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Experiment 6

Conservation of Mechanical Energy


Physics

Lab Report Stage 3

Noviembre del 2013


Monterrey, Nuevo Len, Mxico

Experiment 7
Collisions
Great minds discuss ideas; overage minds discuss events; small minds discuss people.
Anonymonus
INTRODUCTION
A collision is an isolated event in which two or more moving bodies (colliding bodies)
exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. A perfectly elastic collision is defined
as one in which there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collision. An inelastic collision is
one in which part of the kinetic energy is changed to some other form of energy in the
collision. In a perfectly inelastic collision, a zero coefficient of restitution, the colliding
particles stick together. Impulse (J) is defined as the cumulative effect of a force
throughout a time interval. Momentum is defined (in a non-relativistic sense) as p = m*v,
where p is the momentum vector, m is mass, and v is the velocity vector. Change in
momentum is in where the momentum change.
Here in this project we are going to make and experiment with an air track system,
representing the conservation of linear momentum in inelastic collisions, we are going to
get results and see how the momentum in both before and after the collision is the same.
HYPOTHESIS: The momentum will be the same before and after the collision.
OBJECTIVE: To prove experimentally the law of conservations of linear momentum in
ineslastic collisions.
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS:
Isaac Newton defined the product of the objects mass and velocity (mv) as momentum
(p). The total momentum in a system, is the vector sum of quantities of each body
momentum that make a system. The collision among the bodies can be elastic and
inelastic. A collision is elastic when the kinetic energy is conserved and it is inelastic when
kinetic energy is not conserved, in both cases the momentum before the collision is equal
to the momentum after the collision. Experimentally is observed when a collision occur,
total momentum of a system do not vary, it is a principle of conservation of momentum
and it is a constant rule of nature.
MATERIAL:

1 Lineas Air track system


1 air pump
1 Spark generator
2Gliders, one with spark electrode
1 Spark ruler
1 Rubber band
1 Millimeter paper
1 Ruler

1 Masking tape
1 piece of threat

PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the air track system
2. Place the piece of recorder paper on spark ruler. Connect the sparks generator
to air track system.
3. Place a glider (know mass) on the track with spark electrode, with the hands
adjust one end at a distance of 0.5 cm from recorder paper and the other end
to the threat located along the rail.
4. With a pencil attach the glider to the metal hook
5. Turn on the pump air and sparks generator, choose appropriated frequency.
6. Prepare the glider and press the sparks generator button in order to take the
second point as a reference.
7. Release the glider by removing the pencil and release the rubber band used as
launched system and record. Before the glider reaches the end of air track
system, stop the recording.
8. Measure the distance between reference poin of record and each point
marked. With the values obtaines make a data table.

Observations:
Trial

m1(g)
145.19 g

Let vo = Avx1/ Avt1


m*vf
Vo= 24.75/.9=27.4
Vf=54.1/2.5=21.64

x1 (cm)
5.5
11
16.6
22.2
27.8
33.2
38.7
43
Avx1 24.75

t1(s)
.2
.4
.6
.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
Avt1=.9

m2 (g)
136.68g

vf = Avx2/ Avt2

x2 (cm)
45.6
47.9
50.4
53
55.3
57.9
60.2
62.5
Avx2=54.1

t2 (s)
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
3.2
Avt2 =2.5

po =m*vo

pf =

po= (145.19*27.4)=3978.20
pf=(136.68*21.64)=2957.75

Results
Are po and pf equal? Yes or no, explain.
No, because the masses where different, so they act different and the
results where not exact, we estimated the measures so we dont get
closer to the corret answer.
1.-Calculate the toalt change in the momentum. What can you deduce
from the result?.
A.- it was like 1020.45 and it change a lot.
Discussion
During this lab practice that we realized how the momentum of a is the
same before and after the collision. We make the experiment and we
get the data and results in the experiment we can notice that the
masses where different and the measured of the distance traveled
where not exact so it can influence a lot in the results.; we get the
wrong value because we use numbers with decimals and not whole
numbers, so the value was not exact and the mass where different. We

need to make the experiment again using Gliders with the same mass
and a precise ruler.its prove that the momentum before and after
collision is the same, and these experiment was far to prove that,
maybe if we try it again or we use specific values we could get the
same values for both.The hypothesis we have was wrong, or our
results were wrong.
Conclusion
In these experiment we learn how momentum is related in inelastic
collisions and we try prove it by experimenting with it; we also learn
that the estimated values can change the results in some way, so we
need to try to be more precise to get a value correct.And that
sometimes we need help to understand better and do better the things.

References:
Physics 2. Work Book pages: 236-238

Wikipedia, collision web site. November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collision