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2010oh14Bordes, p.

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Middle Palaeolithic Typology

Bordes 1961 = only serious MP typology. Do look at pictures.

- most now use it for description has had other uses.
List is mixed, and defining criteria keep changing as move through list
UP types MP types;
UP typology is essentialist.
MP typology is constructionist.
more to do with boundaries than with ideals
(ideals = Bordess illustrations)
several types are typical or atypical.

Types 1 & 2: typical & atypical Levallois flakes must be unretd typical vs. atypical is

Type 3: Levallois point

must be unretd.

Type 4: retouched Levallois point shouldnt be very retd.

Type 5: pseudo-Levallois point defined as not a Lev pt! (Universal typology at last!) Often

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Type 6: Mousterian point triangular/ subtriangular/

lozangic with a point formed by retouch.

(Type 7: elongated Mousterian point l:w ratio >2)

It seems simple and clear but insistence on pointedness is now confusing.

Unpointed Moust pts = convergent scrapers probably parts of continuum.

Type 8: limace (= slug) double, cvgt, cvx sidescraper, usually thick. Pointed but didnt serve
as points.

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- most important class in type-list.

- very common in OW Pal, partly because definition is very broad:

made on a flake or blade, either Levallois or not, by continuous retouch,
which is flat or abrupt, scaled or not scaled, along one or more edges, so
as to give a semi-sharp edge, which is straight, convex or concave and
lacks deliberate notching or denticulation.

Types 9-11: single scrapers one edge, straight, cvx or conc. Most are straightish to very
convex distinction probably unimp.
Types 12-17: double scrapers on two edges, not touching, preferably not converging. Six types
as expected.
Types 18-20: convergent scrapers only 3 forms defined. Sigh. Two edges converge & meet but
not too pted or too rounded.

Type 21: djet scraper

skewed convergent scraper
skewedness overrides all.

Types 22-24: transverse scrapers on distal end (but endscraper)

= sidescraper turned sideways (do not tell DKG). Distal end often
longest edge & can form corners with lateral edges. 3 types based
on shape.


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Most other types direction of retouch (Types 25, 28 29); shape is irrelevant.

Definitions of Types 26 and 27 have nothing to do with scraping-edge at all. . . .

Type 26: abrupt scraper has abruptly retd edge and opposite edge cutting edge (so backed
Type 27: scraper with thinned back any scraper with opposite edge thinned (except for

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Upper Paleolithic Types

Endscrapers, Burins and Perforators either typical or atypical (nice/ not nice).
Endscrapers should be longish; perforators may be horrid.

Backed Knives - = backed

flakes/blades, but backing often not
abrupt; must have opposed cutting
edge. Entirely retd = typical; partly
cortex = atypical.

Naturally Backed Knife: cutting-edge +

opposite edge is cortex ~ar to ventral face (ie
blunt back). No mention of retouch. If blunt
back cortex, then must have signs of use
on cutting-edge.

This is a disaster of a type, but historical problem & purpose of typology. Bordes wanted to
separate varieties of MidPal and so needed Levallois and naturally bkd knives. We could now
count them as special dbitage but the type-list is sacred.
ALSO these were very much preferred at OpD. Went out of their way to produce things
exactly matching Bs definition. If we looked, they could be quite common.

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(A Miscellaneous Interlude)
Type 39: raclette thin flake with some fine continuous retouch. Even Bordes had doubts about
Type 40: truncation as in UPal.
Type 41: Mousterian tranchet I hope you never meet one.

Notches and Denticulates

Important to Bordess list and purposes, but a real mess and not even grouped together. Often
Type 42: notch.
Type 43: denticulate.
Type 44: alternately retouched bec beak adjacent, alternate notches ie = denticulate.
(then there is some intervening rubbish)

Type 51: Tayac point not pointed;

convergent denticulate - but is a
respectable type. (Sort of)

The last 3 types are very odd and 52 and 54 probably signify nothing whatsoever.

Type 52: notched triangle

triangular flake fragment with
Type 53: distally notched flake
Type 54: pseudo-microburin

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Other Stuff

Types 45-50 = flakes with very limited retouch in various directions (not good enough to be
anything else). Poor types and mostly geofacts.

Rest of list lacks classes, but note:

1, no handaxes in list (The Book has lots);
2, misc last type. Bordes later added bifacial foliate. Are lots of other recognised
MP types, but no-one adds them to the list.

The Dibble & Debnath book has lots of comments on Bordes and lots of non-Bordian types.
They dont advocate changing the typology.

Advocates of change tend to be along the lines of Bisson (2000), who is quite unintelligible and
widely ignored.