IV

ardha, becomes

^T^TT^ ardhandcam,

"^mndva;

half

ship.

(Pan.v. 4, 100.)
17.

^P^khdrt,a
also after

18.

measure

of

grain,becomes

ardha; ^I^lt

^tTZkhara

ardhakhdram.

as

an

(Pan.v.

aggregate; PS"s
4,

i "-

drikhdram

101.)

^"ffc5anjali,
a
handful,after f^ dvi or f^ tri,may, as an aggregate,take
handfuls.
si^ltadryarijali,
two
or
(Pan. v. 4, 102.)
dvyafijalain

final ^

a;

240
finger,after
^bjfc5fl%w/i,

19.

dvyahgulam, a length of

fingers.(Pan. v.

two

20.

UlVvjsakthi,thigh,becomes

21.

purvasaktham. (Pan. v.
^N optf
^rf^ra^ri,
night, after "*f%sarra,

rdtrah, the whole

98.)

4,

after

partitivewords,

after

^^TT^I

sankhydta,

ti"?Min

TTc? rdtra; ^fW^T^ft

sarva-

fore-night;VST'Ucf
dvirdtram,two

the
purvardtrah,

night;

*$"purva;

"Z^^uttara, iplmriga, and

and indeclinables,becomes

after numerals

likewise

*Te3 ahgula;

86.)

4,

after

saktha

"QW*l

punya,

indeclinables,becomes

and

numerals

" 521-

WORDS.

COMPOUND

nights. (Pan.v. 4, 87.)

^C%*[ahan,day,under

22.

the whole

day

circumstances, becomes

same

but not after

days. Except

two

the

^'^H^punydham,

also

singleday. (Pan.y.

words,

of words

Collective

be
naturally

that would

terminations

the

dual

either of the

kind

same

of

divided

into two

the

or

The

second
but

elephantand

an

Likewise

and

If instead
is to express

of

horses

horse,is

an

number

the

samdhdra
nouns

in the

instance

of the

(inan army),an

horses

more

or

instance

black

and

horse.

horse

two

into neuter

ujll sukla-krishnau,white
91 "fioh
4

cow

in which

(called
MHI^K

class

formed<