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ESDEP WG 17

SEISMIC DESIGN

of Seismic Resistant Structures

OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To present the general design principles and requirements for building structures in seismic

zones.

PREREQUISITES

None.

RELATED LECTURES

None.

SUMMARY

The general principles (symmetry, regularity, redundancy, torsional resistance, diaphragms, ...)

of an earthquake resistant design are first discussed.

Complete details on structural design for steel buildings, based on the general principles and

including rules and checks of Eurocode 8 [1] are given. They include data on regularity,

elements and connections, typology of structures and the q factors, strength and ductility checks

required for elements and connections.

Overview of the requirements

Designing a safe structure in earthquake regions is a multi-planar problem. The following table

summarizes the main requirements and criteria.

REQUIREMENTS

Ultimate limit states

CRITERIA

- checks on resistance, stability and ductility of

No collapse under

structural elements

strong earthquake

- foundations

moderate earthquake

Other specific aseismic measures

- height and other limitations

- foundations

- quality plan

- ground investigations

Strength

For all structural elements, the design resistance Rd/Rd design action effects Sd.

The resistance Rd is calculated according to rules specific to the material. Explanations are given

in Sections 3 and 4.

Stability

Second order effects, are either taken into account explicitly, or they are checked as being

negligible using the following criterion (Figure 1).

M2nd order << M1st order

Ptot . dr << Vtot . h

=

where

Ptot is the total gravity load at and above the storey considered

Vtot is the total seismic design shear at the storey considered

h is the storey height.

Ductility

Checks on ductility are material related and are described in Sections 3 and 4.

Foundations

The resistance of soil must satisfy "capacity design" requirements; this means that the

foundations must resist the maximum forces that the structural elements can transmit to them,

regardless of the actual values due to the seismic design actions.

Serviceability Limit State

Checks on deformation conditions

Interstorey drift

For structures including non-structural elements sensitive to deformation, the interstory drift d r is

limited, e.g. 0,002h.

Pounding

Joints between structures must be designed to avoid pounding between two adjacent structures.

BUILDINGS IN EARTHQUAKE AREAS

Introduction

Some general principles for the design of structures to be erected in earthquake areas are given

here. It should be pointed out that earthquake resistant structures can be designed without

consideration to these principles.

Compliance with these principles will however substantially reduce the possibility of the

occurrence of dynamic effects which cannot be predicted by linear analysis. For this reason,

Eurocode 8 [1] prescribes lower values of seismic actions (higher q factors) for systems

complying with the general rules. The overcost of an earthquake resistant structure is reduced by

use of these lower values in comparison with a usual structure. It also seems that the combination

"good design - simple analysis" gives safer structures than the combination "bad design - refined

analysis".

Principle 1 - Simplicity

The dynamic behaviour of a simple structure is easy to understand and to compute. The risk of

forgetting any special aspect of performance such as an interaction of parts with different rigidity

is low. Overall simplicity leads to simple detailing.

Principle 2 - Continuity and uniform distribution of strength

Any discontinuity in the design brings a stress concentration and, potentially, a local failure

mechanism. Energy dissipation in the structure should be as high as possible. There should

therefore be many dissipative zones in the structure. As a result a global failure mechanism

should be aimed at. The non-homogeneous behaviour of a structure with major discontinuity

leads to tedious calculations and difficult design of the connection areas.

Practical continuity has many aspects.

Detailing:

avoided.

Connections should be away from dissipative zones.

Site control should be effective to obtain a proper correspondence between design and

execution. Particular attention should be given to, for example, bolts, prestressing

(minimum and maximum yield strength, ductility of the material), no locking of the

displacement of the structure by unplanned infilled walls.

There should always be positive links. Friction cannot be relied on to resist horizontal

forces or relative displacements of, for example, supports, diaphragms, girders of a

bridge. Similarly, gravity force is not enough to restrain non-structural elements.

Disconnection of hanging ceilings or claddings can be dramatic.

Overall design:

Redundancy is a minimum condition for developing real continuity in a structure. It is essential,

but not sufficient.

Continuity and uniform distribution of strength in the horizontal direction of a building generally

means symmetry, if possible almost axisymmetry. Plan layout of vertical resisting elements

should also recognise the need of a high global torsional stiffness. Major damage has been

observed in the connection zones of structures with 'wings'. The differences in flexural mode

shapes of these 'wings' induce this result, Figure 2.

Continuity in the vertical direction means a lack of setbacks and a relatively uniform distribution

of the shear and flexural resistance of the structure. The so-called "soft storey" should be

avoided. Unintended changes in rigidity caused by "non-structural" elements like infills, partition

walls ... should also be avoided, Figure 2. Eurocode 8 allows simplified methods of analysis of

buildings when certain conditions are met, see Table 1.

Table 1: Structural regularity in Eurocode 8

For the application of simplified methods of analysis, a building can be classified as regular

when the following conditions are satisfied simultaneously.

Geometrical and structural layout in plan

The plan configuration does not present divided shapes nor large recesses. When re-entrant

corners or recesses exist their dimension does not exceed 25% of the building external dimension

in the corresponding direction.

The structure of the building is distributed along an orthogonal mesh defining two main

directions with similar stiffnesses.

The building has an approximately symmetrical plan configuration with respect to those two

main orthogonal directions.

At any storey the distances (measured in the two main directions) between the centre of masses

and the centre of stiffness do not exceed 15% of the "resilience radius" defined as the square root

of the ratio of the storey torsional and translational stiffnesses.

The in-plan stiffness of the floors is high enough, in comparison with that of the vertical

structural elements, such that a rigid behaviour may be assumed. Furthermore, the floors should

not present large holes hindering such assumption especially if they are located in the vicinity of

the main vertical structural elements.

Vertical configuration

The stiffness and mass properties are approximately uniform throughout the building height.

Where there is a gradual setback throughout the height, the setback at any floor is not greater

than 20% of the previous plan dimension in the direction of the setback and symmetry about the

vertical axis is preserved.

If a setback greater than 20%, but not greater than 50% and preserving symmetry, occurs within

the lower 15% of the total height of the building above the surrounding ground level (or above

the level of application of the seismic excitation), it may still be classified as regular. In such

cases the structure of the base zone beneath a vertical projection of the upper storeys must be

able to support at least 75% of the shear forces that would develop in that zone in a similar

Where setbacks occur only in one facade, the overall setback (sum of setbacks at all storeys) is

not greater than 30% of the plan dimension in the first storey and at any floor the individual

setback is not greater than 10% of the previous plan dimension.

When circumstances, e.g. the available site, aesthetics or use of the building, are such that

structural continuity is not possible for the whole volume of the structure, the latter can be

subdivided into smaller blocks. Structural continuity can then exist in each block, the blocks

being linked by flexible footpaths. A proper distance computed as the sum of their maximum

displacements must be left between two contiguous blocks to avoid pounding of the blocks when

they are excited by earthquake motion.

Principle 3 - Dissipative structures

Building structures able to dissipate energy are introduced and discussed in Lecture 17.4.

Dissipative zones must be safe and numerous. This situation can be achieved in different ways,

by adopting the design approaches based on the principles described below.

Principle 4 - Low slenderness

In general, the more slender a structure, the worse the overturning effect of an earthquake.

High slenderness may however be useful in some cases (see Principle 7).

Principle 5 - Torsional resistance

Earthquake action generates special torsional effects in structures, mainly because the resultant

of inertia forces generated by the earthquake is applied at the mass centre M of each floor of the

structure and the latter generally does not coincide with the torsion centre S of the earthquake

resistant structure, Figure 3. The resultant force times the distance to that centre gives a torsional

moment Mt. In multi-storey frames, the torsional moment from one particular floor is increased

by the resulting moment of the floors above. In most structures, the approach to evaluate this

torsional moment is partly rational (the distance between S and M) and partly statistical, because

the load distribution in a structure is not well known at the design stage and changes through the

life of the structure. Codes indicate how to evaluate this second term. A few structures are free of

torsional effects (axisymmetrical), e.g. water towers.

There may also be a second cause for torsional action. The earthquake itself results mainly in the

vertical propagation of a shear wave so that two points of the structure may be moving

differently at one time. This origin of torsion is normally important for structures which are very

large in plan, e.g. bridges.

To resist the torsional action, the structure must be given adequate torsional rigidity. The best

solution is obtained by putting the earthquake resistant part of structure close to the perimeter of

the structure as a whole and all around it, complying with the symmetry principle. It must be

pointed out that the classical "one vertical core" structure of earthquake free areas is not

effective, because it lacks torsional rigidity. It should simply be avoided in unsymmetrical

layouts.

Principle 6 - Diaphragms

Diaphragms in a building are the structures which transfer horizontal inertia forces, resulting

from the motion applied to the masses of floors and their loading, towards the structures able to

contain them.

Diaphragms must be structures of low deformability and capable of efficiently distributing the

horizontal action between the various vertical resistant structures. Diaphragms may be provided

in many ways: concrete slabs, composite slabs, trusses, frames. Diaphragms must be properly

linked to the vertical rigidity elements. The links must be able to transmit the horizontal inertia

force.

Principle 7 - Rational distribution of loads in the structure

Important loads should not be put at places where they generate inertia forces under earthquake

loading. For example, a library should for preference be at ground level. An X-Ray installation

should be close to the centre of rotation. Masses should be reduced whenever possible. For

instance, using light floor systems rather than traditional slabs can bring drastic reductions in

inertia forces and result in substantial economy in the framework. Similar choices should be

made for partition walls, infills, claddings, etc.

Principle 8 - Stiffness adapted to the site

The shape of the design response spectrum (Lecture 17.4) indicates that earthquake forces are

lower for structures characterized by a predominant high period (T) of vibration. This

characteristic can sometimes be used at the start of a design, especially when more refined data

are available for a particular site. For instance, in a site with thick alluvium layers, which is

characterized by a response spectrum with relatively high amplitudes in the high period range

and low amplitudes in the low period range, a very rigid structure would better fit than a flexible

one. The opposite choice would apply to rock areas.

Principle 9 - A strict correspondence between the real structure and the model used in its

analysis

Designing a structure which is safe under earthquake loading is feasible. However to achieve a

safe structure, the model used in the analysis must correspond to the real structure. Otherwise,

for instance, yielding will take place in other places than foreseen or will not take place and be

replaced by a brittle failure. In earthquake engineering more material or a stronger material does

not mean more safety, because safety is not only derived from strength, but also from ductility.

There are many causes for discrepancies between reality and model, for example:

non-structural elements like infills must not give unexpected rigidity to a structure. Such

rigidity can completely change the behaviour of the structure, introduced high local shear

and cause failure. Non-structural elements must be linked in a way such that they do not

in fact play any structural role.

distribution of yield strength throughout the structure should not differ much from that

assumed, otherwise yielding will take place elsewhere than foreseen or not take place.

site control should ensure the real structure corresponds to that planned.

AREAS

Materials

Materials such as structural sections, bolts and welds which are used for steel structures in

earthquake prone regions are not different from those used for steel structures elsewhere. They

are usually submitted to the same quality checks.

However, compliance to Principle 9 of Section 2 requires the definition by the designer of a

maximum value of yield strength of the steel to be used in the structure. This requirement is

specific to earthquake resistant design. The reason is that normally steel material is delivered on

the basis of a guaranteed minimum yield strength, but in practice it may have a far higher value

of yield strength than that ordered. This fact leads in general to conservative design which is not

detrimental for normal steel structures, but which can be harmful in the case of earthquake

resistant steel structures. Overstrength effects in dissipative parts of the structure can lead to a

concentration of seismic energy dissipation at points where it is not expected nor wanted, as for

instance at the connections.

Therefore, for the dissipative parts of the structure both lower and upper values of yield strength

are specified in design and in ordering of the material. Moreover, sufficient control to avoid

overstrength must be undertaken through specific application rules.

General structural steels according to EN 10025 are used in earthquake resistant steel structures.

Bolts should preferably be high strength grades 8.8 and 10.9.

Sections

Steel sections in dissipative zones of the structure must be able to withstand yielding without

significant loss of bearing resistance. This requirement can be a problem in compressed parts of

sections where early local buckling can occur. To avoid local buckling, restrictions are placed on

the width-to-thickness ration b/t of the compressed flat parts of sections. These restrictions

depend on the maximum intended overall ductility of the structure. For this reason, steel sections

are classified into three classes in accordance with three levels of behaviour factor q, as indicated

in the following table.

Behaviour factor q

Section class

q<4

2<q4

q2

The limiting values b/t for the above three classes of section are given in Eurocode 3 [2].

An increase of ratio b/t results in a lower local ductility because of the appearance of local

buckling. This reduction therefore results in a reduction of the capacity of the structure to

dissipate energy, which is finally expressed by a smaller value of the behaviour factor q.

Connections

Connections should not be the location for failure, for the following reasons:

they have low global ductility, because stress concentrations locally exhaust the available

ductility of the material.

high strength bolts are not very ductile. In tension connections they may be subjected

additionally to prying forces which are also not well known.

the heat affected zone close to welds is less ductile than the original material.

Therefore, a criterion is imposed according to which connections near dissipative zones of the

structure must have sufficient overstrength so that yielding occurs in the ductile members

(overstrength criterion).

Welded connections made with full penetration butt welds are considered to satisfy the above

criterion.

Welded connections made with fillet welds and bolted connections, in order to satisfy the above

overstrength criterion, must meet the following requirements:

Rd 1,20 Rfy

where

Rd is the design resistance of the connection

Rfy is the yielding resistance of the connected member.

The above condition can often be attained by an increase of the member section in the

connection zone. Figure 4 shows two bracing connections, where the fulfilment of the

overstrength condition requires a reinforcement of the connection zone either by a welded plate

or by an additional bolted cleat.

In bolted connections, the failure of bolts in bearing must control the behaviour and not failure in

shear.

From the above discussion it is evident that the overstrength condition can lead to expensive

connections. There are two possible ways to overcome this overstrength penalty:

to reduce the member section and consequently the yielding resistance of the dissipative

zone so that the overstrength condition gives a less penalizing value of Rd.

The term "earthquake resistant structures" (ERS) refers to those structural systems of a building

which are designed to resist the horizontal seismic actions.

In dissipative steel ERS, i.e. structures which through inelastic hysteretic behaviour can be

submitted to considerable deformations without failure by dissipating large amounts of seismic

energy, there are essentially three structural systems used to resist horizontal seismic actions

(Figure 5):

a. Moment resistant frames (MRF) or simple frames.

b. Concentrically braced frames (CBF) or concentric truss bracings.

c. Eccentrically braced frames (EBF) or eccentric truss bracings.

In general, frames are more flexible than braced truss structures. Therefore they may experience

greater horizontal displacements under equal seismic actions. Such displacements can be a

problem with respect to the "P- effect" under a strong earthquake or to "damage" under a

moderate earthquake. Compliance with the overstrength criterion may also be very expensive for

members in bending.

Truss braced structure contrary to frames, are always stiff depending of course on their

configuration. Their capacity to dissipate seismic energy differs greatly from one type to the

other. The ability of both frames and truss structures to dissipate energy whilst resisting seismic

action is quantified by the value of the behaviour factor "q", which has been described in Lecture

17.4.

Figure 6 presents the values of q-factor for the various systems provided that regularity criteria

are met. If the building is not regular in elevation the listed q values shall be reduced by 20%.

These values should be considered as maximum allowable ones, even if in some cases direct

dynamic non-linear analysis indicates higher q values in the region of 10 or 12.

Specific considerations - criteria according to Eurocode 8

Frames

Frames are structures that resist horizontal seismic actions mainly through bending of their

members. They have a large number of energy dissipative zones located near to the beam-tocolumn connections. The energy is dissipated through cyclic bending behaviour.

During seismic design, it is assumed that the frame as a whole satisfies the basic criterion of

avoiding the creation of a soft storey.

Under this criterion, the aim is to form plastic hinges in the beams and not in the columns in a

global failure mechanism, except at the bases of the columns. This mechanism is the so-called

"strong columns-weak beams" concept (Figure 7). When the design is such that plastic hinges

form in the beams rather than in the columns, these hinges have the role of spreading yield

through the structure. Moreover, the P- effect is reduced and interaction between axial force

and biaxial bending moments in the columns is avoided.

The concept of "strong columns-weak beams" is not applied to single storey frames, to the top

floor of multi-storey frames and at the base of columns where they are connected to foundations.

Beams

Beams are verified as having sufficient safety against lateral or lateral and torsional buckling

failure.

To obtain safe plastic hinges in the beams, a check is made that the full plastic moment

resistance and rotation capacity are not decreased by compression and shear forces. To this end

the following inequalities are verified at the location where the formation of hinges is expected.

where

M and N are the seismic action effects taking account of the behaviour factor q

Mpd, Npd and Vpd are the ultimate resistances of the section at the plastic hinge

Vo is the shear force of the beam, considered as simply supported, due to vertical loads

VM = (MRA + MRB)/1 is the shear force due to the resisting moments MRA and MRB of the beam

at its extremities A and B, calculated with the upper value of yield strength.

Beam-to-column connections must satisfy the requirements for connections, considering the

bending resistance Mpd of the plastic hinge section, and shear force equal to (Vo + VM), as

specified above.

Columns

Columns are verified in axial force and bending, the design values of bending moments MCD,c

being resistance design values, i.e. values derived from maximum design moments of column

due to seismic actions, multiplied by a suitable capacity amplification factor.

The most unfavourable shear force of the column due to seismic combination actions must

respect the following condition:

V/Vpd = < 0,5

The transmission of forces between beam flanges at a beam-column node is achieved by

extending beam flanges to stiffeners across the column.

Concentric truss bracings

General

In concentric truss bracings horizontal seismic forces are mainly resisted by members in axial

loading (tension or compression). In such systems ductile members are mainly the tension

braces, because energy dissipation in compression braces deteriorates quickly due to buckling.

The usual types of concentric truss bracings are the following:

Diagonal type

The alternating horizontal forces are resisted in this type by the corresponding tension braces

only, while the contribution of compression braces is neglected. The diagonal braces of

alternating loading can be in the same bay (X bracing) or in different bays of the same storey. In

the latter case the quantity "Acos " (where A is the area of the brace section and is the slope to

the horizontal) must not vary by more than 10% between two opposite braces in the same storey.

Type V or

In this type both tension and compression braces are needed to resist the horizontal seismic

forces (for equilibrium reasons). The diagonal braces may have a V shape or a shape, in which

case they meet at the middle of the upper beam without interrupting its continuity.

Type K

Bracings of this type, where the meeting point of diagonals intersects the column at an

intermediate point, do not offer any possibility of ductile behaviour because they demand the

participation of the column in the yielding mechanism. Therefore q = 1 for this type of bracing,

and its use is not recommended.

Diagonals

Diagonals must be verified for the condition: N/Npd 1,0

where

N is the maximum tensile force due to seismic combination actions

Npd is the design resistance in tension

Satisfactory dissipative behaviour of diagonals depends on their slenderness. For this reason the

following condition must be satisfied:

=

1,5

where

is the effective slenderness of the diagonal

A is the cross section area

Ncr is the ideal critical Euler load of the diagonal (= 2EI/12).

Note: The above condition 1,5 is equivalent to slenderness ratio 140 for steel Fe E 235,

and 114 for steel FE E 355.

Columns and beams

Columns and beams are capacity designed, i.e. they are verified for buckling under an axial load

acd N, where N is the maximum axial load due to seismic combination actions and a cd is a

suitable amplification factor.

In bracings of type V or the horizontal beams are designed to resist their vertical loads,

neglecting the intermediate support provided by the diagonals.

Eccentric truss bracings

General

Eccentric truss bracings are a lateral load-resisting system for steel buildings which can be

considered a hybrid between conventional frames and concentric truss bracings. They combine

most of individual advantages of frames and concentric bracings, whilst they minimize their

respective disadvantages. Figure 8 illustrates some common arrangements.

The main characteristic of eccentric truss bracings is that at least one end of every brace is

connected in such a way that the brace force is transmitted either to another brace or to a column

through shear and bending in a beam segment called a "link", denoted by the symbol 1 s. Because

shear and bending in the link due to horizontal forces are of considerable magnitude, it is

convenient to concentrate the ductility requirements to that segment.

The most attractive feature of eccentric truss bracings for seismic-resistant design is their high

stiffness combined with excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

The yielding mechanism of links depends on the ratio of 1s to the length 1o=2Mp/Vp where Mp

and Vp are the plastic strengths in bending and shear of the link. Theoretically if 1 s/1o 1,0 the

links yield in shear (shear plastic hinge). However, experiments have shown that the effect of

strain hardening is very important and cannot be neglected. As a result, in order to assure the

more desirable behaviour of links that yield in shear, it is recommended that 1s/1o 0,8. When

1s/1o 1,3 the link yields in bending (moment plastic hinges). Yielding of the link is mixed

between the above two limits. In all cases there is a possibility for adequate ductility.

Links are designed to provide enough ductility. The other members (bracings, columns and rest

length of beams) are capacity designed, so that yielding is confined to the links.

Links

Key elements in developing the full strength and rotation capacity of shear links are proper

stiffening and lateral bracing. Two-sided, full-depth stiffeners must be provided at the link end.

Intermediate stiffeners may be single sided for beam depths less than 600 mm, but are required

on both sides of the web for deeper beams.

The maximum distance between successive stiffeners is taken equal to 56tw-d/5 for 1s/1o 1,15

or equal to 38tw - d/5 for 1s/1o 0,80. For intermediate values of 1s/1o a linear interpolation is

made.

Lateral bracing must be provided at the link ends at the locations shown in Figure 9. Strong and

stiff lateral bracing at these locations is critical to the stability of both the link and the brace. A

composite deck by itself cannot be counted upon to provide adequate lateral support for the link

ends. Transverse beams are the preferred lateral-bracing system.

After the selection of the link section, all other truss members are designed to remain essentially

elastic under the forces generated by the fully yielded and strain-hardened link. This design

requires an estimate of the ultimate shear force that can be achieved by the link. The ultimate

shear force should be taken at least as:

Vult = 1,5 Vp

Columns and braces

Columns must be designed to remain essentially elastic under the ultimate link forces, as well as

the appropriate vertical load contributions.

Braces must not buckle. They are therefore designed for the axial forces generated by the

ultimate link shear given above. Experimental results show that ultimate link shear forces may

sometimes exceed the value of 1,5 Vp due to overstrength of the web or due to the presence of a

thick composite concrete deck. A conservative design of the bracings is therefore appropriate.

Diaphragms

The horizontal diaphragms and bracings must be able to transmit with sufficient overstrength the

earthquake forces to the various earthquake-resistant elements connected by them.

This condition is assumed to be fulfilled by using a magnification factor of 1,5 for the

verification forces obtained from the analysis. Eurocode 8 [1] also gives minimum detailing rules

for diaphragms in reinforced concrete.

The details of connections, sizes and qualities of bolts and welds as well as the steel grade of the

members and the allowable maximum yield strength f y in the dissipative zones are indicated on

the fabrication and erection drawings.

At the different phases of fabrication and construction continuous checks are necessary in order:

to guarantee that the specified maximum yield strength of steel is not exceeded by more

than 10%.

to guarantee that the distribution of yield strength throughout the structure does not

substantially differ from the distribution assumed in the design. This check aims at the

achievement of sufficient regularity in terms of yielding behaviour to prevent the energy

dissipation from being concentrated to one storey only (Figure 10).

to guarantee that the stiffness and strength assumed in the design are not exceeded by

more than 10%.

Whenever one of the above criteria is not fulfilled, either new computations of the structure and

of its details are made to demonstrate its efficiency, or changes are made to confer equivalent

efficiency. For instance, such a change could be the reduction of the member section so that its

plastic resistance is equal to the intended one (Figure 10). A change of this kind allows more

reasonable dimensions of the connection (end plates, bolts) since in the overstrength condition of

connections Rfy is reduced because it refers to the reduced section which becomes the dissipative

zone.

Cross-section and boundary

condition

Stress distribution

Class A

Class B

Class C

(compression positive)

Rectangular hollow section

Compression

33

37

41

Tubular section

Compression

50 2

70 2

85 2

Webs of I-profiles

plastic

66

78

90

sections

distribution distribution

33

39

41

10

12

20

22

26

elastic

Compression

compression

plastic

elastic

distribution distribution

Outstanding flanges of welded

box sections or flanges of IProfiles

Compression

Combined bending and

compression

Combined bending and

compression

Flanges of

Compression

I-Profiles

General

fy

235

275

355

0,92

0,81

Table 2 Limit b/t ratio of compressed parts of cross-sections for different cross-sectional classes

4. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

The main requirements for the design of a structure in earthquake regions are that it shall

not collapse under a strong earthquake and that damage is limited under a moderate

earthquake.

To meet these requirements design is based on general principles usually involving:

simplicity

continuity and uniform distribution of strength

ability to dissipate energy

avoidance of high slenderness

torsional resistance

stiffness adapted to the site

correspondence between the real structure and the model used in its analysis.

Rules and checks are given in Eurocode 8 [1] based on these general principles covering

materials, sections, connections and the structural systems which provide earthquake resistance.

Particularly considerations relate to frames, beams, columns and truss bracings.

5. REFERENCES

[1] Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regions - Design", CEN (in preparation).

[2] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1.1: General rules and rules

building, CEN, 1992.

6. ADDITIONAL READING

1. ECCS-CECM-EKS: "European Recommendations for Steel Structures in Seismic

Zones", Technical Working Group 1.3: Seismic Design, N.54, 1988.

2. SEAOC: "Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary", 1990.

3. Popov, E. P. and Engelhardt, M. D., Seismic Eccentrically Braced Frames, USA.

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