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MATH 27 LECTURE GUIDE

UNIT 1. DERIVATIVES OF AND INTEGRALS YIELDING TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS


Objectives: By the end of the unit, a student should be able to
find derivatives of transcendental functions;
find integrals of and integral forms yielding transcendental functions;
find derivatives using logarithmic differentiation; and
evaluate limits of functions using L'Hopital's rule.
__________________________
1.1 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Trigonometric Functions
(TC7 163-166, 320-321 / TCWAG 173-176, 291-291)
The sine function defined by f x sin x and the cosine function defined by f x cos x are
continuous over the set of real numbers.
The tangent function ( f x tan x ), cotangent function ( f x cot x ), secant function

( f x sec x ) and the cosecant function ( f x csc x ) are continuous over their respective
domains.
f x h f x
Using the definition of a derivative, f ' x lim
, it can be derived that
h
h0

D x sin x cos x and D x cos x sin x .


TO DO!!! Deriving the derivatives of tan x and csc x .

D x tan x
D x csc x

MUST REMEMBER!!! Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

D x sin x cos x

D x tan x sec 2 x

D x sec x sec x tan x

D x cos x sin x

D x cot x csc 2 x

D x csc x csc x cot x

CHAIN RULE: Derivatives of trigonometric functions (in case of compositions)


Let u be a differentiable function of x .

D x sin u cos u D x u

D x tan u sec 2 u D x u

D x sec u sec u tan u D x u

D x cos u sin u D x u

D x cot u csc 2 u D x u

D x csc u csc u cot u D x u

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

The sine and cosine functions are differentiable over the set of real numbers. The tangent,
cotangent, secant and cosecant functions are differentiable over their respective domains.

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.


1.

D x sin x cos x

2.

D x 5 tan 3x sec 2x

3.

D x cot csc x

____________

x tan x
Evaluate D x sin 2 x cos x 2 , D x
and D x csc 2 cot x .
cos
x

REVIEW!!! From your MATH 26, if F ' x f x , then

f x dx Fx C .

MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals Yielding Trigonometric Functions

cos xdx sin x C


sin xdx cos x C

sec xdx tan x C


2
csc xdx cot x C
2

sec x tan xdx sec x C


csc x cot xdx csc x C

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.


1.

sin x cos xdx

2.

tan x sec

3.

cot

xdx

xdx

____________
Evaluate

2
2
x sin x dx , tan xdx and cot x cos xdx .

1.2 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Inverse Trigonometric Functions


(TC7 491-503 / TCWAG 503-513)
The inverse trigonometric functions are continuous given by f x Arc sin x , f x Arc cos x ,

f x Arc tan x , f x Arc cot x , f x Arc sec x and f x Arc csc x are continuous over their
respective domains except for some boundary points.

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

__________________________

TO DO!!! Deriving the derivative of Arc sin x .


Let y Arc sin x . Hence, x sin y .

MUST REMEMBER!!! Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

D x Arc sin x
D x Arc cos x

D x Arc tan x

1 x 2
1
1 x

D x Arc cot x

D x Arc sec x

1 x 2

D x Arc csc x

1 x 2

1
x

x 2 1
1

x 2 1

CHAIN RULE: Derivatives of trigonometric functions (in case of compositions)


Let u be a differentiable function of x .
1
1
Dx u
D x Arc sin u
D x u D x Arc tan u
1 u 2
1 u 2
1
1
Dx u
D x Arc cos u
D x u D x Arc cot u
1 u 2
1 u 2

TO DO!!! Solve for

D x Arc sec u
D x Arc csc u

1
u

u2 1
1

u2 1

Dx u
Dx u

dy
.
dx

1.

y Arc cos 1 x 2

2.

Arc sec sin x 3

, y

Arc tan tan x

KEEN MIND HERE!!!


Since D x Arc sin x
Also,

HOW?

1
1 x

1
1 x 2

, then

1
1 x 2

dx Arc sin x C .

dx Arc cos x C . But,

1
1 x

dx

1
1 x 2

dx Arc cos x C .

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

_______________
dy
Solve for
. y Arc cot cos 2 x , y sec Arc csc x 2
dx

MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals Yielding Inverse Sine Function

dx Arc sin x C

1 x 2

If a is a constant,

1
a2 x 2

dx Arc sin

1 x 2 dx Arc tan x C

a 2 x 2 dx

1
x 2 1

dx Arc sec x C

TO DO!!! Evaluate
3
1.
dx
25 x 2

2.

1
x 2 a2

x
C
a

1
x
Arc tan C
a
a

dx

1
x
Arc sec
C
a
a

dx
x2 6

If u is a differentiable function of x and a is a constant,

du
a2 u2
du
2

u a

Arc sin

du

u
C
a

a2 u2

1
u
Arc tan C
a
a

1
u
Arc sec
C
a
a

TO DO!!!

cos x
3 sin 2 x

dx

2.

x 2 8x 25 dx

3.

sec 2 x

dx
e 2x 4

___________
Evaluate

ex
4e

2x

dx ,

tan2 x 4 dx and x 2 1

x 4 2x 2 3

dx

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

1.

1.3 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Logarithmic Functions


(TC7 451-456, 473 / TCWAG 449-454, 466)
The natural logarithmic function defined by f x ln x is continuous over 0 , .
Also,

lim ln x and

x 0

lim ln x .

HOW TO . . . derive the derivative of ln x ! ! !


Alternative definition, ln x

x 1

dt .

x 1
D x ln x D x
dt
t
1

MUST REMEMBER!!!

D x ln x

1
x

and if u is a differentiable function of x , D x ln u

1
Dx u
u

TO DO!!! Solve for f ' x .


1.

f x lnsec x tan x

2.

f x ln x sin x

Note that if a 0 , a 1 , log a x

ln x
.
ln a

MUST REMEMBER!!!

1
1
1
1

Dx u
and if u is a differentiable function of x , D x log a u
ln a x
ln a x

TO DO!!! Evaluate D x log 10 log 1 x .

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

D x log a x

MUST REMEMBER!!!

x dx
1

ln x C and if u is a differentiable function of x ,

KEEN MIND HERE!!!

Why

Problem:

x dx
1

Domain of

du
ln u C
u

ln x C , instead of ln x ?

1
:
x

x if x 0
x
x if x 0

Solution:

Domain of ln x

D x ln x

1
D x lnx
x

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following

dx

1.

ax b

2.

x 2 16 dx

3.

tan xdx

where a and b are constants

x4

_____________
Evaluate

ln x
dx ,
x

sin x
dx and
1 cos x

tan

x
x

dx .

tan x dx ln sec x C
sec x dx ln sec x tan x C

cot x dx ln csc x C
csc x dx ln csc x cot x C

__________________________

1.4 Logarithmic Differentiation (TC7 447-448, 474-475/ TCWAG 449-450)


Logartihmic differentiation is an alternative way of differentiating SUPER PRODUCTS, SUPER
QUOTIENTS and functions in the form of variable raised to variable like f x x x .

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals of the Other Trigonometric Functions

HOW TO DO . . . logarithmic differentiation ! ! !


Given y f x .
1.

Consider y f x . Get the natural logarithms of both sides of y f x , i.e.

ln y ln f x . Note that D x x

1 .
x

2. Use properties of logarithms to express ln f x as sums instead of products, as


difference instead of quotients and products instead of exponentiations.
3. Get the derivatives of both sides of ln y
4. Solve for

ln f x . Hence,

1 dy

D x ln f x
y dx

dy
by cross-multiplying y and expressing y in terms of x .
dx

TO DO!!! Use logarithmic differentiation for the following.


dy
1. If y x sec x x 2 1 , solve for
.
dx

2. If f x

x sin x
, solve for f ' x .
ln x

3. Evaluate D x x sin x .

___________

Try to evaluate D x x x .

1.5 Derivatives of and Integrals of Exponential Functions


(TC7 462-463, 470-471/ TCWAG 458-460, 464)
The natural exponential function defined by f x e x is continuous at every real number.
Also,

lim

e x 0 and

lim

ex .

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

__________________________

if b 1 , then lim b x and

In general,

if 0 b 1, then lim b x 0 and


x

lim b x 0

Refer to the graphs of


exponential functions of

lim b x

the form f x b x from


MATH 14 or MATH 17.

What is D x e x ?

KEEN MIND HERE!!!

Let y e x . x ln y

dx
1

dy
y

ex

dy

dx

MUST REMEMBER!!! D x e x

If u is a differentiable function of x , D x e u e u D x u

MUST REMEMBER!!! Derivatives of Exponential Functions

a x ln a

Dx a x

If u is a differentiable function of x , D x a u a u ln a D x u

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.


1.

D x 10 x 2 x

2.

D x e sin x 3ln x

MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals of Exponential Functions

e x dx e x C

a x dx

If u is a differentiable function of x ,

ax
C
ln a

e u du e u C and

a u du

au
C .
ln a

1.

2 x 1

dx

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.

2.

x 2 e x dx

2x

2 x 1 dx

3.

_________________________

1.6 Some Application on Optimization, Related Rates and Laws of Natural Growth and Decay
(TC7 477-483, Examples of Chapter 5 / TCWAG 469-473, Examples of Chapter 7)
HOW TO SOLVE . . . maximization/minimization problems ! ! !
Given y f x . To solve for value/s of x that maximizes or minimizes y :

dy
f ' x 0 .
dx
2. If there are several critical points, compare function values at the critical points to
determine the maximum or the minimum.
1. Determine the critical points of f (i.e. value/s of x where

If possible, use second-derivative test on the critical points.


If critical a is a critical point of f and f ' ' x 0 , then f has a maximum at a .
If critical a is a critical point of f and f ' ' x 0 , then f has a minimum at a .
TO DO!!!

v 2 sin 2
, 0 , where v feet per second is
2
g
2
the initial velocity, g ft/sec is the acceleration due to gravity and is the radian measure of the
angle of projectile. Find the value of that makes the range a maximum.

________________________________
An individuals blood pressure, P , at time t is given by P 90 25 sin 2t . Find the values of the
maximum and minimum pressure. When do these values occur?
Some related rates problem . . .

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

If R feet is the range of a projectile, then R

Some related rates problem . . .


Given a model y f x where x and y varies with respect to time. To solve for

dy
dt

, differentiate

both sides with respect to time.


TO DO!!!
A woman standing on top of a vertical cliff is 200 feet above a sea. As she watches, the angle of
depression of a motorboat (moving directly away from the foot of the cliff) is decreasing at a rate
of 0.08 rad/sec. How fast is the motorboat departing from the cliff?

_________________________________
After blast-off, a space shuttle climbs vertically and a radar-tracking dish, located 800 m from the
launch pad, follows the shuttle. How fast is the radar dish revolving 10 sec after blast-off if the
velocity at that time is 100 m/sec and the shuttle is 500 m above the ground?

An exponential growth or decay is a phenomenon undergone by certain organisms and radioactive


elements. It happens when a rate of growth (or decay) is proportional to the present population of an
organism or the present quantity of a radioactive element.

KEEN MIND HERE!!!

The Exponential Model of Growth and Decay

Suppose an organism (or an element) grows (or decays) in such a way that rate of growth is
proportional to the present quantity (or population). Let y be the quantity (or population) at time t .

dy
is the rate of growth (or decay).
dt

Hence,

dy
ky
dt

dy
kdt
y

ln y kt C

dy

kdt

Solving for y , y e kt C y Be kt , where B e C is a constant.


Moreover, B is the quantity (or population) at t 0 .

The examples will be on interpreting models. It will be assumed that this models were arrived at using
the procedures above.

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

Also,

10

TO DO!!!
1. A lake is stocked with 100 fish and the fish population P begins to increase according to the
10 ,000
model P
, where t is measured in months.
1 19e t
Does the population have a limit as t increases without bound?

After how many months is the population increasing most rapidly?

2. The revenue R (in million dollars) for an international firm from 2000 to 2010 can be modeled
by P 296.1 115.52t 0.004e t , where t 0 correponds to 2000. When did they reach the
maximum revenue within the period? Examine the validity of the model for the years beyond
2010.

_________________________________
On a college campus of 5000 students, the spread of flu virus through the student is modeled by
5 ,000
P
, where P is the number of students infected after t days. Will all students
1 4999e 0.8t
on the campus be infected with the flu? After how many days is the virus spreading the fastest?
__________________________

This section is for limit problems involving the indeterminate forms

MUST REMEMBER!!! LHopitals Rule for

0
0

f x
f ' x
.
lim
x a g x
x a g ' x

Suppose that lim f x 0 and lim g x 0 . Then, lim


xa

xa

This is also applicable for one-sided limits and x .

and
.

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

1.7 Indeterminate Forms and the LHopitals Rule


(TC7 634-649 / TCWAG 650-665)

11

TO DO!!!
1.

2.

lim

x 1

x 1 x2 x 2

lim

x 0

sin x x
x3

MUST REMEMBER!!! LHopitals Rule for

f x
f ' x
.
lim

g
x
g
xa
x a ' x

Suppose that lim f x and lim g x . Then, lim


xa

xa

This is also applicable for one-sided limits and x .


TO DO!!!
1.

2.

lim

x2

x e x

cot x
x 0 ln x
lim

MUST REMEMBER . . . NOT REALLY


LHopitals Rule was named after Guillaume Francois Antoine de LHopital but he is not who
discovered it! The man behind this rule was Johann Bernoulli.

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of 0 ! ! !
0

1
1
Convert 0 to a form
or
by expressing as
or 0 as
, respectively. Then,

0
0
use LHopitals Rule on the converted form.

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

Other indeterminate forms: 0 , , 0 0 , 0 and 1 .

12

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of ! ! !
Express the given as a single quotient. Then, use LHopitals Rule if

or
is obtained.

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of 0 0 , 0 or 1 ! ! !
1. Consider y f x .
2. Get the natural logarithm of both sides of y f x so that ln y ln f x .
3. Use property of logarithms so that the form 0 0 can be converted to a form 0 .
4. By now, lim ln y is of the form 0 . Get lim ln y by resolving 0 .
xa

xa

5. Now, lim y lim e ln y .


xa

xa

TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.


1.

2.

lim ln x 1
2

x

lim x sin x

x 0

______________

tan x x
x 0 x sin x
lim

1
1
lim

x 1 x ln x ln x

lim x x

x 0

The following are PSEUDO-indeterminate forms. These can be resolved using the techniques
above without the use of LHopitals Rule.

1
0

END OF UNIT 1 Lecture Guide

MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

Evaluate:

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