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SEMINAR

ON
RESEARCH IN
CONTINUING
EDUCATION

SUBMITTED BY:
MS.T. J. GLADS ROBALA
M.Sc [N] , I YEAR, V BATCH
BISHOPS COLLEGE OF NURSING

RESEARCH IN CONTINUING EDUCATION

INDEX
Sl.
No

Content

Introduction

II

Terminologies
Planning
Organization
Research
Education

III

Definition

IV

Meaning

Features

VI

Need

VII

Functions

VIII

Philosophy

IX

Elements
o Learner
o Teacher / Nurse Educator

X
XI
XII
XIII

Value continuing nursing education


Doctoral programme
Comparison between research focussed and
practice focussed doctoral education
The essentials of doctoral education for

Page
No

XIV

XV
XVI
XVII
XVII
XIX
XX

advanced nursing practice


Responsibility of nurse clinicians to implement
research to their practice
Responsibility of nurse administrator to connect
research to their practice
Responsibility of nurse educators to connect
research to their practice
Summary
Conclusion
Bibliography

CONTINUING EDUCATION IN RESEARCH

INTRODUCTION
Continuing nursing education is a modern imperative , it
must be future oriented geared to the facing of new situations and
to the making of new responses appropriate for their situation . New
knowledge is emerging rapidly in the physical, biological, and
medical science, which constitute the foundation of nursing.
Problems in nursing must be solved by rationale effort based upon
systematic inquiry. Continuing nursing education programmes
should be developed by nurses and conducted within nursing or in
general education system in co operation with the nurses.
TERMINOLOGIES :
PLANNING:
Planning is the process of setting formal guidelines
constraints for the behaviour of the firm.
ORGANIZATION :
Organization is a system of co operative activities of two
or more persons.
RESEARCH:
Research is an systematic investigation into and study of
materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new
conclusions.
EDUCATION:
Education is a process of development of the capacities
in the individual which will enable him to control his environment
and fulfil his possibilities.
DEFINITION:
Continuing education is defined as a systematic professional
learning experiences designed to augment the knowledge , skill,
attitude of nurses and therefore enrich the nurse contribution to the
quality health care and the pursuit of professional career goals
[ ANA 2000]

MEANING:
Continuing education in nursing consists of systemic learning
experiences designed to enlarge the knowledge and skills of nurses.
As distinct from education toward are academic degree in preparing
as a beginning professional education activity have more specific
content applicable to the individuals immediate goals are generally
of shorter duration are sponsored by college , universities , health
agencies , health professional organisations and may be conducted
in variety of settings.
FEATURES:
Unified approach
Relationships with other systems

Comprehensiveness
Accessibility for women health workers
Integration with the management process
Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity
Internally co-ordinated
Relevance in planning
Credibility and economic
Appropriateness in implementation
NEED:
To ensure safe and effective nursing care , nurse need to
keep abreast with interest, knowledge and technical
advances
To meet the needs of population and should cater to the
needs of service
Development of nurses will occur by updating their
knowledge and prepare there for specialisation
For career advancement

Professional roles are altered as society changes and as


new knowledge and technologies emerge
If the nursing professional is to respond effectively to the
challenge of developing. Wise leadership and component
practitioners, current social changes must be recognised
and future ones foreseen.
To acquire specialized skills of personnel and meet
technologic adjuncts
The professional forces like changing function of the

nurse are increasing trend towards specialization,


shortage of specialized nurses, variation in the nature
and recency of formal education preparation and the
mobility of the nurse population
Clinical specialists are needed for direct patient and for
teaching and consultation roles to help the students and
staff nurses to reach higher level of competency.
Nurses with research aptitudes and preparation are
needed
Nurses in administrative positions need to increase their

understanding of the administrative process and to


design effective methods of maximizing the contribution
of individuals help to provide nursing services to the
patients
Nursing functions require a high degree of skill ,
knowledge, competence and educational preparation
The demand for specialized nursing services is increasing
more rapidly
Planned programmes are needed to increase their

competence as practitioner
Needs for additional preparation for the positions are
already holding or to prepare themselves for their
positions

It provides opportunities for educational growth

compatible with the realities of both work situation and


the home responsibilities
In the world, scientific advancements, technologic
innovations, social are occurring rapidly and new patterns
of health care changes in the role expectations of all
health care personnel are emerging to meet their needs
and demands qualified nurses are essential
To maintain their roles as bedside nurses and to assume

more supervision, administrative and delegated medical


functions, to specialize and to generalize the practise
continuing nursing education.
If is needed for the nurses who wish to shape their own

destiny must be aware of the forces at work which will


affect their future roles
To provide and prepare faculty who see continuing
nursing education as a personal responsibility as well as
professional and university responsibility
To provide a variety of continuing nursing education
opportunities of high quality to nurses in both education
and service.
FUNCTION:

To meet the health needs and public expectation

To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse

Recruitment function

Recognize gaps in their knowledge

To test ability to do final academic study

To improve the communication between the


participants, faculty, community, and the health sector

To test the participants ability to do formal


academic study


To shape or support university educational policies
practises

To ensure the quality of education

To grant budget for extension studies

To maintain academic standards

To meet educational requirements

PHILOSOPHY:
It encompasses various aspects of life and is not limited
to professional education . Continuing nursing education is
concerned with the development of the nurse as a person, a
practitioner and a citizen. These are closely inter related but each
must be considered in identifying philosophy of education.
Nurses philosophy of life, nursing and education, belief
etc., will influence the philosophy of continuing nursing education. It
focuses on individual learner. Philosophy is thought of relating to
basic beliefs. Actions are guided by ones beliefs, how ones
teachings relates to his beliefs about learning and education.
Philosophy provides a direction for action, it is useful to think
through . Ones personal philosophy of education is expressed not
by what he does , what one believes about learning .The rights of
the individual and the needs of society are all reflected in ones
approach to teaching, this is philosophy in action.
Philosophy is based on values, social change . The
thoughtful teacher recognises that ones philosophy of education is
always are emerging one rather than a static one. Learning must be
a continuous process throughout the life span not limited to formal
courses of study. Facts are more meaningful and more rapidly
learned when there is an opportunity for immediate application. The
aims and methods of formal education are shifting , to solve the
problems of communication , continuity, co ordination in providing
patient care.
Nursing is based on knowledge of the physical and
psychological functioning of man within his environment, expanding
the knowledge related to man and his dynamic, proliferating fields

of operation is of concern. To sharpen the judgement and an


increased understanding of ideas and values as they shape personal
and social goals. To maintain worth, dignity of the individual ,it is
essential to have compassion, care and nurture in his professional
role. To shape personal and social focus by acquiring more
knowledge , sharpening the judgement and on increased
understanding of ideas and values. To develop basic nursing abilities
and new dimensions of adjustment to a changing society, provides
liberation to the individual for maximum growth.
ELEMENTS :
The philosophies of continuing nursing education
recognise the following :
LEARNER :
CNE views the learner as a person, as a nurse and
as a citizen. Thus continuing nursing education is seen
as a totality, a sound philosophy of education which
recognises all three aspects of life long learning

Diversity is a part of learning process and


contribute to the development of the individual so the
teacher has to make the learner to involve the nursing
and non nursing courses. Eg. Music, dance and
participating in extracurricular activities. It encourages
provincialism among nurses, benefits by learning with
persons to form their own walk of light

It aims at self directed learning

TEACHER / NURSE EDUCATOR :


He has to accept the concept of life long learning
and his responsibility to encourage nurses to
recognise the value of participating in different
types of educational activities
Educator must be aware of sources of information
about related continuing education activities. Eg:
Self directed individual study, in-service education

programme, formal basic courses, PG academic


studies etc.,
Teacher task is to help the student how to approach

situations with an open inquiring attitude, how to


interpret what he observes and how to examine the
system of values which gives meaning to his life as
adult can learn effectively, gathers many facts,
make inferences, takes action by testing theories
and ideas and to face an uncertain and changing
future.
Adult learners with them on the problems they face
the world of work. The teacher must help the
learner to discover new approaches and potential
developments in the field
Teacher should act as a role model
The teacher is a dispenser of wisdom and
knowledge guide in the learning process, assisting
wherever appropriate, encourages the activities
that promote individual thoughts
The skilful teacher has to be aware of the difference
in learning what is already known and encouraging
exploration in those area yet to be discovered
Creative thinking is essential . The effective teacher

takes advantage of the assets , which the learner


brings with him. A warm helping trusting
relationship creates conducive environment for
learning
He has to show interest and concern for every
member of his class
He is able to instil in his students a sense of their

own adequacy and the feeling of confidence in


themselves, which are necessary for the learning
process
The continuing educator has to play multiple roles like,

o Guide and counsellor to the learner


o An arranger and organiser of learning experience
o Motivator and encourager of students
o Evaluator of programme
o Involving resource experts for teaching the students
o Producing instructional materials
o

Select and evaluate materials prepared by others

o Administrative role
o Public relations role to change the image of nursing and
in recognising the contribution and potentials of nurse
VALUE CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION :
Value education is one of the hallmarks of a profession.
The continuing development of ones professional skills and
knowledge is an empowering experience, preparing the nurse to
make decisions with the support of expanding body of knowledge.
Seminar, workshops and conferences offer opportunities for
continued professional growth and empowerment. To develop
expertise in the science and art of nursing , one needs to be
educated in the discipline of nursing.
DOCTORAL PROGRAMME :
Doctoral programmes in nursing fall into two principal
types.
Research focussed
Practice focussed
RESEARCH FOCUSSED:
Most research focussed program grant the doctor of
philosophy degree (Ph.D) while o small percentage offers the doctor
of nursing science degrees [DNS or DSN] designed to prepare nurse
scientists and scholars , these programs focus heavily on scientific
content and research methodology and all require an original

research project and the completion and defences of a dissertation


or linked research papers. The two types of doctoral programmes
differ in their goals and the competencies of their graduates.
PRACTICE FOCUSSED :
The concept of a practice doctorate in nursing is not new.
However this course of study has evolved considerably over the 20
years since the first practice. Focussed nursing doctorate, the doctor
of nursing was initiated as an entry level degree. Doctor of nursing
practice recognising the need for consistency in the degree required
for advanced nursing practice all existing programs have
transitioned to the DNP
COMPARISON BETWEEN RESEARCH FOCUSSED AND
PRACTICE FOCUSSE DOCTORAL EDUCATION :
Research and focussed doctoral programs in nursing
share vigorous and demanding expectations a scholarly approach to
the discipline and a commitment to the advancement of the
profession. Both are terminal degree in the discipline , one in
practice and one in research. There are distinct difference between
the two degree programmes
For eg., Practice focussed program understand by placing
greater emphasis on practice and less emphasis on theory, research
methodology and statistics than in apparent research. Focussed
program as well as a research programs requires an extensive
research.
THE ESSENTIALS OF DOCTORAL EDUCATION FOR ADVANCED
NURSING PRACTICE :
The following DNP essentials outline the curriculum
elements and competencies that must be present in programmes
conferring the doctor of nursing practice degree. The DNP is a
degree title, like the Ph.D or MSN and does not designate in what
speciality a graduate is prepared. DNP essentials delineated her
address the foundational competencies that core to all advanced
nursing practice role. However the depth and focus of the core
competencies will vary based on the particular role for which the
student is preparing

ESSENTIAL I :
Scientific underpinnings for practice
The practice doctorate in nursing provides the
terminal academic preparation for nursing practice. The scientific
underpinning of this education reflect the complexity of practice at
the doctoral level and the rich heritage that is the conceptual
foundation of nursing.
The disciplines and laws that govern the life
process, well being and optimal function of human
beings , sick or well.
The nursing actions or processes by which positive
changes in health and health status are altered
The wholeness or health of human beings

recognising that they are in continuous interaction


with their environments
ESSENTIAL : II
Organisational and systems leadership for
quality
improvement and system
Organizational and system leadership are critical for
DNP graduates to improve patient and health care
outcomes
Doctoral level knowledge and skills in these areas
are consistent with nursing and the health care
goals to eliminate health disparities and to promote
patient safety and excellence in practice
ESSENTIAL : III
Clinical scholarship and research are the
hallmarks of doctoral education .
These paradigms recognizes that,
The scholarship of discovery and integration reflects
the investigative and synthesizing tradition of
academic life

Scholars give meaning to isolated facts and make


connections across disciplines through the
scholarship of integration
The scholar applies knowledge to solve a problem
via the scholarship of application
ESSENTIAL : IV:
Health care policy for advocacy in health care
Health care policy whether it is created through
governmental actions, institutional decision making or
organizational standards creates a framework that can facilitate or
impede the delivery of health care services or the ability of the
provider to engage in practice to address health care needs

ESSENTIAL :V
Advanced nursing practice
The increased knowledge and sophistication of health
care has resulted the growth of specialization in nursing in order to
ensure competence in these high complex areas of practice
The reality of the growth of specialisation in nursing is
that no individual can master all advanced roles and the requisite
knowledge for enacting these roles.
RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE CLINICIANS TO IMPLEMENT
RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE :
Although we acknowledge the need for clinicians to be in
touch with literature even after they complete their schooling. We
must indoctrinate the nurses early in their career while still in
school. Schools and colleges of nursing give students tools to
evaluate research results by teaching nursing research courses.
It is discouraging to see that only 5-10% of our efforts to
improve health care has been demonstrated to be effective. It
means that 90-95% of our clinical practices either harm the patient
are ineffective. Excellence in clinical practice occurs when clinicians
use evidence to guide their practice

RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE ADMINISTRATORS TO CONNECT


RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE :
In the ideal nursing world, where we are all scholars,
nurse administrators would conduct administrative and /or clinical
research , finding out the best practices applicable to those
domains. When managing a clinical unit, the professionals carries
the burden of keeping abreast not only the clinical research but also
the management literature
Nurse administrators can model research utilization by
talking about current management research in meeting by
supporting and encouraging research into their area to improve
health of clients, establish change in the educational area or
mobilize others into action

RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE EDUCATORS TO CONNECT


RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE :
In the ideal world where professional nurses connect and
incorporate research into practice, we perceive that nurse
educators have a to fold responsibility not only must they are
learning theories and strategies to deliver the content ,but also stay
connect with clinical literature . while teaching health related
content, nurse educators should attempt to provide clarity show
patterns and relationships within the content and help students
internalize or retain information so that the student can in turn use
the theory in clinical practice.
Nurse educators can model research utilization by talking
about clinical research reports while teaching and also by showing
students how they personally have utilized research in their
teaching activity

SUMMARY :
Till now we have seen about the continuing education, its
definition , features, needs, functions, philosophy, elements, values
of continuing education , doctoral programmes etc..,

CONCLUSION:
Change will continue in the health care system , necessitating
continuing education to empower nurses to be proactive, not just
reactive. A well educated nursing work force is essential if nursing is
to have a strong voice in shaping the changes in health care . An
additional advantages of participating in educational experiences is
that it creates opportunities for networking.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
K.P. Neeraja (2007), TEXTBOOK OF NURSING

EDUCATION1st edition; Jaypee brothers Medical publishers


Pvt ltd; Pp: 386-389
Patricia. S. Yoder, Wise (2007), LEADING AND MANAGING

IN NURSING 4th edition; Mosby publications; Pp: 570-571,176

SEMINAR
ON
RESEARCH IN CONTINUING
EDUCATION

By,
Ms.T.j. glads robala,
m.sc(nursing) i year