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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Topic 1 Lifestyle, health and risk


This teaching scheme is divided into three parts.
Introduction.
Road map: a suggested route through Topic 1.
Guidance notes for teachers and lecturers. These include a commentary that runs
parallel with the student book with hints and tips on teaching and references to the
associated activities.
There are more detailed notes about individual activities in the teacher/lecturer sheets
accompanying most activities.

Introduction
The Road map starting on page 2 is a suggested route through Topic 1.
The learning outcomes are numbered as in the specification.
There is an AS summary chart at the end of the guidance notes. This shows where
concepts are introduced and revisited in later topics.
If two teachers/lecturers are sharing a group for Topic 1, the first could start at Session 1
with the second starting at Session 8 and completing the remaining sessions in a slightly
different order 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 11, 20/21, 22 and 23. This means
that the second teacher would have a larger chunk of the content. The first teacher could
either start the next topic once they have done sessions 1 to 7, or pick up Sessions 2023.
By the time the students do blood pressure, Session 11, with the second teacher, they
should have covered the structure of blood vessels (session 5) with the first teacher.
It is assumed that each session is approximately an hour in length. There are more activities
than can be done in the time available in most centres, so select a balanced collection
according to your and your students interests, and the time and resources available. Some
activities are labelled Core. Core activities contain experimental techniques included in the
specification, and may appear in questions on the unit exam for this topic. These learning
outcomes are in bold in the specification, and in the Road map grid below. They are
underlined in the Guidance notes below. In the Road map grid, activities are in italics if there
is an additional activity covering the same material more directly. Choose which activities
students complete, and substitute your own activities as appropriate.
The Core practicals, and any other practicals completed by students, can be used to verify
practical biological skills as part of the Unit 3 coursework assessment.
There are various activities particularly the interactive tutorials associated with some of
the activities which could be completed by students outside of class time. These activities
are shown in the lower half of each Possible activities box.

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Road map: a route through Topic 1 Lifestyle, health and risk


Session Areas to be covered

Why a heart and circulation?


2

6 Explain why many animals have


a heart and circulation (mass
transport to overcome limitations of
diffusion in meeting the
requirements of organisms).
Structure of the heart and location
of blood vessels
6 Explain why many animals have a
heart and circulation (mass transport to
overcome limitations of diffusion in
meeting the requirements of organisms.
8 Explain how the structures of blood
vessels (capillaries, arteries and veins)
relate to their functions.

Possible activities
Introductory presentation
(Interactive)
Activity 1.1 Marks and Peters
stories (A1.01L)
GCSE review and GCSE
review test (Interactive)
Activity 1.2 Demonstrating
mass flow (A1.02L) (Practical)
Read Key biological principles
box and complete questions
including Checkpoint question
1.1
Activity 1.3 Structure of the
heart (dissection) (A1.03L)
(Practical)
Activity 1.4 Structure of the
heart (simulated dissection)
(Interactive tutorial alternative
to Activity 1.3) (A1.04L)

The transport medium


4

2 Explain the importance of water


as a solvent in transport, including
its dipole nature.
The structure and function of blood
vessels

8 Explain how the structures of blood


vessels (capillaries, arteries and veins)
relate to their functions.
The cardiac cycle

7 Describe the cardiac cycle (atrial


systole, ventricular systole and diastole)
and relate the structure and operation
of the mammalian heart to its function,
including the major blood vessels.

Activity 1.5 An ideal transport


medium
Activity 1.6 Investigating
arteries and veins (A1.06L)
(Practical)
Checkpoint question 1.2
Activity 1.7 The cardiac cycle
(A1.07L) (Interactive tutorial)
Checkpoint question 1.3

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


Session Areas to be covered
Events that lead to atherosclerosis

10

11

Activity 1.8 Atherosclerosis


(A1.08L)

11 Explain the course of events that


leads to atherosclerosis (endothelial
damage, inflammatory response,
plaque formation, raised blood
pressure).
10 Describe the blood clotting process
(thromboplastin release, conversion of
prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen
to fibrin) and its role in cardiovascular
disease (CVD).
Risk

Possible activities

18 Analyse and interpret quantitative


data on illness and mortality rates to
determine health risks (including
distinguishing between correlation and
causation and recognising conflicting
evidence).
20 Explain why peoples perceptions of
risks are often different from the actual
risks (including underestimating and
overestimating the risks due to diet and
other lifestyle factors in the
development of heart disease).
Identifying risk factors for CVD

Activity 1.9 Estimating risk


(A1.9L)

Checkpoint question 1.4

Activity 1.10 Identifying risk


factors (A1.10L)

19 Evaluate design of studies used to


determine health risk factors (including
sample selection and sample size used
to collect data that is both valid and
reliable).

CVD risk factors age and gender

Brainstorm CVD risk factors

12 Describe the factors that increase


the risk of CVD (genetic, diet, age,
gender, high blood pressure, smoking
and inactivity).

Activity 1.11 Analysis of


cardiovascular disease data
(A1.11L)

CVD risk factors blood pressure

Activity 1.12 Measuring blood


pressure (A1.12L) (Interactive,
Practical)

12 Describe the factors that


increase the risk of CVD (genetic,
diet, age, gender, high blood
pressure, smoking and inactivity).

Activity 1.13 Blood pressure


summary (A1.13L)

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


Session Areas to be covered
CVD risk factors dietary factors

Possible activities
Molymods or other models
could be used.

Carbohydrate structure

12

13

14

3 Distinguish between
monosaccharides, disaccharides and
polysaccharides (glycogen and starch
amylose and amylopectin) and relate
their structures to their roles in
providing and storing energy (-glucose
and cellulose are not required in this
topic).
4 Describe how monosaccharides join
to form disaccharides (sucrose, lactose
and maltose) and polysaccharides
(glycogen and amylose) through
condensation reactions forming
glycosidic bonds, and how these can be
split through hydrolysis reactions.
Use of immobilised enzymes
4 Describe how monosaccharides join
to form disaccharides (sucrose, lactose
and maltose) and polysaccharides
(glycogen and amylose) through
condensation reactions forming
glycosidic bonds, and how these can be
split through hydrolysis reactions.
Lipid structure

Activity 1.15 Biotechnology to


the rescue (A1.15L) (Practical)

Activity 1.16 Lipids (A1.16L)


(Interactive)

5 Describe the synthesis of a


triglyceride by the formation of ester
bonds during condensation reactions
between glycerol and three fatty acids
and recognise differences between
saturated and unsaturated lipids.
Energy budgets

15

Activity 1.14 Carbohydrate


structure (A1.14L) (Interactive)

17 Analyse data on energy budgets and


diet so as to be able to discuss the
consequences of energy imbalance,
including weight loss, weight gain, and
development of obesity.
15 Discuss how people use
scientific knowledge about the
effects of diet (including obesity
indicators), exercise and smoking
to reduce their risk of coronary
heart disease.

Discussion of BMI and waistto-hip ratio measurements


Activity 1.17 Your energy
budget (A1.17L) (Interactive)

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


Session Areas to be covered
Cholesterol

16

14 Analyse and interpret data on the


possible significance for health of blood
cholesterol levels and levels of highdensity lipoproteins (HDLs) and lowdensity lipoproteins (LDLs). Describe
the evidence for a causal relationship
between blood cholesterol levels (total
cholesterol and LDL cholesterol) and
CVD.
Other risk factors genetics

17

18

12 Describe the factors that


increase the risk of CVD (genetic,
diet, age, gender, high blood
pressure, smoking and inactivity).
Other risk factors
12 Describe the factors that increase
the risk of CVD (genetic, diet, age,
gender, high blood pressure, smoking
and inactivity).

Other risk factors

19

12 Describe the factors that increase


the risk of CVD (genetic, diet, age,
gender, high blood pressure, smoking
and inactivity).
16 Describe how to investigate the
vitamin C content of food and drink.
Effect of caffeine on the heart rate

20/21

9 Describe how the effect of caffeine


on heart rate in Daphnia can be
investigated practically, and discuss
whether there are ethical issues in
the use of invertebrates.

Possible activities
Using information in the
student book, prepare a leaflet
explaining in simple terms
about HDLs and LDLs in
relation to heart disease.
Activity 1.18 Cholesterol and
CVD correlation or causal
link? (A1.18L)

Activity 1.19 Sudden death in


athletes (A1.19L)

Activity 1.20 Are you getting


enough antioxidants? (A1.20L)
Activity 1.22 Reducing stress
(A1.22L) (Interactive,
Practical)
Activity 1.22 Healthy heart
quiz (A1.22L)
Activity 1.21 Is high C all it
claims to be? (A1.21L) Core
practical

Activity 1.23 Does caffeine


affect heart rate? (Core)
(A1.23L) (Practical)

Reducing the risks of CVD


22

13 Describe the benefits and risks


of treatments for CVD
(antihypertensives, plant statins,
anticoagulants and platelet
inhibitory drugs).

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


Session Areas to be covered
Reducing the risks of CVD

23

15 Discuss how people use scientific


knowledge about the effects of diet
(including obesity indicators), exercise
and smoking to reduce their risk of
coronary heart disease.

Possible activities
Activity 1.25 Making decisions
(A1.25L)
Extension 1.3 Functional foods
and CHD (A1.3L)
Extension 1.4 New treatments
for coronary heart disease
(X1.04S)

Guidance notes for teachers and lecturers


It may be helpful to have completed these continuing professional development modules
from the software before starting Topic 1: CPD1 A road map for SNAB: Building knowledge
and principles through the course and CPD2 Contextualised biology teaching through
storylines.

Introduction and GCSE review


The context for this topic is cardiovascular disease and the lifestyle factors which increase
the risk of developing the disease. Student book Topic 1 starts with an introduction
including, an overview of the biological principles to be covered. The GCSE review and the
GCSE review test cover the main GCSE ideas that students will be expected to draw on
during the topic the heart, circulation and nutrition. The test itself is open access and it is
assumed that the test will be completed outside of class time. Students are likely to work cooperatively and marks will not necessarily reflect the understanding that an individual
student brings to the topic. However, the accompanying review will refresh the students
memory so that less time need be spent going back over KS4 material in class.
The second spread presents the stories of two individuals with experience of cardiovascular
disease. This introduces the context to students. The stories are referred back to during the
topic.
Mark and Peter, both apparently healthy individuals, suddenly experienced the effects of
cardiovascular disease. Mark suffered a stroke in 1995 when he was 15. Peter had a heart
attack in 2002 aged 63. The topic goes on to look in detail at the biology underlying
cardiovascular diseases. It then considers the concept of risk and the lifestyle factors that
increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and may have contributed to the problems
experienced by Mark and Peter.
An interactive presentation introduces the whole topic. This could be left until the students
have been introduced to Mark and Peter.
Activity 1.1 Marks and Peters stories (A1.01L)
This activity presents the full-length version of Marks and Peters stories; the student book
has shortened accounts. Mark and Peter wrote their own stories, providing personal
accounts of their experiences of having a stroke and heart attack these are genuine
stories written by real people. Students could complete this activity for homework. The rest
of the topic presents the biology needed to understand what happened to Mark and Peter,
or could happen to anyone with CVD.

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

1.1 What is cardiovascular disease?


See the CPD module CPD3 Developing practical skills for advice on doing practical work
with students.
The student book briefly introduces cardiovascular disease and the scale of the problem
before going on to consider why animals have a heart and circulation.
Activity 1.2 Demonstrating mass flow (A1.02L)
This activity makes a comparison between the speed of diffusion and speed of mass flow.
The student sheet gives a detailed procedure but you could do a demonstration as a
starting point for discussion about why animals (and plants for that matter) have circulatory
systems. The Key biological principle box Why have a heart and circulation covers the
ideas. As homework, students could read the box and answer the questions in the student
book including the Checkpoint question 1.1. In-text questions Q1.1 to Q1.4 have answers at
the end of the student book, but the answer to the Checkpoint question is only given in the
teachers/lecturers online resources.
Activity 1.3 and 1.4 Structure of the heart (A1.03L and A1.04L)
The structure of the heart is revised by dissection (Activity 1.4) or using a computer simulation
(Activity 1.5). The two activity sheets cover exactly the same ideas. The major arteries and
veins of the heart, including the coronary arteries, are located. These activities could provide an
introduction to the heart and circulation here, or be left until after Activity 1.5 when considering
in more detail how the circulation works.
How does the circulation work?
The section starts with a brief consideration of the transport medium; details of blood cells,
transport of gases etc are not required. The important point is that blood is a transport medium.
You can link this with the properties of water. The Key Biological Principles box introduces
polarity and solvent properties of water. The properties of water are revisited and extended in
Topic 4.
Activity 1.5 Properties of water (A1.05L)
The interactive tutorial introduces some of the properties of water.
The student book considers the detailed structure of the heart and blood vessels. The
dissection of the heart could be left until this point, to highlight the location and function of
the arteries and veins.
Activity 1.6 Investigating arteries and veins (A1.06L)
The relative recoil of arteries and veins are compared in this practical, and related to the
structure of their walls as viewed under the microscope. The questions on the activity sheet
relate the structures of the blood vessels to their functions. The activity sheet is written to
highlight certain practical skills as detailed on the teacher sheet that accompanies the activity.
There is extra support in the Student skills support sections: Exam/coursework support and
Practical support. Q1.5 and Checkpoint question 1.2 in the student book also requires students
to relate blood vessel structure and function.
Activity 1.7 The cardiac cycle (A1.07L)
Students need to be able to relate the structure and operation of the mammalian heart to its
function. Understanding this will enable students to appreciate the consequences of any
blockage of the coronary vessels. The cardiac cycle is described in detail in the student
book. In this activity students use the animation to get a better impression of the cardiac
cycles continuous nature before completing the activity sheet.
Checkpoint question 1.3 asks students to summarise the events in the cardiac cycle.
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Students could use the animation to complete the Checkpoint question, and be asked to
learn details of the cycle for a test at the start of the following session. The worksheet could
then be used for the assessment exercise.
The student book introduces heart attacks and ischaemic strokes, and describes in detail
what happens in the process of atherosclerosis. (We do not use the term hardening of the
arteries for this process, because with advancing years artery walls do become less elastic
and harden whether or not there is any atherosclerosis.)
Activity 1.8 Atherosclerosis (A1.08L)
It is best if students read the sections on both atherosclerosis and blood clotting in the
student book before completing this activity. They could read these sections in advance of a
lesson, or in the first half of a lesson, without making notes. Groups of students could each
be given the key word cards to sort into the correct description. The first sheet of the activity
would not need to be copied and distributed if oral instruction were given. Each student
could be asked to produce their own description, flow chart or series of annotated diagrams.
Alternatively, diagrams of sections of a normal and a diseased artery could be annotated to
explain the processes.
There are more micrograph diagrams available on the websites in the weblinks accompanying
this activity.
Students should realise why only arteries are prone to atherosclerosis. After the previous three
activities they should be able to suggest the reasons these are also explained in the student
book. There is more detail on the measurement and control of blood pressure later in the topic.
The consequences of atherosclerosis are described in the student book. Detailed knowledge of
the symptoms of CVD are included in a Did you know box but not required by the specification.
. The British Heart Foundation and Stroke Association have good websites with detailed
accounts (see general web-links for Topic 1).
Extension 1.1 Someone saved my life today (X1.01S)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not in the specification learning outcomes, but it
reinforces the need for the heart and circulation. Compression of the chest maintains circulation
while ventilation ensures a continued supply of oxygen to the blood. This activity would raise
students awareness of life-saving skills. The British Heart Foundation Heart Start programme
teaches emergency life support (ELS) skills in school.
Extension 1.2 Techniques used in medical diagnosis of CVD (X1.02S)
This extension included details of the techniques used in the diagnosis of CVD. The use of
ECG, CAT and MRI are all included in the A2 course.

1.2 Who is at risk of cardiovascular disease?


What do we mean by risk?
The concept of risk is introduced, .and the numerical value produced by calculating
probabilities is explained. The student book gives a stepwise explanation of how to calculate
probabilities.
Activity 1.9 Estimating risk (A1.09L)
This activity gives students the opportunity to estimate risks and think about the perception
of risk, including the overestimation and underestimation of risk. Correlation and causation
are also included. The Chemical Industry Education Centre (CIEC) Risk-ed website gives
lots of information about risk and provides some good chemical examples. The post-16
Teaching About Science section of the Nuffield Curriculum Centre website contains
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


downloadable resources for an activity on risk and mobile phones. The evidence of health
risks from mobile phone use is presented to students who are asked to assess the strength
of the evidence on the basis of its validity, reliability and repeatability. See the general weblinks for Topic 1.
The BioEthics Education Project (BEEP) website section on How Science Works includes a
section on understanding the maths, including Fractions, Percentages and Expressing
Risks. See the web-links for this activity.
Students need to understand that a strong association between two variables does not
necessarily prove a causal link between them. This idea of causal links could also be
illustrated with some mistaken correlations. For example, up until the end of the nineteenth
century it was widely thought that bad air caused malaria. It was not until 1880 that the
French army doctor Alphonse Laveran proposed that it was caused by a parasite. In 1897
the British doctor Sir Ronald Ross observed the parasite in mosquitoes that had fed on
infected individuals. Rosss description of the complete life cycle of the malarial parasite
won him the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902. Illicit drug use was one of the early
suggestions for the cause of AIDS until HIV was identified. Q1.10 in the student book
presents a few correlations and asks the reader to decide if there could be a causal link in
each case.
Checkpoint question 4 requires students to consider the circumstances that make people
more likely to underestimate or overestimate risk.
The student book considers what is meant by risk factors, and how correlation and
causation are important in identifying risk factors associated with human health. This then
leads into a detailed discussion of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

1.3 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease


Identifying risk factors for CVD
A lot of the risk factors for CVD will be familiar to students, so a good starting point is a
brainstorm of their ideas. In excess of 250 risk factors have been suggested. In some cases
there is a correlation between CVD incidence and the risk factor, but without a causal link
having been shown. Examples of such correlations include not having siestas, snoring,
having English as a mother tongue, and not eating mackerel. Before looking in detail at the
widely accepted risk factors the student book considers how these risk factors were
identified in epidemiological studies. The student book describes cohort and case-control
studies and considers the features of a good study. Checkpoint question 1.5 requires
students to produce a checklist of these features. This could be done before the students
complete the activity.
Activity 1.10 Identifying health risk factors (A1.10L)
This activity allows students to evaluate the design of some epidemiological studies used to
determine health risk factors. Studies investigating the link between MMR and autism are
considered; the sense about science website page on this issue provides some useful
weblinks to access additional information.
The student book goes on to present the risk factors which are widely accepted as causally
contributing to an increased risk of developing CVD. There are student activities linked to
most of these risk factors.
Smoking is very probably the largest self-imposed risk factor. Students are likely to have
covered this issue in KS3 and/or KS4 so this should be largely recall. There is no activity on
smoking but there is summary information included in the student book. If students have not
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


come through the standard English and Welsh GCSE route it may be worth highlighting this
information.
Age and gender make a difference
Activity 1.11 Analysis of cardiovascular disease data (A1.11L)
This activity requires students to analyse and interpret quantitative data on illness and
mortality rates focusing on the effect of age and gender. It is in two parts: analysis of the risk
of haemorrhagic stroke, and analysis of coronary heart disease data. In the introductory
story Mark suffered a haemorrhagic stroke; this is where a blood vessel in the brain bursts.
This type of stroke is described at the end of the topic when the text returns to Mark and
Peter to consider their possible risk factors. The student book also gives mortality data for
different ages and both sexes, with questions.
In the 2005 version of the SNAB book, heredity (My Dad had a heart attack will I?) comes
immediately after age and gender, in the 2008 version this has been moved to later in the
topic so that more up-to-date information on the gene cluster that has been associated with
CVD can be included. This requires knowledge of LDLs and HDLs, so it appears after the
section on fats.
High blood pressure
Activity 1.12 Measuring blood pressure (A1.12L)
Students measure blood pressure. If a sphygmomanometer or blood pressure monitor is not
available, the simulation on the website can be used. The simulation could also be used
alongside the practical to confirm understanding of the technique.
The student book explains what determines blood pressure. It includes information on tissue
fluid formation and oedema. This detail is not required in the specification, but is given here
to illustrate the consequences of high blood pressure. The student book also links back to
the development of atherosclerosis.
Activity 1.13 Blood pressure summary (A1.13L)
Ideas about blood pressure are summarised using a concept map. This also reminds
students about a useful revision technique.
Dietary risk factors
There is a detailed consideration of carbohydrates and fats, including their role in the diet,
and potential as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In preparation for this section,
students could be asked to look at food packaging at home and to list the different energy
units used. It is likely that within any group there will be calories, kilocalories, Calories and
kilojoules. The student book explains the relationship between these units.
Activity 1.14 Carbohydrate structure (A1.14L)
This interactive tutorial takes the student through the structure of monosaccharides,
disaccharides and polysaccharides. It shows condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
Students need to be able to distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides and
polysaccharides (glycogen and starch amylose and amylopectin) and relate their
structures to their roles in providing and storing energy. They need to be able to describe
condensation and hydrolysis reactions involved in their formation. The structure and
function of cellulose is covered in Topic 4, but the knowledge that it is a polysaccharide and
has a role as dietary fibre is assumed here.
Molymods or similar models could be used to demonstrate the formation of disaccharides
and polysaccharides. It is possible to demonstrate the synthesis of starch using an enzyme
extracted from potatoes. This highlights the involvement of an enzyme which is not featured
in the interactive tutorial on carbohydrates. Practical details are given in Practical Advanced
Biology by Tim King and Michael Reiss (Nelson Thorne, 2001).
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Activity 1.15 Biotechnology to the rescue (A1.15L)


This activity confirms the idea that disaccharides can be hydrolysed to produce
monosaccharides. Set in the context of the use of immobilised enzymes in the food industry,
this activity uses lactase to hydrolyse lactose in milk. The lactase is first immobilised in
alginate gel beads. Students have to recall their GCSE knowledge of enzymes. A question
asks students to explain what has happened in the experiment. They can use GCSE
enzyme knowledge and the information on hydrolysis reactions in their answer. The
mechanism of enzyme action is covered in detail in Topic 2.
The activity could introduce some ideas about practical skills. At the end of the activity sheet
students are asked to plan an experiment to investigate the effect of rate of flow on
breakdown of lactase. A class discussion could consider formulating a hypothesis, designing
an experiment that will test the hypothesis, how valid results are produced and the idea of
error.
Activity 1.16 Lipids (A1.16L)
This interactive tutorial goes through the structure of lipids. The accompanying worksheet
can be completed using the interactive tutorial or the diagrams in the student book.
Activity 1.17 Your energy budget (A1.17L)
This interactive tutorial allows students to calculate their BMR and energy expenditure for a
day. Students are asked to select a typical days diet from a simple menu, and the energy
content is compared with their requirements. There are more comprehensive diet analysis
packages available, but this one is less time-consuming and still highlights the need for an
energy balanced diet. Note that the energy values are given in kilocalories (Calories) rather
than kilojoules. Students should appreciate that although Calories are quite often used
when dealing with food, they are not SI units. There is a Practical support sheet on SI units
(P0.05S). The activity sheet goes through the same procedure as the interactive tutorial and
could be used without computer access.
The activity provides a starting-point for discussion of energy imbalance and obesity. A great
deal of sensitivity may be required if students are asked to calculate their own body mass
indices or waist-to-hip ratio using the methods described in the student book. Another
possibility is to have a few imaginary persons, and use their heights and masses to
calculate BMIs and waist-to-hip ratios. If any students calculate their own indices and are
anxious about the results they obtain, it would be best to recommend that they consult their
doctor to obtain a professional assessment of body size and health implications. Any
discussion about addressing the problem of obesity should emphasise the need for a
healthy balanced diet and sufficient exercise. It should also refer to the dangers of very low
energy and restricted food group diets.
The students could be asked to write a short report for an imaginary person with a BMI of 35
explaining to them what this means and the potential problems resulting from being
substantially overweight. Alternatively, they could be asked to suggest information to be
printed out from weighing scales in superstores across the country. (A person stands on the
scale, answers a simple question about their height, and receives a slip of paper telling
them their BMI and giving a paragraph of information about it.)
Students need to understand the role of high-density lipoproteins and low-density
lipoproteins in relation to cardiovascular disease. Their roles as transport proteins, and how
they contribute to development of atherosclerosis, is covered in the student book. Students
could prepare a leaflet or poster for use in a local pharmacy. It should be emphasised that
we need cholesterol and fats in our diet. The evidence for a correlation and a causal link
between blood cholesterol levels and CVD is considered in the activity. The student book
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


highlights the conflicting evidence for a correlation between cholesterol levels and CVD. The
French and UK total cholesterol levels are about the same, but the incidence of CVD in
France is lower. The possible explanations of this paradox are discussed.
There is a very good article and worksheet in the journal Biological Sciences Review:
OConnell N., Ottewill G. and Mills G. (2000) Heart disease and cholesterol. Biological
Sciences Review, 13(2), 27.
Activity 1.18 Cholesterol and CVD correlation or causal link? (A1.18L)
In this activity data from epidemiological studies is used to investigate the correlation
between cholesterol and CVD. The difference between a correlation and causal link is
highlighted with the type of evidence for the latter presented.
After looking at the key dietary factor of energy balance and cholesterol, other risk factors
are presented in the student book in an order that reflects their importance in increasing risk
of CVD. The key lifestyle factors, smoking and inactivity are covered before considering
heredity. The section finishes with a summary of a range of other factors - antioxidants, salt,
stress and alcohol. The diet-related factors could be dealt with alongside carbohydrates and
fats before the other lifestyle factors.
Activity 1.19 Sudden death in athletes (A1.19L)
This activity relates how the predisposition for cardiovascular disease can be inherited.
Inheritance is covered in more detail in Topic 2.
Activity 1.20 Are you getting enough antioxidants? (A1.20L)
The worksheet provides information about how antioxidants are thought to help prevent
damage to cells by radicals. It then allows students to assess their own diet for antioxidants.
Activity 1.21 Is high C all it claims to be? (A1.21L) Core practical
In this activity students investigate the vitamin C content of fruit juice or other foodstuffs. The
activity sheet presents the true story of New Zealand high school students who found that
the levels of vitamin C in Ribena were much lower than those the manufacturer claimed it
contained.
Activity 1.22 Reducing stress (A1.22L)
This teacher-led activity shows that stress can affect heart rate and blood pressure, and that
stress relief techniques can have a measurable effect on both pulse rate and blood
pressure. Stress does not appear in the specification, but the activity can be used to
highlight the link between stress and high blood pressure.
Activity 1.23 Does caffeine affect heart rate? (A1.23L) Core practical
The first part of this activity is a planning exercise. The student is asked to produce a
detailed experimental plan to compare the effects of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia
(water fleas). An equipment list is provided and a checklist of things students plans should
include.
Students could perform their own experiment or use the procedure on the teacher sheet.
This is a difficult experiment to perform with precision. The experiment provides much to
discuss in terms of validity of data, and the precautions needed to ensure that the
experiment is conducted with consideration for living organisms. The specification requires
students to discuss whether there are ethical issues in the use of invertebrates. The
BioEthics Education Project (BEEP) website includes a section on use of animals in
research, noting that many invertebrates are used in research, but are not protected under
British law. There is also a section on How Science Works with information about reliability
and validity. See the web-links accompanying this activity.
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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme


Activity 1.24 Healthy heart quiz (A1.24L)
This truefalse quiz draws on ideas covered in the preceding section. Discussion of the
answers provides an opportunity to review all the risk factors.
Checkpoint question 1.6 summarises the risk factors for CVD and their effects.

1.4 Reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease


This section can involve students in a discussion about ways to reduce the risk of CVD.
Before reading it, every student could be asked to write down one way that the risk of
cardiovascular disease could be reduced. The group could then share ideas and discuss
which are the most realistic for an individual to adopt. The student book summarises some
ideas. It includes details of drugs used in the control of blood pressure, and to lower blood
cholesterol levels; it does not make any recommendations. The use of anticoagulant and
platelet inhibitory treatment to prevent clot formation is also considered. The need to assess
the risk and benefits when using any of these drug treatments is highlighted in the text.
Lack of physical activity is acknowledged as a major contributor to the development of CVD.
Although in the topic this is not given an independent section, it is vital to include physical
activity in any discussion of ways to reduce the risk of not only CVD but also a range of
other diseases such as obesity and cancers.
Activity 1.25 Making decisions (A1.25L)
Students look at how people might use scientific information to reduce their risk of coronary
heart disease by answering questions with a range of stimulus material.
Extension 1.3 Functional foods and CHD (A1.3L)
This extension looks in detail at the development of functional foods, using the Flora
pro.Activ story as an example. This extension gives details of trials showing the
effectiveness of plant sterols and stanols in reducing CHD risk.
Extension 1.4 New treatments for coronary heart disease (X1.04S)
This extension considers treatments for people who have had a heart attack or stroke,
including surgery and emergency drug treatment.
The topic finishes by referring back to Mark and Peter. A review of their risk factors could be
used to finish the topic. Peters situation highlights the need for a healthy diet and exercise
throughout life; his doctors doubted that he would have survived if he had not been as fit.
Marks story is almost a red herring in that he may well have had a weak vessel and an
inherited predisposition, the more common risk factors discussed in the student book seem
to play a minor role in his condition. However, having had one such stroke there is
undoubtedly a need to avoid things that could potentially put additional strain on the vessels
in his brain.
Activity 1.26 Check your notes
Students can use the checklist of learning outcomes in this activity in their revision.

End-of-topic tests
There is an online interactive end-of-topic test. This test is not accessible to students initially
unless set by their teacher/lecturer. The teacher has the option to flick a switch to make it
open access. There is also a paper-based test for Topic 1 with examination-style questions
on the teachers and technicians sites. A mark scheme is also available on these sites. The
questions are similar in layout and style to those found on exam papers. However, the
restriction of questions to only one topic in each test has meant that it has not been possible
to include some types of questions that draw on material from different topics.

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

AS Summary chart
The grid below shows where concepts are introduced and then revisited in later topics.
Note: Some of these concepts will be revisited and built on in A2.
Concept
Biological
molecules
(monomers
combine to form
polymers)

Topic 1
Carbohydrate structures and
roles in providing and storing
energy (not cellulose)
Lipid structures

Topic 2
Phospholipids
Protein structures
Structures of DNA and RNA

Enzymes

Chemical
reactions

Enzyme structure and


mechanism of action

Effect of enzyme
concentration on rate of reaction
Condensation and hydrolysis
reactions
Antioxidants and radicals

Cell structure

Topic 3

Role of ER and Golgi apparatus in


formation of extracellular enzymes

Condensation reactions
Hydrophobic and
hydrophilic effects

Unit membrane structure

Genes help
determine the
nature of
organisms

Roles of DNA and RNA


Genetic code
Protein synthesis
DNA replication and
mutations

Cell cycle

Energy

Energy units, energy balance

Topic 4
Starch and cellulose structures and
functions

Prokaryotic and typical eukaryotic


(animal) cell structure and
ultrastructure
Role of ER and Golgi apparatus
in protein transport
Gamete structures and functions
Stem cells
Cell specialisation and
organisation into tissues, organs
and organ systems
Cell specialisation through
differential gene expression

Condensation reactions

Recall typical ultrastructure of animal


cell and compare with plant cell
ultrastructure

Xylem and sclerenchyma structure


and function

Genetic diversity

DNA replication and cell and


nuclear division
Role of mitosis and cell cycle for
growth and asexual reproduction
Differentiation and the role of
stem cells

Role of ATP in active


transport

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Concept
Transport in and
out of cells

Topic 1

Transport in
organisms to
and from
exchange
surfaces
Organisms
exchange
materials with
the environment

Mass transport
Structure and function of the
circulatory system
Solvent properties of water

Inheritance

Genetic risk factors for CVD


Interaction of genotype and the
environment on development of
CVD

Topic 2
Passive transport, diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, osmosis,
active transport, exocytosis and
endocytosis

Topic 4
Diffusion and osmosis

Mass transport of waters and


minerals through plant stems

Importance of meiosis and


fertilisation in sexual reproduction
Role of meiosis in production of
genetic variation, including
independent assortment and
crossing over
Some characteristics are
affected by genotype and the
environment
Polygenic inheritance
Discontinuous and continuous
variation

Genetic variation (loss and


conservation)

Importance of meiosis and


fertilisation in sexual reproduction
Introduction of genetic variation
through random assortment (stages
of meiosis and chiasmata formation
are not required)
Some characteristics affected by
genotype and the environment

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Adaptation
Evolution by natural selection

Some characteristics are affected by


genotype and the environment

Surface area to volume


ratio

Properties of gas exchange


surfaces

Monohybrid inheritance

Gene therapy

Evolution and
natural selection

Classification
Interactions with
the environment

Gene technology

Topic 3
Protein transport

Effect of environment on CVD


risk

Gene therapy
Genetic screening and
embryo testing

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The concept of species


Taxonomic groupings
Biodiversity
Endemism
Concept of Niche
Adaptations of organisms
Sustainable resource utilisation
Microbial properties of plants

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SNAB T1 Teaching scheme

Concept

Energy flow and


recycling of
materials in
ecosystems
Coordination

Topic 1

Topic 2

Topic 3

Diabetes

Endocrine and exocrine


hormones introduced

Melanocyte stimulating
hormone (MSH)

Risk and
perception

Concept of risk, risk perception,


risk factors for CVD, reducing
risk of CVD

Genetic risk factors

Risk factors for cancer

Maths/science
skills

Calculating probabilities,
correlation and causation,
calculating obesity indicators,
analysis of quantitative health
data

Continuous/discontinuous
variation

Cystic fibrosis, (briefly)


sickle cell and thalassaemia,
PKU, achondroplasia,
Huntingtons disease)

Cancer

Ethical frameworks
Genetic screening

Stem cells

Genetic testing / screening


Gene therapy

Health and
Disease

Ethics
Applications of
biology

Topic 4
importance of water and mineral ions to
plants

CVD (CHD and stroke)


Cancer
Atherosclerosis
Blood clotting
Evaluate design of health studies
Experimental use of
invertebrates

Sphygmomanometers / blood
pressure monitors
Use of scientific knowledge to
reduce health risk

Calculating surface area to


volume ratios

The nature of theories, scientific


consensus and evidence
Critical evaluation of new data
Ecological sampling
Measurement of biodiversity and
genetic diversity
Drug development

Use of plant fibres


Use of plant starch and oils
Drug development
Role of zoos and seedbanks

Use of stem cells for research

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This sheet may have been altered from the original.

Sustainable resource utilisation

16