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CHAPTER 3: SETS

Definition of Sets: A sets is a collection of things or items which are well-defined and have
common properties or features.
Set Notation:

CHAPTER 3: SETS

Item
Universal Set
Subset

Symbols

Empty Set

or

AB

Example
The universal set
Set A is a subset of Set B
The empty set or

A=B
Set A is equal to Set B
Equal Sets
x A
x is an element in Set A
Elements of a set
A
The complement of set A
Complement of a set
The intersection of Set A and Set B
A B
Intersection of two sets
The union of Set A and Set B
A B
Union of two sets
n(A)
The number of elements in Set A
Number of elements in a set
Skills assessed

List the elements in a set that fulfills a certain description.

Use the Venn diagram to illustrate sets.

Use the concept of subset, universal set and the complement of a set.

Perform operations involving two or more sets: intersection and union.

List the elements for A B, A B, P Q, P Q etc.

Determine the outcome of combined operations on sets and represent it in a Venn diagram.

Solve problems involving combined operations on sets.


Solving strategy
List down all the elements in the universal set, .
Mark or circle elements in different sets P, Q and R by using a different colour for each set.
To list the elements in a set, just identify the elements with the same colour.
For questions involving n(P Q), count the elements which belongs to both Set P and Set Q.
For questions involving n(P Q), count the elements which belongs to either Set P or Set Q.
Common Mistakes

of elements in the set.

Students do not list down all the elements


Students find the elements in the set while the question asked for the number
Students fail to extract information from a problem and to solve it using sets.

11.1: UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF SET.


=> The number of elements in set A is written as n(A)
=> A null or empty set has no elements in it. The symbol for a null set is or

=> If two sets, P and Q, contain exactly the same elements, then set P is equal to set Q, P Q
Sets

CHAPTER 3: SETS
3.1 SETS

A) Describe each of the following in the words


EXAMPLES

ANSWERS

A = 15,20,25,30,35
P = 2,3,5,7,11

M = March, May

V = a, e, i, o, u

S = 1,4,9,16,25

A is a set of multiples of 5 between 10 and 40

B) Write each of the following sets in set notation


EXAMPLES

A = set of odd numbers between 20 and 30


B = set of days in a week

C = set of negative integers greater than -5

T = all consonants in the word SQUARE

H = prime numbers between 10 and 20

A = 21,23,25,27,29

C) Given S = multiples of 7 between 20 and 40 . Determine whether each of the following is an


element of S by using the symbol

or .

Example
21

1) 14

2) 28

3) 30

4) 38

D) Draw a Venn diagram to represent each of the following sets.


Example

1) F = { x : the product of the digits of x is 6 and 10 < x < 50}

V = all vowels in the word SMILE


V

2) G = {even numbers between 20 and 40}

3) H = {prime numbers between10 and 20}

E) Determine whether each of the following sets is an empty set. Use the symbol to denote an empty set

Sets

Example

There is no multiple of 7 in the range 1 x 6 .

{x : x is a multilpel of 7 and 1 x 6 }

Q = { polygons with all sides of equal length}

R = {prime numbers between 53 and 59}

S = {prime numbers which are also a multiple of 7}

M = {vowels in the word STRANGE}

D = {set of months that begin with the letter J}

F) Determine whether the following pairs of sets are equal.


Ex: A = {letters in the word LOVE}

S ={prime numbers which are less than 10}

B = {letters in the word EVOLVE}

T ={first 5 odd numbers}

A = {L, O, V, E}

S = {2,3,5,7}

B = {E, V, O, L}

T = {1,3,5,7,9}

Therefore, S T

A and B have the same elements,


Therefore, A = B
1) U ={x : x is an even numbers and 100 x 110 }

2) P = {2, 3, 5, 7}
Q = {prime numbers which are less than 10}

V = {101, 103, 105, 107, 109}

3) R = {multiples of 3 which are less than 20}

4) X = {A, E}

S = {3, 6, 9 12, 15, 18}

Y = {vowels in the word STRANGE}

6) M =

5) H = {squares, rhombus}
J = {polygons with four equal sides}

N ={0}

G) List all the elements and state the numbers of elements in each of the following sets.
EXAMPLES
1

Sets

EXERCISES

List the elements and state the


number of elements
A = {factors of 18}
Solution

List the elements and state the


number of elements
A = {factors of 20}
Solution

A = {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18}

A=

n(A) = 6

n(A) =

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = {consonants in the word STUDENTS}
Solution
P = {S, T, D, N, T}
n(P) = 5

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = {vowels in the word UNIVERSAL}
Solution
P=
n(P) =

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = {prime factors of 14}
Solution
P = 2, 7

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = { prime factors of 21}
Solution
P=
n(P) =

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = {x : x is an integer, -2 x 4 }
Solution
P = {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
n(P) = 7

List the elements and state the


number of elements
P = {x : x is an integer, -3 x 3 }
Solution
P=
n(P) =

Given the sets P ={1, 2, 4, r, 8} and


Q = {20, 21, 22, 23}.
If P = Q, find the value of r.
Solution
P = {1, 2, r, 8}
Q = {1, 2, 4, 8}
r=4

Given the sets R ={2, 4, m, 8} and


T = {1 2, 2 2, 3 2, 4 2}.
If R= T, find the value of m.
Solution
R=
T=
m=

n(P) = 2

Sets

3.2 (a)

SUBSETS.

Definition:
If each element of set A is a member of set B, then set A is a subset of set B.
Symbol:
A B.
Venn diagram

B
A

A B
1

EXAMPLES
Given that
A = {p, q}
B = {m, n, o, p, q}
What is the relation between set A and B?

EXERCISE
Given that
X = { 4, 5}
Y = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
What is the relation between set X and Y?

A B

Answer:

Answer:
Each element in set _____ is a member of
Set _________ .

Each element in set A is a member of set B.


Venn diagram.

Draw the Venn Diagram.

From the Venn Diagram below, what is the


relation between set P,Q,R and S?

From the Venn Diagram below, what is the


relation between set P, Q,R and S?

P
Q

P
S

S
R

Answer:

Answer:

RQ
QP

SP

RP

Sets

3.2 (b) UNIVERSAL SET


Definition: a set which includes all the sets in a discussion.
Symbol :
COMPLEMENT OF A SET.
Definition: Complement of set A is a set in the universal set which contains all the elements not
found in A.
Symbol : A
A
Venn Diagram
.

.
1

EXAMPLES
Given that = {11,12,20}
A= {prime numbers}
List all elements in set , A and set A. Then
draw a Venn diagram for the sets.
Answer :
= {11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20}
A = {11,13,17,19}
A= {12,14, 15, 16, 18 ,20}

A
11 13
17 19

EXERCISE
Given that = {11,12,20}
B = {odd numbers}
List all elements in set , B and B. Then draw
a Venn diagram for the sets.
Answer :
=
B=
B=

12 14
15 16
18 20
Q

a
b
d

k j
e
g

h
i

List the elements of the following sets


= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k} n()= 11
P ={j, k}
n(P)= 2
P= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i}
n(P)= 9
Q = {a, b, c, d, e}
n(Q)= 5
Q= {f, g, h, i, j, k}
n(Q)= 6
R = { e, f, g}
n(R)= 3
R= {a, b, c, d, h, i, j, k}
n(R)= 8

Sets

10
6
11 7
12

3 1 2
4

List the elements of the following sets


=
n()=
A=
n(A)=
A=
n(A)=
B=
n(B)=
B=
n(B)=
C=
n(C)=
C=
n(C)=

3.3

OPERATION ON SETS.

3.3 (a) INTERSECTION OF SETS.


Definition :
Symbol

The intersection of sets A and B is the set of elements which are common to both
A and B.

: A B

The following Venn diagrams show three examples of the intersection of sets.

y
z

2.

EXCERCISES
It is given that
A= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7}
A B=
Complete the Venn diagram below.

w
x

u
v

It is given that
A= {p, q, r, s, t}
B = {r, s ,t ,u ,v}
C = {p ,s, t, u ,x}

It is given that
P= {a, b, c, d, e, f}
Q = {d, e ,f ,g ,h}
R = {a ,d, e, h , i}

Draw a Venn diagram to represent the sets


given.
A
B

Draw a Venn diagram to represent the sets


given.

r
s
p t
x

Sets

EXAMPLES
It is given that
A= {w, x, y, z}
B = {u, v, w, x}
A B = { w, x}
Draw a Venn diagram to represent the sets
given.

v
u
C

EXAMPLES
Shade the region that represents X Y Z
for the following Venn diagrams
X

i)

EXCERCISES
Shade the region that represents X Y Z
for the following Venn diagrams

i)

ii)
Z
X

ii)

iii)

iii)

Find the complement of ( M N )' for each


of the following sets.
={a, e, i, o, u}
M={a, e, o, u}
N= {i, o, u}
( M N ) = {o, u}
( M N )' = {a, e, i}

5.

a) ={2, 4, 6, 8, 10,12}
M={4, 8, 12}
N= {4, 6, 12}
(M N ) =
( M N )' =

Shade the region that represents the


complement of the following sets.
a)

Find the complement of ( M N )' for each


of the following sets.

Shade the region that represents the


complement of the following sets.
a)

()

()

b)

b)

B
B

()

()
A

c)

( A B C )'
C

3.3(b)
Sets

UNION OF SETS.

( A B C )'

c)
C

Definition: The union of sets A and B is the set of all elements which belong to A or B or both A
and B.
Symbol : A B

The following Venn diagrams show three examples of the union of sets.

B
B

A B

A B

=A

EXAMPLES
1

EXCERCISE

Given that
A= {w, x, y, z}
B = {u, v, w, x}

Given that
A= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7}

A B = {u, v w, x, y ,z}
=
{u,
v
w,
x, y ,z}
A B

A
y
z

A B =
B

u
v

w
x

Complete the Venn diagram above.


2

Shade the region that represents X Y Z


for the following Venn diagrams

Shade the region that represents X Y Z for


the following Venn diagrams
i)

i)

ii)
ii)

iii)
iii)

Z
Z
Sets

Z
XX

Z Y Y

Y
Z

EXAMPLES

EXCERCISES

It is given that
It is given that
={2,4,6,8,10,12}

={a, e, i, o, u}

M={4,8,12}

M={a, e}

N= {4, 6}

N= { u}
Find
i) ( M N ) = {a, e,, u}

Find
i)

ii) ( M N )' = {i, o}

(M N ) =

ii) ( M N )' =

Shade the region that represents the complement


of the following sets.

Shade the region that represents the


complement of the following sets.

a)
a)

b)
b)

c)

c)

()

()

A
()

BB

Sets

( A B C )'
10

()

( A B C )'
C

3.3(c)

COMBINED OPERATIONS ON SETS.


EXAMPLES

Sets

EXCERCISES

11

a c
b
d

k j
e
g

h
i

List the elements of a set

P ={j, k}

n(P)= 2

P= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i}

n(P)= 9

Q = {a, b, c, d, e}

n(Q)= 5

Q= {f, g, h, i, j, k}

n(Q)= 6

R = { e, f, g}

n(R)= 3

R= {a, b, c, d, h, i, j, k}

n(R)= 8

P Q={}

n( P Q)= 0

Q R={e}

n( Q R)= 1

P R={}

n( P R)= 0

P R={e,f,g}

n( P R)= 3

Q R= {f,g}

n( Q R)= 2

R Q={a,b,c,d}

n( R Q)= 4

Q R={a,b,c,d,e,f,g}

n( Q R)= 7

Q P={a,b,c,d,e,k,j}

n( Q P)= 6

(Q R)={k,j,h,i}

n[(Q R)]=4

(Q P)={f,g,h,i}

n[(Q P)]=4

P Q={f,g,h,i}

n( P Q)=4

Sets

Given that = X

R
P

List the elements of a set

= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k} n()= 11

(P Q R)={h,i}

3 1 2
4

10
6
11 7
12

n()=

P=

n(P)=

P=

n(P)=

Q=

n(Q)=

Q=

n(Q)=

R=

n(R)=

R=

n(R)=

P Q=

n( P Q)=

Q R=

n( Q R)=

P R=

n( P R)=

P R=

n( P R)=

Q R=

n( Q R)=

R Q=

n( R Q)=

Q R=

n( Q R)=

Q P=

n [(P Q R)]=2

EXAMPLES
Y Z Shade the region

12

n( Q P)=

(Q R)=

n[(Q R)]=

(Q P)=

n[(Q P)]=

P Q=

n( P Q)=

(P Q R)=

n [(P Q R)]=

EXCERCISES
Given that = X Y Z Shade the region

for the operation on the following sets.

for the operation on the following sets.

a) (X Y)

a) (Y Z)

b) (X Y)

b) (Z Y)
Y

X
X

c) (X Y)

c) (Z Y)

X
X

Z
X

Y
Y

d)

X Y Z
X

e)

d)

X Y Z

e)

X Y Z

Z
X

Z Y X

QUESTIONS BASED ON THE SPM FORMAT (Paper 1)


EXAMPLES
Sets

EXCERCISES

13

1.

Given that the universal set P Q R ,


P Q and Q R , the Venn diagram
that represents these relationships is

Given that the universal set P Q R ,


R Q and Q P , the Venn diagram that
represents these relationships is

A.

A.

B.

B.

C.

D.

Sets

Q
D

Diagram shows a Venn diagram with the


universal set P Q R .

Q
A

R
B

Considering the four regions, A, B, C and D,


which of these represents the set
P R Q' ?

Considering the four regions, A, B, C and D,


which of these represents the set P R Q' ?

Answer : B

Answer :

EXAMPLES
3

Diagram shows a Venn diagram with the


universal set P Q R .

Q
R

D.

C.

EXCERCISES

Diagram is a Venn diagram which shows the

p
m

14

Diagram is a Venn diagram which shows the

r
s

p
m

r
s

elements of sets P, Q and R.

elements of sets P, Q and R.

If the universal set P Q R , then set


Q is
A. {r ,s}
B. {n, t}
C. {m, r, s}
D. {n, p, q, t}
4

Diagram is a Venn diagram which shows the


universal set, , and sets P, Q and R.

If the universal set P Q R , then set R


is
A. {m ,n}
B. {m, n, p, q}
C. {t ,r, s}
D. {m ,n , p , q ,t}
Diagram is a Venn diagram which shows the
universal set, , and sets P, Q and R.

The shaded region in the Venn diagram


represents the set
A. P Q '
B
P R'
C. P ' R
D. R Q '

The shaded region in the Venn diagram


represents the set
A. P Q '
B P R'
C. P ' R
R Q'
D.

EXAMPLES
5
Sets

Given the universal set, = {x : 10

EXCERCISES

x
15

Given the universal set, = {x : 5

x 25, x

20, x is an integer},
P = {16,18,20}
Q = { x : x is prime number} and
R = {x : x is a multiple of 3}
The elements of the set ( P R ) Q ' .
A. {15, 18}
B. {12, 18, 20}
C. {12, 15, 16, 18, 20}
D. {10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20}

is an integer},
P = {12,16,18,20,25}
Q = { x : x is prime number} and
R = {x : x is a multiple of 5}
The elements of the set ( P R ) Q ' .
A. {15, 18, 19}
B. {12, 18, 20, 25}
C. {12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 25}
D. {10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 25}

6.
Q

5
2
1

3
1

Diagram shows the number of elements in


sets P, Q and R. Find n(Q R )'
A. 5
B. 6
C. 8
D. 12

Diagram shows the number of elements in sets


P, Q and R. Find n(Q R )'
A 5
B 6
C. 8
D. 12

7.

Q
2

Diagram shows the number of elements in


sets P, Q and R. Find n( P R )' .
A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 11

Sets

1
3

16

Diagram shows the number of elements in sets


P, Q and R. Find n( P Q )' .
A. 4
B. 7
C. 8
D. 11

EXAMPLES

EXCERCISES

8.

P
1
Q

3
1

2
2
4

1
R

x
1

A.
B.
C.
D.

Diagram shows the number of elements in


sets P, Q and R. Given that = P Q R.
and n(P) = n(Q R) Find the value of x.

Diagram shows the number of elements in sets


P, Q and R. Given that = P Q R. and
n(R) = n(P Q) Find the value of x.

3
5
6
8

A.
B.
C.
D.

3
5
7
9

P
2

y1
Q

3
x1

2
4

43

5x

Sets

32
x1 3

2
54

R
3

4x

Diagram shows the number of elements in


sets P, Q and R. Given that = P Q R.
n()=30 and n(P) = n(R). Find the value of
x + y.
A.
B.
C.
D.

42

y1

5
7
8
10

Diagram shows the number of elements in sets


P, Q and R. Given that = P Q R.
n()=25 and n(P) = n(R). Find the value of
x + y.
A.
B.
C.
D.

17

5
7
8
10

10.

In the Venn diagram, given that

= {x: x is an integer}

A = {x : x is a multiple of 5}

II I III

B = {x : x is a multiple of 7}
Number 49 should be in the area
A.
B.

I
II

C.
D.

IV
III
IV

11. The Venn diagram shows the relationship


between set M,N and K. Which of the
following is true?.
A.
B.
C.
D.

M N=K
M N=K
M K=K
K N=M

M
K

12. Given = { x : 1 x 30 and x is an integer}


P = { x : x is multiple of 6}
and Q = { x : x is number which contain the digit 2}.
Find P Q.
A.
{12, 18, 24}
B.
{12, 24}
C.
{12, 18, 24,32}
D.
{2, 12, 24}
E
13.

F
G

Diagram shows a Venn diagram


with the universal set = E F G.
Considering the four regions, A, B ,C and D,
which of these represents the set
E F G ?

B C

14. Diagram shows a Venn diagram with the universal set = {Year Five pupils},
set M =
{ pupils who read a Malay language newspaper} and R= { pupils who read a English
language newspaper}. Given that n(M) = 80, n (R) = 104, n(M R) = 12 and the
number of pupils who do not read either newspaper is 4, find the total number of Year Five
pupils.

Sets

A.

172

C.

196

B.

176

D.

200

18

15.

The diagram above shows a Venn diagram with


universal set , set P and set Q. The shaded
region represents
P Q
P Q

A
B

16.

C
D

P
Q

P Q
P Q

Given universal set = A B C,


set A = {K,E, D, A, H},
set B = {P, E, R, L, I, S} and
set C = {S, E, L, A, N, G, O, R}.
Find n[(A C) B]
A
B

17.

6
7

8
9

.Diagram shows a Venn Diagram with universal the

set = {Form 4 Ibnu Sina students },


set P = {students who pass the Mathematics Paper 1}
and set Q = { students who pass the Mathematics Paper 2}
Given n(P) = 30, n(Q) = 22, n(P Q) = 20 and the
number of students who fail both papers is 8, find the
total number of students in Form Four Ibnu Sina.
A
B

18.

C
D

38
40

C
D

Q
P

41
44

. The Venn diagram in diagram shows all the elements in the sets L, M and N.

The
elements of
set M are

Sets

19

{ 1, 8 }

{ 3, 7 }

{ 1, 3, 7, 8 }

{ 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 }

the

19.

The Venn diagram in diagram shows the number of elements in sets J, K and L.
The universal set J K L .

If n( J K ) 20 find the value of y.

20.

11

16

In the Venn diagram , the universal set,


= {Form 4 students} and the sets
A = {Students who like basket ball}
B= {Students who like badminton}

Given that n( A) 60 , n( B ) 84 , n( A B) 16 and 6 of them dislike playing any


games. Find the total of form four students.

Sets

128

134

144

148

20

Sets

21

Past Year SPM Questions


Paper 1
November 2003
Given that the universal set J K L , J K and K L , the Venn
diagram that represents these relationships is

A.

B.

D.
J

C.

Diagram 13 shows a Venn diagram with the universal set E F G .

2.

F
G

E
A

Diagram 13

Considering the four regions, A, B, C and D, which of these represents the set
E F G' ?
Diagram 14 shows a Venn diagram with the universal set = { Year Five pupils},
set M = {Pupils who read a Malay language newspaper} and R = { Pupils who read
an English language newspaper }.

3.

Given that n(M) = 80, n(R) = 104,


n(M R) = 12 and the number of pupils who do
not read either newspaper is 4, find the total
number of Year Five pupils.
A 172
C 196
B 176
D 200

Diagram 14

Sets

22

July 2004
It is given that the universal set E F G , set E = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 16},
set F = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}, and set G = {2, 4, 14},
Which Venn diagram shows the relation between set E, F and G?

4.

A.

B.

B.

D.

5.

F
G

It is given that the universal set = { x : 1 x 12, x is an integer},


set P ={x ; x is an odd number} and set Q={x ; x is a prime number}.
The elements of the set P Q are
A. 1, 3, 5, 7
B. 3, 5, 7

C.
D.

1,2, 9
1, 9.

November 2004
6.

Diagram 13 is a Venn diagram which shows the elements of set P, Q and R.

P
5

R
3

1
2

If the universal set P Q R , then set Q is


A {1, 2}
C {1, 2, 5}
B {3, 6}
D {3, 4, 6}

Sets

23

Diagram 13

Diagram 14 is a Venn diagram which shows the universal , set P and set Q.

7.

Q
Diagram 14

The shaded region in the Venn diagram represents the set


A.
B.
C.
D.

P Q
P Q
P Q
P Q

It is given that the universal set = { x : 1 x 12, x is an integer},


Set P = {2 ,3 ,7 ,9}, set Q = {x ; x is a prime number} and
Set R = {x : x is multiple of 4},

8.

The elements of the set (P R)


A. 5, 11
B. 1, 5, 11

Q are

C.
D.

2, 3, 11
2, 3, 9.

July 2005
9. Given that M = {4, 6}, list all the subsets of M.
A.
{4}, {6}
B.
, {4}, {6}
C.
{4}, {6}, {4, 6}
D.
, {4}, {6}, {4, 6}
10. Diagram 13 is a Venn diagram which shows the elements of universal set ,
set P and set Q.
7

P
5

1
3

2
4

List all the elements of set P.


A.
B.
C.
D.
Sets

{5, 6}
{7, 8}
(1, 2, 3, 4}
{5, 6, 7, 8}

24

Diagram 13

11.

It is given that P = {3, 4,5, 6, 7}, Q = {6, 8, 10, 14}, R = {10, 16, 20} and
universal set P Q R. .
Which of these Venn diagrams shows the relation between set P, Q and R?

A.

C.

B.

D.

November 2005.
12. Which of the following Venn diagrams represents set R S such that the
universal set R S ?
R

A.

C.

B.

Sets

D.

25

13. Diagram 13 is a Venn diagram with the universal set P Q R .

Q
A

Diagram 13

Which of the region, A, B, C or D, represents the set P'Q 'R? ?


14. Diagram 14 is a Venn diagram which shows the elements of set R, set S and set T.
R

S
3

x-4
8

1
Diagram 14

x-3

It is given that the universal set R S T , and n(S) = n(S


Find the value of x.
A. 5
C.
10
B. 6
D.
11

T).

July 2006
15. Diagram 11 is a Venn diagram showing the sets M, N and P such that the universal set

M NP

M
N

Diagram 11
The shaded region represents the set
A
B
C
D
Sets

M N P
M N P
M N ' P
M ' N P
26

16. Diagram 12 is an incomplete Venn diagram showing the number of elements in sets P, Q
and R.
P

Q
6

4
3

7
2

DIAGRAM 12

It is given that the universal set, P Q R and n R 11 .


Find n P Q R .
A
B
C
D

5
6
12
17

November 2006
17. It is given that the universal set, x :19 x 31, x is an integer and set

R x : x is a number such that the sum of its two digits is an even number . Find set R ' .
A
B
C
D

{ 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 }


{ 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 }
{ 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 }
{ 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30 }

18. Diagram 13 is a Venn diagram showing the universal set , set P and set Q.

Diagram 13
The region P Q ' is equivalent to the region
A
P Q'
B
P Q'
C
P ' Q '
D
P ' Q '
Sets

27

19. Table 2 shows data obtained from a survey of 100 television viewers. Diagram 14 is a Venn diagram
that represents part of the information in Table 2.
Programmes watched
News
Sports
News and Sports only
News and Entertainment only
News only
Sports only

Number of
viewers
55
61
12
5
25
28

12

News

28
Sports

Entertainment

TABLE 2

DIAGRAM 14
Find the number of viewers who watched sports or news and also entertainment programmes.
A
B
C
D

26
39
47
51

June 2007
20. It is given that the universal set, = { x : 5 x 13 , x is an integer }and set

P = { x : x is a prime number }.
List all the elements of set P ' .
A
B
C
D

{ 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 }
{ 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 }
{ 6, 8, 10, 12 }
{ 5, 7, 11, 13 }

21. Diagram 15 is a Venn diagram showing set P and set S. It is given that

P = { hockey player }, S = { badminton layers } and the universal set , P S .


P

Diagram 15
If n ( P ) = 27, n ( S ) = 36 and n ( P S ) 8 , find n ( P S ) .
A
B
C
D

71
63
55
47

Nov 2007
Sets

28

22. List all the subsets of set X = { m , n }


A
B
C
D

{m}
{m}
{m}
{m}

,
,
,
,

{n}
{n}, { }
{n}, { m,n}
{n}, { m,n},{ }

23. Diagram 14 is a Venn diagram showing the universal set , = { Form Five students }, set

L = { Students who play badminton } and set M = { Students who play tennis }

Diagram 14
Given n ( ) = 60, n (L ) = 25, n ( M ) = 12 and n ( L P ) 8 , find the number of
students who do not play the two games.
A
B
C
D

15
23
31
52

24. Given the universal set, P Q , set P = { 0 , 1, 2 } and set Q = { 2, 3, 4, 5 }, find the
value of n ( ).
A
B
C
D

7
6
5
4

Jun 2008
25. Diagram 12 shows a Venn diagram with the universal set, , set T and set S.

List all the elements of set S' .

S
1

5
4

2
6

A
B
C
D

{ 1, 4 }
{ 3, 7 }
{ 1, 4, 5 }
{ 1, 3, 4, 7 }

3
Diagram 12
26. Diagram 13 shows a Venn diagram with universal set , = { Form Five students }, set P =
{ Members of Science Society } , set Q = { Members of Mathematics Society } and set R =
{ Members of Geography Society }.
Sets

29

Diagram 13

It is given that n (P ) = 82, n (Q ) = 90, n (R ) = 40 and n ( P Q ) 24 . The number of


Form Five students who are not a member of any of the three societies is 35.
Find the total number of Form Five students.
A
B
C
D

271
236
223
188

27. Diagram 14 is a Venn diagram showing the number of elements in sets P , Q and R.

P
R

Q
1
2

Diagram 14
It is given that the universal set, P Q R . Find n ( P ( Q R ) )
A
B
C
D

5
6
10
17

28. Diagram 13 is a Venn diagram showing the elements of the universal set, , set T and set U.
List all the elements of set U' .

U
l
p

k
m

A
B
C
D

{q}
{l,p}
{l,p,q }
{l,p,q,n}

q
Nov 2008

Diagram 13

29. Diagram 14 shows a Venn diagram with the universal set , R S

Sets

30

Diagram 14

Given that, n (R ) = 95, n (S ) = 78 and n ( R S ) 25 , find n ( ).


A
B
C
D

123
148
173
198

30. Diagram 15 is a Venn diagram showing the number of students in sets G, M and S. It is

given that set G = { Geography Society Members } , set M = { Mathematics Society


Members }, set S = { Science Society Members } and universal set, G M S .
G

M
x

7
2x

4
6
S
Diagram 15

If the number of students who join both the Science Society and the Mathematics Society
is 8, find the number of students who join only two societies.
A
B
C
D

13
15
16
18

ANSWERS
Chapter 11 Sets
3.1:
Sets

UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF SET.

31

1.
A={1,2,4,5,10,20}
n(A) = 6

2.
P={A,E,I,U}
n(P) = 4

3.
P={3,7}
n(P) = 2

3.2 (a) SUBSET

3.3.a

X
3

B= {5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}
n(B)= 8
B
C = {8,9} 11 17
n(C)= 2
13
C= {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12}
10
12 n(C)=
14
15 19
16
18 20

3.3(b)

UNION OF SETS.

A B = {4,5}
A
1
2

2 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}
n()= 12
=
A ={11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20}
{3,4,5,6,7}
n(A)= 5
B = {11,13,15,17,19}
A= B=
{1,2,8,9,10,11,12}
n(A)= 7
{12,14,16, 18 ,20}
B = {1,2,3,4}
n(B)= 4

INTERSECTION OF SETS.

1.

A B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

B
.4
.5

1
2

6
7

P
b
c

f
e
a d
u
i

.4
.5

6
7

3
2

5.
m=6

3.2 (b) UNIVERSAL SET

R P
X Y
QS
P
All Selemens
in set X is a member of
Q
set Y. P

4.
P={-3,-2,-1,0, 1,2,3}
n(P) = 7

Q
g

i
X

i)

ii)

ii)

X
Y

iii)

Sets

32
Y

Y
Z

iii)

4.
5

( M N ) = {4,12}
( M N )' = {2,6,8,10}
a)

( M N ) = {4,6,8,12}
( M N )' = {2,10}

3
4

a)

b)

A
B

b)

c)

c)

A
B

3.3(c)
1

COMBINED OPERATIONS ON SETS.

10
11
12

5
6
7

3 1 2
4

2a)

Z
P

9
b)

List the element of set


= {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}

n()= 12

P ={8,9}

n(P)=2

P= {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12}

n(P)=10

Q ={3,4,5,6,7}

n(Q)=5

Q={1,2,8,9,10,11,12}

n(Q)=7

R = {1,2,3,4}

n(R)=4

R= {5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}

n(R)=8

Y
X

c)
Y

X
d)

Sets

33

P Q={}

n( P Q)= 0

Q R= {3,4}

n( Q R)=2

P R= {}

n( P R)=0

P R={1,2,3,4}

n( P R)=4

Q R= {1,2}

n( Q R)=2

R Q= {5,6,7}

n( R Q)=3

Q R={1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

n( Q R)=7

Q P= {3,4,5,6,7,8,9}

n( Q P)=7

(Q R)={8,9,10,11,12}

n[(Q R)]=5

(Q P)= {1,2,10,11,12}

n[(Q P)]=5

P Q= {1,2,10,11,12}

n( P Q)=5

(P Q R)= {10,11,12}

e)
Z
Y

n [(P Q R)]=3

SPM FORMAT QUESTIONS


1. B
6. A
11. C
16. B

2.
7.
12
17

C
B
B
B

3.
8.
13
18

B
C
C
C

4. C
9. A
14 B
19 B

5. D
10 C
15 C
20. B

SPM PAST YEARS QUESTIONS (SETS)

2003.
2004.
2004J
2005
2005J
2006J
2006
2007J
2007
2008J
2008

Sets

1.
4.
7.
9.
12
15
17
20
22
25
28

D
C
B
D
D
B
D
A
D
D
C

2. C
5. C
8. D
10. C
13. D
16 D
18 C
21 C
23 C
26 D
29 B

34

3. B
6. A
11. C
14 B
19
22
24
27
30

A
D
B
B
C