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Chapter2b

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Part II.

D. Equations of Motion in Radial/Transverse Components

E. Angular Momentum of a Particle

F. Motion Under Central Forces: Conservation of Angular Momentum

G. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

D. Equations of Motion in Radial/Transverse

Components

∑ F = ma = m(r − rθ )

r r

2

∑ F = ma = m(rθ + 2rθ )

θ θ

Chapter 2, Page 15

Problem 2.11 (Sample Problem 12.6, Page 726)

a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a

horizontal plane at a constant rate θ0 .

Knowing that B is released at a distance

r0 from O, express as a function of r, ⎧ dvr

(a) the component vr of the velocity of r − rθ 2 )

⎧⎪ 0 = m( ⎪ = rθ02

⎨ => ⎨ dt

B along OA, and ⎩⎪ F = m(rθ + 2rθ ) ⎪ F = m(2v θ )

(b) the magnitude of the horizontal

⎩ r 0

= = vr r

dt dr dt dr

vr r

vr dvr = θ02 rdr , ∫

0

vr dvr = ∫

r0

θ02 r dr

vr = θ0 r 2 − r02

F = 2mθ02 r 2 − r02

Chapter 2, Page 16

Problem 2.12 (Problem 12.66, 8th edition)

r − rθ 2 )

⎨

⎪⎩∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ + 2rθ )

⎧⎪ 0.5 ⋅ 9.81⋅ cos30 = 0.5(

r − 0.6 ⋅ 22 )

⎨

⎩⎪−0.5 ⋅ 9.81⋅ sin 30 = 0.5(0 + 2r ⋅ 2)

⎨

⎩⎪ v B OA = r = −1.226 m/s

Chapter 2, Page 17

Problem 2.13 (Problem 12.72, 8th edition)

r − rθ 2 )

⎨

⎩⎪∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ + 2rθ )

⎨

⎩⎪9 = 0.23(0 + 2 ⋅ r ⋅15)

⎧r = 0.3346 m

⎨

⎩r = 1.304 m/s

Chapter 2, Page 18

E. Angular Momentum of a Particle

H O = r × mv

H O is perpendicular to plane containing r and mv .

H O = rmv sin φ = rmvθ = rm(rθ )

H O = mrvθ = mr 2θ

Derivative of angular momentum

H O = r × mv + r × mv = r × ma = r × ∑ F = ∑ ( r × F )

∑ M O = H O

It follows from Newton’s second law that the sum of the

moments about O of the forces acting on the particle is

equal to the rate of change of the angular momentum of

the particle about O.

Chapter 2, Page 19

F. Motion Under Central Forces: Conservation of

Angular Momentum

When no forces acting on a particle, both linear momentum

and angular momentum are conserved.

When the only forces acting on particle are directed toward

or away from a fixed point O, the particle is said to be

moving under central forces. In these cases

∑ M O = H O = 0

or

H O = mr 2θ = const

dA

r 2θ = 2 = const

dt

When a particle moves under a central force, its areal

velocity is constant.

Chapter 2, Page 20

Problem 2.14 (Problem 12.94, 8th edition)

momentum:

r1vθ 1 = r2 vθ 2

0.15 ⋅ (0.15 ⋅12) = 0.6 ⋅ vθ 2

vθ 2 = 0.45 m/s

(b) Kinetics at B:

Fr = mar , Fθ = maθ

5(0.15) = 0.3ar , 0 = 0.3aθ

ar = 2.50 m/s 2 , aθ = 0

0.45 2

2.50 = r − 0.6( )

0.6

r = 2.84 m/s 2

Chapter 2, Page 21

Problem 2.15 (Problem 12.92, 8th edition)

Block A:

2.6

−T = r − 0.6 ⋅102 )

(

32.2

Block B:

2.6

T − 2.6 = a

32.2 B

Kinematics:

aB = r

Solve the equations,

T = 3.72 lb , r = 13.90 ft s 2

Conservation of angular

momentum:

r1vθ 1 = r2 vθ 2

0.6 ⋅ (0.6 ⋅10) = 0.9 ⋅ vθ 2

vθ 2 = 4.0 ft/s

Chapter 2, Page 22

G. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Two particles of mass M and m attract each other

with equal and opposite force directed along the

line connecting the particles,

Mm

F =G

r2

where

−12 m3 −9 ft

3

G = 66.73 × 10 = 34.4 × 10

kg ⋅ s 2 lb ⋅ s 4

GM

W =m = mg

R2

m ft

g = 9.81 2

= 32.2 2

s s

Chapter 2, Page 23

Problem 2.16 (Sample Problem 12.7, Page 726)

parallel to the surface of the earth with a

velocity of 30,000 km/h from an

altitude of 400 km. Determine the

velocity of the satellite as it reaches it

maximum altitude of 4000 km. The

radius of the earth is 6370 km.

Conservation of angular momentum about O,

mrAvθ A = mrB vθ B

(6370 + 400)30,000 = (6370 + 4000)v B

v B = 19,590 km/h

Chapter 2, Page 24

Problem 2.17 (Problem 12.80, Page 731)

GMm mv 2 GM R = 6.37 × 106 m

= , v=

r 2

r r GM = gR 2 = 0.39806 × 1015 m 3 /s 2

The period to complete one orbit: 1

1 ⎡ (0.39806E15)(23.934 × 3600) ⎤ 2 3

2π r 2π r ⎣ 4π 2 ⎦

T= = , r=⎜ ⎟

v GM ⎝ 4π 2 ⎠ = 42.145 × 10 m

6

GM 0.39806 × 1015

(b) v= = = 3,073 m/s

r 42.145 × 106

Chapter 2, Page 25

Problem 2.18 (Problem 12.86, Page 732)

last problem

Chapter 2, Page 26

Problem 2.18 (Continued)

For earth,

R = 6,370 km (a) Speed on transfer trajectory at B:

GM = gR 2 = 0.398 × 1015 m 3 /s 2 (v B )tr = 3,080 − 1,400 = 1,680 m/s

(b) Conservation of angular momentum

rA = 6,370 + 296 = 6,666 km

rA (v A )tr = rB (v B )tr

rB = 6,370 + 35,580 = 41,950 km

rB (v B )tr

Speed on circular orbit: (v A )tr = = 10,572 m/s

rA

GM

(v A )circ = = 7,728 m/s Change in speed at A:

rA

(v A )tr − (v A )circ = 10,572 − 7,728 = 2,844 m/s

GM

(v B )circ = = 3,080 m/s

rB

Chapter 2, Page 27

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