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.4&z mater. Vol. 45, No. 9, pp.

3871-3886, 1997
m,C1997 Acta Metallureica Inc.
Published by Elsevier S%sm Ltd. All rights kserved
Printed in Great Britain
PII: S1359-6454(97)00027-X
1359.6454197 $17.00 + 0.00

Pergamon

HIGH ANGLE BOUNDARIES FORMED BY GRAIN


SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS
D. A. HUGHES
Center for Materials and Engineering
U.S.A. and 2Materials Department,
(Received

Sciences,

and N. HANSEN2
Sandia

National

Risa National Laboratory,

9 August

Laboratories,

Livermore,

CA 94550,

DK 4000. Roskilde, Denmark

1996: accepted 25 Nocember

1996)

Abstract-Deformation
of metals from medium to high strains introduces
significant changes in the
microstructure
and the texture. The microstructure
evolves into a lamellar structure with boundaries
of
small to medium misorientation
angles mixed with high angle boundaries.
The latter category consists
of deformation
induced boundaries
plus the original grain boundaries.
The number of deformation

induced high angle boundaries is significantly larger than the number of original grain boundaries.
Mechanisms for the formation of the deformation induced boundaries are suggested based on grain
subdivision processes which can lead to formation of different texture components
within an original grain.
The distribution
of their misorientations
is estimated
based on these mechanisms.
This estimate is
compared
to experimental
findings for Al, Ni and Ta deformed to large strain by rolling or in torsion.
This estimate and the findings are discussed and good support is established for the basic assumption
that
grain subdivision accompanied
by a strong texture evolution can lead to a very significant increase in the
in a deformed metal. These findings provide the essential physical
fraction of high angle boundaries
background for the construction of theoretical models for the distributions. C 1997Acta Metallurgica Inc.

1. INTRODUCTION
Heavily cold worked metals are subdivided by grain
boundaries
and dislocation
boundaries
which are
arranged in a lamellar or subgrain structure [lb3].
The frequency and distribution
of these boundaries
determines
the properties
of the deformed
metal,
including
the flow stress, texture, recrystallization
behavior
and the formability.
A comprehensive
review of the general microstructure
and texture for
the large strain state of metals was last given in 1980
in Ref. [4].
The boundaries
in heavily cold worked metals
originate not only from grain boundaries
present in
the undeformed
metal, but also from dislocation
boundaries which form during plastic deformation
in
grains that are subdivided
into regions that are
smaller than the original grain size. Qualitatively
it
has been known that these boundaries
have a large
angular spread and that the misorientation
across
many boundaries is of the magnitude characteristic
of
ordinary high angle boundaries
[2]. A quantitative
analysis of this angular spread has, however, only
recently
been possible
by the introduction
of
semi-automatic
and automatic
microscopic
techniques for the determination
of local crystallographic
orientations
on the micrometer
and submicrometer
scale [e.g. 5-101.
As a result, a framework
for the formation
of
dislocation
boundaries
during plastic deformation
has been formulated
[e.g. 111. This framework
has
been supported
by many quantitative
experimental
observations
of a variety of metals [e.g. 51. Both this

framework and experimental


in this paper.

results will be discussed

2. PREVIOUS WORK
The development
of boundaries with a large spread
in misorientations
has been known qualitatively since
the discovery
of grain break-up
by Barrett and
Levenson [e.g. I]. Further, it has been shown that the
misorientation
across many of these boundaries is of
a magnitude characteristic
of high angle boundaries,
e.g. through X-ray, optical and electron microscopic
techniques [14]. High angle boundaries
are defined
as those with angles above 15-20 [12]. Because the
size scale of these boundary spacings is frequently less
it is difficult
to obtain
than one micrometer,
quantitative
microstructural
and crystallographic
data. Thus there are but a handful of reports that
have observed and measured individual high angle
deformation
boundaries
following medium to large
strain deformation.
These include the observations
in
wire drawn Fe-Si [2], an unstable Al single crystal
[ 131, friction
following
channel
die deformation
deformed Cu [14], torsion deformed Al [15], rolled
Al-Zr-Si
alloy containing
particles [ 161, aluminum
rolled to intermediate
strains [17] in heavily rolled
nickel [18], and heavily rolled aluminum [19, 201. A
statistical analysis of the expected grain boundaries
compared
to the observed
high angle boundaries
shows that most of these high angle boundaries
are
formed by the deformation
process at the places
where grains subdivide and are not original grain
boundaries
[ 181. These different observations
show

3871

HUGHES

3872

and HANSEN:

GRAIN

that high angle boundaries


formed during deformation are common to a diverse set of materials and
conditions
from single crystals to polycrystals,
pure
materials,
alloys and particle containing
materials,
f.c.c. and b.c.c. crystal structures;
different deformation modes; and different deformation
temperatures. Many of these observations
have shown that
the number of high angle boundaries
formed across
a grain depends
on the crystal orientation.
For
example, some crystal orientations
maintain
their
average orientation with increasing deformation
and
are thus called stable. Certain symmetric orientations
have the possibility of rotating to more than one end
orientation
during deformation
and are thus called
unstable.
Stable single crystals
develop
low to
medium sized misorientations,
while unstable single
crystals develop high angles [13, 21-251. For polycrystals earlier observations
have shown an effect of
grain orientation
on the subdivision with high angle
boundaries
in coarse grained samples [26, 271.
3. DEFORMATION INDUCED HIGH ANGLE
BOUNDARIES
3. I. D<formation

microstructures

andgrain subdivision

Extensive experimental observations


show that key
dislocation
structures
are common
to a range of
metals,
alloys
and deformation
modes.
These
dislocation
structures have been analyzed within a
common framework for the evolution of microstructures during cold deformation.
This framework
is
based on a subdivision
of grains by deformation
induced dislocation
boundaries
which at 10~ and
medium strains have been separated into two groups:
(i) geometrically
necessary
boundaries
(GNBs)
separating
crystallites
that deform
by different
selections of slip systems and/or different strain or
strain amplitudes
and (ii) incidental
dislocation
boundaries
(IDBs) formed by the trapping of glide
dislocations
[28-331. It has been observed that with
(a)

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

increasing strain the misorientation


angle across the
two types of boundary increases and that the spacing
between the boundaries
decreases.
At large strain this evolution leads to structures
composed
of dislocation
boundaries
having a wide
range of misorientations
and having spacings in the
submicrometer
range. With increasing strain it is also
observed that there is an increasing tendency for the
dislocation boundaries to reorient from a typical cell
block structure into a lamellar structure (see Fig. 1
showing a schematic representation
of this change).
In the typical cell block structure the GNBs include
microbands
(MBs) and single dense dislocation walls
(DDWs) that surround blocks of equiaxed cells. In a
typical lamellar structure at large strain, the lamellar
boundaries
(LBs) sandwich thin layers of cells and
subgrains oriented along the material flow direction.
3.2. Formation

of high angle boundaries

The continued subdivision


of grains into crystallites surrounded by dislocation boundaries leads to a
large
orientation
spread
based
on dislocation
accumulation
processes. The formation
of complex
dislocation
boundaries
indicates
an operation
of
different
slip system
combinations
within
the
individual crystallites. As a result, different parts of a
grain may rotate
towards
different
stable end
orientations.
If such end orientations
are not too far
apart, the grain subdivision will lead to a scatter in
the macroscopic texture. However, the individual end
orientations
may also represent
major and minor
texture
components
and
in such
cases
large
misorientations
within the original grain can build up
during deformation.
Both the microstructural
and textural evolution
leads to the formation
of dislocation
boundaries
in
which a fraction may be classified by their higher
angles (> 15520). Mechanisms
for the formation of
these high angle boundaries
are discussed in the
following.
(h)

large strains

small strains

liar Boundaries (LBs)


Fig. I. Schematic drawing of deformation
microstructures
and grain subdivision.
(a) Small to medium
strain deformation,
t,~ = 0.0660.80
with long microbands
and dense dislocation
walls (DDW)
surrounding
groups of cells in cell blocks; (b) large strain deformation,
tvM > 1 with lamellar boundaries
(LBs) parallel to the deformation
direction, sandwiching
in narrow slabs of cells or equiaxed subgrains.

HUGHES

and HANSEN:

GRAIN

(a)
n

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

3873

(b)
I

1.0 I

I\

GNBs

-1

5% cr
?? 10% cr
A 30% cr
T 50%/a
fit

0
W
A
I

5%cr
10% cr
30% cr
50% cr
fit

e/e,,

e/e,

Fig. 2. Probability
density functions of the boundary
misorientation
angles, normalized
by the average
misorientation
angle, scale to the same function for 5-50% cr. or 6~ = 0.06-0.80. (a) Scaled probability
density for IDB misorientation
angles. The curve fit for all of the IDB data is given by equation (2) with
CI= 3. (b) Scaled probability
density for GNB misorientation
angles. The curve fit for all of the GNB data
is given by equation (2) with IX= 2.5 [36, 521.

3.2.1. Microstructural mechanisms. A number of


mechanisms
based on microstructural
evolution and
dislocation
processes
have been suggested for the
origin of these high angle boundaries
[34, 351. These
include:
(i) cell block formation
in which grains start to
subdivide from the beginning of deformation
creating long boundaries
(dense dislocation
walls/microbands)
in which misorientations
increase steadily with increasing strain;
(ii) an origin as in (i) but with an accelerated
evolution
at grain boundaries
and at triple
junctions;
(iii) coarse slip in S-bands or shear bands that give
rise to regions
rotated
relative
to the
neighboring
matrix;
(iv) coalescence of boundaries
at large strain.
The microstructural
mechanisms,
particularly
(i) and (ii), are expected to produce boundaries with
misorientations
mainly up to 15-30. It has been
found
that
the distribution
of the boundary
misorientation
angles for these dislocation
mechanisms scales with the average angle of misorientation
at low to medium strain according
to a scaling
hypothesis [36]. This scaling hypothesis allows us to
predict the distribution
of misorientation
angles that
would be created at large strain from the dislocation
mechanisms.
The scaling
hypothesis
takes
the
following mathematical
form (an analog from Refs
the probability
density
of
[37, 381) in which
misorientation
angles, P(Q, 0,) is expressed as:
tExtrapolation

of IDB angles have not been included as


those boundaries
will contribute
to the low end of the
angular
distribution,
which is not part of the present
problem.

P(Q,&I = we/e:)

(1)

where 6 and B are the scaling exponents and,f(x) is


the scaling
function
which
is assumed
to be
independent
of total strain imparted to the sample; 6
and b equal one when equation (1) is subject to the
scaling constraints.
Equation (1) implies that if one
plots &P(Q, 0,) as a function of 0/Q,, one should find
a single curve, f(Q/&), regardless of the total strain
imposed on the sample. This scaling behavior is
shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b) for GNBs and IDBs
separately.
These distributions
can be described by
the following empirical equation:

.m) =

CP
r(a)

X%- exp( - c(x)

where x = e/Q,,, c( is a fit parameter and T(a) is the


gamma function evaluated at argument M. The value
c( = 3 gives a description
of the scaled
IDB
distribution,
whereas c( = 2.5 describes
the distribution of GNBs.
The angular
distribution
which follows
from
equation (1) and equation (2) has been extrapolated
to large strains based on an estimate of the H,, for
GNBs at cold reductions
(c.r.) of 70% and 90%.t
This extrapolation
uses an empirical 2/3 power law
relationship
between
the average
misorientation
angle and the strain within the scaling regime for
GNBs. H,, for GNBs at 70% and 90% c.r. is
estimated to be 10 and 15, respectively, according
to Ref. [36]. This calculated distribution
of angles
based on the microstructural
contributions
shows
that 99% of the boundaries are less than 30 at 70%
c.r. and 45 at 90% c.r. [Fig. 3(a)]. Note that in this
paper, both misorientation
and disorientation
are
used interchangeably
to mean the minimum angle
that reflects the crystal symmetry. Disorientation
is

3874

HUGHES

and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

the word
coined
to describe
a misorientation
calculated based on a minimum angle relationship
between crystallites
determined
by considering
all
[39].
symmetry operations
3.2.2. Texture mechanisms. Of equal importance
to the origin
of high
angle
boundaries
are
mechanisms
involving
grain subdivision
and the
evolution of a preferred texture during deformation,
including:
(i) the rotation of a
preferred
crystal
mation;
(ii) ambiguity of slip
orientations
that
within a grain.

subdivided grain to different


orientations
during defor-

(4
0.1

0.08

contribution from
islocation accumulation

-: 0.06
Q)
g

0.04
0.02
0
(b,

10 20 30
Disorientation

40 50
(deg)

60

systems for unstable crystal


lead to diverging rotations

Grains rotate to a few preferred


crystal orientations
that
are frequently
arranged
along
a
continuous
skeleton line in orientation
space. Large
crystal rotations
are required to bring the starting
texture
to the final preferred
texture
for most
deformation
conditions.
If a grain subdivides,
the
individual crystallites within a grain may also rotate
towards the preferred end orientations
[19]. Since the
different end orientations
may differ by very large
misorientations,
this process will thereby create very
high angle boundaries.
The creation of the highest
angle boundaries based on texture evolution will occur
only after some finite deformation
when the preferred
end texture is well developed. Recent analysis based
on local crystallography
measurements
have shown
this relationship
between deformation
induced high
angle boundaries
and the evolution
of typical deformation textures in rolling and torsion [19, 20,401.
The high angle boundaries that form as a result of
texture evolution
in subdivided
grains, may relate
directly to the orientation
of the different texture
components
(see Table 1) and their neighbor-neighbor relationship.
This relationship has been explored
for 10 components
and variants (cube, brass, Goss,
copper, S) of the typical rolling texture of f.c.c.
metals.7 These ideal components
can give rise to
44 different neighbor-neighbor
relationships,
each
characterized
by an angle/axis pair. To calculate a
distribution
based on these 44 permutations,
it is
assumed
that
each
component
has an equal
probability
of being a nearest neighbor of another
component.
Also only the exact ideal component
is
considered. Note that while more elaborate methods
have been employed
in the past to obtain angle
distributions
based on texture orientation
distribution functions,
those calculations
also contain
assumptions that are not relevant for the present case
[e.g. 411. Thus, the present simplification
is preferred
for illustration.
The calculated
distribution
of the
tThe cube component
is included in this analysis because it
is a major component
of the initial texture. However, the
rotated cube component
in Table 1 is not included, since
it is a minor transitionary
component
and not part of the
deformation
components.

texture development:
equal probability of each
ideal component as a
nearest neighbor

20
Disorientation

40
(deg.)

60

Fig. 3. Predictions of probability distributions


for
disorientation angles based on a simple composite model
combining (a) microstructure mechanisms and (b) grain
subdivision and texture evolution mechanisms.
misorientation
angles based on these ideal orientations are given in Fig. 3(b), and shows a range from
20 to 60.
3.2.3. Evolution oJ microstructure and texture.
Comparing Fig. 3(a) and (b), it is apparent that very
different
distributions
and ranges of angles are
produced
by the two types of mechanism.
The
microstructural
mechanisms
produce a peak in the
distribution
at low angle ranges less than l&15,
whereas the texture evolution produces a peak at the
high angle range above 40. A combination
of the two
distributions
into a total distribution with the correct
amount of each population
would be needed for a
complete quantitative
prediction.
This combination
would reflect that both microstructure
and texture
evolve and interact with each other. Methods
of
combining the distributions
will be addressed later in
the discussion section.
The microstructural
and textural evolution establish a framework
for the evolution of deformation
induced high angle boundaries.
This framework,
however, needs experimental
verification
which is
done in the following
for aluminum,
nickel and
tantalum deformed at medium to large strain. The
experimental
section is followed by a comparison
of
the hypothetical
angular
distribution
with those
observed experimentally,
and includes the effect of
material and process parameters.
Finally, the effect
on material properties of a relatively large number of
high angle boundaries
present
in the deformed
microstructure
is discussed.

HUGHES and HANSEN:


Table

GRAIN SUBDIVISION

1. Ideal texture components

F.c.c. rolling

for the various

MECHANISMS

deformation

conditions

F.c.c. torsion
Crystal orientation
jhkl] (unv)?

Label
Cube (D)
Rotated cube (RC)
s (SI, s:. SI, Sd)
Copper (C, and C-1)
Brass (B and B?)
Goss (G)
a fiber
/r fiber

(I li)[2ii]

EXPERIMENT

plane and rolling

Cube (D)
Rotated cube (RC)
Goss (G)
Taylor (TI)
Taylor (Tz)
Cross Taylor (CT,)
Cross Taylor (CT?)

jl00}<00l>
{ooi~(iio)
(O_llI;(lOO>
(lll)[211]
(l I l)[2iil

(iii)[oii]

(ii I)[OI I]

The properties
of the three materials
and the
various deformation
conditions used in this study are
shown in Table 2. Thin foils for transmission
electron
microscopy (TEM) were made to view the samples in
the longitudinal side plane for rolling or the Z-theta
plane for torsion.
(Z is the shear plane normal,
theta is the shear direction.)
Transmission
electron
microscopy and convergent beam diffraction analysis
of these samples was performed.
Orientations
of
individual
crystallites
were obtained
from
the
convergent
beam Kikuchi patterns.
Crystallites
as
small as 40 nm could
be measured
with this
technique. The Kikuchi patterns were analyzed using
a computer method based on the techniques in Refs
[IO, 421 to obtain
the orientation
matrices
for
individual crystallites. The minimum angle misorientation relationship
(disorientation)
between adjacent
crystallites separated by dislocation
boundaries
was
calculated by considering all 24 symmetry operations
for the orientation
matrices in a standard manner,
The axis/angle pairs for the disorientations
were also
calculated. The axis/angle pairs were quantitatively
spacing

following

deformation

direction.

respectively,

in rolling,

or the shear

plane and

and observation

length either in the ND for rolling

or : dire&Ion

for torsion

Spacmg
Material and deformation
condltlonst
Nickel (99.99%) f.c.c.
80 flrn initial grain size:
Rolhng 70% cr. (<>M= 1.4)
Rollin 90% cr. ((,M = 2.7)
Rolling 98% cr. (fthl = 4.5)
Torsion (c.~ = 4.1)
Alummum (99.5%) f.c.c.
90 pm mitral grain sire:
Rolling 90% cr. (c,, = 2.7)
Aluminum (99.8%) f.c.c.
I50 x 300 pm mltial grain size:
Rolling 90% c.r. (c\~ = 2.7)
Tantalum (99.99%) b.c.c.
44 pm imtial grain size:
Rollmg 90% x.r: ((ih, = 2.7)

Original grain
boundaries$ (pm)

All dislocation
boundaries (pm)

High angle
boundaries. H > IS (pm)

Observation
length (pm)

32.0
8.0
1.6
11.5

0.40
0.22
0.16
0.17

0.72
0.53
0.37
0.34

13.7
12.2
7.7
9.6

9.0

0.50

2.00

38.X

15.0

0.35

2.10

42

4.4

0.25

1.80

tGrain size is given as a Heyn intercept distance.


$Calculated based on the deformation
kinematics
VLMiq van Mises effective strain.
xx IS cross rolled.

shear

compared
to axis/angle
pairs for coincident
site
lattices. The disorientation
axes were also compared
to the sample axes of the adjacent crystallites.
A
negative or positive disorientation
angle was assigned
by considering whether the disorientation
axis is in a
left hand or right hand triangle, respectively.
Measurement
errors for these Kikuchi methods
include errors that arise from measuring the Kikuchi
pattern itself and cumulative errors in the measured
orientations
due to slight overall bending in the thin
foils. Errors in both the orientation
and misorientation between adjacent crystallites based on pattern
measurement
are 0.1 to I, as examined
in Refs
[lo. 421. Note that orientation
angle changes due to
overall foil bending are restricted by both the thick
supporting
sample rim and the geometry
of the
sample holder and microscope.
Furthermore,
these
errors were carefully examined using single crystal
thin foils measured over large distances of 500 to
1000 pm. Such careful measurement
showed that
cumulative
errors in the orientation
measurement
that would develop owing to slight foil bending are
only about 2 over 100 kirn of sample [43]. Additional
evidence
for the goodness
of TEM orientation
analyses is found in Ref. [44] in which orientations
in

AND RESULTS

4.1. E,xperirnent

Table 2. Average intercept

Crystal orientation
{hk/J<uow)i

Label

Fiber linkmg
the sequence:
BI, Sz. CI, SI.
B:, Si, Cz, SI

tThe designation
jhk/)(uw)
refers either to the rolling
direction, respect&y
for torsion.

4.

B.c.c. rolling

Crystal orientation
(hk/)(ucw)1_

Label

3875

and mitral spacing.

3876

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

a single crystal were measured over long distances in


the TEM and then compared
to similar measurements using scanning electron microscopy
(SEM).
The errors from these effects, < 1 on misorientation
and < 3 on orientation,
are insignificant with respect
to the range of misorientation
angles and to the
identification
of local orientation
type considered in
this paper.
For the rolled nickel and aluminum (small grain),
the
macroscopic
crystallographic
texture
was
measured previously using neutron diffraction
and
plotted as an orientation distribution function (ODF)
[20, 341. The macroscopic
crystallographic
textures
for Ta, coarse grain aluminum, and torsion deformed
nickel was measured using standard X-ray diffraction
techniques
and are reported
in Refs [4547],
respectively.
The starting
textures
ranged
from
random to medium recrystallization
textures for all
materials,
except
the coarse
grained
aluminum
sample which had a strong (100) TD (transverse
direction)
fiber.
Following
deformation,
typical
deformation
textures developed in every case.
Previous
extensive
observations
show that key
dislocation structures are common to a broad range
of
metals,
alloys
and
deformation
modes
[ 17, 28, 31, 32, 48-521. Furthermore,
these key structures evolve within
a common
framework
for
microstructural
evolution,
which
we call grain
subdivision [28&32]. The observations
in the present
study are in general accord with this earlier work.
However, new results have been obtained especially
on the microstructure
and local crystallography
of
specimens
deformed
at medium to large strains.
These results are presented in subsections 4.24.4.
4.2. Microstructure
Similar large strain microstructures
develop at
large strains for this diverse group of materials and
conditions. Typical for all is a composite structure of
long lamellar dislocation boundaries alternating with
strips of equiaxed
subgrains.
Examples
of these
structures
for the three materials and three deformation modes are shown in Fig. 4(a) and (b). Sinuous
strips of many fine lamellae alternate with strips of
equiaxed subgrains and widely spaced lamellae. The
macroscopic
shape of these large strain structures
reflects the direction of the imposed deformation.
Thus for straight rolling and cross rolling the lamellar
boundaries
are nearly parallel to the rolling plane,
while in torsion the lamellar boundaries
are nearly
parallel to the z plane which contains
the shear
direction.
The proportion
of the microstructure
containing
equiaxed
subgrains
compared
to the
proportion
containing
strips of lamellar dislocation
boundaries
depends
on the material
and the
deformation
mode. For example, aluminum with its
higher stacking fault energy has a greater proportion
of equiaxed subgrains
than rolled nickel. Torsion
deformed nickel has a greater proportion
of equiaxed
subgrains than does rolled nickel.

The type of structure found in between the lamellar


boundaries
also depends on the material and the
strain level. For aluminum and nickel, dislocation
cells are typically found in between the lamellar
boundaries. These cells are arranged one to three cells
deep between the lamellar boundaries
and a few to
many cells along their length at these large strains.
Fewer cells are observed in nickel than in aluminum.
For tantalum a loose network of dislocations
in a
Taylor-like
lattice is more commonly
observed in
between the lamellar boundaries
than are strings of
equiaxed cells. In all cases a string of low angle
equiaxed cells within a lamellar band is punctuated at
either end by an equiaxed subgrain. These subgrains
are surrounded by very high angle boundaries and are
thus very like a micrometer
sized grain.
The boundaries introduced by deformation
in the
form of dislocation
boundaries
or as high angle
boundaries
are predominantly
present as a banded
structure of a macroscopic orientation with respect to
the specimen
axes. Examples
are the microband
structure at low and medium strain and the lamellar
structure
at large strain.
For such anisotropic
microstructures
it has been chosen
to use the
boundary
distance
or the number of boundaries
measured along straight lines as the structural parameters. For example, the average intercept spacing of
these boundaries along ND (normal direction) and z
directions
is shown in Table 2 for the various
conditions.
Additionally,
there are also regions filled with
equiaxed subgrains (ES) or remnants of the smaller
strain
microband
structure.
The smaller
strain
microband structure is most prevalent in the 70% c.r.
sample and is also found with a lower frequency in
90% c.r. samples. No microbands
are found at 98%.
The microband
structure
at these large strains is
interpenetrated
by coarse
slip in S-bands.
The
_ 5-pm long S-bands run parallel to crystallographic
slip planes and directions.
Frequently,
lamellar
boundaries
are formed in regions where S-bands
intersect the microbands.
It was also observed that
some grains at 90% c.r. were traversed by regions of
localized glide that are roughly 1-5 pm wide by
20&200 pm long. In addition to the disappearance
of
the small strain microstructure
features, the principle
change
in the dislocation
microstructure
with
increasing
strain above 70% is the coalescence
of
dislocation boundaries.
The
local
orientation
measurements
were
compared
with the macroscopic
textures.
It was
observed that both microscopically
and macroscopitally there is a large spread about the ideal texture
components
with the local orientation
falling within
the intensity contours
of the macroscopic
ODFs.
In such a comparison
care should be taken owing to
the limited number of local orientation
measurements The qualitative agreement observed, however,
indicates that the sampling in the convergent beam
analysis is representative
for the specimens.

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

3877

Fig. 4(a&Caption overleaf.


4.3. Disorientations and angle/axis pairs
The distributions
of the measured
boundary
misorientations
are shown in the histograms
in
Fig. S(a)-(f) for all of the materials and deformation
modes at strain levels above tuM = 1.4. Allof these
distributions
include a wide range of angles from near
zero to 62.8. Significantly,
these distributions
also
exhibit both a large peak at small angles and a

medium sized population


at very high angles. The
population
at the very high angles is not observed at
strain levels at or below tvM = 1. The rotation axes for
these disorientations,
plotted in the adjacent standard
triangles, are generally scattered across the whole
triangle and do not show strong crystallographic
preferences.
The average spacing of the high angle boundaries,
shown in Table 2 is always much less than the average

3878

HUGHES

and HANSEN:

GRAIN

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN

spacing of original grain boundaries for all materials


and deformations.
The spacing of the high angle
boundaries is also smaller than a 30 deviation in the
average grain boundary spacing, indicating that the
majority of the high angle boundaries are formed by
the deformation
process.
The disorientations
across the dislocation boundaries in adjacent
crystallites
are plotted
against
distance
within
a grain
in Fig. 6(a)-(e).
The
disorientations
were measured in a line either along
the ND for rolling, or the z axis for torsion. All of
the orientation
changes shown occur sharply at a
dislocation boundary. Note the alternating nature of
the disorientations
showing very little cumulative
angle change over the distances considered. There is
a very wide range of spacings for the high angle
boundaries.
While these boundaries
are distributed
continuously
throughout
the distances
measured,
some clusters of high angle boundaries
as well as
quieter regions with small angle changes can be seen.
The wide variety of rotation axes for the lamellar
boundaries
(Fig. 5) indicates a varied mixture of
boundary types from near twist and tilt boundaries to
mixed type boundaries.
The length of these high angle boundaries
was
explored
by following
the orientations
along two
adjacent lamellar boundaries
for a long distance of
40 Ltrn along the RD. These boundaries are part of a
structure in which many high angle changes occurred
perpendicular
to the LBs. In contrast to a direction
perpendicular
to the LBs, mostly small angle changes
were found within the lamellar bands (Fig. 7). High
angle changes occur occasionally within a band when
a small equiaxed subgrain was traversed. Of equal
significance was the fact that the rotation axes within
a lamellar band were more likely to be clustered
about preferred
axes, in contrast
to the varied
rotations across the bands. Note that except for the
small equiaxed
subgrains,
one lamellar
band is
composed
of orientations
around
the same Si
orientation
variant for 40pm (Fig. 7) while the
adjacent band is composed
of the B, orientation
variant. Consequently
a very high angle boundary is
maintained between the two bands for at least 40 pm.
Different magnitudes of angle changes were found
within different dislocation microstructures.
Well-developed lamellar bands had larger misorientations
than
did regions
of microbands.
High
angle
boundaries were also frequent across the long strips
of LBs formed in a microband structure due to coarse
slip along S-bands or in which micro-shear
bands
occurred within a microband
structure. An example
of this effect was observed
in the structure
represented
by the disorientation
plot in Fig. 6(a).
4.4. Local texture

distributions

The pattern of orientations


of individual crystallites is highlighted
in the previous disorientation
[Fig. 6(a)-(e)] by color shading regions to reflect their
association
with specific ideal components.
A local
orientation is classified as an ideal component if it has

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

3879

a disorientation
of less than 15- relative to the ideal
component.
An orientation
not within 15 of any
ideal component is taken to be a random orientation.
The ideal components
considered
throughout
the
paper are listed in Table 1. The complementary
variants of the same ideal component
were also
distinguished,
since these variants differ from each
other by high angle rotations (e.g. 60^ about (1 11)).
The most striking features in Fig. 6(a)-(e) are the
large number
of high angle disorientations
that
accompany a very fine scale pattern of local texture
components.
Note that most (>2/3) of the very high
angle changes, >30 , in Fig. 6(a))(e) separate two
different ideal texture components.
In contrast, only
l/4 separate an ideal component
from a random
component
and less than l/l5 separate two random
components.
Remarkably,
owing to the many high
angle changes,
nearly
all of the ideal texture
components
and their variants are frequently found
over a distance of just a few micrometers
in all these
various structures. For f.c.c. rolling, the orientations
can be seen to span a wide range of the x and /Ifibers
plus some random
components
[see especially
Fig. 6(a), (b) and (d)]. These orientations
are
frequently arranged in space so that they alternate
back and forth along the length of the c( and /r fibers.
Analogously,
for torsion, observed orientations
span
and alternate along the {l I ~)(uz~M~) and (Ml){ 110)
fibers [Fig. 6(c)]; for b.c.c. rolling all of the ideal
components
along the {OOl}(urn~) or (111 ](uw~)
fibers are found [Fig. 6(e)]. Strikingly, this trend can
already
be observed
at a 70% c.r. (E,~ = 1.4)
[Fig. 6(a)] and is maintained
with increasing strain.
At these large strains the random components were
scattered throughout
the microstructure.
Although
random components
could be found in regions with
either S-bands or localized glide bands, the frequency
of the random components
was not any higher than
elsewhere.
In fact the localized glide bands were
typified by having a normal deformation
texture. e.g.
copper or S.
It must be noted that texture components
of a
different color are not always separated by high angle
boundaries
in Fig. 6. This result occurs as a
consequence
of the texture grouping we use that is
based on the classification of an orientation
as ideal
if it is within I5 of the ideal, combined with the fact
that adjacent ideal orientations
along the b fiber are
only 19.4 apart.
The local measurements
also show that each of the
deformation
texture components
is composed
of a
very large number of small volumes with orientations
scattered around the ideal orientations.
An estimate
of the size of such volumes for rolling shows that their
average dimension in the ND direction may be l/3 to
l/5 of the reduced
grain size (Table 2). The
dimensions
in the RD and TD directions gives an
average aspect ratio for the pancake shaped volumes
of about 335. This average aspect ratio is somewhat
misleading because of the wide distribution of lengths
for the pancake shaped volumes. Within lamellar

3880

HUGHES

and HANSEN:

GRAIN

SUBDIVISION

In

.!2

-a

5
p
z
G

20
Disorientation

40
()

60

MECHANISMS

10
8
6
4

20
40
Disorientation
(deg.)

60

40
20
Disorientation
(deg.)

60

in

40
20
Disorientation
(deg.)

60

iii

20
Disorientation

40
(deg.)

iii

60

40
20
Disorientation ()

60

Fig. 5. Histograms
showing the distribution
of the magnitude
of disorientations
across dislocation
boundaries measured along either the normal direction for rolling or the z direction for torsion. Note that
the histograms
generally show two peaks in their distribution.
The disorientation
axes are plotted in
standard triangles. Axes for 0, ISI > 35; A, 18 < /0/ i 35; 0,]0\
< 18. (a) Nickel 70% cr.,(b) nickel
90% cr., (c) nickel 98% cr., (d) nickel deformed by torsion, (e) aluminum 90% c.r., smaller grain size
and (f) tantalum 90% x.r.

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

Cd)

_0

(b)
B,

4
6
8
10 12
Distance along ND (Fm)

mm~~mm
B2 C2 S1

S, S,

-60
__

14

.,00Dl04

5
10
15
Distance along

20
25
30
ND (Fm)

(e)*
m
-(001)[~10](001)<uvw>(111)[011] (lll)filZ]

random

W?
(lll)[i2l](lll)<uvw>

60
40

1
2
3
4
5
Distance along ND (pm)

60

20

B
Bg

i:
8

-20
-40

7
;

-60

u
mm mm%3
A, A 2* A, A2 B1 Bz C 110 fiber111 fiber random

CC)s

2345678

Distance

along

ND (Km)

60
40

a
z
.2
m
z
z
s:
a

Fig. 6. The disorientation angles measured across dislocation boundaries


in either the normal direction for rolling
or the z direction for torsion show an alternating
character
with distance. These boundaries
separate finely distributed
texture
components
as shown
by the color shading.
(a) Nickel 70% cr., (b) nickel 98% c.r., (c) nickel deformed
by torsion, (d) aluminum 90% c.r., smaller grain size and
(e) tantalum 90% x.r.

20
0
-20
-40
-60 _
Distance

6
8
along 2 axis (pm)

10

bands, pancake shaped volumes with aspect ratios of


lo-20
are punctuated
by high angle equiaxed
subgrains with aspect ratios of 1. Another contribution to the wide variety of these aspect ratios is the
tendency of high angle boundaries to cluster. Thus, a
distribution
of the individual volume elements that
compose the macroscopic
texture has a very large
spread in size from a small fraction to a couple of
pm3.
4.5.

The efects

crystal structure,

The

formation

of grain orientation,

material purity,

strain level and deformation

of

high

angle

boundaries

mode

and

sr.C-l.RD*

10

15

20

25

30

35

4u

Distance along RD (pm)

Fig. 7. Disorientation
angles measured across dislocation
boundaries
within a single lamellar band in the rolling
direction.
The color shading shows that similar texture
components
are maintained
within the band.

3882

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN

local orientations
may be affected
by several
parameters
including
grain orientation,
material
purity, crystal structure, strain level and deformation
mode.
4.5. I. Orientation effkcts. In general the high angle
boundaries
are distributed
widely throughout
the
distances measured. These high angle changes occur
both in the grain centers and near original grain
boundaries. At the same time, there are quiet regions
with only low to medium angle changes and regions
with clusters of high angle boundaries.
For the case
of f.c.c. rolling, these quiet regions were associated
with average grain orientations
along the c1 fiber,
including
Goss and brass components
[see, e.g.
Fig. 6(d)]. For b.c.c. rolling these regions were
primarily
associated
with the rotated cube orientations (see, e.g., Fig. 6(e) and Ref. [53]). In no case
did these regions with low to medium angle changes
extend across the whole grain width; rather they
occupy fractions of a grain, even for the rotated cube
orientation
in tantalum.
In contrast
to the quiet
areas, the clusters of high angle changes in f.c.c.
rolling are associated
with alternations
primarily
along the /jfiber including finely distributed
regions
with the variants
of S, copper
and brass plus
occasionally a Goss orientation.
No clear orientation
effects could be identified for the case of torsion,
although somewhat larger frequencies of high angle
changes are associated with orientations
along the
(111) fiber compared to the (110) fiber.
4.5.2. Material purity and type. Similar numbers
of high angle boundaries
and varieties
of local
orientations
are observed for a range of material
purity from 99.999% to 99.5% (Table 2 plus Ref.
[ 191). However,
significantly
more
high
angle
boundaries
were observed in nickel than in aluminum, consistent with a finer spacing of dislocation
boundaries
in nickel compared to aluminum.
4.5.3. Crystal structure. The different deformation
textures
that develop reflect the different
crystal
structures, f.c.c. or b.c.c. as expected. However, both
the b.c.c. and f.c.c. metals show similar trends with
respect to the number of high angle boundaries and
texture components.
However, the average number of
texture components
in b.c.c. tantalum, 24, is smaller
than that for f.c.c. 2-7, at the same strain. This
difference is partly related to the stability of the
rotated cube grains in the tantalum and the larger
number
of ideal texture
components
for f.c.c.
compared to b.c.c.
4.5.4. Grain size and shape effects. The grain sizes
in this study ranged from medium-small
(44 pm) to
medium-large
(150 p). Within this grain size range no
observable
effects of either the initial or deformed
grain size were observed.
For example, the same
average spacing of high angle boundaries is observed
for aluminum with two different initial grain sizes
(Table 2). Both aluminum samples showed the similar
varieties of high angle boundaries
and local texture
components.
All of these suggest a minor role of the

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

initial grain size. It must, however, be noted that


neither very large grain nor small grain specimens
have been examined.
4.5.5. Strain level. The formation of most of the
very high angle boundaries
occurs within a very
limited strain range. At strain levels between 50 and
60% c.r. (t,, = 0.8 to l), all of the observed high
angle boundaries are less that 25-30. Strikingly with
increasing
strain
to 70% c.r. (tvM = 1.4), the
maximum angle increases to 62.8. The frequency of
high angle boundaries
also increases in this narrow
strain range. With a further increase in strain from
70% c.r. (ttM = 1.4) to 90% c.r. (c,~ = 2.7) there is
some increase in the number of very high angle
boundaries.
However, none occurs above 90% c.r.
This development
of high angle boundaries matches
the overall trend for dislocation
boundaries
with
increasing strain in this strain range. For example,
Table 2 shows that the spacing of the high angle
boundaries in nickel decreases with strain at a similar
rate compared
to the dislocation
boundaries.
This
decrease is quite different from that of the steep
decrease of the original grain boundaries
during
rolling (Table 2). The torsion data for the high angle
and the dislocation
boundary
spacing match the
rolling data (Table 2).
The variety of local orientations
increases
in
tandem with the formation
of the very high angle
boundaries.
At the very largest strains it is observed
that there is a slight increase in the number of random
components
in the structure.
defor4.5.6. Deformation mode. The different
mation modes, torsion and rolling, produce different
preferred textures and different macroscopic
shape
changes.
Both modes produce
an active texture
evolution that includes large rotations.
In spite of
the differences,
very similar average spacings are
observed for both the high angle boundaries and the
dislocation boundaries (Table 2). However, in torsion
the grain shape does not become as flat as that in
rolling (by a factor of 7). Consequently,
the similar
high angle spacings
between
the two types of
deformation
mode results in the creation of 334 high
angle boundaries per grain in rolling compared to 27
in torsion,
on average.
The similarities
in the
distribution
of the high angle boundaries and in the
diversity of local texture components is also shown by
comparing Fig. 6(b) and (c).
5. DISCUSSION
5.1.

Boundary formation

The observed microstructural


subdivision leads to
the
subdivision
of the
characteristic
texture
components
into small volume
elements.
These
observations support the hypothesis that deformation
induced
high angle boundaries
arise from both
microstructural
and textural evolution.
The current
experiments
provide
added information to that previously published on the origins of

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN

high angle boundaries.


This information
includes the
relative importance of each mechanism and the range
of high angles created.
5. I. 1. S-bands. The S-band structure provides a
very visual illustration
of a mechanism
by which
deformation
structures can develop many long high
angle boundaries
subdividing
the original grains.
At strains ranging from 50 to 90% c.r., various
distributions
and arrangements
of S-band clusters
have been observed
within grains including
both
evenly spaced strips and groups of strips. The first
arrangement
would lead to evenly spaced high angle
boundaries,
while the latter to clusters of high angle
boundaries. The observed range of angles formed by
this mechanism
are in the medium to higher angle
range from 10 to 30 with 20 boundaries
most
typical. This mechanism
is very common and the
number of high angle boundaries that it produces is
high. However, it is unlikely that very high angle
boundaries
greater than 40 could be produced by
this mechanism alone. A similar effect is found for the
observed
shear bands, but their frequency
in the
microstructure
is less than that for S-bands.
5.12. Cell blocks. Cell block formation results in
high angle boundaries that are generally less than 35,
as discussed in Section 5.2.
5. I .3. Coalescence ofboundaries. At large strain, a
high proportion
of boundaries are combined together
as the number of boundaries across a grain is reduced
with increasing
strain. The resultant angle change
across the coalesced boundaries
will be quite varied
and depend on either the alternating
or cumulative
character
of their angle/axis
pairs. Calculations,
based on experimental
data, show that high angle
boundaries
formed by coalescence
are rare. This
result is due to the great variety of boundary axes and
the diversity of neighbor
orientations
that makes
strictly cumulative misorientations
uncommon
[35].
5.1.4. Grain-grain interactions. The current data
sets provide an estimate of the relatively modest
proportion
of high angle boundaries
arising from
grain boundary effects. Of particular importance
is
the torsion data [Fig. 6(c)] in which 28 high angle
boundaries
are spread across the distance of one
grain and thus two grain boundary regions. Based on
the experimental
observations
of grain boundary
regions [54-561 and simulations
[57], only 20% of
these boundaries
should be associated
with grain
boundary
interactions.
The remaining
80% must
occur for other reasons. The high angle boundaries
found in rolling also spread across the whole grain
width and are not associated with the grain boundary
regions. For example, the measurements
in Fig. 6(a)
(nickel 70% cr.), that begin on the right in the middle
of an original grain and end on the far left at a grain
boundary,
show that the high angle boundaries
are
continuously
distributed
across the grain.
5.1.5. Special initial orientations. There is a clear
orientation
dependence
on the formation
of high
angle boundaries. However, the importance of special

SUBDIVISION

MECHANISMS

3883

orientations
in creating
high angle boundaries
depends on the starting texture of the material. While
this mechanism
is a potent source of high angle
boundaries
in polycrystals
with strong
starting
textures such as cube, its potency diminishes with an
increasingly
random
starting
texture since fewer
regions are near these special orientations.
For the
weakly
textured
materials
in this study,
this
mechanism is only of small to moderate importance.
5.1.6. Etolving texture. A more potent source of
high angle boundaries may be found if one considers
the whole of texture evolution
and not just the
evolution
of special orientations.
Large crystal
rotations are required to bring the starting texture to
the final preferred texture.
The above hypothesis is supported by considering
crystal rotations
using a Taylor model. During
deformation,
an initially random grain is reoriented
along a path in orientation
space that is defined by
the rotation
or reorientation
velocity
field in
orientation
space [58]. Since both the magnitude and
direction
of this velocity depends
on location in
orientation space, each part of a subdivided grain will
have a somewhat different reorientation
velocity and
direction.
While this rotation
field is generally
smooth, there are regions in which a small change in
orientation
causes a reasonably large change in the
velocity.
Large
differences
in velocity
between
adjacent crystallites in a grain result in the evolution
of large differences in orientation and misorientation.
As texture evolves, a random subdivided grain will
approach
regions with large velocity changes
as
follows.
The characteristic
structure of the rotation field
causes crystals of any general or random orientation
to be funneled into orientation streams flowing to one
end orientation.
However, as the crystal volumes of
a subdivided grain are swept along these reorientation streams, the volumes rotate near one or more
surfaces in orientation
space that separate streams
with branching
paths to different end orientations.
Because a grain has been subdivided,
it contains a
range of crystal orientations,
each with its own
rotation rate and direction, since the latter depend on
the current orientation
with respect to the deformation axes. Consequently,
different parts of a grain
will approach these branching paths at different times
and locations in orientation
space. These differences
will cause some parts of a grain to follow one branch
while others will follow a different branch, thereby
creating some very high angle boundaries
when the
different end orientations
are reached. The initial
crystal orientation and deformation
mode will dictate
the degree of subdivision necessary to cause this large
scale splitting. For special orientations
already near
the surfaces
in orientation
space that separate
branching
paths,
grain subdivision
into regions
separated by only a couple of degrees of misorientation is required. In contrast, for orientations
that are
farthest away from these branches, grain subdivision

3884

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

into regions separated


by 20 rotation
angles is
required,
based on the 45 periodicity
of these
branches.
The creation of high angle boundaries
based on
texture evolution will occur only after some finite
deformation
when the preferred end texture is well
developed.
This delay occurs because an initially
random grain will only be swept near these branches
when it is near to the end orientation
or fiber of
orientations
characteristic
for the deformation.
5.2. Comparison of the hypothetical distributions
misorientation angles with experiment

of

The prediction
based on the addition of distributions in Fig. 3 based on both microstructure
and
texture provides good qualitative agreement with the
experimental
distributions
in Fig. 5. While the
simplified model represented
in Fig. 3 captures the
main features
observed,
it is not meant to be
quantitative.
For example, the distribution
peak at
the small angle range occurs at a somewhat larger low
angle in the predictions than in the experiments. This
moderate difference is indicative of the interactions
between the dislocation and the texture mechanisms
which we know exist, but do not account for in the
simple model. Also the contribution
to the distribution from the dislocation mechanisms
is based on
an extrapolation
of both the average angle and the
scaling observed at small to moderate strains. This
extrapolation
is acceptable for strains below c,~ = 2.7
(90% c.r.), although
it slightly over-predicts
the
average angle from the dislocation contribution.
From the experimental
results, we know that
dislocation
boundaries
form which subdivide
the
original grains and that a preferred texture evolves.
Thus both dislocation
processes and texture evolution occur together
in the experiments.
This is
reflected in the distribution
of misorientation
data in
Fig. 5, clearly showing a large peak in the distribution
at lower angles and a second population
at high
angles.
The dislocation
mechanisms
[Fig. 3(a)]
contribute most to the peak observed at small angles,
but only 1% of those boundaries
contribute
to the
angle range greater than either 30 or 45 at 70% and
90% c.r., respectively.
The experiments
show a
significantly larger percentage of lo-25% for the high
angles This high angle population is in a similar range
to the broad peak formed by preferred
texture
formation
in a subdivided
grain [Fig. 3(b)]. The
texture
mechanisms
contribute
to only a small
portion of the distribution
at the lowest angle range.
Combining
the two distributions
in the simplified
model of Fig. 3 to obtain a more quantitative
prediction
would require the incorporation
of the
grain subdivision
as described by Fig. 3(a) into a
crystal plasticity model. This incorporation
is easiest
to envision, for example, in a finite element based
plasticity model. As texture evolves within subdivided
grains in the polycrystal
model, a fraction of high
angle boundaries will grow at some of the boundaries

created by grain subdivision.


Which of the boundaries becomes
a high angle boundary
as texture
evolves will depend on the local crystal orientation
and the angle/axis pair of the boundary misorientation.
The predictions
based on an addition of distributions establish the essential physical background
required for the development
of theoretical models of
misorientation
distributions
at large strains. These
misorientation
distributions,
when combined
with
the spatial distribution
of dislocation
boundaries,
provide the basis for quantifying
dislocation
structures and stored energy for inclusion into constitutive
models of material deformation,
texture formation
and recrystallization.
5.3. Texture

and texture spread

Notably, the microstructural


subdivision of grains
into fine crystallites
having
a large spread
in
orientations
does not lead to new major texture
components,
indicating that Taylor-like
kinematics
are valid on average. Instead, subdivision
creates
some minor components
and a spread in the texture.
This spread increases the width and decreases the
intensity
of the texture peaks in the ODF. In
the following we estimate this spread based on the
microstructure.
Regions separated by both high angle
boundaries
and low angle boundaries
contribute
to
this spread. The local orientations
reflect the effect of
the microstructure
on the texture.
Thus,
the
microstructural
contribution
to the observed texture
spread is estimated
by averaging
the difference
(disorientation)
between
the measured
individual
orientations
and the orientations
of the nearest ideal
texture components.
Those values, shown in Table 3,
are similar for all of the rolled samples and range
between 11 and 13 at a 90% cold reduction.
In
contrast, the spread in the torsion textures, 16.9, is
much larger than those for rolling, consistent with the
differences
in the respective macroscopic
textures.
These data also show an increasing texture spread
with increasing large strain. However, this may or
may not be a real trend as the differences are within
one standard deviation. More data would be needed
to determine if this trend is correct.
Table

3. Average spread about the ideal deformation


components due to the microstructure

Material
Nickel:
Rolling
Rolling
Rolling
Rolling
Torsmn
Aluminum:
Rolling
(99.5%
Rolling
(99.8%
Tantalum:
Rolling

and deformation

conditions

Average spread
()

1.4)
2.7)
3.5)
4.5)

9.2
10.7
11.9
12.6
16.9

90% cr. (LM = 2.7)


purity)
90% cr. (C.M= 2.7)
purity)

12.9

90% x.r. (fvM = 2.7)

11.0

70% cr. (c,\, =


90% cr. (C\M=
95% cr. (r,, =
98% c.r. (F,M =
(CM = 4.0)

texture

13.1

HUGHES and HANSEN:

GRAIN SUBDIVISION MECHANISMS

Calculated deformation
textures frequently predict
much higher intensities at the peak intensity points in
the ODF as well as much narrower angular spreads
in intensity
about those peaks than is found in
experiments
[59]. Smoothing
factors used in recent
texture simulations to reduce the sharpness of those
calculated
textures to the approximate
levels observed in experiment, include 7.5 [.59] and 7-8 [60].
However, larger smoothing
factors from 9 to 17,
based on Table 3, may be more representative
for
textures developing at large strains. As an additional
application of the present data, the orientation spread
owing to the microstructure
can be introduced
into
polycrystal
models to predict the formation
of the
high angle boundaries.
5.4. Effect qf material

and deformation

parameters

Several parameters have an effect on the formation


of high angle boundaries.
Strain level has a large
effect that has also been previously observed [2, 31.
The crystal orientation
is also important
and the
observation
of clustering of high angle boundaries at
large strain indicates
that some (unstable)
grain
orientations
have a much larger tendency to become
subdivided
by high angle boundaries
than other
(stable) orientations.
This also agrees with previous
observations
[I, 27, 521. In contrast, the deformation
mode, crystal structure and material purity may have
second order effects.
As regards grain size, it has been found to have no
effect on the spacing
between
the high angle
boundaries
(see Table 2). This is in contrast to the
observations
in Refs [26, 271, where the subdivision of
grains has been studied in crystallographically
etched
longitudinal
sections of fine and very coarse grained
copper cold-rolled 83%. The average layer thickness
for volumes of different crystallographic
orientations
having an
decreased
from - 17 pm in specimens
initial grain size of -3000 firn to -2.5 pm in
specimens having an initial grain size of 40 pm. To
clarify this issue experiments
are under way on
specimens with a larger difference in grain size than
in the present study.
Finally, it is a general observation that most of the
high angle boundaries are created in the strain range
at which
a crystallographic
texture
is rapidly
evolving. It appears that the parameters
associated
with a very active texture evolution have the largest
influence on the creation of the very highest angle
boundaries.
5.5. &i?ect on recovery and recrystallization
In general
these effects are suggested
to be
similar to those encountered
when the original
grain size is reduced.
In general the high angle
boundaries
act as sinks for dislocations
during
annealing
and as nucleation
sites [61]. Another
important
effect is related to the fine distribution
of texture components
in the deformed microstructure which
may affect
the growth
of grains

3885

during recrystallization.
Specific orientation relationships may result in accelerated
growth,
but in
most cases the migration
of high angle grain
boundaries
will be slowed down or stopped
by
orientation
pinning. Orientation
pinning arises by
impingement
between
a growing
grain
and a
deformed
crystallite
of similar
orientation
that
leads to the replacement
of a mobile high angle
boundary
with a much less mobile
low angle
boundary [61].
6. CONCLUSIONS
Deformation
of metals from medium
to large
strain introduces
significant changes in microstructure, texture and local crystallography.
These changes
are illustrated by experimental
examples for different
metals deformed by different processes. The following conclusions
are drawn:
The microstructure
evolves
into a lamellar
structure of dislocation boundaries of small and
medium angles mixed with high angle boundaries. The number of the latter is significantly
larger (e.g. about 3-5 times in rolling, 27 times in
torsion)
than the number
of original
grain
boundaries.
?? The macro-texture
evolves into a typical deformation texture containing
a number of texture
components.
Local crystallographic
measurements show that the volume fraction
of the
individual
texture components
is composed
of
micrometer
and submicrometer
sized volumes
distributed throughout
the deformed microstructure.
?? The distribution
of misorientations
across lamellar boundaries
has been estimated
based on
assumptions
that those boundaries are formed by
evolving grain subdivision processes, which can
lead to different texture components
within an
original grain. The estimated distributions
are in
good agreement
with those determined
experimentally at large strain by automated
Kikuchi
diffraction techniques.
?? The
formation
of high angle grain boundaries
during plastic deformation
leads to a deformation induced reduction in grain size. This grain
refinement
will have an effect both on the
mechanical and on the thermal behavior of the
deformed metal.

??

Ackno~~ledgernents-Discussions with D. Juul Jensen as well


as the neutron diffraction measurement of texture are
gratefully acknowledged. This work was supported by the
Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. of DOE, under
contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
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