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Computer Networks (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad


Code No: 09A51203/R09
III B.Tech. I Semester Examinations

May/June - 2012

Set-3
Solutions

COMPUTER NETWORKS
( Information Technology )

Time: 3 Hours

Max. Marks: 75
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
---

1.

(a)

Explain the working of following controlled access methods,


(i)

Polling

(ii) Token passing (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.2)


(b)

What is FDMA? Explain its characteristics. [12+3] (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.3)

2.

What are the protocols used in application and Internet layer of TCP/IP reference model? Explain its features. [15]
(Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.3)

3.

Explain the working of 3-way handshake used in TCP. [15] (Unit-VII, Topic No. 7.2)

4.

(a)

What do you mean by fully qualified domain name and partially qualified domain name? Give one example for
each. (Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.2)

(b)

Explain the concept of hierarchy of name servers with an example. [7 + 8] (Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.2)

5.

Explain the function of various transmission media in terms of bandwidth, delay and cost. [15] (Unit-II, Topic No. 2.3)

6.

Explain the working of DVMRP. [15] (Unit-VI, Topic No. 6.9)

7.

(a)

What are the user data rates of STS -3, STS-9 and STS-12?

(b)

A stream of data is being carried by STS -1 frames. If the data rate of the stream is 49.540 Mbps, how many STS1 frames per second must let their H3 bytes carry data.

(c)

Why is SONET called a synchronous network?

(d)

What is the relationship between STS signal and OC signal? [15] (Unit-V, Topic No. 5.5)

(a)

PPP is based closely on HDLC, which uses bit stuffing to prevent accidental flag bytes within the payload from
causing confusion. Give at least one reason why PPP uses character stuffing instead.

(b)

What is the minimum overhead in sending an IP packet using PPP? Count only the overhead introduced by
PPP itself, not the IP header overhead.

(c)

A sliding window protocol used 6 bits to define the sequence number. What is the size of window? [6+5+4]
(Unit-III, Topic No. 3.10)

8.

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SOLUTIONS TO MAY/JUNE-2012, SET-3, QP


Q1.

(a)

Explain the working of following


controlled access methods,
(i)

Polling

(ii) Token passing.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q1(a) M[12]

Answer :

For answer refer Unit-IV, Q13, Topics: Polling, Token


Passing.
(b)

What is FDMA? Explain its characteristics.


Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q1(b) M[3]
FDMA
FDMA is a protocol which assigns every user a
separate frequency for communication.
Characteristics of FDMA
1.

It is applicable with both digital and analog signals.

2.

It uses high - performing filters in radio hardware.

3.

It overcomes the timing problems in TDMA with the


help of predetermined frequency band.

4.

It also overcomes the near-far problem encountered


in CDMA by filtering the frequency.

5.

It is capable of sharing a single satellite among


multiple users.

6.

It transmits the data continously and therefore does


not require synchronization bits.

Q2.

What are the protocols used in application


and Internet layer of TCP/IP reference
model? Explain its features.

Time Sharing Environment


TELNET was basically designed to support the
timesharing operating systems.
In a time sharing environment a number of users are
supported by a large computer in which their interaction
occurs through a terminal. A terminal is a combination of
monitor, mouse and a keyboard. Using a terminal emulator,
the microcomputer can also simulate the terminal.
Logging
The user has a right to access the resources of a
system in a time sharing environment. To get access rights,
a user has an identification and a password. By typing the
user ID (or log-in) password a user get connected to the
system. The system has a mechanism to verify whether the
password entered by a user is correct or not. If the user has
no access privileges (i.e., entered password is incorrect) he/
she is denied to access the system resources. Log-in can be
either local log-in or remote log-in.
Local Log-in
Local log-in is nothing but the log-in action performed
by a user with a local time sharing system. The terminal
emulator simulate the terminal, as soon as a user enters keys.
These key stokes are accepted by terminal driver which
inturn passes them to operating system. After receiving the
keystrokes, the operating system interprets the combination
of characters and executes the required application program.

Application
programs

May/June-12, Set-3, Q2 M[15]

Answer :

Protocols used in application and internet layer of


TCP/IP reference model are as follows,
Application Layer Protocols
(a)

TELNET

(b)

FTP

(c)

SMTP

(d)

DNS.

TELNET
The general purpose client/server application
program is terminal network abbreviated as TELNET. It is
a standard TCP/IP protocol proposed by ISO (International
Organization for Standards) for terminal service. The
connection established by a TELNET to a remote system
makes the local terminal to appear as remote terminal.

Terminal driver
Terminal
Operating system

..
..
.
..
..
.

(a)

Figure (a): Local Log-in

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Computer Networks (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad

Remote Log-in
Remote log-in is a logging process in which a user access the application program that is stored in a remote system.
In this sort of logging process TELNET client/server program are used.
Remote log-in done in the following step-wise manner.
Step 1
Whenever user enters the characters, the keystrokes are sent to terminal driver.
Step 2
The local operating system in the terminal driver accepts but does not interpret the characters.
Step 3
The operating system forwards the characters to the TELNET client.
Step 4
Upon receiving the characters, the TELNET client converts them into a universal character set called network
virtual terminal character set.
Step 5
After conversion, the TELNET client delivers the characters to local TCP/IP protocol suite.
Step 6
The converted characters arrives at remote TCP/IP protocol suite via., internet.
Step 7
The protocol suite delivers the characters to the operating system, which inturn passes them to TELNET server.
Step 8
Upon receiving, TELNET server converts the NVT character format into a format easily interpreted by remote
system.
Since, the remote operating system is not designed to accept the characters directly from a TELNET server, a
software called a pseudoterminal driver is introduced. This software accepts the characters as if they are comming from a
terminal. Finally the application program receives the characters by an operating system.
Application
programs

Operating
system

Terminal

Terminal
driver

Operating system
TCP

TCP

IP

IP

Data link

Data link

Physical

Physical

Pseudo
terminal
driver

Internet
TELNET client

(b)
(c)
(d)

TELNET Server

Figure (b): Remote Log-in


FTP
For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q16, Topic: FTP Protocol.
SMTP
For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q13 Topic: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
DNS
For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q1, Topic: Domain Name Space (DNS).
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Internet Layer Protocol


The internet layer of TCP/IP reference model consists of only one protocol namely IP. There are two versions of
IP Protocol which are as follows,

(i)

(i)

IPV4

(ii)

IPV6.

IPV4

IPV4 is an original internet protocol and is generally called as IP. It operates on a 32-bit addressing system and is
expressed in terms of 4 octets as xx. xx. xx. xx. This protocol is a core layer 2 protocol in TCP/IP protocol.
(ii)

IPV6

IPV6 is the improved version of IP/IPV4. IPV6 operates on 128-bit address space and was introduced to overcome the
drawbacks of the IPV4 such as the size of address space and the lack of security. This 128-bit address space successfully
eliminates the shortage of address space in the IPV4 internet protocol.
Q3.

Explain the working of 3-way handshake used in TCP.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q3 M[15]

Answer :
For answer refer Dec.-11, Set-1, Q7(b).
Q4.

(a)

What do you mean by fully qualified domain name and partially qualified domain name?
Give one example for each.

Answer :

May/June-12, Set-3, Q4(a) M[7]

For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q5, Topic: Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), Partially Qualified Domain Name
(PQDN).
(b)

Explain the concept of hierarchy of name servers with an example.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q4(b) M[8]

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q5.
Q5.

Explain the function of various transmission media in terms of bandwidth, delay and cost.
May/June-12, Set-3, Q5 M[15]

Answer :
Various Transmission Media
Transmission media is broadly classified into two types,

(i)

(i)

Guided transmission media

(ii)

Unguided transmission media.

Guided Transmission Media


For answer refer Unit-II, Q18.
The following table shows the description of the guided transmission media in terms of bandwidth and cost.
Guided Transmission Media

Bandwidth

Cost

Twisted pair cable

250 MHz-600 MHz

Less expensive

Coaxial cable

1 GHz

More expensive

Fibre Optics

25,000 - 30,000 GHz

Highly expensive

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Computer Networks (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad


(ii)

Unguided Transmission Media


For answer refer Unit-II, Q19.
The following table shows the description of the unguided transmission media in terms of bandwidth and cost.
Guided Transmission Media

Bandwidth

Cost

Radio wave transmission

30 MHz to 1 GHz

More expensive

Infrared transmission

400 THz

Light wave transmission

Bandwidth is high

Less expensive

Q6. Explain the working of DVMRP.


Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VI, Q45, Topic: DVMRP.

May/June-12, Set-3, Q6 M[15]

Q7. (a) What are the user data rates of STS 3, STS-9 and STS 12?
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q7(a)
At every second, SONET transmits 8000 frames and the STS n frame comprises (9 n 86) bytes where 9
corresponds to rows and 86 corresponds to columns. So, the user data rate can be calculated as follows,
User-data rates of STS 3 8000 (9 n 86) 8
STS 3 8000 (9 3 86) 8
8000 (2322) 8
= 148 608 mbps
User data rate of STS 9 8000 (9n86) 8 n = 9
= 8000 (9 9 86) 8
= 8000 (6966) 8
= 445.824 mbps
User data rate of STS 12 8000 (9n86) 8 n = 12
= 8000 (9 12 86) 8
= 8000 (9288) 8
= 594.423 mbps
(b)

A stream of data is being carried by STS -1 frames. If the data rate of the stream is 49.540
Mbps, how many STS-1 frames per second must let their H3 bytes carry data.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q7(b)
The user data rate of STS 1 is (80009868) = 49.536 mbps
The given data rate stream is 49.540 mbps
In order to carry the load of 49.540 mbps it requires 49.540 49.536
= 4 mbps of another load
= 0.004 =

4
= 4 103
1000

= 4 103 mbps
= 4 103 106
= 4000 kbps

500
Now insert the incurred number of bytes into every 8000 frames = 4000 = 500 Bytes.
8
Hence, 500 frames out of 8000 frames. Let their H3 bytes to carry data.
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(c) Why is SONET called a synchronous network?


Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q7(c)
The SONET is considered as synchronous because of the following reasons,
1.
Every connection in it has constant bit rate and delay.
2.
It performs traffic control at fixed multiples of basic rate i.e., 64 kbits/s even in the absence of variable stuff bits or
complex rate adoption.
3.
It increases or decreases the number of signals by implementing single multiplexing process.
4.
It eliminates bit stuffing.
5.
It maintains the timing variance with the support of pointer system.
6.
Every clock in it exhibits exactly same or nearly same average frequency.
(d) What is the relationship between STS signal and OC signal?
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q7(d)
The relationship between STS and OC signals is that STSs are a hierarchy of electrical signalling levels defined by
SONET whereas OCs are the corresponding optical signals of STS.
For instance, OC -1 is the optical signal associated with STS -1 at a data rate of 51.840 mbps.
Q8. (a) PPP is based closely on HDLC, which uses bit stuffing to prevent accidental flag bytes within
the payload from causing confusion. Give at least one reason why PPP uses character stuffing
instead.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q8(a) M[6]
PPP is based closely on High-level Data Link Control (HDLC), which uses bit stuffing to prevent accidental flag bytes within the
payload from causing confusion. So, the reasons why PPP uses character stuffing instead of bit stuffing are as follows,
1.
PPP is purely character-oriented rather than bit-oriented.
2.
PPP utilizes character stuffing on modem lines therefore every PPP frame should be an integral number of bytes. With HDLC it
is possible to send a frame containing 30.25 bytes whereas with PPP it is highly impossible.
3.
In the payload field, every PPP frame initiates with the traditional HDLC flag byte (i.e.,), 01111110, which is character stuffed.
4.
There are two ways of sending PPP frames. They are as follows,
(a) With the help of telephone dial-up modem lines.
(b) With the help of Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or pure bit-oriented HDLC lines like router-router connections.
5.
PPP frames supports built-in error detection, option negotiation, authentic transmission using HDLC framing.
6.
The main reason why PPP uses character stuffing instead of bit stuffing is because the number of frames to be sent over a dialup connection is an integer, and it never exists in the form of 25.20 bytes as it is with HDLC. Hence, PPP can also be used for
SONET and other bit oriented HDLC lines.

(b)

What is the minimum overhead in sending an IP packet using PPP? Count only the overhead
introduced by PPP itself not the IP header overhead.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q8(b) M[5]
The minimum overhead introduced in sending and IP packet using PPP can be measured by calculating the size of
PPP frame format. It contains,
(i) Two flag bytes
(ii) Two bytes for protocol field,
(iii) Checksum field containing 2 bytes.
So, the minimum overhead involved is flag held = 2 Bytes protocol field 2Bytes and Checksum = 2 Bytes
2+2+2
= 6 Bytes
(c) A sliding window protocol used 6 bits to define the sequence number. What is the size of
window?
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q8(c) M[4]
The size of the sliding window = 2n - 1
Sequence number size n = 6
= 26 1
= 64 1 = 63
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