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8/11/2013

Orthographic Projections Lecture – 3

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Introduction - Projections

One is often interested in conveying the general appearance of an object or to depict the object so that its dimensions can be easily derived

To do this one represents the object on a two-dimensional display surface

These methods of representation as well as the representations themselves are called as projections

The projections are produced by mapping every point on the object onto a plane

The type of mapping of a point onto to plane determines the type of projection

The type of the projection required is influenced by the purpose of the representation

Planar Geometric Projections and Viewing Transformations, 1978, I. Carlbom and J. Paciorek, Computing Surveys, 10(4), 465-502

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Types of Projections
Projection
Map Projection
Planar Geometric Projection
Perspective
Parallel
One Point
Two Point
Three Point
Oblique
Orthographic
Cavalier
Cabinet
Multiview
Axonometric
(single view)
Isometric
Dimetric
Trimetric
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Multiview Orthographic Projections

Planar Geometric Projection: This is obtained by passing straight lines called projectors through each point of the object and then finding the image formed by the intersection of these projectors with the plane of projection

Parallel Projection: The projectors are parallel to each other

Orthographic Projection: The projectors are perpendicular to the projection plane

Multiview Projection: More than one view of the object are shown

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Orthographic Projection

Projectors are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of projection

Two reference or principal planes of projection V.P. – vertical (frontal) plane H.P. – horizontal plane

Projection on V.P. – front view or elevation Projection on H.P. – top view or plan

Intersection of the V.P. and the H.P. is called the reference line and is denoted by xy

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Methods of Orthographic Projections

First Angle Projection

Third Angle Projection

Only the 1 st and the 3 rd quadrants are opened out

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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First Angle Projection

Object is assumed to be situated in the first quadrant

Object lies between the observer and the plane of projection

The top view comes below the front view

Each projection shows the view of the surface which is remote from the plane on which it is projected

The view of the of the object as observed from the left-side is drawn to the right side of the front view and vice versa

Recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards (B.I.S)

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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

Third Angle Projection

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

Object is assumed to be situated in the third quadrant

Plane of projection lies between the observer and the object

The top view comes above the front view

Each projection shows the view of the surface which is nearest to the plane on which it is projected

The view of the of the object as observed from a particular side is drawn to the same side of the front view

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Symbols for Method of Projections

On any drawing it essential to indicate the method of projection adopted

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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

Six Views of an Object

In some cases two views (front and top) may not be sufficient to describe the object completely

Need to use additional views (right hand side view, left hand side view, bottom view and back view)

Method: Assume that the object is enclosed in a square box and carry out the projections on the faces of the box using either first angle or third angle method

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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Multiview Orthographic Projections

Uses: Machine drawing, architectural drawings

Advantages: Can measure distances and angles directly from the drawing

Disadvantages: Needs two or more moves to convey the necessary information Does not give a realistic view of the object

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Dimensioning

Size is shown by ‘dimensions’ which show linear distances, diameters, radii, angles

Need to show only those dimensions which convey the information in the best possible way

Placing of Dimensions

Aligned System

Unidirectional System

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Rules for Dimensioning

Dimensioning should be done completely

Each dimension should be given only once

Dimensions should be placed outside the views

Mutual crossing of the dimension lines should be avoided

Dimensioning of hidden lines should be avoided

Dimension lines should not cross any other lines of the drawing

An outline or a center line should not be used as a dimension line

A zero is should always precede the decimal when the dimension is less than one, i.e. write 0.5 instead of .5.

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Dimensioning

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Ref: Engineering Drawing by Boundy Aw

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Dimensioning

Ref: Engineering Drawing by Boundy Aw

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Dimensioning of Some Common Features

Dimensioning of Circles

Dimension figure should be preceded by ø

Holes should be dimensioned in the view in which they appear as circles

Hole center should be located by center lines

Dimension figure should be preceded by R

Arcs of circles should be dimensioned by respective radii

Dimension line of the radius should pass through the center of the arc

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Types of Lines (Refer to pg. 35 of the textbook for details)

Outline/Object lines (thick)

Hidden lines (thin)

(dash space dash space ….)

Dimension lines (thin)

Center lines (thin)

(long dash space short dash space long dash

Extension lines (thin)

Section lines (thin) (inclined at 45 0 )

Break lines (thick)

Cutting plane lines (thick)

Each line has a definite meaning

)

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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

Precedence of Lines

Coincident lines may exist in the same view. In such a case, use the following order to establish the precedence

Visible object lines

Hidden lines

Center line or cutting plane lines

Break lines

Dimension and extension lines

Crosshatch/section line

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Problem 1

Draw the front view, top view and the left hand side view of the object using the first angle method of projection

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Problem 1 - Solution

Important to indicate the projection method used. Has to be there in all your drawings

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Problem 2

Draw the front view, top view and the right hand side view of the object using the

first angle method of projection

M
X
Y
N

The direction of viewing for the front view is denoted by an arrow

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Problem 3
Draw the front view, top view and the right hand side view of the object using the
third angle method of projection
M
X
Y
N
The direction of viewing for the
front view is denoted by an arrow
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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Problem 4
Draw the front view, top view and the left hand side view of the object using the
first angle method of projection
M
X
Y
N
The direction of viewing for the
front view is denoted by an arrow
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Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

Problem 4

Draw the front view, top view and the left hand side view of the object using the first angle method of projection

X
B A

The direction of viewing for the front view is denoted by an arrow

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Problem 4 - Solution

X

M
Y
N

Important to indicate the projection method used. Has to be there in all your drawings

Ref: Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt et. al

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Scales

May not be always possible to produce full scale drawing i.e. 1:1

They are therefore drawn smaller or larger

When drawings are drawn smaller than the actual size of the objects, the scale used is said to be a reducing scale, e.g 1:2

When drawings are drawn larger than the actual size of the objects, the scale used is said to be a enlarging scale, e.g 2:1

One way of representating the scale is by the use of representative fraction (R.F)

. =

E.g. If 1 cm on the drawing represents 1 m of the of the object/distance then

. =

1

1

1

1 = 100 = 100

and the scale is written as SCALE 1:100

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END

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