Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

List of mathematical symbols

List of mathematical symbols


Some Basic Mathematical Symbols
Please note that many of these symbols may have alternate meanings and may also differ from those used in
computer science.
Symbol

<
>

Name

Read as

Meaning

Example

equality

equals, is equal to

If x=y, x and y represent the same value or


thing.

2+3=5

definition

is defined as

If xy, x is defined as another name of y

(a-b)2a2+2ab+b2

approximately
equal

is approximately
equal to

If xy, x and y are almost equal.

21.41

inequation

does not equal, is not If xy, x and y do not represent the same
equal to
value or thing.

1+13

strict
inequality

is less than

If x<y, x is less than y.

4<5

is greater than

If x>y, x is greater than y.

3>2

is much less than

If xy, x is much less than y.

1999999999

is much greater than

If xy, x is much greater than y.

889798080.001

is less than or equal


to

If xy, x is less than or equal to y.

56 and 55

is greater than or
equal to

If xy, x is greater than or equal to y.

21 and 22

proportionality

is proportional to

If xy, then y=kx for some constant k.

If y=4x then yx and xy

addition

plus

x+y is the sum of x and y.

2+3=5

[subtraction]

minus

x-y is the subtraction of y from x

5-3=2

multiplication

times

xy is the multiplication of x by y

45=20

xy is the multiplication of x by y

45=20

xy or x/y is the division of x by y

204=5 and 20/4=5

inequality

division

divided by

20/4=5
plus-minus

plus or minus

xy means both x+y and x-y

The equation 39 has two solutions, 0 and 6.

minus-plus

minus or plus

4(35) means both 4+(3-5) and 4-(3+5)

6(13)=2 or 4

square root

square root

x is a number whose square is x.

4=2 or -2

summation

sum over from


to of, sigma

is the same as x1+x2+x3+xk

List of mathematical symbols

multiplication

factorial

factorial

n! is the product 123...n

5!=12345=120

material
implication

implies

AB means that if A is true, B must also


be true, but if A is false, B is unknown.

x=3x2=9, but x2=9x=3 is false, because x


could also be -3.

material
equivalence

if and only if

If A is true, B is true and if A is false, B is


false.

x=y+1x-1=y

absolute value

absolute value of

|x| is the distance along the real line (or


across the complex plane) between x and
zero

|5|=5 and |-5|=5

||

parallel

is parallel to

If A||B then A and B are parallel

perpendicular

is perpendicular to

If AB then A is perpendicular to B

congruence

is congruent to

If AB then shape A is congruent to shape


B (has the same measurements)

golden ratio

golden ratio

The golden ratio is an irrational number


equal to (1+5)2 or approximately
1.6180339887.

{,}

infinity

infinity

is a number greater than every real


number.

set membership

is an element of

aS means that a is an element of the set S

is not an element of

aS means that a is not an element of the set 2.1, 1+i


S

the set of

{a,b,c} is the set consisting of a, b, and c

||

x
x

Set brackets

product over
from to of

is the same as x1x2x3xk

=12345=120

3.5, 1, 1+i

={1,2,3,4,5}

Natural numbers N

denotes the set of natural


numbers(1,2,3,4,5...)

Integers

denotes the set of integers


(-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3...)

Rational
numbers

denotes the set of rational numbers


(numbers that can be written as a fraction
a/b where a, b)

8.323, 7,

Real numbers

denotes the set of real numbers

, 7, (-1)

Complex
numbers

denotes the set of complex numbers

(-1)

Mean

bar, overbar

x is the mean (average) of xi

if x={1,2,3} then x=2

complex
conjugate

the complex
conjugate of x

If x=a + bi, then x=a - bi where i=(-1)

x=-4 + 5.3i, x=-4 - 5.3i

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


List of mathematical symbols Source: http://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=4482291 Contributors: Auntof6, Creol, Da Punk '08, Exert, Gesslein, JurgenG, Larry.europe,
MHSHHHsimpleEnglish, Special+Utilizator+$, 7 anonymous edits

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/