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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Postadoption online shopping continuance


Chuanlan Liu Sandra Forsythe

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Chuanlan Liu Sandra Forsythe, (2010),"Post#adoption online shopping continuance", International Journal
of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 38 Iss 2 pp. 97 - 114
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Wen Gong, Rodney L. Stump, Lynda M. Maddox, (2013),"Factors influencing consumers' online
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Post-adoption online shopping


continuance

Post-adoption
online shopping
continuance

Chuanlan Liu
School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, and

Sandra Forsythe

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Department of Consumer Affairs, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA

97
Received May 2009
Revised August 2009
Accepted October 2009

Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine post-adoption usage of the internet as a shopping
channel. It aims to examine the effects of innovation attributes on post-adoption shopping behaviours to
determine whether factors predicting initial adoption will be effective in predicting post-adoption. It also
aims to examine the links between two usage patterns (purchasing experience product versus search
product) and online shopping continuance. The paper also seeks to compare strength of identified links
among innovation attributes, online purchase behaviors and online shopping continuance.
Design/methodology/approach An online survey of a national sample of online shoppers
identifies online purchase behaviours for search and purchase goods; data are analysed using
structural equation modelling to test the proposed model and the hypotheses.
Findings The analysis finds support for the proposed research model and indicates that experience
product purchasing has the most salient effect on online shopping continuance. Innovation attributes
predicting initial adoption do not play the same roles in post-adoption usage.
Research limitations/implications The survey suffered from self-selection and self-reporting
limitations normally associated with a panel sample.
Practical implications Post-adoption actual use behaviour is the most robust predictor of
channel-loyal shopping behaviour; therefore, focusing solely on improving online shoppers favourable
perceptions or positive attitudes toward shopping online might not be an efficient approach.
Originality/value This research contributes to the marketing literature on consumer innovation
diffusion by extending the consumer innovation adoption process to the post-adoption context.
Keywords Internet shopping, Consumer behaviour, Innovation, Electronic commerce
Paper type Research paper

Introduction
The proliferation of online shopping has stimulated considerable research examining
consumer acceptance of the internet as a shopping channel (Childers et al., 2001; Yoh
et al., 2003; Keen et al., 2004; Ha and Stoel, 2009). However, most of the extant research
has focused on initial adoption of the internet for shopping, whereas little research has
explored post-adoption behaviour. Initial adoption of the internet as a shopping
channel does not guarantee continued online shopping, as discontinuance may occur at
any stage of adoption due to unsatisfactory trial outcomes or usage experiences
(Rogers, 1995). Indeed, initial adoption is only the first step; the success of the online
retail channel depends more heavily on the continued use of the internet to purchase an
increasingly wide range of products than on initial adoption (Parthasarathy and
Bhattacherjee, 1998; Shih and Venkatesh, 2004; Limayem et al., 2007). This study

International Journal of Retail &


Distribution Management
Vol. 38 No. 2, 2010
pp. 97-114
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0959-0552
DOI 10.1108/09590551011020110

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98

attempts to identify predictors of the continued use of the internet (online shopping
continuance) after its initial adoption as a shopping channel.
Innovation continuance refers to post-adoption behaviour in general (Karahanna
et al., 1999; Limayem et al., 2007). We refer to online shopping continuance as the
continued use of the internet for product information search and purchase after initial
adoption. Innovation continuance is not simply an extension of adoption (Karahanna
et al., 1999) as the factors predicting initial adoption are not necessarily the same as the
factors driving continuance (Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee, 1998; Huh and Kim,
2008; Limayem and Cheung, 2008). Innovation attributes are the best predictors of
behavioural intention to adopt an innovation (Rogers, 1995) but they may not be the
best predictors of online shopping continuance. This research examines the effects of
innovation attributes relative advantage and enjoyment and both channel and
product risks on post-adoption online shopping continuance.
Research demonstrates that actual usage behaviours have more salience in explaining
continuance than do the antecedents of initial adoption (Venkatesh et al., 2003). In fact,
post-adoption usage patterns tend to vary across consumers who have different usage
needs and demonstrate different degrees of use innovativeness (Huh and Kim, 2008; Shih
and Venkatesh, 2004). Links between usage behaviours, as well as usage behaviours and
continuance, need to be examined to better understand and predict innovation diffusion
(Anderson and Ortinau, 1988; Shih and Venkatesh, 2004; Huh and Kim, 2008).
Furthermore, post-adoption online shopping behaviours may differ when purchasing
search versus experience products (Klein, 1998). Online shopping for search products
whose qualities the consumer can adequately inspect online prior to purchase (e.g. books)
versus experience products whose qualities cannot be adequately determined prior to
purchase (e.g. apparel), represents two different usage patterns and two different levels of
internet usage (Girard et al., 2002). How these two internet usage patterns are linked to
post-adoption online shopping continuance has not yet been examined. Therefore, this
research also examines the links between online shopping patterns for search products
versus experience products and post-adoption online shopping continuance.
The proposed conceptual model of online shopping continuance (Figure 1), empirically
tested via a national sample of online shoppers, contributes to the marketing literature on
consumer innovation diffusion by extending the consumer innovation adoption process to
the post-adoption context. Further, the empirical findings provide valuable practical
Innovation attributes
Relative
advantage
Enjoyment

Online search
product purchasing
Online shopping
continuance

Channel risk
Online experience
product purchasing

Figure 1.
Research model

Product risk

insights regarding the factors that help to maintain consumer loyalty to the channel and
lead to the online purchase of an increasingly wide range of products.
The next section describes the theoretical foundation for the research, followed by
the conceptual model of online shopping continuance (Figure 1), hypotheses (Table V),
the methodology and an analysis of data. Finally, the empirical results and the
implications of those results for practice and further research are discussed.

Post-adoption
online shopping
continuance

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99
Theoretical background and conceptual model of online shopping
continuance
Innovation adoption is a temporal sequence of stages including initial knowledge of an
innovation, attitude formation, decision to adopt, use of the innovation and
reinforcement of the adoption decision. Considerable research on the diffusion and
adoption of innovative technologies focuses on initial adoption where the dependent
variable in most studies on the adoption of the internet as a shopping channel is the
subjects behavioural intent to adopt the innovation (Shim et al., 2001; Liu and Wei, 2003;
Yoh et al., 2003; Pavlou and Fygenson, 2006; Lennon et al., 2007). However, the decision
to adopt an innovation is just the first step toward the diffusion of the innovation (Shih
and Venkatesh, 2004). Sustaining and increasing post-adoption use of an innovation is
more important than initial adoption (Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee, 1998;
Bhattacherjee, 2001; Shih and Venkatesh, 2004). Thus, promoting continued and/or
expanded use of the innovation is essential to the diffusion of the innovation
(Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee, 1998; Limayem et al., 2007).
Scholars in information systems (IS) have begun studying adoption and
post-adoption use of IS (Karahanna et al., 1999; Jasperson et al., 2005; Castaneda
et al., 2007) finding that predictors of initial adoption are not equally effective in
predicting or explaining post-adoption use. Actual usage behaviour is a critical link
between initial trials and continued use of an innovation (Cooper and Zmud, 1990; Zhu
and Kraemer, 2005); however, post-adoption use differs from the initial trial with
respect to both the extent to which the innovation is used and the ways it is used (Ram
and Jung, 1990; Shih and Venkatesh, 2004; Huh and Kim, 2008). Shih and Venkatesh
(2004) argue that usage patterns can be categorised according to the variety and rate of
usage and propose a use-diffusion model with a fourfold use typology classified as
intense use (a high variety and rate of usage), low use (a low variety and rate of usage),
experimental use (a high variety and low rate of usage) and specialised use (a low
variety and high rate of usage). However, they did not examine the links among the
proposed usage patterns even though they agreed that users may move from one user
category to another. Furthermore, they did not consider the possible links between
these identified usage patterns and intent to continue using the innovation.
Post-adoption behaviour includes repurchase, repeated usage or replacement with
upgraded products after the initial adoption. Understanding these post-adoption
behaviours is as important as understanding initial purchase behaviour, since
understanding post-adoption usage is essential to better targeting potential buyers and
promoting products in a long-run (Shih and Venkatesh, 2004). Research that attempts
to understand post-adoption behaviours has found that demographics, attitudes,
perceptions and search activities and purchase history, all impact repurchase and
replacement purchases of previously adopted products (Bayus, 1991; Kim et al., 2001;
Grewal et al., 2004). Huh and Kim (2008) found that post-adoption behaviour,

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particularly the use of innovative features, plays a critical role in developing users
intention to upgrade consumer durable products. However, using the internet as a
shopping channel is not the same as the repurchase of consumer durable products as
will be further discussed. Therefore, the impact of different usage behaviours on
continued online shopping needs to be examined.

100

Online shopping behaviour and online shopping continuance


The internet can facilitate consumer decision making at each step of the
decision-making process. Consequently, consumers can use the internet to complete
any or all of the steps in the decision-making process (Butler and Peppard, 1998; Liu,
2007). Furthermore, the online decision-making process is shaped by the product
category purchased (Moore and Benbasat, 1991; Klein, 1998; Korgaonkar et al., 2006;
Girard et al., 2002). Search products have higher online channel-product congruence
than do experience products because full information can be acquired online prior to
purchase. As a result, the online purchase process for search products (e.g. books) is
likely to differ from the process of purchasing experience products (e.g. apparel) online
because the decision-making process for experience products requires more time and
cognitive effort (Bloch and Richins, 1983; Klein, 1998). In addition, the use of the
internet for only part of the decision-making process (e.g. information search only) is
more likely to happen when individuals are shopping for experience products than for
search products online (Morrison and Roberts, 1998). Thus, adoption of the internet for
purchasing experience products versus for purchasing search products represents two
different usage patterns.
Use of the internet for shopping is likely to move from partial usage (i.e. information
search only) to full usage (i.e. completing the entire transaction process online) during
post-adoption use (Liu, 2007). Owing to the internets power as an information search
vehicle, providing information to facilitate choice-making is one of its most important
features. Initially, the internet was considered to have great potential for selling search
products such as books, music and airline tickets, since online shoppers may obtain full
product information prior to their purchase (Wright and Lynch, 1995; Klein, 1998). In
contrast, experience products such as apparel were deemed too difficult to sell through
the internet (Kuan-Pin and Dholakia, 2003; McCabe and Nowlis, 2003) because
consumers perceived a higher level of risk associated with the online purchase of
apparel as opposed to in-store purchasing (Biswas and Biswas, 2004). However,
growing post-adoption use of the internet as a shopping channel for a variety of both
search and experience products has proved these earlier predictions to be inaccurate as
apparel has become the largest online sales category later on (Reuters, 2008).
Clearly, the extent to which a consumer uses the internet for shopping will vary for
different product categories (Zhou et al., 2007) because the uncertainty and risk
associated with buying online differ by product category (Klein, 1998). It is easier to
adopt a process that presents less uncertainty and requires less cognitive effort
(Gatignon and Robertson, 1985); however, as users gain experience with a system, the
cognitive effort necessary to deal with risk is reduced (Thorngate, 1976; Limayem and
Cheung, 2008). Thus, past-successful experiences may reduce the level of perceived
risk involved in online purchasing while heightening expectation of possible benefits
(Shih and Venkatesh, 2004; Huh and Kim, 2008) leading to increased online purchasing
of high-risk products experience products. In fact, Davis and Venkatesh (2004) found

that users hands-on experience was the key driver of continued use of IS. On this basis,
it is expected that shoppers who have successfully purchased products online,
especially experience products, will be more likely to continue making online
purchases. Therefore, we posit the following hypotheses:
H1. Greater use of the internet to purchase search products leads to greater use of
the internet to purchase experience products.
H2a. Greater use of the internet to purchase search products lead to increased
post-adoption online shopping continuance.

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H2b. Greater use of the internet to purchase experience products lead to increased
post-adoption online shopping continuance.
H3. Previous online purchases of experience products will impact an individuals
intention to continue shopping online more than will previous online
purchases of search products.
Innovation attributes of the internet as a shopping channel
Relative advantage, enjoyment and risk are salient innovation attributes that impact
the adoption of the internet for online shopping (Davis et al., 1989; Childers et al., 2001;
Dabholkar and Bagozzi, 2002; Pavlou and Fygenson, 2006). Of these salient attributes,
relative advantage has been identified as the most salient in predicting both initial- and
post-adoption usage intentions (Venkatesh et al., 2003). Consistent with the
expectation-confirmation model, Bhattacherjee (2001) found that relative advantage,
as a measure of expectations, played an important role in determining new information
technology users level of satisfaction and consequently affected their continued usage
intentions regarding that technology. Consumers seek value through the shopping
process; thus, the relative advantage of shopping online is a criterion for choosing that
channel for shopping. The advantages of using the internet to purchase products may
differ for search products versus experience products (Klein, 1998). Since information
search costs are marginal for search products but high for experience products (which
require more extensive information search), the relative advantage of the online
channel is likely to be greater for search products than for experience products:
H4a. The innovation attribute of relative advantage will have a positive impact on
the online purchase of search products.
H4b. The innovation attribute of relative advantage will have a positive impact on
the online purchase of experience products.
H5. The innovation attributes of relative advantage will have a stronger positive
impact on the online purchase of search products than experience products.
H6. The innovation attribute of relative advantage will have a positive impact on
online shopping continuance.
Enjoyment impacts the adoption of technology-based innovation (Davis et al., 1992),
attitudes toward the internet shopping channel (Childers et al., 2001) and the use of
technology-based self-service (Dabholkar and Bagozzi, 2002). Shopping is a social process
through which a consumer pursues not only utilitarian value but also hedonic value.

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online shopping
continuance
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Purchasing experience products is more likely to be associated with fun and enjoyment
than purchasing search products. For instance, online apparel retailers provide virtual
models for trying on products or options for customising a customers order, creating a
cognitively and aesthetically rich shopping environment in ways not readily imitable in
the traditional shopping world. Consumers may switch retailers that lack hedonic value
even if they are satisfied with the utilitarian elements, such as quality products and fair
prices (Faison, 1977; Jones and Sasser, 1995). Furthermore, the extent to which a web site
evokes hedonic feelings impacts the shopping experience of the customer (Childers et al.,
2001; Huang et al., 2009). Users who exhibit a high degree of pleasure while shopping
spend a longer time visiting a retailer and are more likely to choose the retailer for
shopping (Novak et al., 2000; Kristof et al., 2006), suggesting that enjoyment should
increase online shopping intentions. Therefore, we posit the following hypotheses:
H7a. The innovation attribute of enjoyment will have a positive impact on the
online purchase of experience products.
H7b. The innovation attribute of enjoyment will have a positive impact on the
online purchase of search products.
H8. The innovation attribute of enjoyment will have a greater positive impact on
the online purchase of (a) experience products than on that of (b) search
products.
H9. The innovation attribute of enjoyment will have a positive impact on online
shopping continuance.
Risk is often a barrier to online transactions. Risk associated with online shopping is
composed of both channel risk and product risk. Channel risk refers to the uncertainty
associated with online transactions and is negatively associated with consumers
attitudes and intention to purchase online (Forsythe and Shi, 2003; Forsythe et al.,
2006). Therefore, we posit the following hypothesis:
H10a. The innovation attribute of channel risk will have a consistently negative
impact on the online purchase of search products.
H10b. The innovation attribute of channel risk will have a consistently negative
impact on the online purchase of experience products.
H10c. The innovation attribute of channel risk will have a consistently negative
impact on the online purchase of online shopping continuance.
Product risk
The extent to which consumers use the internet for shopping may differ for search
versus experience products (Bhatnagar and Ghose, 2004; Sulin et al., 2005; Weathers
and Makienko, 2006) due to the different level of risk associated with buying search
and experience products online (Bhatnagar and Ghose, 2004; Korgaonkar and Karson,
2007). Search goods do not need to be physically examined before purchase, whereas
experience goods have to be tried by consumers before they can be fully evaluated
(Klein, 1998). Therefore, the product risk associated with purchasing experience
products online is expected to be significant:

H11a. The innovation attribute of product risk will have a negative impact on the
online purchase of experience products.

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H11b. The innovation attribute of product risk will have a negative impact on
online shopping continuance.
Method
Data collection
An online survey was administered to a national sample recruited through a
commercial online survey service provider with a 2.5 million-member panel. The survey
was subjected to two pretests. First, feedback was obtained from experts regarding the
wording of the questions, the clarity of each statement, whether any relevant constructs
were omitted, and the layout of the survey. Modifications were made based on feedback.
A second round of survey pretesting was administered to 156 college students to assess
the measurement properties of the constructs. An analysis of the responses from the
second pretest confirmed that the constructs were one-dimensional and reliable, with
alpha levels of 0.70 or above (Anderson and Ortinau, 1988).
Stratified sampling based on the current online populations demographics was used
to obtain a representative national sample of online shoppers with characteristics similar
to those of US online shoppers in general. In total, 1,500 people over the age of 18 were
identified from the stratified sampling and sent invitations via e-mail. Within each e-mail
invitation was a hyperlink with the URL of the online survey, enabling the recipient to go
directly from the e-mail to the survey page with a single click. An incentive (using a point
system) was offered to participants by the service provider. A total of 789 responses were
received, representing a response rate of 53 per cent. After the elimination of incomplete
and duplicate responses, 598 valid responses remained for inclusion in this research.
Construct operations and measures
Research constructs include the innovation characteristics relative advantage,
enjoyment, channel risk, and product risk and three behavioural variables online
shopping continuance, online search product purchasing and online experience
product purchasing. All research constructs were measured using multi-item
seven-point scales (1 strongly disagree; 7 strongly agree) (Table I). The items
pertaining to relative advantage were adopted from Moore and Benbasat (1991), while
measures of enjoyment were taken from Childers et al. (2001) by changing the term
technology-assisted shopping to Internet shopping. We used Jarvenpaa and Todds
(1997) measures of financial, privacy and performance risk, with two additional
statements on credit card information and general risk perception. The measure used
to evaluate product risk was adapted from the research by Forsythe et al. (2006).
Online shopping continuation was assessed by determining the frequency with
which individuals searched for product information and purchased selected products
online during a six-month period. Books were chosen to represent a search product.
Apparel and shoes were chosen to represent an experience product. Online purchase
behaviour for search and experience products were measured using two items:
(1) the frequency with which subjects purchased books/apparel in the past-six
months; and
(2) the amount spent on books/apparel purchased online during the past-six
months (Table II).

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online shopping
continuance
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104

Table I.
Scale/item measurement
properties

Constructs/construct sub-dimensions/items
Relative advantage
Using the internet to shop makes it easier to do
my shopping
Using the internet to shop improves the quality of
my shopping
Using the internet to shop enhances my
effectiveness in shopping
Using the internet to shop helps me to accomplish
shopping tasks more quickly
Enjoyment
Internet shopping is enjoyable
Internet shopping is exciting
Internet shopping makes me feel good
Internet shopping is boring
Channel risk
Shopping on the internet jeopardises my privacy
Internet shopping is more risky than shopping in
a store
My credit card number may not be secure
Product risks
Cannot try on clothing online
Unable to touch and feel the item
Size may be a problem with clothes
Cannot examine the actual products
Online search product purchasing
The frequency of purchasing books
The amount spent online on books
Online experience product purchasing
The frequency of purchasing clothing and
shoe products
The amount spent online on clothing and
shoe products
Online shopping continuance
Intended frequency with which information on
products/product and brand comparisons would
be sought in the next six months
The intended frequency with which the chosen
product would be ordered and paid for online in
the following six months

Cronbachs
alpha

EFA item
loading

0.84

Composite
reliability

CFA item
loading

0.82
0.70

0.78

0.73

0.71

0.71

0.74

0.77
0.83

0.69
0.83

0.73
0.85
0.68
20.70
0.72

0.80
0.73
0.77
20.67
0.71

0.85

0.69

0.72
0.71

0.66
0.65

0.84

0.84
0.80
0.76
0.80
0.79

0.74

0.72
0.75
0.73
0.81
0.88

0.91
0.92
0.78

0.95
0.81
0.80

0.87

0.81

0.90
0.61

0.82
0.65

0.92

0.52

0.66

0.85

Characteristics of the respondents


Respondents were middle-to-upper income adults, with 70 per cent younger than
45-years old (Table III). Women were slightly over-represented, but this is consistent
with the trend that female online shoppers have overtaken men in numbers in the USA
(Solomon, 2003). Approximately, 15 per cent of the respondents had been using the
internet for shopping for two years or less, 34 per cent for two to four years, 28 per cent
for four to six years, and 24 per cent for more than six years. Almost, two-thirds of the

Variable

Measures

Online search
product purchasing

Frequency with which books were purchased during the pastsix months (seven-point scale; 1, 1 time; 7, 7 or more times)
Amount of dollars spent on purchasing books online (six-point
scale; 1, 1; 2, $100-199; 3, $200-499; 4, $300-399; 5, $1,000-1,999;
6, $2,000 or more)
Frequency of purchase of apparel and shoes during the past-six
months (seven-point scale; 1 1 time; 7 7 or more times)
Amount of dollars spent on purchasing apparel and shoes
online (six-point scale; 1 1; 2 $100-199; 3 $200-499;
4 $300-399; 5 $1,000-1999; 6 $2,000 or more)
Intended frequency with which information on products/
product and brand comparisons would be sought in the next six
months
Intended frequency with which online ordering and payment
for the chosen product would occur during the next six months
(seven-point scale; 0 none; 1 less than once a month;
2 once a month; 3 twice a month; 4 once a week; 5 twice
a week; 6 almost every day)

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Online experience
product purchasing

Online shopping
continuance

Scale
Mean

SD

2.11

2.11

1.07

0.98

2.61

3.07

1.75

1.78

3.62

1.34

2.45

1.25

respondents reported having made an online purchase once a month or more during
the past-six months. Half-of-the-respondents spent ten or more hours on the internet at
home every week. Most respondents (94 per cent) used the internet for shopping at
home; reinforcing the notion that internet shopping has become a regular part of
everyday life for Americans.
Analysis and results
Construct validation
First, exploratory factor analysis was used to confirm the basic structure of the scales.
Via a principal axis extraction method, all items measuring the three innovation
attributes, product risk, search and experience product purchasing behaviours, and
online shopping continuation were analysed using a varimax rotation (Anderson and
Gerbing, 1988). The seven factor measures with total of 21 items accounted for
72.1 per cent of the total variance (Table IV). All communalities were between 0.60 and
0.88. Cronbachs alpha, ranged from 0.61 to 0.84, demonstrating acceptable reliability
of the scales.
Next, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the seven variables
measured by multi-item scales. The proposed measurement model exhibited an
acceptable fit (X 2 477.341, df 168, root mean square error of approximation
(RMSEA) 0.056, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) 0.931 and comparative fit index
(CFI) 0.940), thereby providing evidence of convergent validity. Each item loaded
significantly on its proposed constructs with composite reliabilities above 0.70 (Hair
et al., 2006), providing evidence of reliability of the measures. Discriminant validity
was confirmed through a confidence interval test. Confidence intervals of correlations
between latent constructs were obtained through the bootstrapping method using
AMOS. All the intervals of the correlation are significantly less than 1.0, providing
evidence of the discriminant validity of the research constructs (Torkzadeh et al., 2003).

Post-adoption
online shopping
continuance
105

Table II.
Operational definition of
behavioural variables

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Table III.
Demographic profile
of the respondents

Characteristic
Age
19 or under
20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65 or over
Gender
Male
Female
Household annual income ($)
Under 30,000
30,000-34,999
35,000-49,000
50,000-74,999
75,000-99,999
100,000-124,999
125,000-149,999
150,000 or more
Education
Less than high school
High school graduate or equivalent
Some college/vocational school
College graduate
Some postgraduate study
Graduate degree
Employment status
Employed full time
Employed part time
Self-employed
Unemployed
Homemaker
Student
Retired
Ethnic group
Afro-American
Asian
Hispanic
White
Other

%
1.5
13.5
28.9
25.8
22.4
7.0
0.8
33.1
66.9
16.5
13.4
21.7
23.8
14.4
4.6
1.3
2.5
0.8
16.4
39.1
28.8
4.2
10.7
47.9
11.8
8.3
4.1
13.1
9.9
4.9
3.0
5.5
3.0
84.3
4.2

Testing research model and hypotheses


Structural equation modelling (Byrne, 2001; Kline, 2005) was used to test the proposed
research model (Figure 1) and hypotheses. The model fit was good (x 2 622.03, df 189,
x 2/df 3.29; RMSEA 0.060, GFI 0.914 and CFI 0.923). A comparison of these
values against those recommended in the literature suggests that the model estimation
result is satisfactory (Hu and Bentler, 1999; Kline, 2005). With a good fit for overall model,
we turn our attention to the individual relationships contained within the model.

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Online
search
product
Relative
Channel Product
purchasing
advantage Enjoyment
risk
risk
Relative
advantage
Enjoyment
Channel risk
Product risks
Online search
product
purchasing
Online
experience
product
purchasing
Online
shopping
continuance

Online
experience
product
purchasing

Online
shopping
continuance

Post-adoption
online shopping
continuance
107

0.71
0.760
20.477
20.268

0.76
20.407
20.222

0.268

0.313

2 0.303 20.303

0.78

0.328

0.303

2 0.148 20.078a

0.305

0.66

0.433

0.385

2 0.301 20.298

0.487

0.510

0.44
0.568

0.87

0.50

Note: Number on diagonal cell is variance extracted for construct

The results of the hypothesised relationships are summarised in Table V. We found


support for H1-H3. The results indicated that use of the internet to purchase search
products is positively associated with use of the internet to purchase experience
products. The results also show that use of the internet to purchase search and
experience products leads to increased post-adoption shopping continuance. As
hypothesised, we did find that the coefficient of the path from online experience
product purchasing to online shopping continuation (b2b 0.306) was greater than
that from online search product purchasing (b2a 0.211) to online continuation.
To determine whether this difference is statistically significant, we set up a constrained
model by adding a constraint, making the two path coefficients equal. A x 2-difference
test between these two models showed that the degree of use of the internet for
experience product purchasing had a significantly stronger impact on shopping
continuation than did online search product purchasing (x2df1 6.369, p , 0.001).
Therefore, H3 was supported.
We found support for H4a, H5 and H6. The innovation attribute of relative advantage
has a positive impact on the use of the internet to purchase search products, but not
experience products (H4b). We found support for H5, which posited that the innovation
attribute of relative advantage would have a stronger positive impact on the online
purchase of search products than experience products. H6 that the innovation attribute of
relative advantage has a positive impact on online shopping continuance is supported.
We also found support for H7b and H8. The innovation attribute of enjoyment has a
positive impact on the use of the internet to purchase experience products, but not on
its use to purchase search products; therefore, its effect is different across these two
product categories. We did not find support for H9, as the innovation attribute of
enjoyment fails to show a direct impact on online shopping continuance.

Table IV.
Construct correlations

Table V.
Summary of hypotheses
and testing results
Online search product purchasing
Online experience product purchasing
Online shopping continuance
Online search product purchasing
Online experience product purchasing
Online
Online
Online
Online
Online
Online

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

H1 (b1)
H2a (b2a)
H2b (b2b)
H3
H4a (b4a)
H4b (b4b)
H5
H6 (b6)
H7a (b7a)
H7b (b7b)
H8
H9 (b9)
H10a (b10a)
H10b (b10b)
H10c (b10c)
H11a (b11a)
H11b (b11b)

Notes: *p , 0.001, * *p , 0.05; model fit: x 2 588.137, df 188, RMSEA 0.060, GFI 0.921, CFI 0.926

shopping continuance
search product purchasing
experience product purchasing
shopping continuance
experience product purchasing
shopping continuance

Online experience product purchasing


Online shopping continuance
Online shopping continuance

!
!
!

Hypotheses

Results
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Not accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Not accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Not accepted
Not accepted
Not Accepted
Not accepted
Accepted
Not accepted

Estimates
0.270 *
0.199 *
0.326 *
x2df1 6:369*
0.318
ns
x2df1 10:523*
0.265
ns
0.267
x2df1 4:521* *
ns
ns
ns
ns
20.244 *
ns

108

Online search product purchasing


Online search product purchasing
Online experience product purchasing
Path comparison (b2b vs b2a)
Relative advantage
Relative advantage
Path comparison (b4a vs b4b)
Relative advantage
Enjoyment
Enjoyment
Path comparison (b8b vs b8a)
Enjoyment
General channel risk
General channel risk
General channel risk
Product risk
Product risk

Relationship within proposed research model

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We did not find support for H10a, H10b or H10c regarding the impact of channel risk.
We did find support for H11a, suggesting that product risk has a direct negative
impact on use of the internet to purchase experience products. However, the results
failed to support H11b, that product risk impacts online shopping continuance.
Discussion
It has been argued that new insights into adoption conceptualisation are likely to be quite
useful to marketing managers and social policymakers since diffusion theory is frequently
used to explain dissemination of new systems, technologies, products, services and
regulatory initiatives (Gatignon and Robertson, 1985; Shih and Venkatesh, 2004;
Jasperson et al., 2005). Rather than focusing only on initial adoption intentions, this study
examines actual usage behaviours and intended continuation, as well as the links between
actual usage behaviours and continuance because the diffusion of technological
innovations depends on developing new knowledge and new patterns of experience
(Gatignon and Robertson, 1985). Findings suggest that post-adoption usage of online
shopping typically starts with usage that involves less risk and cognitive effort and then
moves to more extensive and complicated usage. With more experience, online consumers
more consistently use the internet for a variety of shopping purposes. We therefore treated
search product purchasing and experience product purchasing as two different types of
usage due to the different level of risks and cognitive effort involved. We hypothesised a
causal path from online purchase of search product to online purchase of experience
products. We tested the commonly held assumption that individuals who adopt an
innovation will use all the functions of the innovation, especially in the case of new
technologies that are capable of performing multiple functions (Shih and Venkatesh, 2004).
Responding to a call to examine the links between actual behaviours in a
post-adoption context (Huh and Kim, 2008), this research examined the links between
actual purchase behaviours and continued usage intention finding that purchasing
experience products online has the most salient effect on continuation. These findings
indicate that users who have successfully integrated an innovation into their lives are
more likely to continue using the innovation and to use it more extensively. This is
consistent with previous research findings indicating that consumers who use the
innovative functions of a new product more often are more likely to adopt updated
products than those who use only the basic functions (Huh and Kim, 2008). More
importantly, these findings support Gatignon and Robertsons (1985) proposition that
the diffusion of technological innovations will depend on users developing new
knowledge and new patterns of experience.
We also found that those innovation attributes predicting initial adoption do not
play the same role in the post-adoption usage context, supporting previous research
conclusions that new adopters employ a richer set of beliefs than their more
experienced counterparts do when making usage decisions (Karahanna et al., 1999).
Our findings are also consistent with previous findings indicating that the predictive
importance of hedonic or functional benefits on attitudes toward the use of a particular
technology/system will depend to a large extent on the primary purpose of the
system/technology (Heijden, 2004; Kim and Forsythe, 2007). Moreover, we found that
behavioural variables (e.g. actual use of the internet to purchase products) have a more
significant impact on online shopping continuation than do belief variables related to
the internet retail channel. These findings are consistent with previous findings.

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continuance
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110

For instance, Venkatesh et al. (2002) reported that when they included prior usage
behaviour as an additional antecedent, all other determinants, including behavioural
intention and inherent motivation, became insignificant.
This study has significant implications for e-tailing managers. First, post-adoption
behaviour should be considered a robust predictor of channel-loyal customers. Focusing
solely on improving online shoppers favourable perceptions and attitudes toward
shopping online might not be effective in terms of promoting more sales since actual
usage behaviours are the most salient factors on predicting continued online purchases.
Second, consumers perceptions regarding the internet as a shopping channel impact
their usage differently depending on their usage needs and patterns. Specifically,
perceptions of relative advantage of the internet as a shopping channel consistently have
greater impact on initial adoption and post-adoption actual usageof an innovation than
do other innovation characteristics. Given that perceptions of hedonic performance
impact the online purchase of experience products, online retailers, especially those
selling experience products, need to deliver hedonic value to their shoppers in order to
promote online shopping continuation (Liu and Forsythe, 2006).
As customers become more comfortable with the online shopping channel, they
overcome general channel risks when shopping for search products. However, when
they buy experience products, it is product risk, not channel risk, that may truly inhibit
online purchase. Consequently, product risks still impact use of the internet in buying
experience products. Therefore, e-tailers who do a better job reducing perceived
product risks will perform better than their competitors will (Nikolaeva, 2007). These
results also suggest that it may be more efficient for e-tailers to promote sales among
shoppers who have purchased experience products online, as they are more likely to
continue using the channel for purchases.
To attain greater external validity, these results should be reconfirmed with various
experience and search product categories or in an online decision-making process
requiring a great deal of cognitive involvement. Furthermore, to more accurately
examine the transitions in an individuals usage behaviour, observation of online
purchase behaviours during a longer time frame will be helpful. Finally, incorporating
more external variables such as marketing campaign measures and e-tailer promotion
actions into consumers post-adoption behaviour model could make the model more
comprehensive and explanatory.
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Corresponding author
Chuanlan Liu can be contacted at: clliu@lsu.edu

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