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3/1/2011

2.1 Introduction
A gravity dam derive its stability from the force of
gravity of the materials in its section.
The dead weight of the body of the dam and the
manner of its distribution in the section is
designed to withstand the forces of water
impounded in the lake behind it and other forces
consequent there to.
Axis of the dam: the line passing through the
vertical face.
Height of the dam: the vertical distance from the
deepest foundation to the carriage way.

Hydraulic structures I
Chapter 2
Gravity Dam

2.1 Ctd.: Criteria for Selection of Dam


Site

2.1 Ctd.
Free board
Axis of the dam
Height of dam
Heel
Toe

A narrow gorge at dam site, opening upstream.


Sound rock able to resist static and dynamic forces
including earthquakes.
Stable valley and abutment slopes.
Foundations having same value of elastic constants.
The foundations and reservoir walls watertight,
resistant to erosion and other detrimental effects of
wetting, drying, freezing and thawing.
Good location for spillways
Availability of good construction materials and
infrastructure, like electric supply, road etc.

Spillway gates
Length of the dam

Non overflow

Overflow

Non overflow
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2.3 Forces Acting on Dam


Stabilizing Forces :

Positive force and


moment

Reservoir water pressure,


Uplift,
z
Wave pressure in the reservoir,
Ice pressure,
Temperature stresses,
Earth and Silt pressure,
Seismic forces,
Positive shear
Wind pressure.

10m

+ HF

Destabilizing Forces :

2.3 Ctd.: Dead Load

6m

+ VF

Weight of the dam (Dead Load)


The thrust of the tail water.

20m

M+

21m

Solution:
Rectangular section

Area =30X6= 180m2; Centroid from the toe = 15 + 6/2 = 18 m;


Weight = 180X1X24= +4320KN

+y

+yz

Triangular section

+z
+zy

Dead load: Weight of the


concrete, piers gates, bridges
etc.
Example 1: Compute the dead
load and its moment arm
length from the toe for the
section shown. Assume the
Toe
dam thickness is 1m and
c=24KN/m3

Area = 0.5X(21-6)X20= 150m2; Centroid from the toe = 2X15/3= 10m;


Weight = 150X1X24 = +3600 KN

Dead Load = 4320 + 3600 = +7920 KN


Moment arm length (x) = (180X18 + 150X10)/(180 + 150) = 14.36 m

3/1/2011

2.3 Ctd.: Water Loads on non overflow


section
PFu

2.3 Ctd.: Water Loads on overflow


section

Tail water
weight

hu

hu

PFd

1
hu
3

hd

Toe

Exercise: Proof that the pressure force and its


moment arm from the toe are computed,
respectively as: PFu 0.5 w ho 2hu ho [Eq. 2.3]

Water Pressure (Pi) at a depth hi from the water surface level


can be computed as:
P h [Eq. 2.1]
i

w i

Water Pressure force (PFi) at a depth hi from the water surface


level can be computed as: PF 0.5 h 2 [Eq. 2.2]
i

w i

w Unit Weight of water

2.3 Ctd.: Uplift pressure without


drainage
hu
hd

B
x

w hu

whd

Uplift pressure

The uplift pressure


force (UF) and its
moment arm length (x)
from the toe of the dam
can be computed,
respectively as:
1
UF B w (hu hd )[Eq. 2.5]
2
2hu hd
x
B [Eq. 2.6]
3hu hd

hu
B1

w hu

27m
20m

21m

[Eq. 2.4]
8

B2

If drainage galleries are


working, the uplift
pressure head at the
gallery is taken as:
hd UPy 1 w (hu 2hd ) [Eq. 2.7]
3

w hd
UPy

The uplift pressure force can be computed as:


UF

1
1
B1 ( w hu UPy ) B2 ( w hd UPy )
2
2

Example 2:

10m

ho 3hu 2ho
32hu ho

2.3 Ctd.: Uplift pressure with drainage

6m

ho

PFu

In case of overflow section


the top triangular portion
of the water pressure
intensity is neglected.

[Eq. 2.8]
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Solution

For the non overflow section


shown compute the water
loads and uplift pressure loads
and their moment arm length
(MAL) from the toe.
(w=9.81KN/m3)
What will be the uplift
5m pressure load and its moment
arm length from the toe if a
drainage gallery is provided at
6m from the heel of the dam.
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Water loads:
PFu = 0.5X9.81X27X27= (-)3575.745 KN; MAL = 27/3 = 9 m.
PFd = 0.5X9.81X5X5= (+)122.625 KN; MAL = 5/3 = 1.67 m.
Tailwater weight = 0.5X5X(5X15/20)X1X9.81 = (+)91.97 KN;
MAL = 2X(5X15/20)/3 = 2.5 m.

Uplift pressure loads without drainage


UF = 0.5X9.81X21X(27+5) = (-)3296.16 KN; MAL = 12.91 m.

Uplift pressure loads with drainage


UPy = 9.81X(27+2X5) = 120.99 KN/m2
UF = 0.5X6X(9.81X27+120.99)+ 0.5X15X(9.81X5+120.99) =
(-) 2432.88 KN; MAL = ??? (Exercise)
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3/1/2011

2.3 Ctd.: Silt Pressure

2.3 Ctd.: Seismic Forces

Only the submerged Weight of


the silt is considered. The silt
pressure and silt pressure force
are computed, respectively, as:
s w hs [Eq. 2.9]

hs

1
s w hs 2[Eq. 2.10]
2

Where s is dry unit weight of silt


Example 3: 10 m silt was deposited just in front of the dam
axis. The dry density of the silt is 1360 kg/m3. Compute the silt
pressure, silt pressure force and its moment arm from the toe
of the dam.
Ans. 35.316 KN/m2; 176.58 KN; 3.33m

Dynamic loads generated by seismic disturbances must


be considered in the design of all major dams situated
in recognized seismic high-risk regions and for dams
sited in close proximity to potentially active geological
fault complexes.
Seismic activity is associated with complex oscillating
patterns of accelerations and ground motions, which
generate transient dynamic loads due to the inertia of
the dam and the hydrodynamic force by the retained
body of water.
Seismic acceleration might act horizontally and
vertically. The horizontal accelerations are usually have
greater intensity.

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2.3 Ctd.: Seismic force ctd.

2.3 Ctd.: Seismic Forces

Areas of high
stress

Inertia force due to mass of the dam:


Horizontal force (Fh)= W*h
Vertical force (Fv)= W*v
Where h and v -horizontal and

Seismic coefficient method: =*I*0


Where is soil foundation factor (1); I is importance factor;
and 0 is basic seismic coefficient found from seismic maps.
h is taken as 1.5* and v is taken as 0.75*.

c
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2.3 Ctd.: Seismic Forces ctd.

cm
z h2 z h z h 2 2 h
2

[Eq. 2.12]
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2.3 Ctd.: Seismic force ctd.

where: z- depth of water in meters from the top of the


reservoir to the point of consideration; C m depends on
the upstream slope Cm= 0.73/90.

is angle in degrees that the upstream slope makes with the


horizontal. If the vertical portion is more than half the depth,
the entire face is taken vertical; When the vertical portion is
less than half the depth, the slope of the face is given by the
line joining the heel to the water surface level at the
upstream face.

The total pressure force, Fe, on the portion of the dam up


to depth z from the top and the moment, Me, about the
heel of the plane up to which pressure is taken are
respectively given by:

Me 0.3Peh z

[Eq. 2.11]

Where Peh = Horizontal pressure


h = Horizontal seismic coefficient
h = Maximum depth of reservoir
c = A coefficient, given by:

Inertia forces are considered to operate through the


centroid of the dam section. Inertia forces operative in
an upstream direction are positive

Theoretical calculations indicate that the distribution


of hydrodynamic pressure due to an earthquake on
the upstream face of dam is nearly parabolic.

Peh c h wh

vertical seismic coefficient; W- weight of


the dam.

Fe 0.726 Peh z

Hydrodynamic force

[Eq. 2.13]

While designing, the earth quake loads are applied in


the direction which produce the least stable structure.
In case of full reservoir level (FRL) the least stable
structure is created when the horizontal acceleration is
towards the reservoir (upstream). As the foundation
and dam accelerate towards the reservoir, the water
resists the movement owing to its inertia. Thus the
force is taken acting in the opposite direction of the
earthquake acceleration.
Incase of reservoir empty condition the least stable
structure occurs when the horizontal acceleration is
towards downstream and the inertial force acts upstream.

[Eq. 2.14]
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2.3 Ctd.: Seismic force ctd.

2.3 Ctd.: seismic force Ctd

Its action might either be horizontal or vertical.


The vertical acceleration affects the weight of the
dam and the impounded water. The net effects of
vertical acceleration include:

Example 5: For the dam shown in Example 2 Compute the


hydrodynamic and inertia force and momentum excreted
by an earth quake whose horizontal and vertical seismic
coefficients are 0.2 and 0.1, respectively, at the heel. Show
the earth quake force direction which could result in least
stable structure.
Solution:

The increase in gravity acceleration in down ward


direction therefore causes increase in weights of both
the dam and the water and they have to be multiplied
by (1+ v)
The decrease in gravity acceleration, which results due
to upward movement causes decrease of weight
which have then to be multiplied by (1- v). [v =
vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient].

Dead load (W)= 7920 KN (Example 1)


Inertia force: Fh= 0.2X7920 = 1584 KN; Fv= 0.1X7920 = 792 KN
Cm = 0.73X90/90 = 0.73; C = 0.872 (Eq. 2.12, z=h=27m);
Peh = 46.17 KN/m2(Eq. 2.11);
Fe = 905 KN(Eq. 2.13);
Me = 10097 KN(Eq. 2.14);

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2.3 Ctd.: seismic force Ctd

2.3 Ctd.: Wave pressure

Effect of horizontal earthquake: This force acts horizontally


upstream or downstream depending on the acceleration
direction of the earthquake, through the centre of gravity
of the dam section. Thus the least stable structure is
obtained if it acts:

Caused by wind. The height of the wave hw is computed as:

Upstream in case of reservoir full


Downstream in case of reservoir empty

Effect of vertical earthquake: This will affect the inertial


forces of the concrete mass and impounded water. The
forces will increase, if the earthquake acceleration is acting
vertically up and decrease if the acceleration is acting
downward. Thus the least stable structure occurs when it
acts in downward direction in both reservoir full and empty
conditions.

hw 0.032 V .F 0.763 0.271F


hw 0.032 V .F for F 32km

for F 32km
[Eq. 2.15]

Where: hw height of wave in meters; V wind velocity in


km/hr; F- Fetch distance in km. Fetch is the straight length
of wave expanse normal to the dam axis.
Maximum pressure intensity, P w=2.4hw.
Total pressure force, Fw=0.5*(2.4hw)*5hw/3 =2(hw)2 [Eq. 2.16]
The moment can be found w.r.t. the centroid which is at
3hw/8 above reservoir level.

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2.3 Ctd.: Wave pressure


Obstructed
crest
Approximate
pressure line

2.3 Ctd.: Wave pressure


Example 6: Over a reservoir of 30m deep and having
fetch distance of 12km the maximum expected wind
speed is 2m/s. Compute the wave pressure force and
its moment arm length from the heel of the dam.
Solution:
The height of the wave hw = 1.3m (Eq. 2.15)
The total pressure force = 2(hw)2 = 33.1578 KN (Eq.
2.16)
Since the pressure force due to waves acts at height of
(3hw/8) = 0.4875 m from reservoir surface, lever arm
of the pressure force about the heel = 30 + 0.4875 =
30.4875 m.

Unobstructed
crest

4hw/3
Fw
3hw/8

hw/8

hw

Still water level

hw/3
Dam

22

Pw

23

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3/1/2011

2.3 Ctd.: Other minor forces

2.3 Summary of loads on gravity dam


Exercise: Define the
symbols in the figure.
Ex. Pemv -vertical earth
quake load
Pwh - horizontal water
pressure load

Wind pressure: In designing a dam section,


wind pressure is generally not considered. It
may be taken as 100 to 150 kg/m2 for the area
exposed to the wind pressure.
Force due to temperature variation: These
forces are of secondary importance in gravity
dams since these only case secondary
stresses.
Ice thrust:
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2.4 Load combination

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Load source

Design should be based on the most adverse


combination of 'probable' load conditions, but
should include only those loads having
reasonable probability of simultaneous
occurrence.
Three nominated load combinations are sufficient
for almost all circumstances. In ascending order
of severity they may be designated as normal
(sometimes usual), unusual and extreme load
combinations, here denoted as NLC, ULC and ELC
respectively,

Water
Tail Water
Self weight
Uplift

Qualification

Load combination
NLC

At design flood level


At reservoir full level

ULC

ELC

X
X

At maximum tailwater level X


Minimum

X
X

Drains functioning

Drains inoperative

silt

Ice

Seismic

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2.4 Load combination

2.5 Safety criteria

The Indian Standard Criteria (IS: 6512-1972) :


Load combination A (const. condition)-dam completed but no water
in reservoir and no tail water.
Load combination B (normal operating condition)- Full reservoir
elevation, normal dry weather tail water, normal uplift, ice and silt
(if applicable).
Load combination C (Flood discharge condition) Reservoir at
maximum flood elevation, all gates open, tail water at flood
elevation, normal uplift and silt (if applicable).
Load combination D Combination A with earthquake.
Load combination E Combination B with earthquake.
Load combination F Combination C, but with extreme uplift.
Load combination G Combination E, but with extreme uplift.

The conditions essential to structural equilibrium and


so to stability is that the summation of all active and
reactive horizontal and vertical forces, and the
summation of the moments of those forces with
respect to any point shall be zero. These are the
essential criteria governing the structural competence
of a gravity dam. Assessed in relation to all probable
conditions of loading, including the reservoir empty
condition, the profile must demonstrate an acceptable
margin of safety with regard to:

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Overturning,
Sliding and
Overstress
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