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Chapter 2

Particle Dynamics: Newton's 2nd Law

Part II.
D. Equations of Motion in Radial/Transverse Components
E. Angular Momentum of a Particle
F. Motion Under Central Forces: Conservation of Angular Momentum
G. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
D. Equations of Motion in Radial/Transverse
Components

∑ F = ma = m(r − rθ )
r r
2

∑ F = ma = m(rθ + 2rθ )
θ θ

Chapter 2, Page 15
Problem 2.11 (Sample Problem 12.6, Page 726)

A block B of mass m can slide freely on


a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a
horizontal plane at a constant rate θ0 .
Knowing that B is released at a distance
r0 from O, express as a function of r, ⎧ dvr
(a) the component vr of the velocity of r − rθ 2 )
⎧⎪ 0 = m( ⎪ = rθ02
⎨ => ⎨ dt
B along OA, and ⎩⎪ F = m(rθ + 2rθ ) ⎪ F = m(2v θ )
(b) the magnitude of the horizontal
⎩ r 0

force exerted on B by the arm OA. dvr dvr dr dv


= = vr r
dt dr dt dr
vr r
vr dvr = θ02 rdr , ∫
0
vr dvr = ∫
r0
θ02 r dr

vr = θ0 r 2 − r02

F = 2mθ02 r 2 − r02

Chapter 2, Page 16
Problem 2.12 (Problem 12.66, 8th edition)

⎧⎪∑ Fr = mar = m(


r − rθ 2 )

⎪⎩∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ + 2rθ )
⎧⎪ 0.5 ⋅ 9.81⋅ cos30 = 0.5(
r − 0.6 ⋅ 22 )

⎩⎪−0.5 ⋅ 9.81⋅ sin 30 = 0.5(0 + 2r ⋅ 2)

⎧⎪ aB OA = r = 10.90 m/s 2



⎩⎪ v B OA = r = −1.226 m/s

Chapter 2, Page 17
Problem 2.13 (Problem 12.72, 8th edition)

⎧⎪∑ Fr = mar = m(


r − rθ 2 )

⎩⎪∑ Fθ = maθ = m(rθ + 2rθ )
 

⎧⎪−60 ⋅ r = 0.23(−12 − r ⋅152 )



⎩⎪9 = 0.23(0 + 2 ⋅ r ⋅15)
⎧r = 0.3346 m

⎩r = 1.304 m/s

Chapter 2, Page 18
E. Angular Momentum of a Particle

Angular momentum of a particle about O


  
H O = r × mv
  
H O is perpendicular to plane containing r and mv .
H O = rmv sin φ = rmvθ = rm(rθ )

H O = mrvθ = mr 2θ
Derivative of angular momentum
          
H O = r × mv + r × mv = r × ma = r × ∑ F = ∑ ( r × F )
 
∑ M O = H O
It follows from Newton’s second law that the sum of the
moments about O of the forces acting on the particle is
equal to the rate of change of the angular momentum of
the particle about O.

Chapter 2, Page 19
F. Motion Under Central Forces: Conservation of
Angular Momentum
When no forces acting on a particle, both linear momentum
and angular momentum are conserved.
When the only forces acting on particle are directed toward
or away from a fixed point O, the particle is said to be
moving under central forces. In these cases
 
∑ M O = H O = 0
or
H O = mr 2θ = const
dA
r 2θ = 2 = const
dt
When a particle moves under a central force, its areal
velocity is constant.

Chapter 2, Page 20
Problem 2.14 (Problem 12.94, 8th edition)

(a) Conservation of angular


momentum:
r1vθ 1 = r2 vθ 2
0.15 ⋅ (0.15 ⋅12) = 0.6 ⋅ vθ 2
vθ 2 = 0.45 m/s
(b) Kinetics at B:
Fr = mar , Fθ = maθ
5(0.15) = 0.3ar , 0 = 0.3aθ

ar = 2.50 m/s 2 , aθ = 0

(c) ar = r − rθ 2


0.45 2
2.50 = r − 0.6( )
0.6
r = 2.84 m/s 2

Chapter 2, Page 21
Problem 2.15 (Problem 12.92, 8th edition)
Block A:
2.6
−T = r − 0.6 ⋅102 )
(
32.2
Block B:
2.6
T − 2.6 = a
32.2 B
Kinematics:
aB = r
Solve the equations,
T = 3.72 lb , r = 13.90 ft s 2
Conservation of angular
momentum:
r1vθ 1 = r2 vθ 2
0.6 ⋅ (0.6 ⋅10) = 0.9 ⋅ vθ 2
vθ 2 = 4.0 ft/s

Chapter 2, Page 22
G. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Two particles of mass M and m attract each other
with equal and opposite force directed along the
line connecting the particles,

Mm
F =G
r2
where
−12 m3 −9 ft
3
G = 66.73 × 10 = 34.4 × 10
kg ⋅ s 2 lb ⋅ s 4

For particle of mass m on the earth’s surface,


GM
W =m = mg
R2
m ft
g = 9.81 2
= 32.2 2
s s

Chapter 2, Page 23
Problem 2.16 (Sample Problem 12.7, Page 726)

A satellite is launched in a direction


parallel to the surface of the earth with a
velocity of 30,000 km/h from an
altitude of 400 km. Determine the
velocity of the satellite as it reaches it
maximum altitude of 4000 km. The
radius of the earth is 6370 km.
Conservation of angular momentum about O,
mrAvθ A = mrB vθ B
(6370 + 400)30,000 = (6370 + 4000)v B
v B = 19,590 km/h

Chapter 2, Page 24
Problem 2.17 (Problem 12.80, Page 731)

For a circular orbit, For earth,


GMm mv 2 GM R = 6.37 × 106 m
= , v=
r 2
r r GM = gR 2 = 0.39806 × 1015 m 3 /s 2
The period to complete one orbit: 1

1 ⎡ (0.39806E15)(23.934 × 3600) ⎤ 2 3

⎛ GMT 2 ⎞ 3 (a) r=⎢ ⎥


2π r 2π r ⎣ 4π 2 ⎦
T= = , r=⎜ ⎟
v GM ⎝ 4π 2 ⎠ = 42.145 × 10 m
6

r h = 42,145 km − 6370 km = 35,775 km

GM 0.39806 × 1015
(b) v= = = 3,073 m/s
r 42.145 × 106

Chapter 2, Page 25
Problem 2.18 (Problem 12.86, Page 732)

last problem

Chapter 2, Page 26
Problem 2.18 (Continued)

For earth,
R = 6,370 km (a) Speed on transfer trajectory at B:
GM = gR 2 = 0.398 × 1015 m 3 /s 2 (v B )tr = 3,080 − 1,400 = 1,680 m/s
(b) Conservation of angular momentum
rA = 6,370 + 296 = 6,666 km
rA (v A )tr = rB (v B )tr
rB = 6,370 + 35,580 = 41,950 km
rB (v B )tr
Speed on circular orbit: (v A )tr = = 10,572 m/s
rA
GM
(v A )circ = = 7,728 m/s Change in speed at A:
rA
(v A )tr − (v A )circ = 10,572 − 7,728 = 2,844 m/s
GM
(v B )circ = = 3,080 m/s
rB

Chapter 2, Page 27