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Student Workbook

LV34
Engines (3)

LV34/SWB

Student Workbook for Technical Certificates in


Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair

MODULE LV34
ENGINES (3)

Contents
Page

Page

Advanced Valve Systems:


Effects of fuel on valves and valve
seats
Requirements of a valve
Valve guides
Valve springs
Valve rotators
Operation of valve rotators
Camshafts
Twin camshaft four valve per
cylinder engine
Camshaft layout of a V6 engine
Fully assembled V6 engine
Operation of the scissor gear

10
11
12
13

Hydraulic Valve Lifters:


Operation valve closed
Operation valve open
Valve lash adjuster
Progress check 1

16
17
17
18
19

Variable Valve Timing Systems:


Conventional valve timing
Variable valve timing
During idling
During normal driving
During full acceleration
During full power
Varying the valve timing
Large valve overlap
Intake valve closes quickly

22
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27

4
5
5
8
8
9
9

Operation of VVT - i
Management of the VVT - i system
Reason for the lock pin
Retard
Hold
Advance
Progress check 2

28
28
29
29
30
30
31

Timing Oil Control Valve:


Valve timing varied
Valve arrangement
Operation
Low and medium speed
High speed
Oil control valve
Progress check 3

33
34
36
36
37
38
38
41

VTEC System:
VTEC operation
Basic principles of VTEC operation
Main components of VTEC
Effect of change-over on torque
Hydraulically operated pin

43
44
44
46
47
47

Three Stages of VTEC Operation:


Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3

49
49
50
51

(Cont.)

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Page
Comparing the VTEC and VTECE
Main advantages
The VTEC-E
Progress check 4

52
52
53
54

Continuous Variable Valve Timing


Control:
VANOS variable cam timing (BMW)
Valve timing gear operation
Operation of the VANOS
Operation of the double VANOS
Function

55
55
56
58
60
62

Page
Components and Operation:
Comparing VTEC with Valvetronic
Variable valve timing (Ferrari)
The future
Progress check 5

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

64
66
66
67
69

Advanced Valve Systems

Thomas Midgley, Jr.


To help to understand the need for improvement in materials that are used in valves
and valve seats, it is helpful to investigate briefly the history of the development of
fuel.
The story of leaded petrol goes back many years and involves Thomas Midgley, Jr.
(not usually ranked with the likes of Isaac Newton) who was born in 1889 and held a
PhD in engineering.
In 1916 he joined forces with Charles Kettering the inventor of coil ignition. Kettering
was having trouble with a farm engine that ran on kerosene and knocked very badly.
Midgley added iodine to the fuel and knocking was reduced. After six years he
found that tetra-ethyl lead worked beautifully.
In the 1920s tetra-ethyl lead was a wonderful invention. When the spark plug ignites
the fuel mixture a flame front travels through the combustion chamber. Tetra-ethyl
lead made the flame front travel more slowly and less turbulently. Lead virtually
eliminated knock, and overnight compression ratios jumped from 4:1 to 7:1,
therefore the modern high output engine was born. In todays modern engines,
cylinder pressures reach forty times atmospheric pressure.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Originally, his ideas were thought to be brilliant, only later did they turn out to be
disasters. Lead emitted from vehicle exhaust was affecting children all over the
world. Today, of course, we use unleaded petrol.
Thomas Midgley was the man who put lead in our petrol; at the time it was hailed as
a great advance but eighty years on we are still trying to deal with the consequences
of it.
Midgley also invented chlorofluorocarbons and we know the damage that has
occurred by using these wonderful chemicals. They are responsible for punching a
very large hole in the ozone layer which in 1992 was the widest and deepest ever
recorded. CFCs and the reduction of the ozone layer have increased ultra-violet
radiation levels, which are responsible for the increase in skin melanomas.
Paradoxically, in 1939 Thomas Midgley predicted the control of the ozone layer in
order to control the Earths climate.
In 1940, Thomas Midgley, Jr. was paralysed by polio. He built an assembly of
pulleys and ropes so he could move himself between his bed and his wheel chair. In
1944, he became entangled in the ropes and strangled to death in his own invention.

Effects of fuel on valves and valve seats


As leaded petrol burns, the tetra-ethyl lead turns into a tan-coloured layer of lead
oxide, which covers valves and the combustion chamber. The valves hit their seats
hard several thousand times a minute, the lead oxide acts as a cushion therefore
protecting the valves and seats. Lead oxide has lubrication properties, which
reduces wear on the valve guides.
If an old leaded engine is run on unleaded fuel, damage occurs, but only if the
engine is fitted with soft metallurgy, and only in high temperature areas such as the
exhaust valves, guides and seats.
On a soft cast iron valve seat at high temperatures, iron oxides form and these
oxides flake off and actually embed themselves in the soft face of the exhaust valve.
These tiny particles work like very small grinding wheels as the valve operates,
grinding away the seat taking up the valve clearance preventing the valve from
closing properly. They cause edges of the valve to burn since heat cannot be
conducted away through the seat (burnt valve).

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Requirements of a valve

Valves
must ensure a gas
tight seal when closed

Valves
Valve operating
mechanism

offer as little
opposition to the flow
of gas possible
have a reliable
operating mechanism
operate with
minimum wear under
extreme conditions,
long life
be accurately timed
to open and close to
provide maximum
engine efficiency
(power)

The use of unleaded fuel demands more robust valve components as follows:

Valve guides
Shoulder limits
depth into cylinder
head
This distance
is important
Why?

The valve guide in this case is a


machined hole in the cylinder
head

Common plain type

Integral type

Shoulder type

Silicon-aluminium bronze valve guides are used (good heat conducting properties),
usually in engines with double overhead cam (DOHC). Silicon-aluminium bronze is
fairly soft therefore it wears rapidly. In DOHC engines the valve moves up and down
with virtually no side force on the valve stem.

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In engines fitted with tappets, the end of the tappet moves in an arc, therefore it
forces the valve into the wall of the valve guide, in this case steel or cast iron valve
guides are used.
Note: Steel and cast iron valve guides may be used because they are less
expensive.

Poppet Valve
Valves are faced with hard stellite. Alloys that have been developed to satisfy
conditions during the operation of valves (they are subject to approximately 650C
during the exhaust stroke) are varying amounts of manganese, silicon, nickel and
chromium. A new material used is molybdenum and titanium, which makes them
highly resistant to heat and also reduces the valve weight by approximately 20%.
Heat is passed from the seat directly to the cylinder head and along the stem
through the guide to the cylinder head.
In some extreme operating conditions the valve stem is sometimes made hollow and
filled with sodium. Sodium is a soft metal with a low melting point of 98C. In its
molten state it splashes up and down the valve stem, therefore assisting the transfer
of heat from the head of the valve.
Some valves are coated with aluminium to improve heat transfer from the valve to
the engine block. These valves cannot be re-surfaced (ground) in the normal way
due to the surface coating being thin. Seventy five percent of exhaust valve heat is
dissipated through the valve seat area.
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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Valve seat
Valve seat

Shrink Fit Valve Seat

Laser Clad Valve Seat

Valve seats are stellite or hard chromium (60% alloy valve seat inserts). An
alternative is to use a laser clad valve seat, which is a highly wear resistant alloy,
and is welded onto the cylinder head and subsequently machine cut to form the seat
angle. With this system the seat can be made thinner, the result is that the valve
seat diameter can be made larger and the cooling effect around the valve seat is
improved.

The valve seat is shaped like a cone and is normally at an angle of 45 degrees
although manufacturers use alternative angles as shown above.
The valve seat is in the shape of a cone to conform to the shape of the valve. The
valve seat contact width is generally 1.2 to 1.8 mm.
Excessive valve seat contact width is likely to cause carbon intrusion between the
valve face and seat, although the cooling effect will be high. If it is too narrow, gas
tightness will improve but the cooling effect will decrease.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Valve springs

Valve springs are used to close


the valves quickly, most
engines have just one spring
per valve but some use two
springs per valve.

To prevent valve surging


(bounce) when the engine is
running at high speed uneven
pitch springs or double springs
are used.
The wider
pitch is
always
installed at
the top of the
valve

Valve surging causes abnormal noise generation from the engine when the engine is
operated at high speed, it can also cause interference between the piston and the
valve, which may lead to damage of both parts.

Valve rotators

Valve
keepers

Valve

Rotator body
Coil spring
Spring plate

B
C

Retainer

Valve spring
Rotator body
Valve closed

Some engines have valve rotators


fitted rather than conventional
valve retainers. The purpose of the
rotator is to prevent improper
seating of the valve cause by lead
compounds when leaded fuel is
used or carbon sticking to the valve
surface

Coil spring
Plate spring

Valve open

Valve closed

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Operation of valve rotators


When the valve is opened, the valve spring is compressed therefore the tension on it
becomes greater. This causes the outside circumference of the plate spring to flex
upward slightly, causing the coil spring to flatten even more, the rotator body then
turns. At this time point A slides, but points B and C do not slide.
When the valve closes, the spring extends and the tension in it weakens. The spring
returns to its original condition, this causes slipping to occur at points B and C but no
slipping occurs at point A. Therefore the rotator body remains in the same position
as when the valve is open.

Camshafts

On single and double overhead valve engines the crankshaft drives the camshaft via
a belt, gear or chain system.
Double overhead cams are used on engines with four valves per cylinder, inline
engines have two camshafts and V engines have four. Having more valves per
cylinder increases the flow of gas, therefore increasing the power output of the
engine.
Camshafts are made from steel, either forged or cast, and then machined, case
hardening is used on the cam lobes, while cast shafts are usually hardened by
chilling during casting. More compact and lighter camshafts are made from high
carbon, high chromium alloy and are then tempered to withstand increased pressure
between the cam and valve operating mechanism of high lift high-pressure cam
lobes. Camshafts are supported in plain bearings but sometimes roller bearings are
used.

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Twin camshaft four valve per cylinder engine

With camshafts removed

Valve
keepers

Camshafts fitted

Spark plug

Adjusting shim

Intake valve

Valve lifter or
cam follower

Oil seal

Valve spring
Exhaust valve
Valve guide

Intake

Exhaust

Valve seat
Gasket

Combustion
chamber

Water jacket
Cylinder block

Piston

The diagram above shows a cross section of a twin overhead camshaft engine
showing the main component parts.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Camshaft layout of a V6 engine


Each cylinder has two intake valves and two exhaust valves, the valves are directly
opened and closed by four camshafts.
The intake camshafts are driven by a timing belt and the exhaust camshafts are
driven through gears on the intake camshafts.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Fully assembled V6 engine

The intake camshaft drives the exhaust camshaft through a scissor (sub-gear) gear
mechanism, which allows for the valves to be placed at a narrower angle.

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Operation of the scissor gear

The scissor gear

Shown here is an in-line


four cylinder engine with
twin camshafts and four

The exhaust camshafts are driven by the gears on the inlet camshafts. The scissor
gear mechanism is used on the exhaust camshaft to control backlash and therefore
reduce gear noise.
To prevent the tooth surfaces from seizing when in mesh they are designed to have
backlash (clearance between the teeth in mesh).

Backlash creates noise especially when driving the valve gear, due to fluctuations in
torque on the camshaft.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Scissor Gear Mechanism


The scissor gear is a means of preventing this noise occurring. The scissor gear
mechanism uses a sub gear with the same number of teeth as the drive gear and is
attached to the gear on the driven side.

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Through the reactive force of the scissors spring, these two gears act to pinch the
drive gear, reducing backlash to zero and eliminating gear noise.
The teeth on the driven and sub-gears are thus always engaged with the teeth of the
driven gear so that the gear train is free of backlash.
The camshaft driven gear is a press fit onto the camshaft and is provided with a pin,
which holds one end of the scissor spring. The sub-gear is secured to the inlet
camshaft by a snap ring and a wave washer; both gears have the same number of
teeth on them, the pin on the sub-gear holds the other end of the scissor spring.
The scissor spring is located between the camshaft driven gear and the sub-gear, its
ends, are held by the pins, the camshaft driven gear transmits torque in the direction
of rotation to the sub-gear via the scissor spring.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Hydraulic Valve Lifters

Another way of reducing valve noise is to fit hydraulic valve lifters (cam followers),
usually a high-grade alloyed cast iron is used on the bottom surface of the valve
lifters. The lifters may be slightly rounded to aid lifter rotation by the cams. The
purpose of hydraulic valve lifters is to maintain zero clearance at all times therefore
removing the need to adjust the valve clearances.
As engine temperature varies the valve clearance also varies, maintaining the
correct clearance at all engine temperatures is impossible with normal conventional
tappets. The variation in valve clearance results in an unwanted change in valve
timing, which affects the power output of the engine.
The oil pump provides oil to the plunger in the valve lifter by way of the oil passage.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Operation valve closed


The spring pushes the plunger upwards ensuring that the valve clearance is kept at
zero. The pressurised oil from the engine lubrication system oil pump pushes the
check ball against the check ball spring and it flows into the working chamber of the
valve lifter.

Operation valve open


As the camshaft rotates and the cam pushes on the lifter body, the oil pressure in
the working chamber raises the check ball which closes the oil passage. The lifter
body is pushed up, along with the plunger as the camshaft rotates and the engine
valve is opened by means of the valve operating mechanism.
As the lifter is pushed against the valve, a small amount of oil in the working
chamber escapes through the clearance between the body and plunger. The cam
continues to rotate and as it does so the engine valve closes and the oil again
pushes against the check ball and re-enters the working chamber, therefore
maintaining the engine valve clearance at zero.
During engine warm-up the engine valve expands and this decreases the volume of
oil in the working chamber to take up the play between the engine valve and the
cam. This occurs over a period of time and is compensated for by a small loss of oil
in the working chamber. This occurs every time the engine valve is operated,
consequently zero valve clearance is maintained, irrespective of engine
temperature.
A slight loss of oil from the lifter occurs when the engine has been unused for some
considerable time, therefore it is usual to hear a rattle from the valve operating
mechanism for a short time after the engine is started. If the noise persists, then an
investigation as to the cause must be carried out which may lead to a new lifter
being fitted.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Valve lash adjuster

Shown here is a different arrangement for taking up the clearance between the
engine valve and the camshaft.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Progress check 1
Answer the following questions:

1.

State three requirements of an engine valve:

2.

What major change made it necessary to improve the durability and strength
of engine valves and valve seats?

3.

What material contributes to making engine valves approximately 20%


lighter?

4.

State the purpose of using sodium in engine valves:

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

5.

What, is meant by a laser clad engine valve seat? Describe the differences
when compared to a shrink fit valve seat.

6.

What methods are used to prevent engine valve surging (bounce)?

7.

State the purpose of rotating engine valves. Describe briefly how the rotating
device operates.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

8.

Discuss the main reason for using a scissor gear (sub-gear) to drive
camshafts. With the aid of sketches explain the operation of the scissor gear.

9.

Hydraulic tappets (valve lifters) are used because they:

10.

The purpose of the check ball in a hydraulic tappet (valve lifter) is to:

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Variable Valve Timing Systems


Valve timing
advanced

Top dead centre


Camshaft

Camshaft pulley
is pulled round
to new position

Telescopic
rod

Telescopic rod
extended to
advance valve
timing

Crankshaft
Sprocket

The dynamics of airflow through an engine combustion chamber change


dramatically over an engine range of 2000 to 6000 rpm. Using a standard valve
drive arrangement is a compromise which allows the engine to start, run and provide
strong acceleration with good cruising speeds, but engines are rarely ever in the
sweet zone, which results in wasted fuel, reduced performance and excess exhaust
emissions.
Inertia forces apply when trying to get air to move, it is hard to get moving and once
moving is hard to stop. It is well understood that the intake valve opens before the
piston reaches the top of the cylinder and closes after the piston reaches the bottom.
The exhaust valve begins to open as the piston reaches the bottom of the cylinder
and begins to close after the piston reaches the top.
As engine speed increases air will gain inertia force and even when the piston
reaches the bottom of the cylinder air will continue to flow in. Thus to obtain as
much air as possible without causing inefficiencies from these inertia forces, the best
solution would be to have the valve timing change as engine speed changes.
Variable valve timing has been developed to increase engine performance, improve
fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions throughout all the engines operating
range.
The effect on fuel economy, power output and exhaust gas emissions is
considerable.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Conventional valve timing


Inlet valve
timing advance

Exhaust
valve timing
advance

One of the main factors influencing engine performance is the amount of valve
overlap. The duration of valve overlap determines the amount of exhaust gas left in
the cylinder when the exhaust valve closes.
At higher engine speeds a longer inlet valve-opening period would increase the
power developed, but this will cause an increase in valve overlap and at idle would
greatly increase hydrocarbon emissions.
To overcome these and other problems variable valve timing is used.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

VVT-I controller

The controller consists of


a housing driven by a
timing chain and the vane
is connected to the inlet
camshaft

A typical variable valve-timing layout is shown here.

Variable valve timing


VVT-i, VVC and VTEC are all acronyms, which embrace a range of engine design
enhancements.
There are two basic methods of valve timing, cam-changing and cam-phasing.
Cam-changing (VTEC) provides different cam profiles allowing earlier opening of the
inlet valves and later closing including greater valve lift at high engine speeds. Cam
phasing is described below.

During idling

Timing is retarded which prevents exhaust gas intermixing with the intake air/fuel
mixture.
It provides stable combustion and engine idle speed can be lowered, which
improves fuel economy.
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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

During normal driving

Timing is advanced re-burning a portion of exhaust gas, which minimises emissions.

During full acceleration

Timing is retarded which delays the closing of the intake valve and this allows a
greater amount of air/fuel mixture to be drawn in producing higher torque and
improved acceleration.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

During full power

Timing is advanced thus preventing intake lag associated with high rpm.
Allows greater amounts of air/fuel mixture to be drawn in, improving output power.

Varying the valve timing


Focus attention
here

No valve
overlap

No valve overlap - exhaust gas moving into the intake side is prevented by delaying
inlet valve opening.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Large valve overlap


Focus attention
here

Large
overlap

As a result of increasing the valve overlap inlet and exhaust valves are open at the
same time, the inlet and exhaust gases mix and re-burning takes place.

Intake valve closes quickly

Focus
attention here
Closes
quickly

By closing the inlet valve early, air/fuel mixture is prevented from being discharged
from the cylinder, therefore maximum acceleration is produced.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Operation of VVT - i

Designed to control the intake camshaft within a


wide range of 60 of crankshaft angle

The VVT - i is designed to control the inlet camshaft over a wide range of around 60
degrees of crankshaft angle, which provides valve timing that is most suited to the
demands of the engine.
The actual inlet valve timing is fed-back to the ECU from the camshaft position
sensor to control the target valve timing.

Management of the VVT - i system

The engine ECU calculates the target-timing angle according to the travelling state
and sensor inputs.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Reason for the lock pin

Improved starting is achieved when the valve spring force rotates the inlet cam to
the fully retarded position when the engine is stopped.
The spring-loaded lock pin locks the vane and housing together. After the engine
starts the lock pin is released by engine oil pressure. The lock pin prevents a
knocking noise due to lack of hydraulic pressure being applied to the controller
immediately after the engine has started. When the engine starts the lock pin is
released by hydraulic pressure.

Retard

Camshaft Timing Oil


Control Valve Drive
Signal

When the camshaft timing oil control valve is positioned as illustrated in the diagram,
the resultant oil pressure is applied to the timing retard side vane chamber to rotate
the camshaft in the retard direction.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Hold

Camshaft Timing Oil


Control Valve Drive
Signal

After setting to the target timing, the valve timing is held by keeping the camshaft
timing oil control valve in the neutral position unless the travelling state changes.
This adjusts the valve timing to the desired target position and prevents the engine
oil from running out when it is unnecessary.

Advance

When the camshaft oil control valve is positioned as shown by the ECU advance
signal, oil pressure is applied to the timing advance side chamber to rotate the
camshaft in the timing advance direction.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Progress check 2
Answer the following questions:

1.

List three main advantages of variable valve timing over conventional valve
operating systems:

2.

Explain the meaning of valve overlap.

3.

Sketch a simple valve-timing diagram and indicate an advanced position for


the inlet valve.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

4.

The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) requires information from various sensors.
The ECU then calculates the target-timing angle according to the travelling
state. List three sensors that transmit the necessary information:

5.

State the purpose of the lock pin on a VVT i controller. Describe briefly the
operation of the lock pin.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Timing Oil Control Valve

The camshaft timing oil control valve selects the path to the VVT - i controller
according to the advance, retard or hold signal from the ECU. The intake camshaft
is rotated by the VVT - i controller to advance, retard or hold the valve timing, these
positions are governed by the oil pressure applied.

Operation

Oil pressure causes the controller vane to rotate, therefore varying the valve timing
continuously.
When the engine is stopped the camshaft is in the most retarded position due to the
external force such as valve spring force.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Valve timing varied

Operation
state

Valve timing

Idling

Light load

Medium load

Low to
medium
speed with
heavy loads

Objective

Effect

Most retarded
timing which
reduces blowback
into intake

Stabilised
idling
speed and
improved
fuel
economy
Greater
engine
stability

Less overlap
eliminates
blowback into
intake

Overlap increases
causing an internal
EGR (exhaust gas
re-circulation)
which eliminates
pumping losses

Improved
fuel
economy
and
emissions

Advancing intake
valve closing to
improve volumetric
efficiency

Torque is
improved
in the low
to medium
engine
speed
range

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Operation
state

Valve timing

High speed
range with a
heavy load

Low engine
temperature

Starting or
stopping the
engine

Objective

Effect

Increase
Inlet valve is
in power
retarded which
improves volumetric output
efficiency

Very retarded valve


timing to prevent
blowback into the
intake leading to
lean burn also
engine fast idle
speed is stabilized
Very retarded valve
timing minimising
blowback into the
intake

Fast idle
rev/min is
stable
and
improved
fuel
economy
Improved
starting

Cam change over (VVTL - i the L is for lift).


Operation of the cam change-over system.
Both intake and exhaust camshafts have low and medium speed cams and highspeed cams.
This system not only changes the valve timing but also alters the amount of valve lift.
The cam change-over system varies the extent of inlet and exhaust valve lift, this
causes high power output without affecting fuel economy or exhaust gas emission
performance.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Signals are collected from the water temperature sensor and crankshaft position
sensor by the ECU, which controls the oil control valve. The oil control valve
switches the oil passages of the cam change-over mechanism causing the inlet and
exhaust valve lift to change.

Valve arrangement
Spring maintains
constant pad
contact with
camshaft

Operation

The rocker arm consists of a cam change-over mechanism. The mechanism


provides for both intake and exhaust valve lift change with each connected to its
respective rocker arm.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

From the front view of the camshaft the low, medium speed and high-speed cam
profile can be clearly seen.
The rocker arm pin is shown inoperative, therefore there is no increased lifting of the
valve in this position.

Low and medium speed

When the engine is operating at a temperature below 60C and the engine speed is
below approximately 6000 revs per minute, the low and medium speed cam pushes
on the roller of the rocker arm and operates both valves. At the same time the highspeed cam pushes on the rocker arm pad, which is allowed to move freely and
therefore the valve lift is unaffected and operates under normal conditions.

-37Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

High speed

When the engine reaches approximately 6000 revs per minute (high speed) the
hydraulic pressure from the oil control valve pushes the rocker arm pin to lock the
bottom of the rocker arm pad.
The high-speed cam has a higher lift and therefore the two valves are lifted more,
they are operated by the rocker arm pad.

Oil control valve

The ECU controls the position of the spool electronically (depending upon the duty
cycle). Hydraulic pressure is applied to the high-speed cam of the change-over
mechanism.

-38Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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Oil pressure control (low and medium speed)

During low to mid engine speed, the oil control valve is open on the drain side,
therefore oil pressure will not be applied to the cam change-over mechanism.

Oil pressure control (high speed)

When the engine attains high speed, the oil control valve closes the drain side and
thus applies oil pressure to the high-speed cam of the change-over mechanism.

-39Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

The diagrams show the degree of valve lift and change in valve timing for the VVT-i.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Progress check 3
Answer the following questions:

1.

Explain the meaning of cam-phasing and cam-changing:

2.

With regard to the VVTL - i - describe the method used to increase inlet valve
lift:

3.

List the advantages gained by increasing engine valve lift:

4.

State the purpose of the oil control valve. What controls the position of the
spool?

-41Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

5.

Sketch a valve-timing diagram showing the approximate positions of both inlet


and exhaust valve opening and closing when the engine is in the high-speed
range under heavy load:

-42Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

VTEC System

An Engine Comparison
Note the three rocker arms

Without VTEC

With VTEC

On the non-VTEC engine note how the rocker


arms are spaced apart from each other

VTEC stands for Variable Timing and Lift Electronic Control. It was designed to
overcome the usual compromise engine designers have been forced to make
between low and high-speed torque over the years. Like the VVT - i as described
earlier, it lets the engine breathe according to its needs.

With VTEC

Without VTEC

The VTEC system is an innovative arrangement, having three intake and exhaust
cam lobes per cylinder (cam changing). The VTEC system increases valve lift and
valve opening duration as the engine increases and decreases speed. By varying
valve lift and timing the engine can take in more air during high-speed operation, it
increases the power output of the engine without having to suffer the disadvantages
of turbo-charging or supercharging.
It should be obvious that the principles and advantages are the same as the VVT - i,
improving the fuel economy power and exhaust gas emissions considerably. We will
now consider the operation of VTEC and the other applications of variable valve time
used in modern vehicles.
-43Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003
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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

VTEC operation

Locking pin
To clarify the effect of locking both rocker arms together.
In practice, three rocker arms are used on VTEC systems

Two rocker arms locked together


so they cannot move
independently of each other,
therefore the highest lifting cam
will take over, thus both valves
are opened together with
increased lift.

Two rocker arms which can


operate independently because
they are not locked together.

Basic principles of VTEC operation


Low RPM cam
lobes

Rockers

Low engine
speed
Both valve are closed
in this stage
Centre lobe idles

High RPM lobe


Camshaft

Each pair of valves has three cam lobes. The two outside cam lobes are for low
engine speed and the one in the middle is for high engine speed.

-44Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Low RPM cam


lobes

Rockers

Low engine
speed
Both end lobes open
both valves
Centre lobe idles

High RPM lobe


Camshaft

The two low engine speed cam lobes push the valves open.

Low RPM cam


lobes

Rockers

High engine
speed
Centre lobe opens
both valves

High RPM lobe


Camshaft

The high engine speed cam lobe operates a follower, which is shaped like a valve
rocker, but it does not touch any of the valves directly.

-45Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Main components of VTEC

Component parts are shown dismantled, the three rockers can be seen alongside
the locking pin and spring.

-46Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Effect of change-over on torque


The switch is achieved by having a third rocker arm (mid-rocker arm) and a third
cam lobe providing one valve timing and lift profile at low speeds and a different cam
lobe profile at high speeds. The decision to switch is carried out by the electronic
control module after it has taken information from various inputs such as engine
speed and load, it actuates a solenoid valve, which operates a locking pin.
Note: Just as the engine is running out of power the output starts to climb again for
the second time.

Hydraulically operated pin


Low speed cam lobes

Camshaft
High speed cam
lobe
The hydraulically
operated pin is
shown in the
unlock position
the two outer
rockers operate
the valves the
inner rocker
(coloured purple)
does not

Locking pin
Hydraulic
pressure

Rocker arms

The hydraulically operated pin is shown in the unlock position, the two outer rockers
operate the valves, the inner rocker does not.

-47Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Low speed cam lobes

Camshaft
High speed cam
lobe
The hydraulically
operated pin is
shown in the
locked position
the inner rocker
(coloured purple)
operates the
valves giving
increased lift and
a change in valve
timing

The locking
pin locks all
three rocker
arms together

Hydraulic
pressure

Rocker arms

The hydraulically operated pin is shown in the locked position, the inner rocker
operates the valves giving increased lift and a change in valve timing.
The VTEC mechanism is operated by hydraulic pressure, which is used to push the
locking pin horizontally to lock the adjacent rocker arms together. A spring returns
the pin to its original position when the hydraulic pressure is released.

-48Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Three Stages of VTEC Operation


The low speed camshaft lobes actuate the valves through a set of rocker arms so
arranged that the mechanical connection can be made, or, broken as required. At
the programmed speed and position of the throttle the electronic control units
memory map sends a signal, which electrically opens a spool valve, which directs
pressure to the locking pin.
The main disadvantages are that the system is more expensive than the traditional
valve system and it is limited to two modes of valve timing (infinitely adjustable valve
timing within its designed range is explained later).

Stage 1
(Low speed)
Stage 1
Rocker arms 1,2 and 3

Low speed

The three rocker arms move


independently.

The left inlet valve is driven by the


low-lift left cam lobe

The right inlet valve is driven by


the medium lift cam lobe

The middle cam (high lift) does


not operate any valves

Slight lift only to prevent fuel vapour


build-up in inlet manifold behind the
valve and improve combustion
chamber swirl

The two outer cam lobes directly operate the two valve rocker arms and the valve
openings are optimised for smooth operation and low fuel consumption.
The rocker arms move independently. Rocker arm 1 operates the inlet valve using a
low lift cam lobe. Rocker arm 3 lifts the inlet valve at medium lift, rocker arm 2 does
not actuate any valves.

-49Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Stage 2
(Medium speed)
Stage 2
Medium speed

Hydraulic pressure (orange)


connects the right and left rocker
arm together

Rocker arms 1, 2 and 3

Hydraulic
pressure

The middle rocker arm (2) does


not operate the valve

The right cam lobe is larger than


the left cam, both rocker arms 1
and 3 are connected together and
driven by the right cam resulting
in medium valve lift of both
valves

Pin locks 1
and 3 together

Both valves operate

Hydraulic pressure forces the locking pin through the valve rockers 2 and 3 locking
them together causing both inlet valves to open fully.
Since the cam lobe operating rocker arm 3 is larger than the cam lobe operating
rocker arm 1 the valves lift higher together, as a result both inlet valves operate at
medium lift.

-50Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Stage 3
(High speed)

Stage 3
High speed

Rocker arms 1, 2, and 3

Hydraulic pressure connects all


three rocker arms together.

The middle cam lobe is the larger


of the two

Both inlet valves are driven by the


fast cam

Pins lock 1, 2
and 3
together

Advanced timing and high lift of


the valve is achieved
Valves opened wide

The hydraulic pressure connects all three rocker arms together by a further set of
pins. Because the middle cam lobe is largest both inlet valves are operated by this
cam, this causes advanced timing and high lift of both inlet valves. Torque
increases over further increases in engine speed (see previous graph).
This system does not allow for a continuous change in valve timing. The system
improves peak power and performance equivalent to having a racing camshaft fitted.
With a racing camshaft fitted the engine rev/min would have to be kept high and
there would be a need for frequent gear changing but with VTEC the best of both
worlds can be achieved, a smooth economical engine at low rev/min and a powerful
engine at high rev/min.
A simple test to check if the system is working, just watch the engine oil pressure
gauge as the engine speed is increased up through approximately 5800 rev/min.
The VTEC uses a significant amount of oil volume when it is activated therefore a
dip in oil pressure will be noted.

-51Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Comparing the VTEC and VTEC E


VTEC

Rocker
shafts

Insight VTEC - E
Rocker
shaft

Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic


Control for Economy

Instead of using an inlet and exhaust rocker shaft the insight VTEC E uses just
one rocker shaft which allows the angle of valves to be narrowed from 46 degrees
to 30 degrees and this allows for a compact combustion chamber and high swirl port
shape which in turn provides for an increase in compression ratio.
Although the overall fuel mixture is lean, the mixture is richer near the spark plug
and leaner near to the periphery. The richer mixture ignites more readily and
creates a faster burning stable flame that promotes more complete combustion.
Fuel mixture ratios are in the 20:1 bracket during 12 valve operating mode.
Small variable valve timed engines produce a specific output of around 100bhp/litre.
The equivalent conventional valve system has a lower limit of 85 to 90bhp/litre.

Main advantages:

comfortable with city driving (effortless)

extra power for highway driving

greater fuel economy

lower emissions.

-52Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

The VTEC E
(Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control for Economy)

By deactivating one inlet


valve more efficient air
and fuel mixing can be
achieved due to the
increase in swirl in the
combustion chamber

In this new design the inlet ports are set up almost vertical which generates more
swirl in the engine cylinder. The VTEC E works by deactivating one inlet valve e.g.
only one intake camshaft lobe is activated on the camshaft. In operation the
relevant rocker arm will not be activated so the engine effectively works as a 12valve engine. This promotes a swirling action during the inlet cycle. Swirl is
enhanced by approximately 20% by this design. The engine is operated in 16-valve
mode as the demanding engine speed is reached. Air/fuel ratios are in the vicinity of
20:1 during the 12-valve mode of operation.

-53Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Progress check 4
Answer the following questions:

1.

In groups of three. Discuss the operation of the VTEC system. Make notes
of any issues raised. Compare the design and operation of the VTEC with the
design and operation of the VVT i. Focus on low, medium and high speeds.

2.

How is swirl promoted in the VTEC - E system?

-54Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Continuous Variable Valve Timing Control

Hydraulic
control unit

Mechanical
timing
mechanism

Lexus variable valve timing

VTC (variable valve timing control) is a generic implementation and is used by Lexus
in their VVT- i. Alfa Romeo use a system similar to the BMW VANOS and double
VANOS and other manufacturers use similar arrangements.

VANOS variable cam timing (BMW)


Shown camshaft
and timing chain
layout

The VANOS (Variable Onckenwellen Steuerung), (Variable Camshaft Angle Control)


consists of a hydraulic and mechanical camshaft control device and is managed by
the DME (Digital Motor Electronic).

-55Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

The DME, is a microprocessor-based system that controls ignition and fuel injection,
it also performs a number of ancillary duties. The DME is better known as the
electronic control unit (ECU). If an electrical fault occurs the DME reconfigures itself
and by-passes the problem, it then carries out a self-diagnosis and records the fault.
For diesel engine/BMWs the term DDE is used which stands for Digital Diesel
Electronics. An OBD (on board diagnostics) is also incorporated in the DME so that
faults can be downloaded for reference. The processor, which is inside the DME,
can work at speeds of twenty million instructions per second (20MIPS) figures used
are for the current (2003) BMW M3. The estimated life span of the DME is 150,000
hours.

Valve timing gear operation


Camshaft
sprocket

Camshaft

Intermediate
gear (cup gear)

The timing gear arrangement is shown, which serves to illustrate the basic principles
of operation of the VTC generic valve timing arrangement.
The timing chain drives the camshaft sprocket and the camshaft is driven by the
intermediate gear (cup gear). The cup gear has helical gears machined on the
outside and this gear links to the camshaft sprocket, which has matching helical
gears on the inside. The camshaft fits into the cup gear by means of splines.
Because the helical gears are interlinked, if the cup gear is pushed along its axis the
camshaft is forced to rotate, therefore the valve timing is changed.

-56Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Return spring
Camshaft
sprocket

Camshaft
splines

Camshaft rotates
in relation to
camshaft sprocket
position

Hydraulic pressure
pushes cup along
splines on the
camshaft

As the splined carrier (cup gear) is pushed in, it twists the camshaft therefore
advancing the cams, as it moves back it retards.
The operation of variable valve timing is to change the relative timing between the
camshaft and its sprocket. In the VANOS type the relative timing between the inlet
and exhaust camshafts is changed, therefore valve overlap is changed.
Note: In this system no other valve timing parameters change, such as valve lift or
opening duration. By adding the VTEC valve arrangement valve opening overlaps
can be continuously varied which provides higher power output from the engine,
both variable valve timing and lift complement each other. The timing adjustment is
carried out by modifying the position of the camshaft compared to the position of the
crankshaft.
A double VANOS adds adjustment to the inlet and exhaust valve timing.
The VANOS operates on the inlet camshaft, depending upon engine speed and
accelerator position.
When the engine is at low speed the inlet valves are opened later, this improves
smoothness and steady idling of the engine. At medium engine speeds the inlet
valves open much earlier, this boosts engine torque and provides internal exhaust
gas re-circulation. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are reduced. At high
engine speeds the inlet valve opens later therefore full engine power is produced.
The camshafts are connected to the crankshaft by means of a belt or chain,
sometimes gears are used.

-57Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Operation of the VANOS

The crankshaft drives the sprocket on the exhaust cam by a chain. A second set of
teeth moves a second chain that transmits its drive to the inlet camshaft. The larger
inlet cam sprocket is not bolted directly to the camshaft, it has a hole in the middle of
it. Inside the hole is a set of helical teeth, on the end of the camshaft is a gear that is
also helical on the outside, but is too small to connect with the teeth on the inside of
the larger sprocket. A small metal cup has helical teeth to match the camshaft on
the inside and also match the sprocket on the outside. The cup gear is pushed by
hydraulic pressure and is controlled by the DME.

Hydraulic pressure is applied


to the left of the piston and the
camshaft advances valve
timing

Hydraulic pressure is
applied to the right of the
piston and the camshaft
retards the valve timing

-58Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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What happens is that when the helical cup is moved along its holder in the cam
sprocket, because it is interlinked with the helical gears, the helical cup will rotate
along its axis when oil pressure is applied. Since the camshaft is attached to the
cup, it will rotate on its axis also causing the relative alignment between the
camshaft and the driving cam sprocket therefore the valve timing has changed.
The DME determines the position of the oil control valve and hydraulic pressure is
applied to the left hand side of the piston, this pressure causes the piston to move to
the right, thus advancing the valve timing due to the action of the twist of the helical
splines.
When the oil control valve is in the retard position the cup moves to the left and
rotates to the retard position, also the oil control valve shuts off the oil passages to
maintain hydraulic pressure on both sides of the cup, therefore the timing phase is
maintained in the required position.
At idle the valve timing is retarded, when the engine speed just starts to increase the
DME energises a solenoid which allows oil pressure to push the piston (cup) to
advance the camshaft by 12.5 degrees at mid engine speed.
Increasing valve timing advance improves cylinder fill at mid engine speeds, which
produces improved performance (increased torque).
Occasionally a noise can be heard from the mechanism, this is caused by tolerances
that allow the sprocket to move slightly as the cup gear moves in and out.

-59Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Operation of the double VANOS

Double VANOS provides variable control for both the inlet and exhaust camshafts,
this improved system provides a much improved power output. On single VANOS
the valve timing is only changed at two distinct engine speed points, whereas on the
double VANOS the inlet and exhaust valve timing is continually variable, almost
throughout all engine speeds.
On double VANOS the intake valve opening is extended by 12 degrees. High oil
pressure is demanded in order to adjust the camshafts with the speed demanded by
the engine, it must also maintain accuracy.
Unburnt fuel mixture is reduced and engine idle smoothness is improved. The DME
manages the warm-up phase ensuring that the engine and catalytic converter reach
operating temperature sooner. (An air pump can be fitted to blow oxygen into the
exhaust system during the warm-up phase, by generating an oxygen surplus the
catalytic response time is reduced by about 50%).
Double VANOS improves low engine speed power and widens the power band by
flattening the torque curve.
Double VANOS has a lower torque peak about 450 rev/min lower than the single
VANOS and a 200 rev/min higher power peak. The torque curve is improved
between 1500 and 3800 rev/min and the torque does not fall off as fast when the
power peak is past. The comparison is a general overview of both systems. The
figures given will obviously vary depending upon the type of engine and designed
output power and is only to aid understanding of the two systems explained.

-60Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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A main advantage is that the double VANOS controls the exhaust gas into the inlet
manifold individually during all operating conditions providing accurate internal
exhaust gas re-circulation EGR. Under part load EGR is increased allowing the
engine to run on a wider opening of the throttle, which provides greater fuel
economy. When the engine is under full load the system has a low EGR therefore
providing the cylinders with maximum oxygen.
The purpose of variable valve timing is to change the relative timing between the
camshaft and its sprocket. In the VANOS type the relative timing between the inlet
and exhaust camshafts is changed, therefore valve overlap is changed.
Note: In this system no other valve timing parameters change, such as valve lift or
opening duration. By adding the VTEC valve arrangement, valve opening overlaps
can be continuously varied, which provides higher power output from the engine,
both variable valve timing and lift complement each other.

Some designs such as the BMW


double VANOS has cam-phasing at
both inlet and exhaust camshafts
which provides greater overlap and
higher efficiency.

Overlap
On some engines the inlet
camshaft timing is within a
maximum range of 40 degrees
while the exhaust camshaft is
25 degrees

There will be less top end power than in the case of the cam-changing VVT without
the use of variable lift and variable valve opening duration.

-61Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Function
The Valvetronic is incorporated within double VANOS technology providing a fully
variable valve drive with additional infinitely adjustable intake valve lift, which keeps
the valve opening periods even shorter.

V8 Valvetronic layout
The engine DME (ECU) controls a lever between the camshaft and each pair of inlet
valves. Depending on its position the lever transmits cam lift either as a higher and
longer opening period or a lower and shorter opening period.
Engine breathing is controlled by the intake valves therefore eliminating the
conventional throttle butterfly valve and with it the pumping losses it creates when it
is not fully open. When the vehicle is running downhill with the throttle partially open
or fully closed, the pistons are still trying to draw air into the cylinders. This causes a
partial vacuum which resists the pumping action of the pistons and wastes energy,
this is known as pumping loss. The slower the engine runs the greater is the
energy loss caused by the throttle butterfly.
To compare this with our own individual breathing requirements, when we make a
high degree of physical effort we breathe, more deeply and longer. Whenever we
require less air we do not throttle the air supply by holding our nose or mouth, we
simply breathe in a shorter and flatter manner.

-62Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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The throttle butterfly is comparable to holding the nose or putting a hand over the
mouth to throttle breathing. Valvetronic sometimes has deep long ventilation and
sometimes shorter and flat ventilation which allows the engine to breathe like we do,
taking in air according to current requirements without any throttling effects and
therefore with maximum breathing efficiency.
The reduction in fuel consumption provided by the throttle free load control amounts
to approximately 10%. The additional saving in fuel consumption, will improve as
the driver is more reserved in the use of the accelerator pedal, which could lead to a
fuel saving of around 18%.
To compare a standard 2 litre engine with VANOS/Valvtronic fitted engine, about
21% more power can be gained 11% more torque and up to 20% improvement in
fuel economy and improved acceleration times.
Each valve is given its own individual drive function operating according to specific
requirements, the technology using an electromechanical valve drive ensures
enhanced variability of valve lift.
Valvetronic does not require sulphur free fuel as in the case of direct injection
engines, which provides full economic benefits even when driving in countries
without a nationwide supply of sulphur free fuel.

Electric motor

Eccentric Shaft

Double
VANOS

The illustration shows the main components of the Double VANOS and Valvetronic
cylinder head assembly.

-63Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Components and Operation

Stepper motor

Eccentric fitted to
secondary shaft
Intermediate
lever

Exhaust Camshaft

Inlet camshaft
Roller

Valve rockers
Valve lash
adjuster

Inlet valve

Exhaust valve

The camshafts are conventional but act through intermediate levers carried on and
positioned by eccentrics on a secondary shaft. The intermediate levers are springloaded and bear against a roller cam follower that opens the valve through a
hydraulic valve lash adjuster.

Stepper motor

Eccentric

Intermediate
lever

Rollers

-64Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Eccentric
shaft

The secondary shaft is rotated by an actuator motor which provides a rotary motion
of the eccentric to raise or lower the lever, this alters the height of the contact area
wiped by the inlet cam, thus the valve lift is varied on each induction stroke.

Mixture intake low (low lift)

Mixture intake high (high lift)

Motor operation is controlled by the engine management system. Sensor inputs are
used, a sensor on the accelerator pedal in the form of a potentiometer measures the
rate of change and position of the drivers foot on the pedal, thus registering power
demanded. This input device provides the engine management system with
information so that the valve is opened the correct amount, therefore providing the
engine with the correct amount of air/fuel mixture.
Valvetronic permits a fully variable valve stroke ranging from 0.0 to 9.7 millimetres.
Not only does the valve mechanism operate with precision it is also very swift to
respond, the actual adjustment from minimum to maximum stroke can take as little
as 300 milliseconds.
To provide for this ultra high performance of Valvetronic, a separate computer is
used it consists of a 32-bit, 512 kilobytes of memory for the program data and the
internal RAM computer is linked to the engine management unit.
-65Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003
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Valvetronic provides for smooth running and excellent cold starting. When the
engine is under part load with very little valve stroke (0.5 to 2.0 millimetres) the
air/fuel mixture only has a narrow gap through which to enter the combustion
chamber, this causes the mixture to enter at high speed and the resultant effect is a
more atomised mixture even with a cold engine. At low operating loads the valves
move marginally providing very smooth engine operation.

Comparing VTEC with Valvetronic


Valvetronic is less efficient at high engine speeds than conventional engines, let
alone VTEC. Quite a lot of friction is generated by means of its mechanical
components therefore the efficiency of Valvetronic engines drops off at speeds
above 6000 rev/min.

Variable valve timing (Ferrari)

3-dimensional
profile cam

Camshaft slides laterally as engine


speed and load varies

Low valve
lift

Increased
valve lift

Ferrari varies the valve timing and lift by using a camshaft that has lobes with a
three-dimensional profile. The profile varies along the length of the cam lobe. One
end of the cam lobe has a less aggressive cam profile than at the other end. The
shape of the cam smoothly blends these two profiles together. A device is fitted that
causes the camshaft to move laterally causing the valve to be operated by the
various profiles. As the camshaft rotates it is caused to slide gradually in a lateral
movement as the speed and load of the engine varies therefore optimising the valve
timing and lift.

-66Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

The future

So far every system described operates by a camshaft, the cam profile is the only
limiting factor with regards to improvement in engine performance.
Research has led to a focus in the use of electro-magnetically operated valves. A
coil surrounds the valve stem and a powerful magnetic force is generated in the coil
when electric current is passed through it, this force pushes the valve down against
a spring opening the valve.

THE FUTURE
This system would provide
infinite variable valve timing. The
valves are operated by computer
and would be capable of
providing maximum fuel
economy and power throughout
all engine speed range load.

BMW prototype
engine

Experiments have been carried out to eliminate the valve spring altogether by
reversing the magnetic field to close the valve. Timing could be as precise as
ignition or fuel injection timing, but at the moment magnetically operated valves limit
the engine to 6,000 rev/min. It also requires a large amount of electrical power,
although pulsed, the electrical load would vary depending on engine speed.
-67Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003
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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

A side effect of electro-magnetic valve operation is that the rapid movement of the
valve would provide a high full load potential at low engine speeds and would boost
the torque by about 5%.
Another variation of this system is to use electrical power to control a hydraulically
operated valve, less power would be required and there would be greater control of
valve motion, but at the moment it would only be able to operate within a maximum
engine speed of about 2,500 rev/min. This system is unlikely to be used on light
vehicles for a considerable time, if ever.

-68Copyright Automotive Skills Limited 2003


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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1

Progress check 5
Answer the following questions:

1.

Discuss in groups of three. The operation of the VANOS and double VANOS.
List the advantages of the double VANOS over the single VANOS.

2.

Discuss in groups of three. The operation of the Valvetronic system, also the
future developments of valve operating mechanisms.

3.

Describe the meaning of pumping loss. Explain why it is possible to


eliminate the throttle butterfly in a Valvetronic system. (Note: A throttle
butterfly may be used for emission control by generating a small vacuum in
the inlet manifold, which is not normally present in the Valvetronic system. Its
purpose is to prevent hydrocarbons leaking into the atmosphere. Discuss this
comment.

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LV34: Engines (3) Issue 1