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Fluid Mechanics is based on the consequences of what 4 basic ideas?

Cons. Of mass, 1st law, 2nd law, Newtons 2nd law


The average molecular distance is roughly 10x as far in a typical gas as
in a typical liquid
As temperature and pressure increase, the differences between gasses
and liquids become smaller.

What happens to the viscosity of a pesudoplastic fluid? decreases


with increasing velocity gradient.
What are the units of kinematic viscosity?

dV
dy

What is the difference between shear rate and shear stress? Shear rate is velocity with respect to
displacement (dV/dy), where shear stress is F/A.
The units of kinematic viscosity have the same units as thermal diffusivity and molecular diffusivity
(length^2/time).
What is specific weight and show its SI units. SW=Product of density and gravity.
What is 1 calorie? The amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C.
In English, the unit is Btu.
How do you get from

dP
PM

g to P2 P1e
dz
RT

gMz
RT

P2
dP
Mg
Mgz
P RT dz ln P1 RT P2 P1e

? Assuming T is constant,

Mgz
RT

What is the magnitude of the Buoyancy Force? It is equal to the difference in pressure between the top and
bottom depths.
Write down the expression for Archimedes Principle. The buoyant force on a submerged body is equal to the
weight of the fluid displaced.
What is the thin-walled assumption? This states that tensile is uniform over the wall thickness.
An oil well is h deep. The pressure of the oil at the bottom is equal to the pressure
of a column of sea water h deep. The density of the oil is roil. What is the gauge
pressure of the oil at the top of the well, (at the surface)?

Ptop Pbot oil gh

Mention 5 ways for energy transfer: Internal, Kinetic, Potential, Heat, Work

Ptop gh( water oil )

Internal energy as a function of work and heat: u


Injection work:

dF dQ

dm dm

dW dWinj dWn. f . ( Pv ) in dmin dWn. f .

Enthalpy h u Pv
Give one example of non-flow work: Work done by a turbine or compressor

Pbot water gh

Friction heating term in fluids vs. solids: friction heating in fluids: temperature increases produced by friction
heating in fluids are generally much less than those produced by rubbing two solids together.
Every term in Bernoullis Eqn. F=Friction heating term; dWn. f . The amount of work done on the fluid per unit
dm

mass.
As velocity decreases, Pressure increases. EXAMPLE: Diffuser
What happens to the gas diffusivities as temperature decreases? decreases
What happens to the temperature as the gas velocity increases? Why? As V increases, T decreases because the
gas converts more of its internal energy to Kinetic Energy.
What are the assumptions for Torricellis equation? Velocity at free surface is 0; P1=P2=Patm; No friction
or external work; Steady Flow
3 reasons why the measured flow rate is different in a Venturi Meter: Friction heating in the meter; Flow is
not entirely uniform; not one-dimensional.
Torricellis law is used for systems with a free-falling fluid.
V2

2 gh
2
2
1 ( A2 / A1 )

For small orifice holes and high flow rates, Cv=0.6


What does Cv depend on? Orifice hole to pipe diameter ratio and Reynolds number.
What does Torricellis equation express? A mass balance of a constant-density fluid solved for V2
If we can evaluate F what can we calculate using the BE equation? Pressures, Velocities, Elevations, Pipe
Diameters, etc.
Pressure Drop Experiment: Set Q with a flow-regulating valve; Measure Q with a scale and stopwatch;
Record P at SS; divide P by x and plot vs. Q. (for all gases at low velocities)
Relationship b/n P / x and high flow rates? P / x is proportional to Q raised to a value from 1.8-2.0
Laminar Flow: smooth, one-dimensional flow; Re<2000
Solving for velocity for a laminar flow taking in consideration the pressure forces and shear forces, the
2
r0 r 2 P1 P2
integration constant leads to what observation? V

x
Velocity at the pipe wall is 0 and highest in center of pipe;
Pressure gradient is independent of density and proportional to
V and .
Non-slip condition: the fluid at the walls of the pipe has zero
velocity. An example is leaves in a stream: in the middle they flow fast, on the banks very slowly.
2
2
r0 P1 P2
r0 r 2 P1 P2
0

C V

4
x
4
x

What does Hagen and Poiseuille expression show? It shows that the pressure drop is proportional to the
first power of Q
F in B.E. is dependent on what? It depends on flow rate, diameter, length, and

of horizontal flow.

What are the axes of the MOODY diagram? Reynolds Number and fanning friction factor

10 6 13
f 0.001375 [1 (20 ,000
) ] used for turbulent and transition regions. No theoretical basis.
D R
Why is the Darcy friction factor 4 times greater than the Fanning Friction factor? The hydraulic radius factor
is the pipe diameter (used in Fanning)
Why does the roughness of pipes change over time? Corrode or collect deposits
Which is rougher, cast iron or galvanized iron? Cast iron
For turbulent flows the heat-transfer coefficient and mass-transfer coefficient are related. How? Simply
because of f; the eddy which transports momentum also transports heat and mass
We can calculate the flow rate, given D, , , , and f. we can calculate D given , , , Q, and f.
For economic analysis we must consider the fluid is available at a high pressure and will eventually be
throttled to a low pressure, so the energy needed to overcome friction losses may come from the available
pressure drop.
The pumping cost decreases as pipe size increases. The pumping cost is proportional to the pressure drop: for
turbulent flow is proportional to the velocity to the 1.8 to 2.0 power divided by the diameter, so the pumping
cost is proportional to the reciprocal of the diameter to the 4.6 to 5 power
The economic pipe diameter is independent of how long the pipe is.
Both the pumping and capital costs are proportional to the pipe length.
The economic diameter is proportional to the friction factor to the 1/6 power.
The economic velocity is independent of the mass flow and dependent only on the fluid density and friction
factor.
How to P.D. pumps work? It causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing it into the
discharge pipe (decreases the volume of the cavity)

QP
Posup plied

P
=the height
g
to which a pump will lift a fluid at a given flow
rate.
Pump and compressor head: h

Steps of a piston-cylinder pump:


The piston starts downward, creating a slight vacuum in
the cylinder.

The pressure of the fluid in the inlet line is high enough relative to this vacuum to force open the left-hand one-way valve,
Fluid flows in during the entire downward movement of the piston.
The piston reaches the bottom of its stroke and starts upward. This raises the pressure in the cylinder higher than the pressure in the
inlet line, so the inlet valve is pulled shut.
The pressure continues to rise until it is higher than the pressure in the outlet line. If the fluid were totally incompressible, this
pressure rise would be instantaneous. For most liquids it is practically instantaneous. For gases, it is not instantaneous.
When the pressure in the cylinder is higher than the pressure in the outlet line, the one-way outlet valve is forced open.
The piston pushes the fluid out into the outlet line.
The piston starts downward again; the outlet valve closes, because the pressure in the cylinder has fallen, and the cycle begins again.

For incompressible fluids the volumetric flow rate is equal to piston area*travel*cycles/time.
Max height you can lift water at atmospheric temps=34 ft.
NPSH-Net Positive Suction Head-Patm limits how high a pump and lifts a liquid.
Pump cavitation occurs when the pressure in the pump inlet drops below the vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor
bubbles form at the inlet of the pump and are moved to the discharge of the pump where they collapse, often
taking small pieces of the pump with them. Cavitation occurs in high velocity fluids.
Reynolds Experiment- used liquid dye in a stream. In low flow rate region, the dye was a straight line. He
defined laminar flow.