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THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

VS
REALITY
MBA ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR THESIS

By: Zaur Mammadov


Group: MBA-A
23.11.2013

FOREWORD
I want to again thank my parents who provided me such a great chance to study MBA abroad, all
professors for their passion, effort, knowledge that they shared and my future wife for her
support and inspiration all the time.
- Zaur Mammadov Sahib oglu

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Dear reader, I do not like to start with What I have written in this paper, How and then try to
explain Why you can be interested to read. As Simon Sinek (Picture No. 1) mentioned in his speech
the reason for most of the leaders success is to start from Why and step forward into the direction of
How and What.1
Why? - By reading this paper you can observe the motivation from fully different perspective.
Just imagine, you need to live 25 years of my life, spent thousands of hours on studying, try to imitate
my perception and at the end try to write this paper to know what I have learned, analyzed and
concluded out of it. Still, as in my country people says: You can wear my shoes, but newer can walk as
I am doing
How? - Simple! Just spent equivalent of 0, 000228% of my life to read this paper.
What? Paper is result of my experience and studying, which will help you to get introduced
with the motivation concept, famous motivational theories and their differences. Also, critic points about
theories that you have to pay attention while using them under different contingencies and welcome to
read also my conclusion.
Picture No.1: Golden Circle2

Simon Sinek, How Great Leaders Inspire Action,


http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action.html, viewed 23.11.2013
2 Why Most Marketers Have online Demand Generation All Wrong http://www.business2community.com/onlinemarketing/why-most-marketers-have-online-demand-generation-all-wrong-0346458, viewed 23.11.2013
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CONTENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... 3


CONTENT................................................................................................................................................ 4
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 5
2. MOTIVATION....................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory,,, ................................................................................... 8
2.2 Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory, ............................................................................................... 9
3. COMPARISON OF THEORIES,, ........................................................................................................ 10
4. CRITICIZING THE THEORIES .......................................................................................................... 10
4.1 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory ................................................................................... 11
4.2 Herzbergs Two Factor Theory .............................................................................................. 12
5. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 13
6. Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................... 14

1. INTRODUCTION
He or she is doing better because of..., and he or she can do even well if... All these
because ofs and ifs are motivation
Zaur Mammadov
Lets analyze this phrase by bounded rationality. That is why I would like to separate it into
three parts:
a) He or she is doing better because of...: Here I am talking about people whose ability of
doing something is approximately the same. Because of, being more experienced, knowledgeable, and
etc also makes you to perform better. So, it is about doing better with the same soft and hard skills. Just
as an example from my job experience while working at FIFA: During the event I was working hard,
meeting the deadlines properly, perform effective and efficiently and etc compared to my peers, even I
knew that my salary is quite low in comparison with them and also to the planned salary for my position.
I was driven by my internal motivation. Most of the workers were employees of local football federation
where career and salary increase were happened rarely. So, knowing that you reached your
maximum, how well are you motivated to develop yourself? The only motivation for some of them was
the real love to football, which is constantly decreasing by aging and family issues. In my case, this
event was a good chance to develop my CV, increase my experience and expertise in narrow area like
sales & marketing, to present my skills to different people as the event was locally sponsored by biggest
and famous companies like State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic, Xalq Bank, Bakcell, Pasha
Insurance, etc. So, all these are my because ofs.
b) He or she can do even well if...: You can say: why one more motivation, if you are
already doing better? Because of human being! There are new extends to which a person can develop,
and whenever we have required motivators we will do our best to reach it. Why required motivator?
Different motivators inspire us to develop by different extension and direction. It can be that, after set of
motivators you will reach X, but still based on their arrangement time and way of reaching X also
varies. It is like planning in normal life. For example: while I came to Munich to do my MBA at European
University, I was planned to learn German (one of the steps to reach X) which is still pending. Because
of, lack of motivation for me to do it. I need German language to work and live for a while in Germany
(which is X in my case). At the beginning I was looking for courses as I was motivated by coming to
Munich to study, but later lots of rejection from different companies, information about expats in
Germany etc decreased my motivation to learn German. After some time I have got a internship at
Allianz which also states that prefers to employ its interns for longer period (in 70-80% cases) and I am
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again find required motivator for me to learn German to reach my X. But still I have need for other
required motivators like information about under which circumstances Allianz will employ me, what will
be the salary range, is it enough to decide to live in Germany for a longer period, etc.
c) All these because ofs and ifs are motivation.: Why? Again, human being! We do
everything for getting something in response, even a girl, who voluntarily helps doctors in the nursing
house without any salary for this. You can say she is just very nice person, but still she gets something
like positive energy, happiness, etc. So, motivation is not only about money! In my case, if Allianz will
meet all my needs, all of these drive me to perform even well to be employed by Allianz after
internship.
Another important point to keep in mind is that also others give you external motivation to get
benefit in response. For example, may be you as a person think about motivators and to reach X by
working hard, while your employer also, provides required motivation to you to make you work hard,
which helps him/her to reach his/her X
From previous statements you can see that motivation is very wide subject to discuss. So, Ill
try to analyze motivation based on the two famous motivational theories like: Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs and Herzbergs Two Factor Theory compare them, criticize, and finally make my own
conclusion regarding motivational theories.

2. MOTIVATION
The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort
toward attaining a goal.3
Here we see 3 factors of motivation: intensity-how much effort does the person puts to
achieve the goal, direction how the person directs its efforts and persistence how long does this
effort lasts.
They are important because of the reaching X needs different amount of effort from different
people. The reason can be their skills and also importance of the X for each individual. For example,
two sales representatives who are working hard to get bonus, are putting different amount of effort for
selling z amount of goods. The reason is the skills that sales representatives have. However, both of
them need some a & b amount of the effort to reach the same goal.
However, we still need to direct our effort in a correct way. It is like working hard while doing
wrong result with even more problems rather that doing wrong things without any effort. Imagine a kid
who wants to help his/her mother to cook while she is not at home. Kid is driven by positive emotions
and more effort he/she puts worth the result. The same example with the worker who tries to complete
all the tasks, for getting positive valuated from manager, while he/she is busy. Here we can also see the
relationship between motivation and performance like a person who is very satisfied with his work,
where salary is good, work condition is high etc but he is not working hard. So, highly satisfied with your
job does not mean you are performing well as the motivation is not directed at all.
Persistence is the length of the motivation to reach our goal in timely manner. The reason for
persistence is the quality of the motivation which is varies based on the types of motivators. For
example manager those choose money as motivators to increase the performance of the employees
have to think about importance this type of motivator to the target. If workers are most interested in
security, work relations, etc money will motivate them not as effective as some other types like work
conditions, feedback on performance.

Stephen P.Robbins, Timothy A.Judge, Organizational Behaviour, 15th Edition, page 201

2.1 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory4


A.H. Maslow is one of the famous people in the world who analyzed human kinds motivation
and presented Hierarchy of Needs (Picture No. 2) theory where motivation separated into 5 steps like:
- Physiological Needs: Basic needs like water food, shelter etc just to survive. So, by
providing us with basic needs employer enables us to work.
- Safety Needs: secure, stability, safe environment. As soon as we have satisfied with
physiological needs we are starting to think about mentioned factors to have job security,
adequate medical benefits, safe working environment, etc.
- Social Needs: Social interactions, friendship, affection, love, etc. While we have enough
food to survive and secured from most of the possible problems, additional woof/drink will not
motivate us as much as next category of motivation which is social needs. So, we are looking
for good relations at work place with co-workers/supervisors, etc.
- Esteem Needs: feeling good about capabilities, receive recognition and respected by others.
As a next step, we want to be promoted, recognized by others, etc. We want to have status, to
involve others attention, etc.
- Self-actualization Needs: realizing full potential as a human being. We are using all our
skills to achieve our maximum, be creative, think analytically, etc.

Picture No.2: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs5

Jenifer M. George, Gareth R. Jones Understanding and Managing Organizational Behaviour, 6th Edition, page 157
Stephen P.Robbins, Timothy A.Judge, Organizational Behaviour, 15th Edition, page 203
Angela Bowey Motivation: the art of putting theory into ractice,
http://search.proquest.com/docview/224666442/141EA8EFF4E2B23211E/2?accountid=37942, viewed 16.11.2013
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, www.21stcentech.com, viewed 30.10.2013
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs http://communicationtheory.org/maslow%E2%80%99s-hierarchy-of-needs/
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2.2 Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory6


According to Herzberg, being satisfied and dissatisfied are not two different sides of the same
line. So, being not satisfied is not a being dissatisfied at all and backward. In his theory of Two Factors
(Picture No.3) Herzberg divided Maslows hierarchy into two parts:
-

Hygiene factors: are about being dissatisfied and not dissatisfied. These are the same
like first, second and partially third steps of hierarchy of needs.

Motivators: are similar to fourth, fifth and also partially third steps of Maslows pyramid.

Getting food, security actually does not mean that we are satisfied or motivated, we are just
not dissatisfied. It can be also work condition, policies, salary & benefit, supervision, job security,
personal life, etc. Also, lack of esteem, self-actualization does not mean that we are dissatisfied; it is
only about not being motivated, and example for this are recognition, achievement, advancement,
growth, responsibility, job challenge, etc.
As a production worker employee does not need high level of motivation, just being not
dissatisfied while getting basic needs, security, and etc is enough. However, for the employees who are
doing more creative and analytical thinking tasks motivation is important to be satisfied. Also,
F.Herzberg as a result of his theory recommends enriching the job by making it more interesting and
meaningful. At the same time, still to be careful about nature of workers, as it can be not preferred by
them.

Picture No.3: Two Factor Theory7

Stephen P.Robbins, Timothy A.Judge, Organizational Behaviour, 15th Edition, page 205
Herzbergs Hygiene & Motivational Theory, www.nwlink.com, viewed 30.10.2013
Herzberg Two Factor Theory, http://www.whatishumanresource.com/herzberg-two-factor-theory, viewed 30.10.2013
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Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg, 1968; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959)
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3. COMPARISON OF THEORIES8
As we can see from analyze of two theories they are about same things but in different ways
(Picture No. 4):
- While Maslow thinks that all of them are motivators and differs by importance in a timely
manner, Herzberg categorizes them into hygiene factors and motivators.
- Maslow states that they are interrelated and comes next to each other, Herzbergs hygiene
factors are not so related with motivators and there is not a hierarchical arrangement.
- First based on someones needs and satisfaction, while second is based on use of
motivators.
- Hierarchy of needs is simple and descriptive which is created out of long experience about
human needs. Two factors is more prescriptive, and based on the information collected by authors
research on interviewing 200 workers.
- First theory is most popular and applicable where money plays a big role in motivating the
people like poor and developing countries. Second theory is extension of the first one and better suits to
the countries with less importance of money as a motivator.
- While Hierarchy of Needs states that any need can be a motivator, no matter does the
person not satisfied or less satisfied, Two Factors theorys hygiene factors do not act as a motivators.

Picture No.4: Needs Theory and Two Factor Theory interactions9


Compare Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation Difference, http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/comparemaslow-and-herzberg-theory-of.html, viewed 30.10.2013
Motivation, http://vchrspace.wikispaces.com/2.+Motivation, 30.10.2013
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Needs Theory and Two Factor Theory interactions http://vchrspace.wikispaces.com/2.+Motivation
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4. CRITICIZING THE THEORIES


Taking into the account the fact that both theories do not have a wide research as a base, it
says enough about how well defined are these theories. May be it is just a contingency which derived
from small amount research and observation. So, lets analyze them critically:

4.1 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory


Theory based on the Maslows observation about human needs over the time. Theory is not
updated according to the different cultures. Just as an example individualist and collectivist cultures10.
According to Nevis in collectivist cultures pyramid is different by positioning of social belonging and
elimination of self-esteem. While individuals focus on themselves, their own success; collectivism
prefers social framework, being part of a group, etc.
Also, change of the economy affects peoples behavior. As I have already mentioned in
comparison part, theory is most applicable in developing countries, where money still have a big effect
on motivation the people. While in the developed countries basic needs are well satisfied already by
default and people are most interested in higher hierarchies.
How well theory explains different professions and situations? Imagine a musicians, painters,
etc who needs to be creative, reach self actualization to satisfy his/her basic needs like food, shelter.
Maybe an employee needs all these just for good feeling, while for some professions it is different. Even
there are people protesting, going to demonstrations, asking for recognition while they even to not have
any security and physiological needs.
Also, in theory it is mentioned that, five steps are the arrangement of the needs and after
getting basic needs people are looking for the next steps. What about the time? At the beginning we
expect minimal basic needs for working, later we increase our expectations for even basic needs. For
example: everyone by creating family starts to expect better condition, security also for family member,
while during high school we were motivated only with things that concerns directly us, and the same
with different stages of life. So, it is like cycle of needs.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: does it apply in a collectivist culture,


http://search.proquest.com/docview/203916225/141EA8F9E9473EA60C6/2?accountid=37942, viewed 23.11.2013
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4.2 Herzbergs Two Factor Theory


Theory is based on the observation of only 200 people. Also, gives only idea but how to do in
practice. For example: theory states that job enrichment is good but not every time, and we need to be
careful about it. How in reality do we have to measure or define till which range do the workers will
prefer or dislike job enrichment.
Also, as mentioned in comparison part, theory is much suitable in developed countries rather
than developing. While Herzberg states that hygiene factors are not motivators, we can see how money
works as most preferred motivator in poor countries. Again we can conclude that theory is not
appropriate and do not work in the same way in different cultures and situations.

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5. CONCLUSION
Based on the previous analyze I want to conclude that both theories needs to be updated
according time and adjusted to different cultures. While everything goes in a right way, we say: it works
as the clock. However, even a clock needs to be adjusted while travelling to different countries, and also
every year. So, even the concepts of the theories are right, they still need adjustment.

I believe that you enjoyed your time by reading this paper and at least enjoyed perceiving the
motivation in real life from my perspective/through my eyes.

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6. Bibliography
1. Stephen P.Robbins, Timothy A.Judge, Organizational Behaviour, 15th Edition, page 201
2. Jenifer M. George, Gareth R. Jones Understanding and Managing Organizational Behaviour,
6th Edition, page 157
3. Angela Bowey Motivation: the art of putting theory into ractice,
http://search.proquest.com/docview/224666442/141EA8EFF4E2B23211E/2?accountid=37942,
viewed 16.11.2013
4.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, www.21stcentech.com, viewed 30.10.2013

5.

Herzbergs Hygiene & Motivational Theory, www.nwlink.com, viewed 30.10.2013

6. Herzberg Two Factor Theory, http://www.whatishumanresource.com/herzberg-two-factortheory, viewed 30.10.2013


7. Motivation, http://vchrspace.wikispaces.com/2.+Motivation, 30.10.2013
8. Compare Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation Difference, http://kalyancity.blogspot.com/2011/04/compare-maslow-and-herzberg-theory-of.html, viewed 30.10.2013
9. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: does it apply in a collectivist culture,
http://search.proquest.com/docview/203916225/141EA8F9E9473EA60C6/2?accountid=37942,
viewed 23.11.2013
10. Testing Hersbergs two factor theory in the Thai constrction industry,
http://search.proquest.com/docview/218684207/141ECA13FFD384864E0/4?accountid=37942,
viewed 23.11.2013
11. When is Hierarchy is not a Hierarchy?...,
http://search.proquest.com/docview/212166408/141EA9012C1466E391D/1?accountid=37942,
viewd 23.11.2013
12. Simon Sinek, How Great Leaders Inspire Action,
http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action.html, viewed
23.11.2013

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I confirm that I have listed all sources used for this term paper. I have not used any other
sources that the ones listed here.

Zaur Mammadov ______________

25 November 2013
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