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What is Static Electricity?

At it's simplest, static electricity is an electrical charge that cannot move.

3.1.17 Static Electricity. An electric charge that is significant

only for the effects of its electrical field component and that

manifests no significant magnetic field component. Gangguan dan bahaya listrik statis terutama disebabkan oleh munculnyapotensial yang besar (0.1 - 100 kV) dengan arus yang kecil (0.01 - 100mikroampere) yang dihantarkan melalui media dengan hambatan besar (10^8hingga 10^15 ohm). Fenomena dengan arus listrik kecil dan voltase besarinilah yang membedakan listrik statis dengan aliran listrik lain pada umumnya.

Static electricity is commonly produced when:

liquid flows though a pipe or hose, or though an opening in a pipe or hose

spraying or coating

blending or mixing

filling tanks, drums, cans or pails

dry powdered material passes through chutes or pneumatic conveyors

non-conductive conveyor belts or drive belts are moving appliances are plugged into

electrical outlets

are moving appliances are plugged into electrical outlets It is created when two objects or materials
are moving appliances are plugged into electrical outlets It is created when two objects or materials

It is created when two objects or materials that have been in contact with each other are separated. When in contact, the surface electrical charges of the objects try to balance each other. This happens by the free flow of electrons (negatively charged particles) from one object to the other. When the objects separate, they are left with either an excess or a shortage of electrons. This causes both objects to become electrically charged.

This causes both objects to become electrically charged. This charge separation is most noticeable in liquids

This charge separation is most noticeable in liquids that are in contact with solid surfaces and in solids in contact with other solids.

The flow of clean gas over a solid surface produces negligible charging.

If these charges don't have a path to the ground, they are unable to move and become "static". If static electricity is not rapidly eliminated, the charge will build up. It will eventually develop enough energy to jump as a spark to some nearby grounded or less highly charged object in an attempt to balance the charge. A good example of this in everyday life is lightning. Lightning is produced by a discharge of electricity from one cloud across an air gap to another cloud or between a cloud and the earth.

People can also accumulate static charges generated

by clothing or footwear. This is most likely to

happen in dry atmospheres, such as heated buildings

in winter, or when walking across carpets and then

touching a metal frame or door.

What Are the Hazards

of Static Electricity?

The main hazard of static electricity is the creation of sparks in an explosive or flammable atmosphere. These sparks can set off an explosion or fire. Thedanger is greatest when flammable liquids are being poured or transferred.

For static electricity to be a hazard, four conditions must be met:

1. There must be a means for a

static charge to develop.

2. Enough energy must build up to

cause ignition.

3. There must be a discharge of this

energy (a spark).

4. The spark must occur in an

ignitable vapour or dust mixture.

Sekalipun pengumpulan muatan dan loncatan listrik statis terjadi padabeberapa system, semisal pengisian tepung ke dalam suatu silo,penyalaan/percikan api tidak akan terjadi hingga beberapa tahun sedemikianhingga ke-empat kondisi di atas terpenuhi.

Hidrogen adalah zat kimia yang sangat sensitive terhadap penyalaan ini,muatan dalam baju seseorang atau radio Frequency dapat dengan segeramenyebabkan percikan api pada uap hydrogen oleh karena energi penyalaanhydrogen sebesar 0.016 mJ, bandingkan dengan metana yang 0.21 mJ (dapatnyala dengan hot spot, , atau ammonia yang 680 mj. Semakin kecil energipenyalaan tentu saja kemungkinan loncatan listrik statis berubah menjadipercikan api menjadi lebih besar.

statis berubah menjadipercikan api menjadi lebih besar. 5.3 Measuring the Charge on a Conductor. 5.3.1 The

5.3 Measuring the Charge on a Conductor.

5.3.1 The voltage on a conductor is proportional to the charge it supports and is expressed by the following equation:

V=Q/C

V

= potential difference (volts)

Q

= charge supported by the conductor (coulombs)

C

= capacitance of the conductor (farads)

5.3.2 The voltage on a conductor can be measured by direct contact using

a voltmeter, provided the impedance of the voltmeter is high enough so

that it does not discharge the conductor and the capacitance is small enough so that it does notcollect a significant charge from the conductor. An electrostatic voltmeter with input impedance greater than 1012 ohms can be used for measuring voltages on most ungrounded conductors.

Since conductors have the same voltage at every point on their surface, it

is not important where the test probe of the voltmeter touches the surface

Evaluating the Hazard of Static Electricity

5.1.1 The following are two basic steps in evaluating static belectricity hazards:

(1) Identifying locations where charge separates and accumulates

(2) Assessing the ignition hazards at these locations

The basic process is outlined in Figure

5.1.1.

6.1.2 Ignition hazards from static electricity can be controlled by the following methods:

(1) Removing the ignitible mixture from the area where static electricity could cause an ignition-capable discharge

(2) Reducing charge generation, charge accumulation, or both by means of process or product modifications

(3) Neutralizing the charges

Grounding isolated conductors and air ionization are primary methods of neutralizing charges.

5.4 Measuring the Charge on a Nonconductor.

5.4.1 The charge on a nonconductor cannot be measured using a direct contact electrostatic voltmeter. A noncontact electrostatic voltmeter, or field meter, must be used. A noncontact electrostatic voltmeter senses the strength of the static electric field from the net charge on or in the nonconductor.

The field strength is proportional to the static electric force per unit charge and it describes the electric forces present near a charged object. For practical purposes, an electric field is the force that one experiences or measures around a

charged object

.

WARNING

During an audit, precautions should be taken that are

consistent with the equipment and the materials in the

area where measurements are to be taken. The primary

ignition hazard comes from introducing a grounded

electrode, such as the housing of a field meter (see Section

5.4), into the vicinity of a charged surface, thus providing

a route for a static electric discharge. The surface

being measured should always be approached slowly

while observing the meter’s response. Extreme care

should be taken so that neither instruments nor testing

techniques cause ignition of flammable atmospheres.

Appropriate safe work practices should be employed

when taking measurements in and around physical hazards

such as moving belts, webs, and pulleys.

Bonding and grounding

Bonding and grounding are common controls for static electricity.

Bonding is connecting two or more conductive objects with a conductor, such as a copper wire, that equalizes the potential charge between them. Bonding is also connecting various parts of equipment and containers that are electrically separated by, for example, gaskets or caulking compounds. Note that bonding does not eliminate the static charge.

Note that bonding does not eliminate the static charge. Grounding is connecting one or more conductive
Note that bonding does not eliminate the static charge. Grounding is connecting one or more conductive

Grounding is connecting one or more conductive objects directly to the earth using ground rods, cold water copper pipes, or building steel. Unlike bonding, grounding drains the static charges away as quickly as they are produced.

A designated ground source is preferred. Connectors for bonding and grounding, such as copper wire and clamps, must provide a good conductive path.

To ensure this:

remove all dirt, paint, rust, or corrosion from areas where connections are to be made use connectors that are strong enough for the job use flexible connectors where there is vibration or continuous movement connect metal to metal

is vibration or continuous movement connect metal to metal How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled? Most

How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled?

Most static electricity control measures provide ways for the static charges to dissipate harmlessly before sparks occur.

Some ways to prevent static charges from accumulating on materials are:

bonding and grounding

humidification

static collectors

additives

bonding adalah penyambungan dua ataubeberapa wahana sedemikian hingga memiliki potensial listrik yang sama,sementara grounding adalah penyambungan satu atau lebih wahana yang dibonding sedemikian hingga potensial listrik wahana tersebut sama dengan bumi demi mencegah loncatan listrik statis.

Patut dipertimbangkan ketidakefektifan bonding karena vibrasi, korosi atau karena lupa setelah wahanatersebut di maintained. Kasus kasus dimana terdapat cathodic protection pada system perpipaan dan secondary containment yang melibatkan penyekatan plastic (untuk kepentingan environmental) sedemikian hingga bonding dangrounding sulit dilaksanakan.

When dispensing flammable liquids, both bonding and grounding are required. Ensure that the receiving container is bonded to the dispensing container before pouring the liquid, and that the dispensing container is grounded (see Figures 4 and 5).

the dispensing container is grounded (see Figures 4 and 5). Bonding or grounding will not eliminate

Bonding or grounding will not eliminate the surface charge on vessels holding flammable liquids. To prevent static in these cases, make sure that the nozzle is touching the bottom of the vessel so that the liquid discharges horizontally. Also, lower the rate of flow. These two measures will prevent the free fall and turbulence that generate static.

Non-metallic containers, such as polyethylene plastic or glass, cannot be grounded. To minimize the build

Non-metallic containers, such as polyethylene plastic or glass, cannot be grounded. To minimize the build up of static charges near the surface of liquids being poured, limit the filling rate to velocities less than 1 m/s by using a grounded lance or nozzle extension to the bottom of the container to limit free fall, or use antistatic additives.

All metal parts on plastic containers must be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible, avoid using plastic containers

be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
be bonded to the fill pipe on the container being emptied. However, as far as possible,
Humidification A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 210C (700F) may prevent paper or
Humidification A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 210C (700F) may prevent paper or

Humidification

A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 210C (700F)

may prevent paper or layers of cloth and fibers from sticking together. A high relative humidity,

however, is no guarantee against the accumulation

of static electricity. Therefore, don't rely solely on

humidification as a control measure in areas where there are flammable liquids, gases, or dusts.

peningkatan kelembaban dari 45% menjadi 65% saja secaraefektif mengurangi kemungkinana loncatan listrk statis, meski efeknya tidakcukup besar pada permukaan yang hidrofobi macam poliolefin. Kenapakelembaban mempengaruhi listrik statis? Pertama karena pembentukan suspensidari debu yang sangat lembut menjadi berkurang, yang kedua karena kelembabanmenaikkan energi penyalaan.

yang kedua karena kelembabanmenaikkan energi penyalaan. Additives Another control is the use of anti- static

Additives

Another control is the use of anti- static additives (as in fuels). The additive increases the conductivity or lowers the resistance of the liquid. It also reduces the time it takes for the static charge to leak through the wall of the container and to the ground.

Meningkatkan konduktifitas pada kantung/karungplastic dapat dilakukan dengan topical antistatic agent. Sementara memasangblower yang dapat membantu ionisasi di atas plastic pembungkus yangnonconductive juga dapat secara efektif mengurangi kemungkinan loncatanlistrik statis.

Static collectors Devices that collect static electricity can be used on moving belts, plastic film, and similar nonconductive materials. Some examples of static collectors include: needle pointed copper combs; spring copper brushes; and metallic tinsel bars. A static collector works by its closeness to the source that generates the static electricity. If a discharge occurs, it is captured by the highly conductive collector; this prevents long hot sparks. To be effective, collectors must be properly grounded.

6.5.1 General. Air can be made to contain mobile ions that will be attracted to
6.5.1 General. Air can be made to contain mobile ions that will be attracted to
6.5.1 General. Air can be made to contain mobile ions that will be attracted to

6.5.1 General. Air can be made to contain mobile ions that

will be attracted to and will eliminate unbalanced static electric

charge from surfaces. In the use of air ionizers, one must

consider certain factors that can influence their effectiveness,

such as environmental conditions (e.g., dust and temperature)

and positioning of the device in relation to the material

processed, machine parts, and personnel. It is important to

note that these control devices do not prevent the generation

processed, machine parts, and personnel. It is important to note that these control devices do not
processed, machine parts, and personnel. It is important to note that these control devices do not
6.2.3 Ventilating. Mechanical ventilation can be used to dilute the concentration of a combustible material

6.2.3 Ventilating. Mechanical ventilation can be used to

dilute the concentration of a combustible material to a point w ell below its lower flammable limit (LFL) in the case of a gas or vapor or below its minimum explosible concentration (MEC) in the case of a dust. Usually, this means dilution to a concentration at or below 25 percent of the lower limit. Also, by properly directing the air movement, it might be practical to prevent the material from approaching an area of operation where an otherwise uncontrollable static electricity hazard exists.

6.2.4 Relocating Equipment. Where equipment that can

accumulate a static electric charge is unnecessarily located in a hazardous area, it might be possible to relocate it to a safe location rather than to rely on other means of hazard control.

Controlling static electricity on people

Controls to prevent or reduce static from building up on people include:

conductive flooring

conductive clothing and footwear (to allow the charge to be conducted away; these items must be free of dirt and other contaminants)

cotton or linen clothing instead of wool, silk, or synthetic materials

Mengendalikan Pekerja yang Bermuatan,Perlu diwaspadai bekerja dalam AC/pemanas ruangan, sehingga kelembaban menjadi sangat rendah apalagi jika seseorang tersebut menggunakan kaos kaki yang nonconductive(mengandung enerji penyalaan 10 mJ).

6.2 Control of Ignitible Mixtures by Inerting Equipment, byVentilating, or by Relocating Equipment.

6.2.1 General. Despite efforts to prevent accumulation of static electric

charges, which should be the primary aim of good design, many operations involving the handling of nonconductive materials or nonconductive equipment do not lend themselves to engineered solutions. It then becomes desirable or essential, depending on the nature of the materials involved, to provide other measures, such as inerting the equipment, ventilating the equipment or the area in which it is located, or relocating the equipment to a safer area.

6.2.2 Inerting. Where an ignitible mixture is contained, such as in a

processing vessel, the atmosphere can be made oxygen deficient by introducing enough inert gas (e.g., nitrogen or combustion flue gas) to make the mixture nonignitible. This technique is known as inerting. When operations are normally conducted in an atmosphere containing a mixture above the upper flammable limit, it might be practical to introduce the inert gas only during those periods when the mixture passes through its

flammable range. NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems,

contains requirements for inerting systems.

Systems , contains requirements for inerting systems. Untuk urusan ini sepatu antistatisdengan hambatan antara 1

Untuk urusan ini sepatu antistatisdengan hambatan antara 1 hingga 1000 ohm jamak tersedia di pasar. Bekerja dalam ruang yang panas dan humiditasnya rendah membuat seseorang menjadi lebih bermuatan.Bahan baju dari polyester sepatutnya dihindari karena tidak anti api dan bisa menempel di kulit jika terpapar api.

Loncatan corona-brush dapat terjadi jika seseorang melepaskan baju luarnya (jaket dan sweater)karena terjadinya pemisahan dua baju yang bermuatan (baju dalam =kemeja/kaos terutama dari bahan sintetis, dengan baju luar = jaket/sweater).

Karenanya melepaskan jaket/sweater harus dilakukan jauh-jauh dari flammable area. Penggunaan gloves yang impermeable terutama jika pekerja tidakmenggunakan sepatu yang antistatis pada pekerjaan yang sangat potensialmenimbulkan loncatan listrik statis seperti melepaskan lembaran-lembaranplastic atau ketika memasukkan konduktor ke dalam tangki yang berisi debubermuatan menjadi beresiko. Bahkan jika pekerja tersebut bekerja padaruangan yang memiliki gas dengan energi penyalaan yang rendah, seperti asetilen, etilen, hydrogen dsb.