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Notes for Semiconductor Devices of BTech (2013 Scheme) Kerala Unviversity

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Semiconductor Devices

Module 1

Syllabus

1. Streetman & Banerjee : Solid State Electronic Devices, 6/e, PHI

2. S.M.Sze: Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3/e, Wiley Eastern

3. V. Suresh Babu: Solid State Devices & Technology, Sanguine, Bangalore, 2005.

Page 1

Module 1

Crystal structure:

The structures of solid materials are described with three main categories. These

categories are:

1. Crystalline

2. Amorphous

3. Polycrystalline

Crystals are arranged in a periodic fashion. That is, there is some basic arrangement

of atoms that is repeated throughout the entire solid.

Amorphous have no periodic structure.

Polycrystalline are composed of many small regions of single-crystal material.

The crystal structure is known as the lattice or lattice structure.

The locations of each of the atoms in the lattice are known as the lattice points.

A unit cell is a volume-enclosing group of atoms that can be used to describe the

lattice by repeated translations.

A primitive cell is the smallest possible unit cell. Often primitive cells are not easy to

work with and thus we often use slightly larger unit cells to describe the crystals.

Cubic Lattices

Question:

There are three of very simple basic unit cells that are

Part B

often seen in crystalline structures. They are:

Define lattice. Explain about

1. Simple cubic (sc) structure

different lattice structure.

2. Body-centered cubic (bcc) structure

3. Face-centered cubic (fcc) structure

The sc structure has an atom located at each corner of the unit cell. The bcc lattice has

an additional atom at the center of the cube, and fcc unit cell has atoms at the eight

Page 2

Module 1

corners and centered on the six faces. All three structures have different primitive

cells, but the same cubic unit cell.

Maximum packing fraction of sc lattice structure:

Consider the sc structure shown below:

Let a is inter-atomic spacing and r is the radius of an atom. Then relationship between

a and r is = 2. ---(1)

Question:

Consider unit cell as a sphere, then volume of

Part A

4

sphere = 1 3 3 . ---(2)

Give the relationship

between radius of atom

The volume of unit cell, = 3 . ---(3)

and lattice constant of

Packing fraction is given as =

. From (2) and (3) different lattice structures.

4

3

3

3

4

3

3

8 3

= 0.524 = 52.4%

Consider the bcc structures shown below:

Page 3

Module 1

=

()2 + ()2 = 2 + 2 = 2.

()2 + ()2 =

22 + 2 = 3.

Also from bogy diagonal, = 4.

Then equating above equations, 4 = 3 --- (1)

Consider spheres in unit cell, then volume

of

sphere = 2 3 3 . ---(2)

substituting (1), =

8

3 3

3

43 3

3

8

Question:

Part A

How many atoms are found

inside a unit cell of a sc, a bcc,

and an fcc crystal? How far

apart in terms of lattice

constant a are the nearest

neighbor atoms in each case,

measured from center to

center?

8

and

= 0.6801 = 68.01%

Consider the fcc structures shown below:

Question:

Part B

Find the fraction of the fcc

unit cell volume filled with

hard spheres.

()2 + ()2 = 2 + 2 =

2.

Also, = 4.

Then equating above equations, 4 = 2 --- (1)

4

substituting (1), =

16

3 2

3

43 3

=3

16

3

3

3

and

= 0.7404 = 74.04%

Question:

Part A

Compare packing fraction of

different lattice structure.

Page 4

Module 1

Problem:

Solution:

3

For bcc, =

Packing fraction, =

85.01

125

5 = 2.165

4

= 68.01%

Planes

Question:

It is necessary to specify directions and planes in crystals.

Part B

Many material properties and processes vary with direction

How planes and

in the crystal.

directions are

Directions and planes are described using three integers representing?

called Miller Indices.

General rules for lattice directions, planes & Miller Indices: x, y, z are the axes (on

arbitrarily positioned origin). a, b, c are lattice parameters (length of unit cell along a

side) and h, k, l are the Miller indices for planes and directions expressed as planes (hkl) and directions - [hkl].

Conventions for naming: There are no commas between numbers. Negative values

are expressed with a bar over the number.

Steps to find Miller indices for plane are:

Question:

1. Find the intercepts of the plane with the crystal

Part A

axes and express these intercepts as integral

Give the steps to obtain

multiples of the basis vectors (the plane can be Miller indices.

moved in and out from the origin, retaining its

orientation).

2. Take the reciprocals of the three integers found in step1 and reduce these

to the smallest set of integers h, k, and l, which have the same relationship

to each other as the three reciprocals.

3. Label the plane (hkl).

Page 5

Module 1

Many planes in a lattice are equivalent. The indices of such equivalent planes are

enclosed in braces { } instead of parentheses. Representation of cube faces by {100}

is shown below:

Problem 1:

Solution:

a)

Intercepts

Reciprocal

Smallest integers (h, k, l)

Plane: (111)

x

3

1/3

1

y

3

1/3

1

z

3

1/3

1

x

3

1/3

2

y

2

1/2

3

z

2

1/2

3

b)

Intercepts

Reciprocal

Smallest integers (h, k, l)

Plane: (233)

Page 6

Module 1

Problem 2

Solution:

a)

Intercepts

Reciprocal

Smallest integers (h, k, l)

Plane: (011)

1/

0

y

a

1/a

1

z

a

1/a

1

x

a

1/a

1

y

a

1/a

1

1/

0

b)

Intercepts

Reciprocal

Smallest integers (h, k, l)

Plane: (110)

Directions

Direction in a lattice is expressed as a set of three integers with the same relationship

as the components of a vector in that direction.

Miller indices are also used for the representation of direction, but the three integers

are the components of the vector in that direction.

The direction is labeled with in [ ] and the equivalency is labeled in < >.

Examples:

Page 7

Module 1

Electrons in solids also are restricted to certain energies and are not allowed at other

energies.

In the solid, the electron has a range (or band) of available energies.

The discrete energy levels of the isolated atom spread into bands of energies in the

solid because i) in the solid, the wave functions of electrons in neighboring atoms

overlap, thus, it affects the potential energy term and the boundary conditions in the

equation, and different energies are obtained in the solution, and ii) an electron is not

necessarily localized at a particular atom.

Potential energy and wave function are represented by Schrodinger wave equation.

Bonding forces

It is due to the interaction of electrons in neighboring atom.

Different types:

Question:

1. Ionic bonding

Part A

Consider NaCl, each Na atom is surrounded by 6 Cl

Compare different bonding

atoms. The crystal is made up of ions, where Na has forces.

+ve ion and Cl have ve ion.

Thus, an electrostatic attractive force is established between atoms, and the

balance is reached when this equals the net repulsive force.

In this bonding all the electrons are tightly bound to the atom.

Since there are no loosely bound electrons to participate in current flow NaCl

is a good insulator.

2. Metallic bonding

In metals, the whole solid made up of ions with closed shells immersed in a

sea of free electrons.

Coulomb attraction force between the ions and the electrons hold the lattice

together.

Free electrons are easy to move under the influence of an electric field, hence

the metal have high electrical conductivity.

3. Covalent bonding

Bonding occurs in diamond structure and compound semiconductor.

Each atom surrounded by four nearest neighbors, each having four electrons

in the outermost orbit.

Each atom shares its valence electrons with its four nearest neighbors.

The bonding forces arise from a quantum mechanical interaction (repulsive

force) between the shared electrons.

No free electron at 0K (insulator), but by thermal or optical excitation

electrons can excited from this bond and crystal behaves as conductor.

Page 8

Module 1

As isolated atoms are brought together to form a solid, the electron wave functions

begin to overlap.

Various interactions occur, and, at the proper interatomic spacing for the crystal, the

forces of attraction and repulsion find a balance.

Due to Pauli Exclusion Principle, the discrete energy levels of individual atoms split

into bands belonging to the pair instead of to individual atoms.

In a solid, due to large number of atoms, the split energy levels for essentially

continuous bands of energy.

The splitting of individual energy levels to energy bands as Si atoms are brought

closer together is shown below:

Question:

Part B

Explain about the energy

bands of solid.

Si atom have an energy structure 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 in the ground state. Each atom

has available two 1s states, two 2s states, six 2p states, two 3s states, six 3p states, and

higher states.

For N atoms, there will be 2N, 2N, 6N, 2N, and 6N states of type 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, and

3p, respectively.

With a reduction in the interatomic spacing, these energy levels split into bands, and

the 2s and 2p bands merge into a single band having 8N available states.

As the interatomic spacing approaches the equilibrium spacing of diamond crystal,

this band splits into two bands separated by an energy gap, where no allowed energy

states for electrons exist forbidden gap.

Page 9

Module 1

The upper band (called the conduction band) and the lower band (called the valence

band) contain 4N states each.

Metals, semiconductors and insulators

For electrons to move under an applied electric field there

Question:

must be states available to them.

Part B

A completely filled band cannot contribute to current

Compare metal,

transport; neither can a completely empty band.

semiconductor and insulator

Thus, semiconductors at 0 K are perfect insulators.

with the help of energy band

With thermal or optical excitation, some of these electrons diagram.

can be excited from the valence band to the conduction band, and then they can

contribute to the current transport process.

At temperatures other than 0 K, the magnitude of the band gap separates an insulator

from a semiconductor, e.g., at 300 K, (diamond) = 5eV (insulator), and (Silicon) =

1.12eV (semiconductor).

Number of electrons available for conduction can be increased greatly in

semiconductors by reasonable amount of thermal or optical energy.

In metals, the bands are either partially filled or they overlap thus, electrons and

empty states coexist great electrical conductivity.

The energy band diagram of metal, semiconductor and insulator at 0K are shown

below:

Page 10

Module 1

The wave function of a single electron traveling through a perfectly periodic lattice is

assumed to be in the form of a plane wave moving in the x-direction with propagation

constant k, also called a wave vector.

In quantum mechanics, the electron momentum can be given by = , where is

Where the function U(kx, x) modulates the wave function according to the periodicity

of the lattice.

The periodicity of different crystals may vary, so E-k relationship will also vary.

E-k diagram for GaAs and Si are shown below:

Question:

Part B

Discuss about direct and

indirect band gap

semiconductors.

Based on E-k relationship there are two types of semiconductors: direct band gap and

indirect band gap semiconductors.

For direct band gap semiconductor, the minima of the conduction band and the

maxima of the valence band occur at the same value of k (k = 0) and an electron

making the smallest energy transition from the conduction band to the valence band

can do so without a change in k.

For indirect band gap semiconductor, the minima of the conduction band and the

maxima of the valence band occur for different values of k, thus, the smallest energy

transition for an electron requires a change in momentum.

Electron falling from conduction band to an empty state in valence band

recombination. Recombination probability for direct band gap semiconductors is

much higher than that for indirect band gap semiconductors.

Direct band gap semiconductors give up the energy (Eg) released during

recombination in the form of light used for optoelectronic applications (e.g., LEDs

and LASERs).

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Module 1

states within the band gap, and the energy is released in the form of heat given to the

lattice.

The band structures of III-V ternary and quaternary compounds change as their

composition is varied.

There are three valleys in the conduction band: (at k = 0), L, and X.

In GaAs, the valley has the minimum energy (direct with E g = 1.43 eV) with very

few electrons residing in L and X valleys.

In AlAs, the X valley has minimum energy (indirect with Eg = 2.16 eV).

The position of these three valleys in ternary alloy AxGa1-xAs varies according to the

composition fraction of Al, and is shown below:

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Module 1

For 0 x 0.38, valley has minimum energy with direct band gap. For x = 0,

material is GaAs and for x = 0.38, material is Al0.38Ga0.62As. Both have direct band

gap, but radiate different colour of light.

For x > 0.38, X valley has minimum energy with indirect band gap. For x = 1,

material is AlAs and energy release in the form of heat.

Electrons and Holes

For T > 0 K, there would be some electrons in the otherwise empty conduction band,

and some empty states in the otherwise filled valence band.

Question:

The empty states in the valence band are referred to as holes.

Part A

If the conduction band electron and the valence band hole are

How free electrons and holes

created by thermal excitation of a valence band electron to formed in crystals?

the conduction band, then they are called electron-hole pair

(EHP).

After excitation to the conduction band, an electron is surrounded by a large number

of empty states, e.g., the equilibrium number of EHPs at 300 K in Si is 1010/cm3,

whereas the Si atom density is 1022/cm3.

For every electron moving with a given velocity, there is an

Question:

equal and opposite electron motion somewhere else in the

Part A

band.

What is EHP? Explain.

Under an applied electric field, the net current is zero, since

for every electron j moving with a velocity vj, there is a corresponding electron j

moving with a velocity -vj.

In a unit volume, the current density J can be given by =

=1 = 0 , where

3

N is the number of electrons/cm in the band, and q is the electronic charge.

Now, if the jth electron is removed and a hole is created in the valence band, then the

net current density =

=1 = (+)

Thus, the current contribution of the empty state (hole), obtained by removing the jth

electron, is equivalent to that of a positively charged particle with velocity vj.

For simplicity, therefore, the empty states in the valence band are called holes, and

they are assigned positive charge and positive mass.

Page 13

Module 1

The electron energy increases as one move up the conduction band, and electrons

gravitate downward towards the bottom of the conduction band.

On the other hand, hole energy increases as one moves down the valence band (since

holes have positive charges), and holes gravitate upwards towards the top of the

valence band.

Effective Mass

The "wave-particle" motion of electrons in a lattice is not the same as that for a free

electron, because of the interaction with the periodic potential of the lattice.

To still be able to treat these particles as "free", the rest mass has to be altered to take

into account the influence of the lattice.

The calculation of effective mass takes into account the shape of the energy bands in

three-dimensional k-space, taking appropriate averages over the various energy

bands.

The effective mass of an electron in a band with a given (E,k) relation is given by

=

2

2

2

Problem:

Find the dispersion relation (E-k relation) for a free electron, and,

thus, observe the relation between its rest mass and effective mass.

Solution:

For free electron, the electron momentum p is given by

= 0 ---(1)

Where m0 is rest mass of electron and v is velocity.

Also = --- (2),

Where =

Question:

Part B

Obtain the E-k relation, rest

mass and effective mass

relation. Explain.

1

1 2

0

1 2

= 2 2 ---(3)

0

Obtaining second derivative of (3) w.r.t k gives the relation of effective mass and rest

mass. Then

2

0

and =

2

0

and =

2

2

2

= 0

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Module 1

This states that for a free electron, the rest mass and the effective mass are one and

the same, which is due to the parabolic band structure. Most materials have nonparabolic E-k relation, and, thus, they have quite different rest mass and effective

mass for electrons.

Thus, the effective mass is an inverse function of the curvature of the E-k diagram:

weak curvature gives large mass, and strong curvature gives small mass.

The curvature

2

2

at the valence band maxima. Thus, the electrons near the top of the valence band have

negative effective mass.

The electron and hole effective masses are denoted by and respectively:

Effective

Ge

Si

GaAs

mass /m0

mn *

0.55

1.1

0.067

mp *

0.37

0.56

0.48

Intrinsic Semiconductors

A perfect semiconductor crystal with no impurities or lattice defects.

No carriers at 0 K, since the valence band is completely full

Question:

and the conduction band is completely empty.

Part B

For T > 0 K, electrons are thermally excited from the valence

Write short notes on

band to the conduction band causes EHP generation. EHP intrinsic

generation takes place due to breaking of covalent bonds and semiconductors.

the required energy is Eg.

The EHP in the covalent bonding model of the Si crystal is shown below:

The excited electron becomes free and leaves behind an empty state (hole).

Since these carriers are created in pairs, the electron

Question:

concentration n/cm3 is always equal to the hole concentration

Part A

3

p/cm , and each of these is commonly referred to as the

Define intrinsic carrier

intrinsic carrier concentration (ni). Thus, for intrinsic concentration.

material n = p = ni.

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Module 1

These carriers are not localized in the lattice; instead they spread out over several

lattice spacings, and are given by quantum mechanical probability distributions.

To maintain a steady-state carrier concentration, the carriers must also recombine at

the same rate at which they are generated. Recombination occurs when an electron

from the conduction band makes a transition (direct or indirect) to an empty state in

the valence band, thus annihilating (nullifying) the pair.

Let the generation rate of EHPs is gi (EHP/cm3-s) and

Question:

there combination rate is ri, then equilibrium requires

Part A

that ri = gi. Each of these rates is temperature

Explain the dependence of

dependent. For example gi(T) increases with rise in temperature on intrinsic

temperature, a new carrier concentration ni established carrier concentration.

such that the higher temperature recombination rate (April 2014)

ri(T) balances generation.

At any temperature, the rate of recombination is proportional to the equilibrium

concentration of electrons and holes, and can be given by = 0 0 = 2 = ,

where proportionality is constant depends on the mechanism by which the

recombination takes place, 0 and 0 are equilibrium concentration of electrons and

holes respectively.

Page 16

Module 1

Question:

Extrinsic semiconductor

Part B

Instead of thermally generated carriers, it is possible to create

Explain about extrinsic

carriers in the semiconductor by purposely introducing semiconductors.

impurities into the crystal. This process is called doping.

Doping is a most common technique for varying the

Question:

conductivity of semiconductors. By doping, the crystal can

Part A

be made to have predominantly electrons or holes. Then

Define doping.

there are two types of extrinsic semiconductors: n-type

semiconductor (predominant in electrons) and p-type semiconductors (predominant in

holes).

When a crystal is doped such that the equilibrium concentrations of electrons (n0) and

holes (p0) are different from the intrinsic carrier concentration (ni), the material is said

to be extrinsic.

Doping creates additional levels within the band gap.

n-type semiconductor:

In Si or Ge, V group elements (e.g., P, As, Sb) doping introduce energy levels very

near (typically 0.03 - 0.06eV) the conduction band.

At 0K, these levels are filled with electrons, and very little thermal energy (50K to

100K) is required for these electrons to get excited to the conduction band. Since

these levels donate electrons to the conduction band, they are referred to as the donor

levels and the impurities are referred as donor impurities.

The covalent model of n-type Si is shown below:

Question:

Part B

Why electrons are referred as

majority carriers in n-type

semiconductors? Explain.

The energy band model of n-type semiconductor at 0K and 50K are shown below:

Page 17

Module 1

Thus, Si doped with donor impurities can have a significant number of electrons in

the conduction band even when the temperature is not sufficiently high enough for

the intrinsic carriers to dominate, i.e., n0 >> (ni, p0) and the material is referred as ntype material, with electrons as majority carriers and holes as minority carriers.

p-type semiconductor

In Si or Ge, doping III group elements (e.g., B, Al, Ga, In) introduce energy levels

very near (typically 0.03-0.06 eV) the valence band.

At 0K, these levels are empty, and very little thermal energy

Question:

(50K to 100K) is required for electrons in the valence band

Part A

to get excited to these levels, and leave behind holes in the

Give the examples of donors

valence band. Since these levels accept electrons from the and acceptors. Why is it

valence band, they are referred to as the acceptor levels and called so?

the impurities are referred as acceptor impurities.

The covalent bond model of p-type Si is shown below:

The energy band model of p-type semiconductor at 0K and 50K are shown below:

Thus, Si doped with acceptor impurities can have a significant number of holes in the

valence band even at a very low temperature, i.e., p0 >> (ni, n0), and the material is

referred as p-type material, with holes as majority carriers and electrons as minority

carriers.

The extra electron for column V elements is loosely bound and it can be liberated

very easily ionization; thus, it is free to participate in current conduction. Similarly,

column III elements create holes in the valence band, and they can also participate in

current conduction.

Page 18

Module 1

Carrier concentration

Obtaining semiconductor electrical properties and analyzing device behavior, it is

necessary to know the concentration of charge carriers free electrons and holes.

To obtain equations for the carrier concentrations an investigation of the distribution

of carriers over the available energy states is required. This is not difficult to

calculate, but the derivation requires some back ground in statistical methods.

Fermi-Dirac distribution

Fermi-Dirac distribution function is a function in Fermi-Dirac statistics.

Electrons in semiconductor obey Fermi-Dirac statics. By this the distribution of

electrons over a range of allowed energy levels at thermal equilibrium is given by

=

1

1+ ( )

T is absolute temperature,

f(E) is Fermi-Dirac distribution function which gives the probability of the available

energy state at E will occupied by an electron,

EF is Fermi level and it represents an important quantity in the analysis of

semiconductor behavior.

1

A closer examination of f(E) indicates that at 0K the distribution takes the simple

rectangular form as shown below:

For T = 0K, distribution takes place in rectangular form. At T = 0K and E < EF,

=

1

1+

1

1+

1+ 0

=2

= 0.

filled with electrons, and all states above EF are empty.

If T > 0K, some probability exists for states above the Fermi level to be filled.

The Fermi function is symmetrical about EF for all temperatures.

Page 19

Module 1

Proof:

Show that probability of a state E above EF is filled equals the probability that a state E below

EF is empty.

Solution:

Probability that state E above EF is filled E + EF =

1+ (E +E F E F )/kT

= 1+ E /kT

Probability that a state E below EF is vacant 1- EF E = 1

1

E F E E F

kT

1+

1

E/kT

1

=

=

1 + E/kT 1 + E/kT 1 + E/kT

=1- EF E

= 1

ie, E + EF

Here the probability of occupancy in conduction band equals to probability of vacancy in

valance band. ie, EC =1- EV

Then Fermi level is at the middle and is also referred as intrinsic level.

Relative plot of Fermi-Dirac distribution and energy-band diagram of intrinsic

semiconductor is shown below:

For n-type semiconductors, probability of occupancy in the conduction band is much

greater than the probability of vacancy in valance band. ie 1 ( ).

To satisfy this, Fermi level EF moves closer to EC and (EC EF) gives the measure of

carrier concentration n.

Page 20

Module 1

semiconductor is shown below:

greater than the probability of occupancy in valance band. ie 1 ( ) .

Here the Fermi level EF is closer to EV and (EF - EV) gives the measure of carrier

concentration p.

Relative plot of Fermi-Dirac distribution and energy-band diagram of p-type

semiconductor is shown below:

From the above plots it is clear that EF is an important parameter to indicate the

probability of energy level distribution.

Page 21

Module 1

The concentration of electrons in the conduction band is given by

0 =

---(1)

where N(E) dE represents the density of states in the energy range dE.

The number of electrons per unit volume in the energy range dE is the product of the

density of states and the probability of occupancy f(E). Thus the total electron

concentration n0 is the integral of product of density of states and probability of

occupancy over the entire conduction band.

N(E) can be evaluated by quantum mechanics and Paulis exclusion principle and it is

shown that 1/2 . This shows that density of state in conduction band increases

with increase in temperature.

Fermi-Dirac distribution function becomes extremely small at large energies. Therefore,

f(E)N(E) rapidly decrease above EC and the electron concentration above the conduction

band is very low. And most of the electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels in

the conduction band.

The concentration of holes in the valance band is given by

0 =

(1

) --- (2)

In this (1- f(EV)) is the probability of vacancy of electron (or probability of occupancy of

hole) at valance band and it decrease rapidly below EV. Therefore holes occupy top most

available states in the valance band.

Graphical representation of carrier concentration in semiconductors

The carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductor is as shown below:

conduction band and valance band respectively. And are equal, so most of the carriers are

concentrating in the conduction band and valance band.

Page 22

Module 1

Question:

Part A

Plot the energy band

diagram along with FermiDirac distribution function

for n-type semiconductor.

(April 2014)

The area under N(E)f(E) in the conduction band is the measure of electron concentration

n0. Similarly the area under N(E)[1-f(E)] in the valance band is the measure of hole

concentration p0.

For n-type semiconductors f(EC) >> [1-f(EV)]. Then N(E)f(E) is larger than N(E)[1-f(E)]

and n0 >> p0.

The carrier concentration in p-type semiconductor is as shown below:

For p-type semiconductors [1-f(EV)] >> f(EC). Then N(E)[1-f(E)] is larger than N(E)f(E)

and p0 >> n0.

Page 23

Module 1

By simple notation, electron concentration n0 in the conduction band can represent by

product between density of states of energy in conduction band and Fermi-Dirac

distribution function.

Then 0 = ( ) ---(1),

where NC is the effective density of states in the conduction band and is given by

= 2

We have

1

=

(

)

1+

1

Then =

( )

1+

---(2),

Question:

Part B

Derive the relation n0p0 =

ni2. (April 2014)

high.

Then ( ) 1 and we can approximate

1

( )

= ( )

---(3).

(3) to (1)),

= ( )

---(4)

0 = [1 ] ---(5),

where NV is the effective density of states in the valance band and is given by

= 2

---(6),

Then 1 = 1 1+ ( )

1+ ( ) 1

1+ ( )

Then ( ) 1 and we can approximate

1 ( ) ---(7).

We can write hole concentration in valance band at equilibrium is (by substituting (7) to

(5)),

= ( )

( )

= 1+ ( )

---(8)

Equations (4) and (8) are the carrier concentration for any semiconductors. And also by

taking product of the two equations

0 0 = =

= ---(9),

where = and is called band gap energy difference.

Page 24

Module 1

At room temperature:

Si

Ge

GaAs

Eg (in eV)

1.12

0.66

1.424

For intrinsic semiconductors, carrier concentration are equal to intrinsic carrier

concentration ni and Fermi-level EF is same as intrinsic level Ei. Therefore, (4) and (8) can

be written as

0 = = ( )

0 = = ( )

---(10)

---(11)

2 = ( ) ( ) = ( )

= ( ) ---(12)

Question:

called mass action law. This law states that the product of

Part A

equilibrium electron and hole concentration in a

State mass action law.

semiconductor is a constant for any doping and is equal to

the square of the intrinsic carrier concentration at that temperature.

In intrinsic semiconductor NC = NV, therefore from(12)

2 = 2 ( )

= ( ) (2 ) ---(13).

This is the relationship between intrinsic concentration and energy band difference

At room temperature:

Si

Ge

GaAs

-3

10

13

ni (in cm )

1.45 10

2.4 10

1.75 106

= ( )

0 = ( ) ( )

= ( ) ---(14)

Question:

Part B

( )

Analytically explain about

=

equilibrium carrier

( ) ( )

0 =

concentration in

( )

=

---(15)

semiconductors.

Equations (14) and (15) gives the relationship between equilibrium carrier concentration

and intrinsic carrier concentration. Also taking the product of (14) and (15) gives another

proof of mass action law, = .

Similarly using (8) and (11):

Page 25

Module 1

From (14), if EF moves away Ei towards conduction band, n0 increases exponentially over

ni. At the same time p0 decreases exponentially over ni. This will happen when donor

impurities are doped into the semiconductor and the material behaves like n-type

semiconductor.

Similarly from (15), if EF moves away Ei towards valance band, p0 increases

exponentially over ni. At the same time n0 decreases exponentially over ni. This will

happen when acceptor impurities are doped into the semiconductor and the material

behaves like p-type semiconductor.

Problem 1:

Solution:

Given As is as dopant, then donor concentration Nd >> ni and we can approximate

equilibrium carrier concentration 0 = 1017 3 .

By mass action law, 0 0 = 2 ,

2

then 0 = =

1.510 10

We have 0 =

= ln

= 2.25 103 3

10 17

( )

, from this ( )

= 0.026 ln

10 17

1.510 10

= 0.407

Page 26

Module 1

Problem 2:

Solution:

Given that NC = NV, Eg = 1.1eV, therefore EC - EF = 1.1eV

Donor concentration Nd = 1015/cm-3 n0, electron concentration

kT = 0.026eV

EC - Ed = 0.2eV, EC - EF = 0.25eV

Then EF - EV = 0.85eV

We have 0 = ( )

Then = 0 ( ) = 1015 e0.25 0.026 = 1.56 1019 cm3 =

Also 0 = ( ) = 1.56 1019 e0.85 0.026 = 8.71 104 cm3

We have 0 0 = 2 ,

then =

Problem 3:

Solution:

Give that In acceptor atom concentration, then Na = 1016 /cm3.

Ea - EV = 0.16 eV, EF - EV = 0.26eV.

1

= 1+ (0.1)

0.026

= 0.979

Problem 4:

Solution:

We have 0 = = ( )

and =

( )

(2 )

( )

(2)

Page 27

Module 1

( ) + ( ) (2)

3 4

= 4

So =

= 0.026 4

0.56

1.1

= 0.013

0.013

The intrinsic carrier concentration = ( ) (2) . This shows that intrinsic

carrier concentration is a function of temperature.

From the above equations, variation in temperature strongly dependent on ni because it is

dependent on the exponential quantity of temperature.

We can write =

and put = 2

( )

Then = 2

2

3

= (1 )

Where 1 = 2

2

2

Question:

Part A

Explain about the temperature

dependency of intrinsic

semiconductor.

4 ( ) (2)

( )

1

--- (1)

, = 2

(2 )

(2)

--- (2)

temperature. Then = 0 1 , where 0 is band gap energy at 0K, b1 is rate of

decrease in band gap energy with increase in temperature. Put this equation to (2)

3

= (1 )

(0 1 )

(2 )

= (1 ) 2 (0 ) (2) 1

= 2 (0 ) (2 )

3

Where 2 = (1 )

Page 28

Module 1

increases carrier concentration increases due to the excitation of electron/hole in

donor/acceptor level. ie, n0 Nd+ (for n-type) and p0 Na- (for p-type), where Nd+ and

Na- are concentration of donor and acceptor ions respectively.

Question:

ionized dopant concentration and ni is negligible. This

Part B

operating region of extrinsic semiconductor is called

Explain about the temperature

ionized region.

dependency of extrinsic

When temperature is increased to medium, all impurities semiconductor.

get ionized and ni increases, so that electron concentration.

ie n0 = Nd + ni. Comparing to Nd, ni is very less, then n0 Nd and is independent of

temperature. This operating region is called extrinsic region. (For p-type p0 = Na + ni

Na)

When temperature increases more than 500K, ni become more comparable to or greater

than the doping concentration. Then n0 ni and the minority carrier p0 also increases.

This region is referred as intrinsic region.

The carrier concentration of Si and Ge w.r.t T is shown below:

Page 29

Module 1

Under equilibrium semiconductor remains neutral in charge.

ie, total +ve charge = total ve charge. Let Nd donors/cm3

Question:

and Na acceptors/cm3, then 0 + + = 0 + ---(1)

Part A

where + represents ionized donor concentration and

Explain about the charge

represents ionized acceptor concentration.

neutrality in semiconductor.

The above equation is called charge neutrality equation.

If temperature > 150K, almost all impurities get ionized in a uniformly doped

semiconductors, then

+ = and =

Therefore, 0 0 = ---(2)

Using mass action law and the above equation can be solved to get the carrier

concentration n0 and p0 in a semiconductor under thermal equilibrium.

Problem

A Ge sample is doped with 5x1013 As/cm3. Determine the carrier concentration and Fermi level

position at room temperature.

Solution:

Given that Nd = 5x1013/cm3, for Ge ni = 2.5x1013/cm-3 at room temperature.

ie Nd ni.

Use mass action law and charge neutrality condition for obtaining carrier concentration.

0 0 = 0

+ 0 = 0

2

+

= 0

0

02 0 2 = 0

2 + 42

0 =

2

5 10 5 1013 2 + 4 2.5 1013

0 =

2

13

3

0 = 6.035 10 (Neglect ve value)

13

Then 0 = =

0

2.510 13

6.03510 13

= 1.035 1013 3

= ln

0

6.035 1013

= 0.026 ln

= 0.023

2.5 1013

Page 30

Module 1

Carrier transport in semiconductors is mainly by two mechanisms: 1) drift 2) diffusion.

The current due to drift is by the movement of electrons/holes under an electric field and is

similar to current flow in a conductor. The current due to diffusion motion is due to the gradients

in carrier concentrations.

Drift velocity, current density and mobility of electrons

Under thermal equilibrium, carrier transport is in a constant motion with a mean thermal velocity

of electron =

At room temperature, the thermal motion of electron is in random scattering and due to this there

is no net motion along any direction for a group of n electrons/cm3. This is as shown below:

If an electric field is applied in x axis, each electron experiences a force from the field.

Thus the group of electrons has a net average velocity in x direction and this mean velocity is

called drift velocity.

If px is the total momentum of the group of n electrons/cm3, then the accelerating force due to

electric field is given by

= ---(1)

The accelerating force due to electric field is balanced in steady state by decelerating force of the

collision process by electrons.

Let N0 be the group of electrons at time t = 0 and N(t) be the number of electrons have to

undergone collision at time t. Then the rate of decrease in N(t) at any time is proportional to N(t).

Page 31

Module 1

ie,

=

, where

mean free time.

change in momentum due to collision is =

in ve x direction given by

< >=

---(2)

At steady state the sum of accelerating and decelerating effect must be zero, ie by (1) and (2)

where <

< >

---(4)

Question:

Part A

Define drift velocity of

carriers.

response to electric field. This usually much less than .

The current density due to electron drift is the number of electrons crossing unit area per unit time

multiplied by the charge of an electron. Its dimension is

Substituting (4),

Where =

---(5)

= ---(7)

Where =

Question:

Part A

Define conductivity and

mobility of semiconductors.

material.

Page 32

Module 1

Mobility can also defined as average drift velocity per unit electric field,

< >

cm2/V-s ---(9)

Then current density in terms of mobility is

= ---(10)

=

or =

+< >

--- (11)

---(12)

= ---(12)

= ---(13)

If both carriers participate the flow of current, then overall current density is sum of (10) and (13)

= +

= ( + ) ---(14)

= ---(15)

Where = ( + ) ---(16) , conductivity due to carriers and resistivity =

-cm

Problem 1:

Solution:a)

We have = ( + )

At equilibrium state, = ( + )

Substituting =

= ( +

)

) =

Page 33

Module 1

=

Then

, hence proved.

Solution: b)

Minimum conductivity is due to the minimum concentration of carriers.

We have

= ( +

)

Then

= ( +

=

+

= +

=

Solution: c)

For Si ni = 1.5 x 1010 cm-3, and q = 1.6 x 10-19 C, n = 1350 cm2/V-s p = 480 cm2/V-s

= . . = .

Intrinsic conductivity = ( + )

= . . + = .

This shows that .

Page 34

Module 1

Problem 2:

An intrinsic Ge sample at room temperature has resistivity of 50 -cm. The sample is uniformly

doped to the extent of 6 x 1013 Arsenic atoms/cm3 and 1014 Boron atoms/cm3. Find the conduction

current density if an electric field of 4 V/cm is applied across the sample. n = 3800 cm2/V-s; p =

1800 cm2/V-s.

(April 2014)

Solution:

Given doping concentrations are almost close to ni of Ge. So use charge neutrality and mass

action law to fine carrier concentratio.

Given intrinsic resistivity i = 50 -cm, n = 3800 cm2/V-s p = 1800 cm2/V-s, = 4 /

= 6 1013 3 = 1014 3

We have intrinsic conductivity = ( + )

=

( + )

1

=

=

= 2.23 1013 3

19

( + ) 1.6 10 50(3800 + 1800)

=

We have

0 0 =

2

0 =

0

2

0

=

0

02 ( )0 2 = 0

02 1014 6 1013 0 2.23 1013

0 =

0 =

=0

2

4 1013 1.6 1027 + 1.99 1027

=

2

4 1013 5.99 1013

=

2

13

3

= 4.99 10

(ignore ve result)

2.23 1013

4.99 1013

= 9.97 1012 3

= ( + )

= 1.6 1019 3.79 1016 + 8.98 1016 4

= 81.72 103 = 0.0817 A/2

Page 35

Module 1

Problem 3

The intrinsic carrier concentration of Si at 300K is 1.5 x 1010 cm-3, n = 1500 cm2/V-s and p = 450

cm2/V-s. The Si sample is doped with donors of concentration 5 x 1016 cm-3 and then compensated by

acceptor doping. The compensated Si sample has resistivity 1-cm. Determine acceptor concentration,

assuming that the mobility remains unchanged.

Solution:

Give Nd = 5 x 1016 cm-3 >> ni then n0 Nd = 5 x 1016 cm-3

Then resistivity due to n0 is =

= . = .

After compensation,

Case 1: Nd > Na

=

= . /

.

=

= = . = . /

=

Case 2: Na > Nd

=

= . /

.

=

= + = + . = . /

=

There are different mechanisms which limits the mobility of charge carriers in semiconductors.

Some mechanism are:

i) Lattice scattering

Question:

ii) Ionized impurity scattering

Part A

iii) Neutral impurity scattering

What

are

the

scattering

iv) Carrier-carrier scattering

Lattice scattering is due to the vibration of lattice. As mechanisms in a

temperature increases, lattice vibrates at a faster rate. Therefore semiconductor?

vibration due to this scattering increases with increase in temperature. Then mobility of carriers

decrease with rise in temperature, such that mobility due to lattice scattering L T-3/2.

Ionized impurity scattering is due to scattering of charge carriers with ionized impurities. This

type scattering increases with increase in doping, but decrease with increase in temperature. Then

mobility due to ionized impurity scattering is give by I T3/2.

Neutral impurity scattering is due to the difference in size of neutral impurity atom and host

lattice. This causes a strain to carriers in lattice and is negligible, because the number of neutral

impurities is very small.

Carrier-carrier scattering is due to the deflection of electron and hole during the transport. This is

negligible, because in extrinsic semiconductors any one of the carrier is major than other.

Department of ECE, VKCET

Page 36

Variation of mobility with temperature:

At low temperature, mobility of carriers depends on ionized

impurity scattering, which increases with increase in

temperature.

At high temperature, mobility of carriers depends on lattice

scattering, which decreases with increase in temperature.

The plot of these situation is shown below:

Module 1

Question:

Part B

Explain temperature and

doping dependence of

mobility.

The concentration of impurity increases also increase the ionized impurity scattering and causes

decrease in mobility.

An appropriate plot of mobility as function of doping is shown below:

Page 37

Constancy (invariance) of Fermi-level at equilibrium:

This concept states that there is no discontinuity or gradient can

arise in the equilibrium Fermi level EF.

Consider two materials in contact like Ge and Si, n-type Si and

p-type Si, a metal and semiconductor, heavily doped Si and

lightly doped Si, etc. as shown below:

Module 1

Question:

Part B

Show that the gradient in

Fermi-level is zero under

thermal equilibrium.

(April 2014)

The transfer of electrons from material 1 to 2 must be exactly balanced by the opposite transfer of

electrons from 2 to 1.

Let N1(E) is desity of state in material 1, N2(E) is density of states in material 2, f1(E) is

probability of state being filled at E in material 1, f2(E) is probability of state being filled at E in

material 2, EF1 is Fermi level of material 1 and EF2 is Fermi level of material 2.

At energy E, the rate of transfer of electrons from 1 to 2 is proportional to the number of filled

states at E in material 1 times the number of empty states at E in material 2.

ie rate from 1 to 2 1 1 . 2 ()[1 2 ] ---(1)

Similarly rate from 2 to 1 2 2 . 1 ()[1 1 ] ---(2)

At equilibrium these rate must be equal,

1 1 . 2 1 2 = 2 2 . 1 ()[1 1 ]

1 . 1 2 = 2 . [1 1 ]

1 1 2 = [2 2 1 ]

1 = 2 ---(3)

1

1

ie

=

1+ ( 1 )

1+ ( 2 )

This shows that EF1 = EF2 and no gradient exists in Fermi level at equilibrium or

Page 38

Module 1

Drift current is proportional to electric field and the proportionality constant is conductivity. But

this assumption is valid only for a range of field intensity .

For large (usually over 103 V/cm), there is a limitation to electron drift velocity vd and is same

as thermal velocity vth. This is due to hot carrier effect.

The limitation of carrier lift velocity to a constant at high electric field in Si and Ge is shown

below.

Hall effect:

This is mainly used to determine majority carrier concentration,

conductivity and mobility of semiconductor bar.

Consider a p-type bar with current Ix flowing in x-direction due

to the known applied voltage VCD across side C and D. There is

also electric field in x-direction and holes flow from C to D.

The length of the bar is L, width w and thickness t.

Question:

Part B

Explain Hall Effect. Explain

the procedure to measure

majority carrier concentration

and mobility of a

semiconductor specimen.

When a magnetic field with intensity Bz is applied in z-direction, the net force experienced in

hole due to the combined electric and magnetic field is given by

= + ( ) ---(1)

where =

Page 39

Module 1

= 0 0 + 0

And = ( )

The net force experienced by the hole is in y-direction and = ( ) ---(2)

This shows that an hole acceleration in y-direction is due to force and ( ).

= = 0

= ---(3)

Physically this electric field is set up when the holes are slightly shifted to ve y-direction

(towards A) due to magnetic field. The force due to this motion balances the force due to

magnetic field and the holes drift along the bar.

The establishment of electric field is known as Hall effect, the field is known as Hall field and

the voltage developing across A and B VAB is called Hall voltage.

= ---(4)

We have = +0

=

0

Then Hall field

= ---(5)

0

= ---(6)

This shows that Hall field is proportional to product of current density and magnetic field

1

0

For p-type bar Hall voltage and Hall coefficient are +ve, but for n-type bar both are ve.

From (5) and (4),

0 =

( . )

0 =

( )

---(7)

Since all quantities are measurable and the majority carrier concentration in semiconductor bar

can be measured by Hall Effect.

We know that the resistance of the bar

=

.

. .

=

---(8)

Here also all quantities are measurable and the resistivity of the semiconductor is measurable by

Hall Effect.

Page 40

Module 1

=

=

0

=

1

( . )

( )

=

---(9)

Here also all quantities are measurable and the mobility of the semiconductor is also measurable

by Hall Effect.

Problem:

Solution:

50x10-4 cm, L = 2.5mm = 2.5x10-1cm, VAB = -2.5mV and VCD = 170mV.

410 3 510 5

1.610 19 5010 4 (2.510 3 )

= 1 1017 3

2.510 3 .

= 510 5 . = . 105 2 /

Page 41

Module 1

bombardment in addition to thermally generated carriers.

When a photon of energy greater than the band gap energy of semiconductor falls on it, the

energy of photon is absorbed by an electron in the valance band and is excited to the conduction

band. This results generation of an EHP and is the concentration of such carriers are equal.

The optically generated carrier concentration are in excess of the thermal equilibrium value and

= 0 +

= 0 +

=

where and are excess electron and hole concentration respectively.

If the light of intensity I0 falls on the sample of thickness l, then the amount of light transmitted

through it is given by

= 0 ---(1)

where is called the absorption coefficient and it depends on the the incident wave length or

energy

The absorption coefficient as a function of incident photon energy is shown by the following

figure.

If the incident energy is equal or greater than band gap energy, the velocity of excited electron

will be greater than mean thermal velocity.

The photo-generation and recombination process is illustrated below. During the recombination

of carriers energy is released from the semiconductor and is Eg.

Page 42

Module 1

The energy of radiation depends on the band gap energy as well as the recombination mechanism,

absorption coefficient etc.

The band gaps of some common semiconductors relative to the optical spectrum are shown

below.

Luminescence:

When an EHP is generated in semiconductor and they fall into its equilibrium states emits light

according to the band gap energy Eg. This property is called luminescence.

Different types of luminescence are:

1) Photoluminescence The EHPs are generated by

Question:

photon absorption and the radiation results from the

Part A

recombination of the excited carriers. E.g. Fluorescent

What

is

luminescence?

Explain

lamps.

2) Cathodoluminescence The EHPs are generated by different types in brief.

high-energy electron bombardment of the material and the radiation results from the

recombination of the excited carriers. E.g. LASERs

3) Electroluminescence The EHPs are generated by the applied current into the sample

and the radiation results from the recombination of the excited carriers. E.g. LEDs

Excess carrier and carrier life time:

When excess holes and electrons are created in a semiconductor,

Question:

there is an increase in conductivity.

Part B

If the excess carriers are generated by optical energy, the

Explain

the

transit

decay of

increase in conductivity is called photoconductivity.

excess carriers in a

Consider a semiconductor with direct recombination mechanism,

semiconductor with direct

the rate of decay of electrons at any time t is proportional to the

recombination. What is

number of electrons remaining at t and the number of holes, with

minority carrier life time?

some constant of proportionality for recombination r.

Then the net rate of change in the conduction band electron concentration is the thermal

generation rate minus the recombination rate

()

= 2 ()---(1)

Let assume that excess carriers are created at t = 0 are n and p (initial values). Then the

instantaneous concentration of carriers is also equal, i.e. n(t) = p(t).

We can write instantaneous values of carriers

= 0 + ()

= 0 + ()

Then using equation (1), we can write

Page 43

Module 1

()

= 2

0 +

0 + ()

() = 2 0 + 0 + ()

= 2 0 0 0 + 0 +

We know that

0 0 = 2

= ()

Then

() = (0 + 0 ) + 2

---(2)

(0 + 0 )

Then

() = 0 ---(3)

() = 0

() = ---(4)

where

1

0

1

0

Under thermal equilibrium, the generation rate is balanced by

Question:

recombination rate, so that the equilibrium values of n0 and p0

Part B

are maintained. Then

Derive = = .

= 2 = 0 0 ---(1)

Consider a steady state optical generation rate gop and adding it

to thermal equilibrium, carrier concentration will increase to new steady state values. Then the

balance between generation and recombination is maintained by

+ = ---(2)

We know that

= 0 +

= 0 +

Then (2) becomes

+ = (0 + )(0 + )

+ = 0 0 + 0 + 0 + ---(3)

Page 44

We have

Module 1

= [(0 + 0 ) + 2 ]

Neglecting 2 ,

= (0 + 0 )

=

where

---(4)

( 0 + 0 )

Then excess carrier concentration

= = ---(5)

Quasi Fermi-levels

If excess carriers are present in semiconductors, mass-action law

Question:

is not valid.

Part A

The Fermi-level EF is the representation of thermal equilibrium

Define

quasi

Fermi-level?

carrier concentration n0 and p0. When excess carriers are present,

the carrier concentration cannot be represented by the When do they exist?

equilibrium Fermi-level EF.

The separate Fermi-level to represent electron and hole concentration including excess carrier are

called Quasi Fermi-levels.

They are not stable levels; it changes to EF according to the concentration of excess carriers.

Quasi Fermi-level for electron is represented as Fn and for hole represented as Fp. Then the carrier

concentrations can be represented as

= ( )

= ( )

Recombination mechanisms

Excess carrier generation is also the function on

Question:

recombination/generation rate as shown in (5).

Part A

Different recombination mechanisms are:

What

are

the

different

1. Direct band to band recombination: An electron at

conduction band minimum directly falls into hole at recombination mechanisms?

valance band maximum, releasing the difference energy as a photon. This type of

mechanism is found in GaAs, InP, etc.

2. Indirect recombination: Due to the presence of impurity atoms, defects, etc. there is a

localized energy level deep in the band gap, away from the band edges. These levels act

as intermediate levels between conduction band and valance band, and this cause an

enhancement in the recombination process. The following figure shows the

recombination of EHP through a deep level.

Page 45

Module 1

Here the energy releases according to Et. This type mechanism is found in Si, Ge etc.

3. Auger recombination: This takes place in three particle process and is possible in either

direct band to band or indirect recombination. In direct band recombination, an electron

in conduction band makes a transition to valance band and the energy of EHP is

transferred to nearby electron and is excited. The excited electron gets kinetic energy and

comes back to conduction band minimum.

4. Trap aided Auger recombination: In this the trapped electron makes a transition to the

valance band by giving its energy to an electron in the conduction band. This process

happens only in heavily doped n-type semiconductor.

Diffusion of charge carriers:

Due to the presence of excess carrier concentration in

semiconductor, the carrier concentrations vary with position in

the sample. Then charge carriers move from high concentration

to low concentration. This type of motion is called diffusion and

the current due to this motion is called diffusion current.

The spreading of pulse of electrons by diffusion is shown below:

Question:

Part B

Explain diffusion process.

Derive expression for diffusion

current.

electrons are concentrated and time elapses these excess electrons spread out and finally the

carrier concentration becomes uniform throughout and n(x) become constant.

Derivation for diffusion current:

Consider one dimensional distribution of electrons n(x) as shown below:

Department of ECE, VKCET

Page 46

Module 1

Divide x into segments of width , which is referred as mean free path with n(x) evaluated at the

centre of each segment. The electrons in any segment have equal chances of movement towards

left or right.

Consider two segments with electron concentration n1 and n2 respectively.

Total number of electrons in segment 2 = 2

where A is area of cross section of segment.

The net number of electrons crossing x0 from left to right is one mean free time

1

= (1 2 )

2

The rate of electron flow in +ve x-direction per unit are (electron flux density) is given by

() =

1

(1 2 )

=2

1

( 1 2 )

2

---(1)

Page 47

Module 1

In the limit of small x we can write

=

where

2

2

()

---(2)

()

Similarly

Then the diffusion current density due to the flux density of the particle can be written as

=

Using (2)

Similarly

()

= + ---(5)

= +

()

= ---(6)

The total current in semiconductor is the sum of diffusion and drift current due to electron and

hole and is

---(7)

The total current density

---(8)

The direction of current flow and carrier flow in a given electric field and carrier gradient is

shown below.

Page 48

Module 1

The energy bands of a uniformly doped n-type

semiconductor under thermal equilibrium condition

with an electric field along +ve x-direction bends

upward. It is due to the gradient in the electron energy.

Energy bands are flat when the applied field is zero.

Einsteins relations:

Consider semiconductor under electric field with

intensity () in x-direction, then the electrostatic

potential is given by

---(1)

Question:

Part A

How do the energy band

diagram change with

application of electric field?

Question:

Part B

State and derive Einsteins

relation.

---(2)

()

1 ()

---(3)

+

We know that all energies in the energy band bend equally in the given field, then

()

=

=

=

1

=

---(4)

Under thermal equilibrium, Jn = Jp = 0, but there is a diffusion of carrier due to

gradient and setup an electric field results a drift of carrier. Then we can write (in

case of electron)

= +

Page 49

Module 1

0

=0

0

0 =

= 0 +

---(5)

Using (4)

1

We know that 0 = ( )

Then 0 () = ( )

0

---(6)

= ( )

= 0 ()

---(7)

1

=

0 ()

---(8)

=0

---(9)

Similarly

---(10)

In general

---(11)

This is shows that ratio between diffusion coefficient and mobility of carriers under

thermal equilibrium is a constant and equivalent to thermal voltage kT/q in V

This relation is called Einsteins relations.

Page 50

Module 1

Continuity equation:

(Assignment No. 1)

Page 51

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