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Greedy perimeter stateless routing

The Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) algorithm belongs to the

category of position-based routing, where a node forwards a packet to an
immediate neighbor which is geographically closer to the destination node. This
mode of forwarding is termed greedy mode. Due to the non-uniform distributions
of nodes and to the existence of radio power limitations, it is possible that a
packet reaches a local maximum where its distance to the destination is closer
than its neighbors distance to the destination. To make further advance from the
local maximum, a recovery mode is used to forward a packet to a node that is
closer to the destination than the node where the packet encountered the local
maximum. The packet resumes forwarding in greedy mode when it reaches a
node whose distance to the destination is closer than the node at the local
maximum to the destination.

GPCR(Greedy Perimeter Coordinator Routing):

This protocol employs a restricted greedy forwarding procedure along a
preselected path. When choosing the next hop, a coordinator (the node on a
junction)is preferred to a non-coordinator node, even if it is not the geographical
closest node to destination.

Repair Strategy
Despite of the improved greedy routing strategy the risk remains that a packet
gets stuck in a local optimum. Hence a repair strategy is required. The repair
strategy of GPCR avoids using graph planarization by making routing decision on
the basis of streets and junctions instead of individual nodes and their
connectivity (which do not form a natural planar graph). As a consequence the
repair strategy of GPCR consists of two parts: (1) On each junction it has to be
decided which street the packet should follow next. (2) In between junctions
greedy routing to the next junction, as described above, can be used. If the
forwarding node for a packet in repair mode is located on a junction (i.e., it is a
coordinator) then the node needs to determine which street the packet should
follow next. To this end the topology of the city is regarded as a planar graph

Detecting junctions
One key challenge of GPCR is to detect whether a node is located on a junction
without using external information. In the following we present two alternative
Approaches. In the first approach each node regularly transmits beacon
messages including the position of the node that is sending the beacon as well
as the position of all of its neighbors. By observing the beacon messages a node
has the following information for each neighbor: its position and the position and
presence of the neighbors neighbors. A node _is then considered to be located
in a junction if it has two neighbors _and _that are within transmission range to

each other but do not list each other as neighbors. This indicates that those
neighbors are separated by an obstacle and that is able to forward messages
around this obstacle. The second approach does not require special beacon
Messages. Each node calculates the correlation coefficient with respect to the
position of its neighbors

GPCR (Greedy Perimeter Coordinator Routing)

To deal with the challenges of city scenario the GPCR is designed.

This protocol is a restricted greedy forwarding procedure along a preselected
When it will choose the next hop, a co-coordinator is preferred to a noncoordinator node even if it is not the geographically closer to destination node.

GPCR not handle the low density traffic flow