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Esta es una presentacin del anlisis terminolgico de los salmos 32 y 33 de acuerdo a la

Biblia Hebrea. El texto est tomado de Bibleworks 9 Net Bible.

Psa 32:1 1[By David; a well-written song.2 ] How blessed3 is the one whose rebellious acts
are forgiven,4 whose sin is pardoned!5

Psalm 32:1. The psalmist recalls the agony he experienced prior to confessing his sins and
affirms that true happiness comes when one's sins are forgiven. He then urges others not to
be stubborn, but to turn to God while forgiveness is available, for God extends his mercy to
the repentant, while the wicked experience nothing but sorrow.
tn The meaning of the Hebrew term
( maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived
from a verb meaning "to be prudent; to be wise." Various options are: "a contemplative
song," "a song imparting moral wisdom," or "a skillful [i.e., well-written] song." The term
occurs in the superscriptions of Psa 32, Psa 42, Psa 44, Psa 45, Psa 52-55, Psa 74, Psa 78,
Psa 88, Psa 89, and Psa 142, as well as in Psa 47:7.

tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the
happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Psa 1:1, Psa 1:3; Psa 2:12;
Psa 34:9; Psa 41:1; Psa 65:4; Psa 84:12; Psa 89:15; Psa 106:3; Psa 112:1; Psa 127:5; Psa
128:1; Psa 144:15). Here it refers to the relief that one experiences when one's sins are

tn Heb "lifted up."

tn Heb "covered over."

Psa 32:2 How blessed is the one6 whose wrongdoing the LORD does not punish,7 in whose
spirit there is no deceit.8

tn Heb "man." The word choice reflects the perspective of the psalmist, who is male. The
principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age.
To facilitate modern application, the gender and age specific "man" has been translated
with the more neutral "one."

tn Heb "blessed [is] the man to whom the LORD does not impute wrongdoing."

sn In whose spirit there is no deceit. The point is not that the individual is sinless and pure.
In this context, which focuses on confession and forgiveness of sin, the psalmist refers to
one who refuses to deny or hide his sin, but instead honestly confesses it to God.
Psa 32:3 When I refused to confess my sin,9 my whole body wasted away,10 while I groaned
in pain all day long.

tn Heb "when I was silent."


tn Heb "my bones became brittle." The psalmist pictures himself as aging and growing
physically weak. Trying to cover up his sin brought severe physical consequences.
Psa 32:4 For day and night you tormented me;11 you tried to destroy me12 in the intense
heat13 of summer.14 (Selah)


tn Heb "your hand was heavy upon me."

tc Heb "my [?] was turned." The meaning of the Hebrew term ( leshad) is uncertain.
A noun ( lashad, "cake") is attested in Num 11:8, but it would make no sense to
understand that word in this context. It is better to emend the form to ( leshuddiy, "to
my destruction") and understand "your hand" as the subject of the verb "was turned." In this
case the text reads, "[your hand] was turned to my destruction." In Lam 3:3 the author
laments that God's "hand" was "turned" (
, hafakh) against him in a hostile sense.

sn You tried to destroy me. The psalmist's statement reflects his perspective. As far as he
was concerned, it seemed as if the Lord was trying to kill him.

tn The translation assumes that the plural form indicates degree. If one understands the
form as a true plural, then one might translate, "in the times of drought."

sn Summer. Perhaps the psalmist suffered during the hot season and perceived the very
weather as being an instrument of divine judgment. Another option is that he compares his
time of suffering to the uncomfortable and oppressive heat of summer.
Psa 32:5 Then I confessed my sin; I no longer covered up my wrongdoing. I said, "I will
confess15 my rebellious acts to the LORD." And then you forgave my sins.16 (Selah)
tn The Hiphil of normally means "give thanks, praise," but here, as in Pro 28:13, it
means "confess."


tn Heb "the wrongdoing of my sin." By joining synonyms for "sin" in this way, the
psalmist may be emphasizing the degree of his wrongdoing.
Psa 32:6 For this reason every one of your faithful followers17 should pray to you while
there is a window of opportunity.18 Certainly19 when the surging water20 rises, it will not
reach them.21
tn A "faithful follower" (

, khasid) is one who does what is right in God's eyes and
remains faithful to God (see Psa 4:3; Psa 12:1; Psa 18:25; Psa 31:23; Psa 37:28; Psa 86:2;
Psa 97:10).


tn Heb "at a time of finding." This may mean, "while there is time to 'find' [the LORD]"
and seek his forgiveness (cf. NIV). Some emend the text by combining
( metso',
"finding") with the following term
( raq, "only, surely") and read either ][
( matsor,
"distress"; see Psa 31:22) or []
( matsoq, "hardship"; see Psa 119:143). In this case, one
may translate "in a time of distress/hardship" (cf. NEB, NRSV).

tn The Hebrew term

( raq) occasionally has an asseverative force.


sn The surging water is here a metaphor for trouble that endangers one's life.


tn Heb "him." The translation uses the plural "them" to agree with the plural "every one
of your faithful followers" in the first line of v. Psa 32:6.
Psa 32:7 You are my hiding place; you protect me from distress. You surround me with
shouts of joy from those celebrating deliverance.22 (Selah)


tn Heb "[with] shouts of joy of deliverance you surround me."

Psa 32:8 I will instruct and teach you23 about how you should live.24 I will advise you as I
look you in the eye.25

tn The second person pronominal forms in this verse are singular. The psalmist addresses
each member of his audience individually (see also the note on the word "eye" in the next
line). A less likely option (but one which is commonly understood) is that the LORD
addresses the psalmist in vv. Psa 32:8-9 (cf. NASB "I will instruct you and teach youI
will counsel you with My eye upon you").

tn Heb "I will instruct you and I will teach you in the way [in] which you should walk."


tn Heb "I will advise, upon you my eye," that is, "I will offer advice [with] my eye upon
you." In 2Ch 20:12 the statement "our eye is upon you" means that the speakers are looking
to the LORD for intervention. Here the expression "my eye upon you" may simply mean
that the psalmist will teach his pupils directly and personally.
Psa 32:9 Do not be26 like an unintelligent horse or mule,27 which will not obey you unless
they are controlled by a bridle and bit.28

tn The verb form is plural (i.e., "do not all of you be"); the psalmist addresses the whole

tn Heb "like a horse, like a mule without understanding."


tn Heb "with a bridle and bit, its [?] to hold, not to come near to you." The meaning of the
Hebrew noun
'( adiy) is uncertain. Normally the word refers to "jewelry," so some
suggest the meaning "trappings" here (cf. NASB). Some emend the form to

(l khehem, "their jawbones") but it is difficult to see how the present Hebrew text, even if
corrupt, could have derived from this proposed original reading. P. C. Craigie (Psa 1-50
[WBC], 265) takes the form from an Arabic root and translates "whose gallop." Cf. also
NRSV "whose temper must be curbed."
Psa 32:10 An evil person suffers much pain,29 but the LORD's faithfulness overwhelms the
one who trusts in him.30

tn Heb "many [are the] pains of evil [one]." The singular form is representative here; the
typical evildoer, representative of the larger group of wicked people, is in view.

tn Heb "but the one who trusts in the LORD, faithfulness surrounds him."

Psa 32:11 Rejoice in the LORD and be happy, you who are godly! Shout for joy, all you
who are morally upright!31

tn Heb "all [you] pure of heart." The "heart" is here viewed as the seat of one's moral
character and motives. The "pure of heart" are God's faithful followers who trust in and
love the LORD and, as a result, experience his deliverance (see Psa 7:10; Psa 11:2; Psa
36:10; Psa 64:10; Psa 94:15; Psa 97:11).

Psa 33:1 1You godly ones, shout for joy because of the LORD! It is appropriate for the
morally upright to offer him praise.

Psalm 33:1. In this hymn the psalmist praises the Lord as the sovereign creator and just
ruler of the world who protects and vindicates those who fear him.
Psa 33:2 Give thanks to the LORD with the harp! Sing to him to the accompaniment of a
ten-stringed instrument!
Psa 33:3 Sing to him a new song!2 Play skillfully as you shout out your praises to him!3

sn A new song is appropriate because the Lord is constantly intervening in the lives of his
people in fresh and exciting ways.

tn Heb "play skillfully with a loud shout."

Psa 33:4 For4 the LORD's decrees5 are just,6 and everything he does is fair.7

sn For the LORD's decrees are just After the call to praise (vv. Psa 33:1-3), the psalmist
now gives a series of reasons why the Lord is worthy of praise.

tn Heb "word." In this context, which depicts the LORD as the sovereign creator and ruler
of the world, the LORD's "word" refers to the decrees whereby he governs his dominion.

tn Or "upright."

tn Heb "and all his work [is] in faithfulness."

Psa 33:5 The LORD promotes8 equity and justice; the LORD's faithfulness extends
throughout the earth.9

tn Heb "loves." The verb "loves" is here metonymic; the LORD's commitment to
principles of equity and justice causes him to actively promote these principles as he
governs the world.

tn Heb "fills the earth."

Psa 33:6 By the LORD's decree10 the heavens were made; by a mere word from his mouth
all the stars in the sky were created.11

tn Heb "word."


tn Heb "and by the breath of his mouth all their host." The words "were created" are
added in the translation for stylistic reasons; they are understood by ellipsis (note "were
made" in the preceding line). The description is consistent with Gen 1:16, which indicates
that God spoke the heavenly luminaries into existence.
Psa 33:7 He piles up the water of the sea;12 he puts the oceans13 in storehouses.

tn Heb "[he] gathers like a pile the waters of the sea." Some prefer to emend
( ged,
"heap, pile"; cf. NASB) to ( nod, "bottle"; cf. NRSV; NIV "into jars"), but "pile" is used
elsewhere to describe water that the LORD confines to one place (Exo 15:8; Jos 3:13, Jos
3:16; Psa 78:13). This verse appears to refer to Gen 1:9, where God decrees that the watery
deep be gathered to one place so that dry land might appear. If so, the participles in this and
the following line depict this action with special vividness, as if the reader were present on
the occasion. Another option is that the participles picture the confinement of the sea to one
place as an ongoing divine activity.

tn Or "watery depths." The form

( tehomot, "watery depths") is the plural form of

( t hom, "great deep"; see Gen 1:2).


Psa 33:8 Let the whole earth fear14 the LORD! Let all who live in the world stand in awe of

tn In this context "fear" probably means "to demonstrate respect for the LORD's power
and authority by worshiping him and obeying his commandments."
Psa 33:9 For he spoke, and it15 came into existence, he issued the decree,16 and it stood firm.

tn That is, "all the earth" in the first line of v. Psa 33:8. The apparent antecedent of the
masculine subject of the verbs in v. Psa 33:9 (note
[ vayyehiy] and
[ vayya'amod])
is "earth" or "world," both of which are feminine nouns. However,
( kol, "all") may be
the antecedent, or the apparent lack of agreement may be explained by the collective nature
of the nouns involved here (see GKC 463 145.e).

tn Heb "he commanded."

Psa 33:10 The LORD frustrates17 the decisions of the nations; he nullifies the plans18 of the

tn Heb "breaks" or "destroys." The Hebrew perfect verbal forms here and in the next line
generalize about the LORD's activity.

tn Heb "thoughts."

Psa 33:11 The LORD's decisions stand forever; his plans abide throughout the ages.19

tn Heb "the thoughts of his heart for generation to generation." The verb "abides" is
supplied in the translation. The LORD's "decisions" and "plans" here refer to his decrees
and purposes.
Psa 33:12 How blessed20 is the nation whose God is the LORD, the people whom he has
chosen to be his special possession.21

tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the
happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Psa 1:1; Psa 2:12; Psa 34:9;
Psa 41:1; Psa 65:4; Psa 84:12; Psa 89:15; Psa 106:3; Psa 112:1; Psa 127:5; Psa 128:1; Psa


tn Heb "inheritance."

Psa 33:13 The LORD watches22 from heaven; he sees all people.23

tn The Hebrew perfect verbal forms in v. Psa 33:13 state general facts.


tn Heb "all the sons of men."

Psa 33:14 From the place where he lives he looks carefully at all the earth's inhabitants.
Psa 33:15 He is the one who forms every human heart,24 and takes note of all their actions.

tn Heb "the one who forms together their heart[s]." "Heart" here refers to human nature,
composed of intellect, emotions and will. The precise force of
(yakhad, "together") is
unclear here. The point seems to be that the LORD is the creator of every human being.
Psa 33:16 No king is delivered by his vast army; a warrior is not saved by his great might.
Psa 33:17 A horse disappoints those who trust in it for victory;25 despite its great strength, it
cannot deliver.

tn Heb "a lie [is] the horse for victory."

Psa 33:18 Look, the LORD takes notice of his loyal followers,26 those who wait for him to
demonstrate his faithfulness27

tn Heb "look, the eye of the LORD [is] toward the ones who fear him." The expression
"the eye[is] toward" here indicates recognition and the bestowing of favor. See Psa
34:15. The one who fears the LORD respects his sovereignty and obeys his
commandments. See Psa 128:1; Pro 14:2.

tn Heb "for the ones who wait for his faithfulness."

Psa 33:19 by saving their lives from death28 and sustaining them during times of famine.29

tn Heb "to save from death their live[s]."


tn Heb "and to keep them alive in famine."

Psa 33:20 We30 wait for the LORD; he is our deliverer31 and shield.32
tn Or "our lives." The suffixed form of ( nefesh, "being, life") is often equivalent to a
pronoun in poetic texts.


tn Or "[source of] help."


tn Or "protector."

Psa 33:21 For our hearts rejoice in him, for we trust in his holy name.
Psa 33:22 May we experience your faithfulness, O LORD,33 for34 we wait for you.

tn Heb "let your faithfulness, O LORD, be on us."


tn Or "just as."