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Chapter 3:

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 1

Transistor Construction

There are two types of transistors: pnp and npn-type.

Note: the labeling of the transistor:


E - Emitter
B - Base
C - Collector
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 2

Transistor Operation

With the external sources (VEE and VCC) in the polarities as shown:

The E-B junction is forward-biased and the B-C junction is reverse biased.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 3

Currents in a Transistor

IE IC IB

[Formula 3.1]

Note that IC is comprised of two currents:

IC ICmajority ICOminority

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

[Formula 3.2]

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 4

Common Base Configuration

The base is common to both input (emitter base) and output (collector base) of the
transistor.

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 5

Input Characteristics for a Common-Base Amplifier

This demonstrates the input current IE to input voltage VBE for various levels of output
voltage VCB.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 6

Output Characteristics for a Common-Base Amplifier

This demonstrates the output current IC to an output voltage VCB for various levels of input
current IE.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 7

3 Regions of Operation
Active
Operating range of the amplifier.
Cutoff
The amplifier is basically off. There is voltage but little
current.
Saturation
The amplifier is full on. There is little voltage but lots of
current.

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 8

Approximations

IC IE

VBE 0.7

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

[Formula 3.3]

[Formula 3.4]

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Alpha ()

Slide 9

Alpha () relates the DC currents IC to IE :

dc

IC
IE

[Formula 3.5]

Ideally = 1, but in reality it is between 0.9 and 0.998.


Alpha () in AC mode:
IC
ac
IE VCB constant

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

[Formula 3.6]

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Transistor Amplification

Slide 10
The AC input is amplified.
[Fig. 3.12]
IE Ii

Vi 200mV

10mA
Ri
20

IC IE so IL Ii = 10mA
VL = IL * R = (10mA)(5k) = 50V
Voltage Gain (AV):

Av

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

VL
50V

250
Vi 200mV

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 11

Common Emitter Configuration

The Emitter is common to both input (base-emitter) and output (collector-emitter).


The input is on the Base and the output is on the Collector.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 12

Characteristics of Common-Emitter

Collector characteristics = output characteristics.


Base characteristics = input characteristics.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 13

Amplifier Currents

IE = IC + IB
IC = IE

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Actual Amplifier Currents

Slide 14
IC = IE + ICBO

ICBO = minority collector current. This is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in
high power transistors and in high temperature environments.

ICEO

ICBO
1

IB 0 A

[Formula 3.9]

When IB = 0A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority current flowing called
ICEO.
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Beta ()

Slide 15

In DC mode:

In AC mode:

dc

ac

IC
IB

IC
IB

[Formula 3.10]

VCE constant

[Formula 3.11]

indicates the amplification factor of a transistor. ( is sometimes referred to as hfe, a


term used in transistor modeling calculations)

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Determining beta () from a Graph

Slide 16

(3.2mA 2.2mA) 1mA


AC

(forVCE 7.5) 100


(30 3 20 0 ) 10 0

Note: AC = DC
Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

DC

2.7mA
(forVCE 7.5) 108
25 A

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Slide 17

Relationship between and

Both indicate an amplification factor.

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

[Formula 3.12a]

[Formula 3.12b]

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Slide 18

provides a Relationship between Currents

IC IB

IE ( 1)IB

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

[Formula 3.14]

[Formula 3.15]

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Slide 19

Common Collector Configuration

The input on the Base and the output is on the Emitter.


Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 20

Characteristics of Common Collector

The Characteristics are similar to those of the Common-Emitter.


Except the vertical axis is IE.
IE
IB1
IB2
IB3

VCE

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 21

Note:

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Limitations of Operation for Each Configuration

VCE is at maximum and IC is at minimum (ICmax=ICEO) in the cutoff region.


IC is at maximum and VCE is at minimum (VCE max = VCEsat = VCEO) in the
saturation region.
The transistor operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff.
Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 22

Power of Dissipation

Common Base:

PCmax VCBIC

[Formula 3.18]

Common Emitter:

PCmax VCEIC

[Formula 3.16]

Common Collector: a

PCmax VCEIE

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 23

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Transistor Specification Sheet

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Slide 24

Transistor Testing
1. Curve Tracer
Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.
2. DMM
Some DMMs will measure DC or HFE.
3. Ohmmeter

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Slide 25

Robert Boylestad
Digital Electronics

Transistor Terminal Identification

Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.