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cathodic protection of tank bottomsq

Douglas P. Riemer

b

a,*

, Mark E. Orazem

a

OLI Systems, Inc., 108 American Way, Morris Plains, NJ, USA

Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

Abstract

A mathematical model previously developed for predicting the cathodic protection of pipeline networks is extended to treat cathodic protection of the bottoms of cylindrical aboveground storage tanks. A single tank was modeled for which protection was provided by an

anode located innitely far from the tank bottom, by a series of anodes distributed around

the circumference of the tank, and by an anode grid laid directly underneath the tank bottom.

The inuence of an insulating barrier associated with secondary spill containment was also

modeled for the arrangements in which anodes are placed adjacent to the tank bottom. The

performance predictions are strongly dependent on anode placement, the oxygen content of

the soil, and the presence of insulating barriers associated with secondary spill containment.

2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cathodic protection; Modeling studies; Tank bottom; Boundary element method

q

Expanded version of a key note lecture given as paper 527 in Symposium 6 of the 54th Annual

Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry (Sao Pedro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil), August

31September 5, 2003.

*

Corresponding author.

URLs: http://www.olisystems.com (D.P. Riemer), http://www.orazem.che.u.edu (M.E. Orazem).

0010-938X/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2004.07.018

850

1. Introduction

Storage facilities for petroleum products usually consist of a collection of aboveground storage tanks called a tank farm. The tanks are cylindrical in shape, are

constructed of steel, and rest on the soil. The tank bottom, then, is subject to

the same corrosion issues as are buried pipelines. The provision of cathodic protection to tank bottoms is, if anything, more critical than is provision of cathodic protection to pipelines. As the tank bottom is supported by the ground and is

subjected to only hydrostatic pressures, the bottom can be made of thinner metal

than is used for pipelines, which operate under pressure. Because the metal is thinner, it can be more easily perforated by even low rates of corrosion [1]. The provision of cathodic protection to the bottoms of above-ground storage tanks for

petroleum products, however, presents unique design issues as compared to

pipelines.

While the primary current distribution on a pipe is uniform, the primary current

distribution for the circular area of the tank bottom is inherently non-uniform. Limitations to kinetics and mass-transfer may cause the distributions to become more

uniform; nevertheless, the tendency toward a non-uniform current distribution compromises delivery of protective current to the center of the tank bottom. The delivery

of current can also be inuenced by the presence of electrically insulating barriers

associated with secondary spill containment. Installation of secondary spill containment, motivated by past tank failures and associated environmental damage, is currently required for new tank installations [2]. Cathodic protection of tanks with

secondary spill containment can be achieved using anodes placed between the liner

and the tank bottom [3].

A nal issue constraining design of cathodic protection systems is that the concentration proles for oxygen under a storage tank are cyclic in nature. The principle cathodic reaction on the tank bottom is usually assumed to be reduction of

oxygen. When the tank is lled, the bottom of the tank is in full electrical contact

with the soil, allowing reduction of oxygen. Eventually the consumption of oxygen

reduces the oxygen content of the soil under the tank. When the tank is empty, the

center rises above the soil creating a void. The resulting bellows action replenishes

the oxygen content of the soil. The mass-transfer-limited current density for reduction of oxygen must therefore be considered to be a function of both time and

position.

While detailed mathematical models have been developed for cathodic protection

of pipelines and other structures [412], relatively few attempts have been made to

develop rigorous models for the corrosion behavior of tank bottoms under cathodic

protection. Smyrl and Newman provided a criterion for determining the maximum

size of tank that can be protected with a remote ground-bed without over-protection

[13]. The current density was assumed to be uniform on the tank bottom. The maximum protected radius was given by [14]

ro

DUo j

0:363iavg

851

where DUo represents the acceptable range of potential. Under the criterion that the

material is under-protected for potentials more positive than 0.85/V(CSE) 1 and

over-protected for potentials more negative than 1.2/V(CSE), the acceptable range

of protection is 0.35 V. For an average current density of 1.9/lA cm2 and a soil

resistivity of 10,000/X cm, Eq. (1) suggests that the maximum tank diameter that

could be protected is only 1/m. Reduction of soil resistivity increases the tank diameter, but soil resistivities signicantly less than 10,000/X cm are not usually seen. Li

and Newman [15] have recently shown the inuence of the more complex polarization behavior seen on steel structures. Their work showed that the maximum protected tank diameter can be increased to 1.1/m. These values are signicantly

smaller than the usual size of storage tanks. Tank diameters of 20/m and larger

are common.

Newman has also developed a calculation for the cathodic protection of a planar

electrode by circular rods, again under the assumption that the current density on the

planar electrode is uniform [16]. These calculations were intended to provide guidelines for placement and spacing of the anodes.

The predictions for the size of tank bottoms that can be protected by remote anodes [13,15] and the placement guidelines established for circular anodes [16] employed the assumption that the oxygen content of the soil was uniform. As

discussed above, the oxygen reduction reaction depletes the oxygen content of the

soil underneath the tank. The oxygen content of the soil may be temporarily increased due to the bellows action of the tank bottom as it is emptied. In addition,

the assumption that the current distribution is uniform must be relaxed to provide

more realistic design scenarios. The objective of this work was to develop a mathematical model for the cathodic protection of tank bottoms, using standard anode

congurations, that could account for realistic polarization kinetics, non-uniform

current distributions, and non-uniform oxygen concentrations. This work represents

an extension of previous models developed for pipelines [12,17,18].

2. Mathematical model

The passage of current through the soil is governed by Laplaces equation which

was solved using the boundary element method (BEM). The formulation of the

boundary element method used for the present solutions here can be found elsewhere

[1822].

The important features of the model included the use of second-order elements to

reduce the total number of elements needed, incorporation of adaptive integration

for accurate integral evaluation, and inclusion of non-conducting surfaces (soil surface and insulating dielectric material in the secondary containment) within the

Greens function

852

Gi;j

N

r 1

X

k

1

4prxi ; xj;k

where Nr is the number of reections employed. While each of the above features is

very important to obtaining a good model for cathodic protection, the most important feature is the manner in which boundary conditions were implemented. The

model makes use of realistic polarization curves for both the metal of the tank

and the anodes. The method of implementation is detailed in the subsequent

sections.

2.1. Tank bottom mesh

The boundary element mesh for the tank bottom was created using a combination

of isoparametric quadrilateral Lagrange elements and isoparametric quadratic triangles [23]. The triangles were used to increase the degree of freedom as the mesh proceeds radially from the center, yielding a uniform mesh density. An example of the

mesh, presented in Fig. 1, reveals the manner in which triangles and quadrilateral

elements were employed to generate a uniform mesh density on the tank bottom.

Within the automated mesh generation algorithm, the number of rings and the den-

Fig. 1. High resolution mesh showing the manner in which triangles and quadrilateral elements were

employed to generate a uniform mesh density on the tank bottom.

853

sity of elements at the center were specied. The appropriate combination of quadrilateral and triangular elements was then generated. The last ring was divided into

two rings to accommodate the enhanced current density at the periphery of the disk.

The outermost ring was given a radial dimension that is 1/3 that of the rest of the

rings; while, the next to last was given a radial dimension that is 2/3 that of the rest

of the rings.

2.2. Polarization of bare steel

The boundary condition for the bare steel was given by Nisancioglu [2426] and

adapted for steady-state soil systems by Yan et al. [27] and Kennelly et al. [28]. For

bare steel it takes the form

i 10

V UEFe

bFe

1

ilim;O2

V UEO

10

bO

!1

10

V UEH

2

bH

2

where ilim,O2 is the mass-transfer-limited current density for oxygen reduction. Under

the assumption that sucient water is available for the reaction, no corresponding

mass-transfer limitation was assumed for hydrogen evolution.

Performance predictions are strongly dependent on the parameters for the polarization curve given as Eq. (3). These parameters should be identied for given soil

conditions and material of construction. The parameters used for the present work

were guided by the work of Kennelly et al. [28]. The parameters for the corrosion

reaction were EFe = 0.522/V(CSE) and bFe = 0.059/V. The parameters for the

hydrogen evolution reaction were EH2 = 0.942/V(CSE) and bH2 = 0.132/V. The

parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction were EO2 = 0.172/V(CSE),

bO2 = 0.061/V, and, for fully aerated soil, ilim,O2 = 0.01/A m2 (1/lA cm2). The corrosion potential was 0.520/V(CSE). The depletion of oxygen below the tank bottom was modeled by reducing the value of ilim,O2.

2.3. Drawdown of anode potential

Zinc and magnesium are often used in soil environments to protect buried steel

structures. Aluminum can be used in sea water, but does not have a sucient driving

force to be eective in high-resistivity environments such as soils.

Under the assumption that hydrogen evolution can be neglected, oxidation of the

metal is balanced by the mass-transfer-limited reduction of oxygen. Thus, the total

current density is given by

aM F

in i0;M exp

V U EM iO2

4

RT

where aM is the apparent transfer coecient for the oxidation of the metal, i0,M is

the exchange current density for the oxidation of the metal, EM is the equilibrium

potential for the oxidation reaction, V is the applied potential, and iO2 is the

854

corrosion potential V = Vcorr, the net current in is equal to zero, and

RT

i O2

Ecorr EM

ln

5

aM F

i0;M

Eq. (4) can be rewritten in terms of the corrosion potential as [29]

i iO2 10V UEcorr =banode 1

where banode = 2.303RT/aMF is the Tafel slope for the anode corrosion reaction.

To account for the decrease in anode potential associated with large current loads,

the polarization model (6) was used to relate the current density to the anode potential. For operation of anodes under external power supply, Eq. (6) was modied by

considering the anodic reaction term to be evolution of oxygen and/or chlorine and

by adding an externally driven potential to the argument of the exponential term.

For the simulations performed in the present work, Ecorr = 0.172/V(CSE) and

banode = 0.1/V.

3. Oxygen depletion

The oxygen reduction reaction on the tank bottom serves to deplete the oxygen

concentration in the soil, which is replaced by diusion from the airsoil interface

at the perimeter of the tank. A general material balance for oxygen can be written as

ocO2

r N O2 R O2

ot

where RO2 is the rate of homogeneous production of oxygen and NO2 is the ux of

oxygen, given by

N O2 DO2 rcO2

where DO2 is the diusion coecient for oxygen transport through the soil. Thus,

ocO2

DO2 r2 cO2 RO2

ot

Under assumptions of a steady-state and that oxygen concentration does not vary

with depth, Eq. (9) can be expressed in cylindrical coordinates as

D

kcO2 0

dr2

r dr

10

where the heterogeneous consumption of oxygen was treated as a rst-order pseudohomogeneous reaction with rate constant k. The rate constant k accounts for the

presence of a mass-transfer boundary layer next to the steel surface.

r

k

nr

D

855

11

n2

d2 cO2

dcO2

n 2 c O2 0

n

2

dn

dn

12

whose solution is a modied Bessels function. The boundary conditions in the original cylindrical coordinates, i.e.,

at r R;

cO2 cO2 ;1

13

at r 0;

cO2 is finite

14

and

can be expressed in the transformed coordinates as

r

k

at n R

; cO2 cO2 ;1

D

15

and

at n 0;

cO2 is finite

16

The solution to Eq. (12) is the modied Bessel function of the rst kind. It takes the

form

"

!#

m1 X

1

m

X

1

1

cO2 n AI 0 n B lnnI 0 n

17

22m m!2 n1 n

m1

where A and B are constants to be determined from the boundary conditions. The

solution is found as

cO2 n

I 0 n

p

18

cO2 ;1

I 0 R k=D

p

where R k=D represents the scaling parameter.

The dimensionless concentration given as Eq. (18) is presented in Fig. p

2 as

a func

tion of radial position r/R for several values of the scaling

parameter

R

k=D

. For

p

typical tank dimensions and values for diusivity, R p

k=D

is

expected

to

be

very

large. The sharp decrease in concentration shown as R k=D 50, therefore, may

be representative of the steady-state oxygen distribution for commercial-scale tank

bottoms. It should be noted that q is unaected by the oxygen distribution as it is

controlled by the concentration of electrolytic species, which was assumed in the

present work to be uniform.

The oxygen concentration distribution was applied through the boundary condition at the steel surface of the tank bottom. The parameter, iO2 in Eq. (3) was adjusted according to Eq. (18). However, the value of iO2 could only be adjusted in a

856

1.0

R k1/2D-1/2=1

Co2 / Co2,

0.8

1.5

0.6

0.4

5

0.2

50

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

p

Fig. 2. Oxygen concentration prole within the soil at several values of the scaling parameter R k=D.

step-wise manner. Each ring of elements in the boundary element mesh was assigned

a single value of the parameter (see Fig. 1 for the element layout) which remained

constant in that ring.

In addition to forcing a constant value of iO2 in each ring of elements, setting a

dierent value at each ring introduced an error at the edge of the ring in the current

density due to the step change in the nature of the boundary condition. The boundary element method compensates for the error at the center of the element. Therefore

the point at which to sample the solution is critical for this type of simulation. The

best points to sample are the Gauss points for a 2 2 point rule (square parent element) [30].

4. Results

The results are presented in a series of cases based upon three standard anode congurations used in industry [31]. A single tank was modeled for which protection was

provided by an anode located innitely far from the tank bottom, by a series of anodes distributed around the circumference of the tank, and by an anode grid laid directly underneath the tank bottom. The inuence of an insulating barrier associated

with secondary spill containment was also modeled for the arrangements in which

anodes are placed adjacent to the tank bottom.

4.1. Remote ground-bed

The cathodic protection system was modeled using a deep-well remote groundbed located 2000 feet below the tank. The ground-bed output was adjusted to a nominal value of 14.2/A and the anode was held at 65.2/V(CSE). The tank diameter

was 30.5/m and the tank bottom was assumed to consist of bare steel. The soil resis-

857

tivity was assumed to be uniform throughout the soil domain at a value of 10,000/

X cm. Two cases were calculated: one for the uniform oxygen concentration, to

approximate the initial conditions when the tank is rst lled, and one with an oxygen concentration prole calculated from Eq. (18), to approximate the case when

pseudo-steady-state has been reached. The conditions for the simulation are summarized in Table 1 where Va refers to the value of the anode potential.

Grey-scale images of the calculated potential distribution are presented in Fig.

3(a) for a uniform oxygen distribution and in Fig. 3(b) for p

a non-uniform

oxygen

distribution corresponding to the prole given in Fig. 2 for R k=D 1. The calculated current and potential distributions on the tank bottom were non-uniform but

axisymmetric, as can be expected when a remote anode is used [13]. The corresponding distributions of potential and current density are presented in Fig. 4. The dashed

line corresponds to both i/iavg = 1 and to the nominal criterion of 0.85/V(CSE) for

adequate protection against corrosion.

As seen in Fig. 4, the calculated current density distribution was independent of

the oxygen distribution. The value of i/iavg at the center of the tank bottom was

0.13, which is smaller than the value of 0.5 obtained for a primary current distribution for a disk electrode with an electrode at innity [32].

While the anode potential required to deliver 14.2/A and the current distribution

was not inuenced by the oxygen content of the soil, the potential on the tank bottom was inuenced signicantly. Under assumption of a uniform oxygen distribution, the center of the tank was under-protected, using the nominal criterion for

protection of 0.85/V(CSE). The potential of 0.605/V(CSE), calculated at the center of the tank, represents a shift from the local corrosion potential of only 75 mV,

which does not meet even the 100 mV polarization shift criterion for adequate protection [33]. The outside edge of the tank was polarized to 1.189/V(CSE). This

value is signicantly more positive than the 10.5/V(CSE) predicted by Eq. (1) for

a uniform current distribution. The much smaller change in potential results from

the non-uniform current density distribution seen in Fig. 4. Eq. (1), which was based

on assumption of a uniform current distribution, grossly over-predicts the potential

drop across the tank bottom when the oxygen distribution is not uniform.

Table 1

Simulation results for a tank bottom protected by a remote ground-bed, by anodes placed around the

perimeter of the tank, and by sacricial anode ribbons placed beneath the tank

p

Anode

Liner

R k=D

Figures

Va/V(CSE)

Current/A

iavg/A m2

Protected

Remote

Remote

No

No

0

1

3(a), 4

3(b), 4

65.2

65.2

14.193

14.178

0.0195

0.0194

No

Yes

Perimeter

Perimeter

Perimeter

Perimeter

No

No

Yes

Yes

0

1

0

1

5(a), 6

5(b), 6

7(a), 8

7(b), 8

78.4

78.4

77.0

77.0

14.201

14.183

14.219

14.208

0.0195

0.0194

0.0195

0.0195

No

Yes

No

Yes

Beneath

Beneath

No

Yes

0

0

9(a), 10, 11

9(b), 10, 11

1.75

1.75

0.00105

0.00526

No

Yes

0.4906

2.455

858

Fig. 3. Calculated potential distribution for the tank bottom protected by a remote ground-bed: (a) with a

uniform oxygen distribution;

(b) with an oxygen distribution following the prole given in Fig. 2

p

corresponding to R k=D 1.

859

i / iavg

O2-depleted: potential

-0.6

-0.7

-0.8

1

-0.9

-1.0

O2-saturated / current

O2-depleted / current

Potential / V (CSE)

O2-saturated: potential

-1.1

0.1

-1.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 4. Radial current density and potential distributions for the conditions presented in Fig. 3. The

dashed line corresponds to both i/iavg = 1 and to the nominal criterion of 0.85/V(CSE) for adequate

protection against corrosion.

which is a point where hydrogen evolution is a signicant concern. Depletion of

the oxygen content of the soil, however, resulted in adequate levels of protection.

The calculated range of potentials on the entire tank bottom fell between 0.85/

V(CSE) and 1.2/V(CSE).

The principal dierence between the two cases is that, for the depleted oxygen distribution, the potential distribution was much closer to uniform and the entire tank

bottom was protected. The uniform oxygen distribution case, corresponding to a

newly lled tank, clearly represents a worse-case scenario. It is easier to provide protection when the soil below the tank is depleted of oxygen.

4.2. Distributed anodes

In a second conguration, eight shallow distributed anodes were arranged around

the periphery of the tank. The anodes were placed 0.15/m inches below the soil surface and extended 0.91/m. The anodes were placed such that they were distributed at

equal intervals around the tank and were placed 0.61/m from the edge of the tank.

The placement of anodes close to the surface allowed use of this conguration with

an underlying secondary containment. The dimension of the tank was identical to

that used in the previous section, and the total output of the anodes was set to match

that of the previous two examples (i.e., 14.2/A). The soil resistivity was set to 10,000/

X cm. The conditions for the simulation are summarized in Table 1.

4.2.1. Conguration without secondary containment

Grey-scale images of the calculated potential distribution are presented in Fig. 5

for a uniform oxygen distribution. In contrast to the results for a remote groundbed, the distributions were not axisymmetric, but showed a periodicity corresponding to the angular distance between anodes. The potential distribution for the system

860

Fig. 5. Calculated potential distribution for the tank bottom protected by eight anodes placed around the

perimeter of the tank: (a) with a uniform oxygen

pdistribution; (b) with an oxygen distribution following the

prole given in Fig. 2 corresponding to R k=D 1.

861

-0.5

i / iavg

-0.7

-0.8

1

-0.9

-1.0

0.1

-1.1

Potential / V (CSE)

-0.6

10

-1.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 6. Radial current density and potential distributions for the conditions presented in Fig. 5. The

dashed line corresponds to both i/iavg = 1 and to the nominal criterion of 0.85/V(CSE) for adequate

protection against corrosion. Symbols are as shown in in Fig. 4.

with depleted oxygen levels is presented in Fig. 5(b). The current and potential distributions corresponding to Fig. 5 are presented in Fig. 6. As the distributions were

not axisymmetric, it is important to note the location of the distribution presented.

The distributions presented in Fig. 6 are given along a line extending from the center

to the periphery adjacent to an anode. The value of i/iavg at the center of the tank

bottom was 0.2, which is slightly larger than the value obtained for the conguration

with a remote anode.

The current distribution and the driving potential required to achieve the target

current value were not inuenced by the oxygen content of the soil. The level of protection provided, however, was strongly inuenced. For a uniform oxygen content,

the center of the tank was polarized only 0.016/V from the corrosion potential.

This result can be contrasted to that obtained for the remote ground-bed, where

the center was polarized by 0.075/V at the same total current. The corrosion current density was 0.66/lA cm2 which is close to the value of 1.0/lA cm2 expected for

unprotected general corrosion. The corrosion current at the center of the tank was

signicantly higher than that of the remote ground-bed, which yielded a value of

0.022/lA cm2. In contrast, the tank bottom met the nominal criterion for protection

when the oxygen content of the soil was reduced.

4.2.2. Conguration with secondary containment

The US Environmental Protection Agency has specied that a secondary spillcontainment system be provided for all new tanks [2]. The membranes used for a secondary spill-containment system typically act as electrical insulators. Distributed

anodes can therefore be used with secondary spill-containment systems only if they

can be placed within the soil between the membrane and the tank. The performance

of the cathodic protection system of Fig. 5 was calculated with an insulator placed

1.23/m below the tank bottom. The resulting grey-scale images for potential are presented in Fig. 7(a), and the corresponding current and potential distributions are

presented in Fig. 8. Again, the current density distribution and the driving potential

862

Fig. 7. Calculated potential distribution for the tank bottom protected by eight anodes placed around the

perimeter of the tank and with an insulating barrier placed 1.23/m below the tank bottom: (a) with a

uniform oxygen distribution;

(b) with an oxygen distribution following the prole given in Fig. 2

p

corresponding to R k=D 1.

863

-0.6

10

i / iavg

-0.7

-0.8

1

-0.9

-1.0

0.1

Potential / V (CSE)

-0.5

-1.1

-1.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 8. Radial current density and potential distributions for the conditions presented in Fig. 7. The

dashed line corresponds to both i/iavg = 1 and to the nominal criterion of 0.85/V(CSE) for adequate

protection against corrosion. Symbols are as shown in in Fig. 4.

is nearly independent of the oxygen content of the soil. The value of i/iavg at the center of the tank bottom was 0.14, which is smaller than the value of 0.2 obtained in the

absence of an insulating layer. The potential distribution is inuenced by oxygen

content, and, for the case presented here, the potential distribution reaches the

accepted protection level when the oxygen is depleted.

The performance of the distributed-anode conguration is constrained by the difference between the Ohmic resistance from the anode to the periphery and from the

anode to the center of the tank bottom. The current path to the periphery is much

shorter than that to the center of the tank bottom. The amount of current that

can be delivered to the center of the tank is correspondingly smaller than can be

delivered by a remote anode. The presence of an insulating layer increases the variation in Ohmic resistance and thereby further impedes delivery of current to the

center of the tank bottom. A smaller distance between the tank bottom and

the spill-containment barrier reduces the level of current that can be provided to

the center of the tank bottom.

4.3. Ribbon anodes

The use of secondary containment motivates use of ribbon anodes placed very

close to the tank-bottom. For the simulations presented here, a 24.4/m-diameter tank

bottom was assumed to be protected by 21 0.05/m-diameter ribbon anodes placed

0.30/m below the tank bottom. The center-to-center distance between ribbons was

1.2/m. The ribbons were assumed to consist of high-performance Magnesium with

a service potential of 1.75/V(CSE). The worse-case scenario of a uniform oxygen

concentration was assumed to apply. The conditions for the simulation are summarized in Table 1.

A grey-scale image for the potential distribution on the tank bottom in the absence of secondary containment is presented in Fig. 9(a), and the corresponding

result for an insulating plane placed 0.61/m below the tank bottom is presented in

864

Fig. 9. Calculated potential distribution for the tank bottom protected by 21 Mg ribbon anodes placed

directly underneath the tank with a uniform oxygen distribution: (a) with no insulating barrier; (b) with an

insulating barrier placed 0.61/m below the tank bottom.

5

-0.7

with liner: current

-0.8

1

-0.9

Potential / V (CSE)

-0.6

without liner: potential

with liner: potential

i / iavg

865

0.5

-1.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 10. Radial current density and potential distributions for the conditions presented in Fig. 9. The

dashed line corresponds to both i/iavg = 1 and to the nominal criterion of 0.85/V(CSE) for adequate

protection against corrosion.

Fig. 9(b). In the absence of a liner, the potential distribution is highly non-uniform

and resembles that shown in Fig. 3(a) for a remote anode. The tank bottom does not

meet the 0.85/V(CSE) criterion for adequate protection. The calculated corrosion

current at the center of the tank was 0.04/lA cm2. The inuence of the insulating

liner was to make the potential distribution more uniform and to enable to the anodes to provide adequate protection to the entire surface.

The current and potential distributions corresponding to Fig. 9 are presented in

Fig. 10. The current distribution in the absence of a liner is non-uniform, but the degree of non-uniformity is much less than seen when the anodes are placed around the

perimeter of the tank or at innity. The value of i/iavg at the center of the tank bottom was 0.65, which is signicantly larger than the values obtained for the remoteanode and distributed-anode cases.

In the absence of the secondary containment, the potential driving force provided

by the Mg ribbons was not sucient to protect the tank bottom. In contrast, the

presence of an insulating barrier forced the current density to be uniform, and the

resulting uniform potential distribution met the 0.85/V(CSE) criterion for adequate

protection. Note that the line along which the current and potential were sampled is

directly above a ribbon. For this reason, the scaled current density is greater than

unity. The current density is lower between ribbons, but, when a liner is present,

those regions are protected as well. The enhanced protection aorded by the liner

is seen because, as seen in Table 1, the total current yielded by the system with a liner

is ve times larger than that yielded in the absence of a liner.

The explanation for this seemingly anomalous behavior can be found in the current distribution along the ribbon anodes shown in Fig. 11, where the axial current

density on the central anode is presented as a function of position for both systems.

The containment forces the current distribution along the anode to be more uniform.

The current is therefore better distributed on the tank bottom, thereby reducing the

eective kinetic resistance associated with the tank bottom.

866

10

10

without secondary containment

6.1

12.2

18.3

24.4

Fig. 11. Axial current density distributions along the anodes for the system of Figs. 9 and 10 with and

without the insulating secondary containment.

5. Conclusions

The simplistic models developed to date for assessing cathodic protection of tank

bottoms are seen here to be inadequate for the complex geometries and polarization

behavior seen on practical systems. The assumption of a uniform current distribution on the tank bottom, used in previous models [13,16], was found to be invalid,

even for cases where the anodes are placed directly underneath the tank bottom.

The presence of the secondary containment barrier inuences the current distribution and, in the case of ribbon anodes, facilitates protection of the tank bottom.

For the cases considered here, each of the anode congurations could provide

adequate protection to the tank bottom when the oxygen content of the soil was reduced. Only the combination of ribbon anodes and an insulating spill-containment

barrier provided protection to a tank bottom in contact with soils containing a uniform oxygen level corresponding to ilim,O2 = 1 lA cm2.

It should be noted that the performance predictions are strongly dependent on the

parameters for the polarization curve given as Eq. (3). These parameters should be

identied for given soil conditions and material of construction. The oxygen content

of the soil inuences the current required for protection and can uctuate due to

periodic emptying and lling of the tank. In addition, growth of calcareous and rust

scales can change the polarization curve parameters. It may be, therefore, important

to include reference electrodes in the design of the cathodic protection system to

monitor the polarization of the steel.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Pipeline Research Council International and by

the Gas Research Institute under Contract PR-101-9512.

867

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