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# Chapter 2

Questions:
2-1. Distinguish between a generator and a motor?
A generator is an electromagnetic device that converts mechanical energy into rotating electrical
mechanical force. A motor is just the opposite It converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.

## 2-2. What is an armature? A field?

Armature is the rotating part of a dynamo, consisting essentially of copper wire wound around an iron
core. Field is simply to create a magnetic field (magnetic flux) for the armature to interact with, thus

the field component can comprise either permanent magnets, or electromagnets formed by a
conducting coil.

2-3. What two important requirements are necessary before generator action is possible?
2-4. What two important requirements are necessary before motor action is possible?
is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric
circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It
is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types
of electrical motors, generators and solenoids

2-6. In what two ways is it possible to generate a higher voltage in a moving conductor?
2-7. how many lines of force must be cut per second if 1 volt is to be generate in a moving conductor?
2-8. In an actual generator, what effect has the number of parallel paths in the armature winding upon
the terminal voltage?
2-9. What effect has the number of armature paths upon the current-carrying ability of generator?
2-10. Is the power output of a generator affected by the number of parallel paths in the armature
2-11. Derive the fundamental voltage equation for the dc generator.
2-12. Write the fundamental voltage equation as a function of the total number of armature conductors
and the number of the armature-winding circuits.
2-13. What two factors determine the direction of the generated voltage in a conductor moving through
a magnetic field ?
2-14. Considering a DC generator, in what two ways can the polarity (plus and minus) of the brushes be
changed?

2-15. Using the fictitious rubber-ban comparison, explain how the direction of the generated voltage
may be determined.
2-16. State Lenzs law.
2-17. Using lenzs law, explain how the direction of the generated voltage may be determined.
2-18. What kind of current flows in the armature conductors of a DC generator?
2-19. What is alternating current? What is meant by the frequency of an alternating current?
2-20. What is commutator? Describe its construction.
2-21. What factors determine the frequency of a generated alternating voltage?
2-22. Carefully describe the commutations process, using appropriate sketches to illustrate your answer.
2-23. Why it is desirable to have many coils of wire and commutator segments on the armature of a DC
generator?
2-24. What kind of current is theoretically delivered to a load by a DC generator?
2-25. What is meant by torque?
2-26. What factors determine the force exerted by a conductor on the armature of a Dc motor?
2-27. Will a force exerted by a conductor carrying a current when it is placed parallel to a magnetic field?
Explain carefully.
2-28. What happens to the existing uniform field is a conductor carrying a current is place in this field?
2-29. Using s sketch showing a two-pole motor with a single coil placed with its two sides under the pole
centers, describe how torque is develop by the coil.
2-30. Why is the torque develop by those conductors occupying positions in the inter-polar spaces of a
motor?

Chapter 3
Questions:
3-2. Name the various parts of the dynamo and indicate which parts are stationary and which rotate.
3-4. What is meant by pole core? Pole shoe?
3-6. Why are laminations used in constructing the field core?
3-8. What two kinds of field winding are used for generators and motors? Describe the construction of
each.
3-10. What is yoke? What purposes does it serve? How it is usually constructed?
3-12. Describe a commutator construction.
3-14. What is the function of the armature winding in a generator? In a motor?
3-16. What keeps the brushes in good contact with the commutator?
3-18. What purpose is served by the brush pigtails?
3-20. Name the two general types of armature winding.
3-22. In general, what is a frog-leg winding?
3-24. Explain what would happen if the coil span were 360 electrical degrees in a generator; in a motor.
3-26. What is the commutator pitch in the simplex-lamp winding? A duplex-lap winding? A multiplex-lap
winding?
3-28. Under what condition is the reentrancy of a duplex-lap winding single? Double?
3-30. What is the purpose of multiplex-lap windings?

3-32. What general rule can be used to determine the number of parallel paths in a multiplex-lap
winding?
3-34. Why must the ends of wave coils never be connected to the commutator exactly 360 electrical
degree apart?
3-36. Explain why only two brush acts need be used in a machine in which the armature is wave wound.
3-38. How are the conductors in each path of a wave winding distributed around the armature?
3-40. under what conditions is it desirable to use as many brush acts as pole in machines having wavewound armature?
3-42. Under what circumstances would it be desirable to use multiplex-wave windings?
3-44. Why it is impossible to have circulating current flowing in wave-wound armatures?
3-46. In tracing a simplex-wave winding once around the commutator, at what segment should one
arrive with respect to the starting point?
3-48. Why it is usually more satisfactory to construct armature that have more commutator segments
than slots?
3-50. What is meant by a double-element coil? a triple-element coil? When are they necessary?
3-52. what is meant by a dead or Dummy elements?
3-54. What purpose is served by a dummy elements?
3-56. Why are circulating currents detrimental to good operations?
3-58. what two important functions are served by equalizer connections in lap-wound armatures?
3-60. Exactly why does a frog-leg winding eliminate the necessity for using equalizer connections?
Explain carefully.
3-62. What is the origin of the term frog-leg winding?
3-64. How many parallel paths are there in a p-pole frog-leg winding?

Chapter 2
Problem:
2-2. calculate the average voltage generated in a moving conductor if it cuts 2.5 x 106 maxwells in 1/40
sec.; in 1/80 sec.
2-4. the armature winding of the generator of problem 2-3 is modified so that it has two parallel paths
instead of six. at what apeed should the machine be driven if it is to develop the same voltage as before
the change, assuming all other conditions to remain unchanged?
2-6. if the armature winding of prob. 2-5 had four parallel paths, what would have been the generated
voltage?
2-8. how may total conductors and conductors per slot would be necessary in the armature of prob. 2-7
if the winding had four parallel paths?
2-10. what is the frequency of the alternating voltage generated in the armature conductors of (a) a sixpole 900-rpm machine? (b) and eight-pole 750-rpm machine? (c) a 10-pole 500-rpm machine?
2-12. at what speed is an armature machine rotating in a 12-pole machine if the frequency in the
armature conductor s is 50 cps?
2-14. what torque will the conductor of prob. 2-13 develop if it lies on an armature the diameter of
which is 9 in.?
2-16. using the data of prob. 2-15, calculate the torque that will be developed if the flux density is
reduced by 5 percent while the current is increased to 40 amp.
2-18. what must be the total armature-winding current in prob. 2-17 if the torque increases to 1,200 lbft while the flux density drops by 4 per cent?

Chapter 3
Problem:
3-2. how many parallel paths are there in the armature windings of prob. 3-1 if (a), (b) and (c) are
simplex wave wound and the others are simplex-lap wound?
3-4. how many parallel paths are there in the windings of armatures that are wound (a) duplex-lap for
six poles? (b) triplex-lap for six poles? (c) duplex-lap for eight poles (d) triplex-lap for 10 poles? (e)
3-6. determine the degrees of reentrancy for the following lap windings : (a) duplex, 36 segments ; (b)
duplex , 35 segments ; (c) triplex, 117 segments (d) triplex, 116 segments (e) quadruplex, 286 segments.
3-8. determine the commutator pitches yc for the following wavewound armatures : (a) 75 segments,
four poles ; (b) 93 segments, four poles ; (c) 229 segments, six poles ; (d) 227 segments eight poles.
3-10. how many parallel paths are there in the following armature winding: (a) six-pole duplex-wave? (b)
six-pole triplex-wave? (c) eight-pole simplex-wave? (d) eight-pole duplex-wave? (e) eifht-pole triplexwave? (f) eight-pole quadruplex-wave?
3-12. a commutator has a 456 segments. indicate whether or not the windings are possible: (a) simplexwave for six poles; (b) triplex-wave for six poles; (c) duplex-wave for eight poles; (d) simplex-wave for 10
poles.
3-14. for each of the answers of prob. 3-13, trace the winding around the commutator and show that
the proper segment, ahead of or behind the first one, is reached.

3-16. will there be a dead element in each of the following combinations of slots and segments: (a) 33
slots, 99 segments? (b) 76 slots, 227 segments? (c) 39 slots, 77 segments?(d) 54 slots 216 segments?
3-18. the emf generated in each conductor of a six-pole simplex-wave armature winding is 0.48 volt. if
the armature has 42 slots and 125 commutator segments, and there are four turns per armaturewinding element, calculate the terminal voltage of the generator.
3-20. a 54-slot 216-segment armature has a four-pole lap armature that is equalized 100 per cent at the
commutator. (a) how many equalizer connections are there? (b) to what two segments is the first
equalizer connected?

3-22. make a table for prob. 3-21 similar to that given for example 9, p.80.
3-24. determine the coil and commutator pitches for a 72-slot 288-segment six-pole frog-leg armature
winding.

Plates
In

Direct current

Submitted to: Engr. Claro, Charito

## Date submitted: Dec. 12, 2014

Hindi mo ba alam.
By:siakol
Intro G,C 3x, D
G
C
G C
Hindi mo ba alam na ako'y nasasaktan
G
C
D
Sa tuwing ikaw ay aalis at hindi nag paalam
Em
Bm Em
Bm
Nais kong malaman mo na ako'y nag tatampo
C
Am
D
Pag nalimutan mo ang pasalubong ko
(same chords)
Hindi mo ba alam na ako'y nasasaktan
Pag nakikita kitang may ibang ka kwentuhan
Nais kong malaman mo na ako'y nandirito
Pwede ba ako kahit maki usyoso
Chorus
C
D
Bm
Em
Ngunit pag sapit ng gabi heto ka sa 'king tabi
Am
D
G G7
Sa pag ibig mo 'di ako nag sisisi
C
D
Bm
At pag gising sa umaga maamo mong
Em
mukha ang nakikita
Am
D
G
Na sa akin ay lubos na nagpa-paligaya.
Guitar G, C 3x, D
(same chords)
Hindi mo ba alam na ako'y nasasaktan
Sa tuwing ika'y na lulungkot at mata ay luhaan
Nais kong malaman mo yan ay pupunasan ko
Sa katapatan ng pagmamahal ko sa iyo.
Repeat Chorus
Solo part
e|---------------------8-7--7--10-8-7--5--7-8--------------------------------|

B|-----------7--5s7--7---------------------------------7-10-11---------------|
G|-----4-5-7---------------------------------------7-9---------7-9-----------|
D|-5-7----------------------------------------7-10---------------------------|
A|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
E|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
e|-7h9h7------7--7h9h7------7------------------------------------------------|
B|-------9-7--7--------9-7--7--------5-7-8-8s10--8-7-8-----------------------|
G|-----------------------------5-6-8--------------------10-8-7-5-------------|
D|---------------------------------------------------------------8-7-5-------|
A|---------------------------------------------------------------------8-7-5-|
E|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
e|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
B|-3-2-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
G|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
D|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
A|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
E|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Repeat Chorus
Hindi mo ba alam?
Ayos lang
By: siakol
Intro G,C 4x
G
C
Nais kong matulog ngunit di makatulog
G
C
Sa pag iisip ang utak ko'y nabubugnot
Am
C
Pahamak na pag ibig ito ako'y gulong gulo
Am
C
D
Tumatakbo ang oras ngunit gising pa rin ako
G
C
Nais kung mag sound trip ngunit brown out nga pala
G
C
Buwisit na ilaw ito dumagdag pa sa problema
Am
C
Kung di lang dahil sa kanya ngayon ay masaya
Am
A
D
Minsan lamang kung ma in love wala pang pag-asa ha..
Chorus
G
Bm
C
G
Ayos lang kahit pa nasasaktan ang puso ko
Em
Bm
C
D
Kung sino pang minamahal sya pa ang ayaw sa 'yo
G
Bm
C
G
Totoong problema ngingiti na lang ako
Em
Bm
C
D
G
Kung sino pang mina mahal s'ya pa ang ayaw sa 'yo
Guitar G, C 4x
same chords
Nais kong mab beer house ngunit kulang ang pera
Kayat nag kakape na lang dag-dag pa sa kaba
Tutal wala naman akong dapat ika takot
Dahil darating din ang araw syay aking malilimohot
Tulay
C

Am

## Kung di man sya makuha sa iba ay cha-chamba

C
G
Am
D
Basta't ako'y bahala na malimot lang siya ha
Repeat 1st Stanza
Repeat Chorus 2x