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D/13, S.I.T.E., MANGHOPIR ROAD, KARAHI -75700 .

PAKISTAN

REPORT OF INTERNSHIP in pepsi


BY: ASHAR ALI BABAR
Student of final year, Department Of Electronic Engineering
Sir Syed University Of Engineering and Technology, Karachi - Pakistan
INTERNSHIP DURATION SIX WEEKS (FROM JUNE 25TH, 2013 TO AUGUST 3rd, 2013)

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

T
Taabbllee O
Off C
Coonntteennttss
SS..N
Noo

TTooppiiccss

PPaaggee ..N
Noo

1)

Acknowledgment

2)

Objective

3)

Brief history of Pepsi Cola International

4)

Pepsi cola in Pakistan

5)

Line 5
Flow diagram of the process
Overview of the production line (plastic bottles):
Ionizer
Blow and mold
Filler & caper
Level check (check mate)
Coding machine
Warmer
Labeler
Packaging (SMI)
Pelletizer

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8
11
14
15
15
15
17
20
22

8)

Automation
Some sensors used:
Color sensor
Photo-electric sensor (IR water sensor)
Inductive proximity sensor
Safety sensors
My experience at PBL

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26
27
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9)

Conclusion

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6)

7)

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

A
Acckknnoow
wlleeddggm
meenntt::
The highly interactive internship would not have been possible without
the active support of the management of Pepsi Cola Limited (PBL) in general
and the cooperation of Engr.Owais Ameen (Group Manager Electronics) and
Mr.Alamgir (Assistant Manager) specifically.
I am very thankful to PBL authorities for giving me the great opportunity to
learn at the plant as an internee.
I would like to thank my mentor Engr.Saim Baig (Assistant Engineer
Electronics) who supported me all along my stay and who never mind my
question and guided me through all phases of my Internship. I would also like to
thank Mr.Danish (Assistant Engineer Electronics) and Engr.Ehsan (Assistant
Engineer Electronics) and others who helped me and supported me .

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

O
Obbjjeeccttiivvee ::
The main objective of this internship was to learn and get insight of an
industry and get insight of the process technology involved, industrial
electronics, inspection, control and operation and maintenance of the plant.

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

B
BR
RIIE
EF
FH
HIISST
TO
OR
RY
YO
OF
FP
PE
EP
PSSII C
CO
OL
LA
A IIN
NT
TE
ER
RN
NA
AT
TIIO
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AL
L
In 1893--Caleb Braham, a young pharmacist from New Bern, North Carolina,
begins experimenting with many different soft drink concoctions; patrons and
friends sample them at his drugstore soda fountain with the name of "Brad's
Drink.
In 1898, it is renamed as Pepsi cola on August 28, 1898. Pepsi-Cola receives
its first logo. Weekly the first Pepsi-Cola newspaper advertisements appeared in
the New Bern Journal. Mr. Braham devotes all of his energy to developing
Pepsi-Cola into a full fledged business He applies for a trademark with the U.S.
Patent Office, Washington D.C., and forms the first Pepsi-Cola Company.
1903--"Doc" Braham moves the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore into a
rented warehouse; he sells 7,968 gallons of syrup in the first year of operation.
1904--Braham purchases a building in New Bern known as the "Bishop
Factory" for$5,000 and moves all bottling and syrup operations to this location.
Pepsi is sold in six-ounce bottles. Sales increase to 19,848 gallons.
1905--Pepsi-Cola's first bottling franchises are established in Charlotte and
Durham, North Carolina.
Pepsi receives its new logo, its first change since 1898.
1906--Pepsi gets another logo change, the third in eight years. The modified
script logo is created with the slogan, "The Original Pure Food Drink."
There are 15 U.S. Pepsi bottling plants. The Pepsi trademark is registered in
Canada. Syrup sales rise to 38,605 gallons.
1907--Pepsi-Cola Company continues to expand; the company's bottling
network grows to 40 franchises. Pepsi-Cola sells more than 100,000 gallons of
syrup.

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

P
PE
EP
PSSII C
CO
OL
LA
A IIN
NP
PA
AK
KIISST
TA
AN
N
Pepsi cola is very popular in Pakistan thats why its market share is about
65% in the soft-drink market. Pepsi Cola International, a remarkable name in
the cola industry is doing its business in Pakistan through franchising. PCI has
developed following bottlers in Pakistan till now. These franchises are located
in:
Karachi
Lahore
Multan
Faisalabad
Gujranwala
Peshawar
sIslamabad
Sukkher
Hyderabad

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

LINE 5

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

F
Flloow
wD
Diiaaggrraam
mO
Off T
Thhee P
Prroocceessss
Received Preform Bottles

Blow Mold Machine

Check if it is in
the desired form?
Filler And Capper

To The Trash

Check Mate &


Coding Machine

Warmer And
Labeler

Packaging Machine

Palletizer

End Of Process

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

O
Ovveerrvviieew
wO
Off T
Thhee P
Prroodduuccttiioonn L
Liinnee:: ((P
Pllaassttiicc B
Boottttlleess))::
This production line produces PEPSI, DEW , MERINDA, 7-UP sizes
0.3L ,0.5L and 1.5L .The whole process can be summarized as follows:
1) Ionizer
2) Blow and mold
3) Filler & Caper
4) Level check (check mate)
5) Coding machine
6) Warmer
7) Labeler
8) Packaging (SMI)
9) Palletiser

D
DE
ESSC
CR
RIIP
PT
TIIO
ON
N
IIoonniizzeerr::
This process has following steps:

St e p 1 :

Pre-form (Small Plastic Bottle) Feeder:

Fu n c t i o n

The pre-form feeder provides a continuous supply of pre-forms (small plastic


bottles) to the machine.

PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

Operation :

The pre-form feeder can be divided into four complementary subassemblies:


The hopper(1) receives the pre-forms in bulk and directs them towards the
elevator column (2). The elevator column(2) conveys the pre-forms in bulk from
the hopper (1) towards the unscrambler roller assembly (3). In this step a photo
sensor is used the unscrambler rollers (3) align the pre-forms in the neck-up
position. The in feed rail (4) takes the aligned pre-forms down into the blowing
machine. These elements are controlled by the PLC via the electrical cabinets.

St e p 2 :

The bottles are introduced into the machine. In this step we have a preform (small bottle) ionization.

Fu n c t i o n

Ionization cancels the electrical charge in pre-form bottles. Ionization liberates


particles which have been attracted by static electricity. The ionized air system
contributes to the overall level of cleanness of articles in production.

Operation:

The generator produces current at high voltage (7000 V). The antistatic bars
create an electrical field. The molecules in the air transform into positive and
negative ions. Contaminants, pre-form bottles are charged with static
electricity thereby attracting the ions produced and the static electricity load is
cancelled out. The antistatic bars in the pre-form ionizer are linked to laminar
airflow generator units which create a flow of ionized air. The airwaves
increase the efficiency of the ionization treatment while also cleaning the preforms.

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

BLOW MOLD

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

St e p 1 :

The bottles are heated.

Fu n c t i o n :

The heating modules ensure controlled heating inside the bodies of the preforms so that they can be blown after transfer from the molds.
Mold section contain 10 boxes each having 9 Infrared Lamps to produce heat.
The first lamp of each box is of 3KW power and remaining are of 2.5KW.
There are many sensors placed in blow mold section to ensure the proper
molding and blowing of the pre-forms. One photo sensor detects the incoming
heated pre-form , if there is a pre-form then blowing occurs otherwise no
blowing. The other photo sensors checks whether the pre-form is blown or not ,
then transfers it to the conveyor.
When the machine is started, the pre-forms will begin feeding only once the
oven has reached the production temperature. The temperature sensor informs
the PLC which starts feeding.

St e p 2 :

The bottles are blown in the mold (BLOWING STATION) :

Fu n c t i o n :

The blowing station transforms the pre-forms into the blown finished bottles.
Here, the operation is done at 40 bar to make the heated bottles in the blown
finished form either 300ml 500ml ,1.5l, or 2.25 liters.

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

M
Moottoorrss ooff B
Blloow
wM
Moolldd::
S.No
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

Motors
Lamp cooling fans(zone 1)
Lamp
cooling
fans(zone
2,3,....9)
Neck finish cool unit1 and 2
Vertical conveyer
Intermediat conveyer
Toller conveyer
Pre form cooling fans
Suction drive motors(2)
Pre form feed
Pre form feed(star connection)
Pre form feed return conveyor
Blowing wheel

Ratings
0.12KW ; 0.32A
0.12KW ; 0.32A
3.6KW ; 7.1A
0.37kw ; 1.A
0.37kw ; 1.A
0.27kw ; 1.2A
0.18KW ; 0.53A
1.5KW ; 3.4A
0.37KW ;1.2A
0.09KW ; 0.39A
0.09KW ; 0.39A
5KW

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

FILLER & CAPER

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

F
Fiilllleerr::

Blown bottles form the mold are then transferred to the filler section via
conveyor. During transference of the bottle water is sprayed at the bottom of the
bottle to make its bottom design solid. The bottle is then taken by the star wheel
which has an Ultrasonic sensor for the detection of the bottle. This sensor
detects the bottle to start the filling of the bottle. This sensor detects the bottle as
well as counts them.
Syrup form the Mixer comes to filler section. Filling of the bottle takes place at
specific valve. This is done using the shift register.
After filling , the bottle is checked for the unfilled condition .If the condition is
meet the bottle is then rejected .An IR water sensor is used to check this
condition.

M
Miixxeerr::

Mixer has 3 tanks carbonation tank, water tank and deaeration tank
. Following are the motors of mixer.

M
Moottoorrss ooff M
Miixxeerr::
SS..N
Noo
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

M
Moottoorrss
Water pump
Vacuum pump
Mixture feed pump
Booster pump
Product pump
Closing pump

R
Raattiinngg
7.5KW ; 15.3A
5KW ;10.5A
15KW ; 28.5A
7.5KW ; 15.3A
7.5 KW ; 15.3A
11KW ; 22.5A

C
Caappeerr::

This machine is used to cap the bottles. Caps from the hoper at the top of
filler are then transferred through cap transfer rail to capper .Caps in the hoper
are upside down , Cap Sorter is used to make them erect.
There are two hoper which are working side by side. There are total 6 photo
sensor at caper for the controlling of the caps. If sensor detects a blockage from
one hoper , then other hoper starts giving caps.

L
Leevveell cchheecckk ((cchheecckk m
maattee))::
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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

The bottles are then checked for low fill ,over fill or half fill via level
checker. This device uses gamma rays to check the level.

C
Cooddiinngg m
maacchhiinnee::

Coding machine is used to place date , batch number ,shift and expiry. A
proximity sensor is used to detect the bottle.

W
Waarrm
meerr::

The temperature of the syrup is very low making the bottles cold.
Warmer drops the temperature of the bottle so that the label can stick to the
bottle.

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

LABELER

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

This machine is used to stick the label to the bottle. Labeler comprises of
following section.
1. Head
2. Vacuum
3. Gripper drum
4. Glue unit
5. Web guide
6. Roller
Bottles from the in feed conveyor enters the labeler , a Photo Sensor is used to
detect the bottle to cut the label to be placed on bottle. A level detector sensor
(Ultra Sonic Sensor) at the web guide is used to align the label. A cut marker
sensor (color sensor) at the vacuum is used to detect the white mark on the
label , which is the cutting point of the label. Then glue unit pastes the glue on
the label. Gripper drummer holds the label for the next bottle coming via head
section to past the label on it. then the bottles are passed to discharge conveyor.
label reel is placed on the roller. A proximity photo sensor is placed at the
bottom of the roller to detect the remaining roll. It gives a signal when the
roll diameter is enough to label the bottles, but when the sensor detects
no labeling roll the PLC will immediately converts the work to the other
roll.

Proximity Sensor
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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

M
Moottoorrss ooff B
Blloow
wM
Moolldd::
SS..N
Noo
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

M
Moottoorrss

R
Raattiinngg

Machine drive motor


Adj. machine head
Discharge conveyor belt
Riemann trieb (belt drive)
Servo drive
Vacuum pump
Glue pump

3KW ; 6.1A
0.55KW ; 1.26A
1.1KW ; 2.6A
4.1A
3A
3KW ; 7.2A
0.12KS ;0.45A

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

PACKAGING (SMI):

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

This machine is used to pack the bottles which are then called cartons.
Labeled bottles from the discharge conveyor are then passed to packaging
machine.
This line has SMI 600P which has capability to produce 60 cartons per minute
We can divide the machine in four sections as separator ,divider and
wrapping section and an oven.
Bottles enters the SMI through in-feed conveyor .A Photo Sensor is
placed at the top of in-feed conveyor to detect any missing bottle. The first
section that comes is separator.
Separator section contains two Inductive Sensors at left and right side to detect
the three separating metal rods from both directions. The sensor is used to
match the phase. This section makes a group of six bottles in case of 1.5litres
.Then in the divider section we have a Photo Sensor to detect a fallen bottles.
This section moves the separated bottles forward. Then in a wrapping section , a
plastic film is then wrapped through metal rods on the bottles and passed to
oven via conveyor to make proper cartons. An Inductive Sensor and a Photo
Sensor is placed in this section to detect rod and plastic film respectively.
Oven has two zones. Zone 1 and Zone 2 . each zone has two fans to give film a
proper shape on the carton .Zone 1 has the temperature of 140C and zone 2 has
160C. The temperature is produced by four heating coils. Each section has 2
coils. Two PT100 (GEFRAN 800) is used for temperature regulation in two
sections zone 1 and zone 2.

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

PELLETIZER

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

In this section pallets of bottles are made.


Cartons from the packaging machine are then transferred to pelletizer .
The in feed conveyer initially has three Photo Sensor which are placed side by
side. First sensor stops the conveyer when palletizer is full of cartons. Second
photo sensor is used to count the cartons. Third sensor is used to bring out the
rubber pad to turn the coming carton. There is another Photo Sensor which is
placed soon after these three sensors .It is used to for final counting. The cartons
are pushed through pusher towards moving plate. Twenty cartons from moving
plate are then transferred to pallet forming 4 rows of cartons .Auxiliary handle
is used to place a card board between each rows.
Two photo sensors are placed at pusher ,five sensors at lifter and 2 in its
cylinder ,two sensors in auxiliary hand and two in its cylinders.

M
Moottoorrss ooff PPaalllleettiizzeerr::
SS..N
NO
O
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

M
Moottoorrss
Loading plate
Lauer pusher
Lifting unit
Grouping station 1 slide vertical
Grouping station 1 slide horizontal
Grouping station 1 slide adjustment system
left
Grouping station 1 slide adjustment system
right
Application unit lifting drive
Application unit pivoted drive
Parallel conveyor machine
Group station in feed conveyor
Group station discharge conveyor

R
Raattiinngg
1.5KW ; 3.7A
1.5KW ; 3.7A
2.2KW ; 4.9A
15Nm ; 8.1A
0.75KW ; 2.15A
0.32KW ; 1.2A
0.37KW ; 1.24A
10Nm ; 6.1A
10Nm ; 6.1A
0.55KW ; 1.75A
0.75KW ; 2.15A
1.1KW ; 2.8A

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

A
AU
UT
TO
OM
MA
AT
TIIO
ON
N
Automation is done using Programmable Logic Controller called PLC.PLC
uses sensors to monitor different task and take action according to the program
saved inside PLC. Different models of plc's are used to automate the process.
Bus Protocol like Profibus Dp and Profibus Pa are used.

SSO
OM
ME
E SSE
EN
NSSO
OR
RSS U
USSE
ED
D
C
Coolloorr SSeennssoorr::
F
Fuunnccttiioonn::
This sensor has been installed in the labeler section.
The sensor is used for detection of the white color
(on the top of the label) .This white color in the label
is used to cut the label .

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

PPhhoottoo--eelleeccttrriicc sseennssoorr ((IIR


Rw
waatteerr sseennssoorr))::
F
Fuunnccttiioonn ::
These sensor is used for detection of the
liquid level in the bottle after filling
process . It is used to remove the
undesired bottle before going to the
labeling process. It is connected to an
actuator (rejecter) that will push any
undesired bottles off the line.

SSoom
mee cchhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss ::
Type of transmission: Infrared (transmission frequency = 1450nm).
Nominal sensing distance: 50m (use between 10cm and 20cm).
Rated supply voltage: 10.8-26.4 volts, with the protection against
reverse polarity.
Degree of protection: IP 65.
For the solid protection the object is entirely protected against dust, and has a
complete protection against contact. For the liquid protection the sensor is
protected against water jets, so water projected by a nozzle against enclosure
from any direction shall have no harmful effect.
Maximum switching frequency: 1 Khz

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

IInndduuccttiivvee pprrooxxiim
miittyy sseennssoorr
F
Fuunnccttiioonn ::
M
M1122:: Inductive proximity sensors are devices that detect

the presence of a metal object without physical contact;


instead it uses an electromagnetic field to detect metal
targets. Inductive proximity sensors are often shielded to
improve sensor output. The inductive proximity sensor has
been utilized in Pepsi assembly line to give an indication
about the busyness of the assembly line. This has been done
by installing two metal plates at both sides of the assembly
line, so when bottles pass they will push this metal plate
bringing it close enough to the proximity sensor to initiate an
electromagnetic field and thus knowing that the line is busy.
Then after knowing that the line is busy the controller can
take the decision of slowing the conveyer motor to give
other parts of the assembly line enough time to process the bottles.

M
M1188::

-Inductive sensor, style: cylinder, diameter: 18mm


-Mounting distance: shielded (2mm) / unshielded
(4mm)
-DC 2-wire (10-30V DC), DC 3-wire(10-30V DC),
DC 4-wire(10-30V DC), AC 2-wire (90-250 AC)
type
-Connection mode: cables=2M directly; or with M12
cable
connector.
-With LED operation indicate lamp, easily
identifiable
-Brass chrome plated, proof of oil, water acid,
alkaline
-Standard
sensing
object:
iferrous
-Over load, short circuit protection, against polarity

metals;
reversal

IP
ratings:
IP67
(IP68
can
be
specially
made)
- Various other shapes: M5/M6/M12/M22/M30, square types and pancake
types.
-Widely applied in measuring, Counting, Rpm measuring in mechanism,
chemical,
paper
manufacture
light
industry,
etc.
- Reliable quality to replace famous brands, such as: Omron, Sick, Bafflus...etc.
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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

SSaaffeettyy SSeennssoorrss ::
These sensors are used to protect the workers from different hazards that are in
the working area. In the Pepsi factory they are used to turn off the machines
when a worker approach a dangerous place, such as the automatic hydraulic
fork lifter which is used to move large packages off the assembly after the
wrapping machines wraps the whole package with nylon.

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PEPSI Internship Report By

Ashar Ali Babar

M
MYY EEXXPPEER
RIIEEN
NCCEE A
ATT PPB
BLL::

Its been a great time at PBL and my learning was quite high in those 6
weeks that I had spent at PBL.
Everyone at the plant was very cooperative something which fasten the learning
environment and proved to be a big motivation to ask more question resulting in
more learning and despite the busy project phase I have given ample
opportunities to see and experience the process equipment and plant.
Nevertheless it was worth to spend summer here at PBL.
The other good feature of this internship sumptuous lunch.
Overall its been a great learning experience, enjoyed my time here and wish to
come back here for real.

CCoonncclluussiioonn::

It was good learning experience at PBL. I realized that working in the


field is quite challenging and demanding and equally rewarding.

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