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# MATH 27 LECTURE GUIDE

## UNIT 1. DERIVATIVES OF AND INTEGRALS YIELDING TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Objectives: By the end of the unit, a student should be able to
find derivatives of transcendental functions;
find integrals of and integral forms yielding transcendental functions;
find derivatives using logarithmic differentiation; and
evaluate limits of functions using L'Hopital's rule.
__________________________
1.1 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Trigonometric Functions
(TC7 163-166, 320-321 / TCWAG 173-176, 291-291)
The sine function defined by f x sin x and the cosine function defined by f x cos x are
continuous over the set of real numbers.
The tangent function ( f x tan x ), cotangent function ( f x cot x ), secant function

( f x sec x ) and the cosecant function ( f x csc x ) are continuous over their respective
domains.
f x h f x
Using the definition of a derivative, f ' x lim
, it can be derived that
h
h0

## D x sin x cos x and D x cos x sin x .

TO DO!!! Deriving the derivatives of tan x and csc x .

D x tan x
D x csc x

## MUST REMEMBER!!! Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

D x sin x cos x

D x tan x sec 2 x

## D x sec x sec x tan x

D x cos x sin x

D x cot x csc 2 x

## CHAIN RULE: Derivatives of trigonometric functions (in case of compositions)

Let u be a differentiable function of x .

D x sin u cos u D x u

D x tan u sec 2 u D x u

## D x sec u sec u tan u D x u

D x cos u sin u D x u

D x cot u csc 2 u D x u

## MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

The sine and cosine functions are differentiable over the set of real numbers. The tangent,
cotangent, secant and cosecant functions are differentiable over their respective domains.

## TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.

1.

D x sin x cos x

2.

D x 5 tan 3x sec 2x

3.

D x cot csc x

____________

x tan x
Evaluate D x sin 2 x cos x 2 , D x
and D x csc 2 cot x .
cos
x

f x dx Fx C .

sin xdx cos x C

2
csc xdx cot x C
2

## sec x tan xdx sec x C

csc x cot xdx csc x C

1.

## sin x cos xdx

2.

tan x sec

3.

cot

xdx

xdx

____________
Evaluate

2
2
x sin x dx , tan xdx and cot x cos xdx .

## 1.2 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Inverse Trigonometric Functions

(TC7 491-503 / TCWAG 503-513)
The inverse trigonometric functions are continuous given by f x Arc sin x , f x Arc cos x ,

f x Arc tan x , f x Arc cot x , f x Arc sec x and f x Arc csc x are continuous over their
respective domains except for some boundary points.

## MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

__________________________

## TO DO!!! Deriving the derivative of Arc sin x .

Let y Arc sin x . Hence, x sin y .

D x Arc sin x
D x Arc cos x

D x Arc tan x

1 x 2
1
1 x

D x Arc cot x

D x Arc sec x

1 x 2

D x Arc csc x

1 x 2

1
x

x 2 1
1

x 2 1

## CHAIN RULE: Derivatives of trigonometric functions (in case of compositions)

Let u be a differentiable function of x .
1
1
Dx u
D x Arc sin u
D x u D x Arc tan u
1 u 2
1 u 2
1
1
Dx u
D x Arc cos u
D x u D x Arc cot u
1 u 2
1 u 2

D x Arc sec u
D x Arc csc u

1
u

u2 1
1

u2 1

Dx u
Dx u

dy
.
dx

1.

y Arc cos 1 x 2

2.

, y

## KEEN MIND HERE!!!

Since D x Arc sin x
Also,

HOW?

1
1 x

1
1 x 2

, then

1
1 x 2

dx Arc sin x C .

1
1 x

dx

1
1 x 2

dx Arc cos x C .

## MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

_______________
dy
Solve for
. y Arc cot cos 2 x , y sec Arc csc x 2
dx

## MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals Yielding Inverse Sine Function

dx Arc sin x C

1 x 2

If a is a constant,

1
a2 x 2

dx Arc sin

1 x 2 dx Arc tan x C

a 2 x 2 dx

1
x 2 1

dx Arc sec x C

TO DO!!! Evaluate
3
1.
dx
25 x 2

2.

1
x 2 a2

x
C
a

1
x
Arc tan C
a
a

dx

1
x
Arc sec
C
a
a

dx
x2 6

## If u is a differentiable function of x and a is a constant,

du
a2 u2
du
2

u a

Arc sin

du

u
C
a

a2 u2

1
u
Arc tan C
a
a

1
u
Arc sec
C
a
a

TO DO!!!

cos x
3 sin 2 x

dx

2.

x 2 8x 25 dx

3.

sec 2 x

dx
e 2x 4

___________
Evaluate

ex
4e

2x

dx ,

tan2 x 4 dx and x 2 1

x 4 2x 2 3

dx

1.

## 1.3 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Logarithmic Functions

(TC7 451-456, 473 / TCWAG 449-454, 466)
The natural logarithmic function defined by f x ln x is continuous over 0 , .
Also,

lim ln x and

x 0

lim ln x .

## HOW TO . . . derive the derivative of ln x ! ! !

Alternative definition, ln x

x 1

dt .

x 1
D x ln x D x
dt
t
1

MUST REMEMBER!!!

D x ln x

1
x

1
Dx u
u

## TO DO!!! Solve for f ' x .

1.

f x lnsec x tan x

2.

f x ln x sin x

## Note that if a 0 , a 1 , log a x

ln x
.
ln a

MUST REMEMBER!!!

1
1
1
1

Dx u
and if u is a differentiable function of x , D x log a u
ln a x
ln a x

D x log a x

MUST REMEMBER!!!

x dx
1

## KEEN MIND HERE!!!

Why

Problem:

x dx
1

Domain of

du
ln u C
u

ln x C , instead of ln x ?

1
:
x

x if x 0
x
x if x 0

Solution:

Domain of ln x

D x ln x

1
D x lnx
x

dx

1.

ax b

2.

x 2 16 dx

3.

tan xdx

## where a and b are constants

x4

_____________
Evaluate

ln x
dx ,
x

sin x
dx and
1 cos x

tan

x
x

dx .

tan x dx ln sec x C
sec x dx ln sec x tan x C

cot x dx ln csc x C
csc x dx ln csc x cot x C

__________________________

## 1.4 Logarithmic Differentiation (TC7 447-448, 474-475/ TCWAG 449-450)

Logartihmic differentiation is an alternative way of differentiating SUPER PRODUCTS, SUPER
QUOTIENTS and functions in the form of variable raised to variable like f x x x .

Given y f x .
1.

## Consider y f x . Get the natural logarithms of both sides of y f x , i.e.

ln y ln f x . Note that D x x

1 .
x

## 2. Use properties of logarithms to express ln f x as sums instead of products, as

3. Get the derivatives of both sides of ln y
4. Solve for

ln f x . Hence,

1 dy

D x ln f x
y dx

dy
by cross-multiplying y and expressing y in terms of x .
dx

## TO DO!!! Use logarithmic differentiation for the following.

dy
1. If y x sec x x 2 1 , solve for
.
dx

2. If f x

x sin x
, solve for f ' x .
ln x

3. Evaluate D x x sin x .

___________

Try to evaluate D x x x .

## 1.5 Derivatives of and Integrals of Exponential Functions

(TC7 462-463, 470-471/ TCWAG 458-460, 464)
The natural exponential function defined by f x e x is continuous at every real number.
Also,

lim

e x 0 and

lim

ex .

## MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

__________________________

In general,

x

lim b x 0

## Refer to the graphs of

exponential functions of

lim b x

## the form f x b x from

MATH 14 or MATH 17.

What is D x e x ?

## KEEN MIND HERE!!!

Let y e x . x ln y

dx
1

dy
y

ex

dy

dx

MUST REMEMBER!!! D x e x

If u is a differentiable function of x , D x e u e u D x u

## MUST REMEMBER!!! Derivatives of Exponential Functions

a x ln a

Dx a x

If u is a differentiable function of x , D x a u a u ln a D x u

## TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.

1.

D x 10 x 2 x

2.

D x e sin x 3ln x

## MUST REMEMBER!!! Integrals of Exponential Functions

e x dx e x C

a x dx

If u is a differentiable function of x ,

ax
C
ln a

e u du e u C and

a u du

au
C .
ln a

1.

2 x 1

dx

## TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.

2.

x 2 e x dx

2x

2 x 1 dx

3.

_________________________

1.6 Some Application on Optimization, Related Rates and Laws of Natural Growth and Decay
(TC7 477-483, Examples of Chapter 5 / TCWAG 469-473, Examples of Chapter 7)
HOW TO SOLVE . . . maximization/minimization problems ! ! !
Given y f x . To solve for value/s of x that maximizes or minimizes y :

dy
f ' x 0 .
dx
2. If there are several critical points, compare function values at the critical points to
determine the maximum or the minimum.
1. Determine the critical points of f (i.e. value/s of x where

## If possible, use second-derivative test on the critical points.

If critical a is a critical point of f and f ' ' x 0 , then f has a maximum at a .
If critical a is a critical point of f and f ' ' x 0 , then f has a minimum at a .
TO DO!!!

v 2 sin 2
, 0 , where v feet per second is
2
g
2
the initial velocity, g ft/sec is the acceleration due to gravity and is the radian measure of the
angle of projectile. Find the value of that makes the range a maximum.

________________________________
An individuals blood pressure, P , at time t is given by P 90 25 sin 2t . Find the values of the
maximum and minimum pressure. When do these values occur?
Some related rates problem . . .

## Some related rates problem . . .

Given a model y f x where x and y varies with respect to time. To solve for

dy
dt

, differentiate

## both sides with respect to time.

TO DO!!!
A woman standing on top of a vertical cliff is 200 feet above a sea. As she watches, the angle of
depression of a motorboat (moving directly away from the foot of the cliff) is decreasing at a rate
of 0.08 rad/sec. How fast is the motorboat departing from the cliff?

_________________________________
After blast-off, a space shuttle climbs vertically and a radar-tracking dish, located 800 m from the
launch pad, follows the shuttle. How fast is the radar dish revolving 10 sec after blast-off if the
velocity at that time is 100 m/sec and the shuttle is 500 m above the ground?

## An exponential growth or decay is a phenomenon undergone by certain organisms and radioactive

elements. It happens when a rate of growth (or decay) is proportional to the present population of an
organism or the present quantity of a radioactive element.

## The Exponential Model of Growth and Decay

Suppose an organism (or an element) grows (or decays) in such a way that rate of growth is
proportional to the present quantity (or population). Let y be the quantity (or population) at time t .

dy
is the rate of growth (or decay).
dt

Hence,

dy
ky
dt

dy
kdt
y

ln y kt C

dy

kdt

## Solving for y , y e kt C y Be kt , where B e C is a constant.

Moreover, B is the quantity (or population) at t 0 .

The examples will be on interpreting models. It will be assumed that this models were arrived at using
the procedures above.

## MATH 27 Lecture Guide UNIT 1 albabierra

Also,

10

TO DO!!!
1. A lake is stocked with 100 fish and the fish population P begins to increase according to the
10 ,000
model P
, where t is measured in months.
1 19e t
Does the population have a limit as t increases without bound?

## After how many months is the population increasing most rapidly?

2. The revenue R (in million dollars) for an international firm from 2000 to 2010 can be modeled
by P 296.1 115.52t 0.004e t , where t 0 correponds to 2000. When did they reach the
maximum revenue within the period? Examine the validity of the model for the years beyond
2010.

_________________________________
On a college campus of 5000 students, the spread of flu virus through the student is modeled by
5 ,000
P
, where P is the number of students infected after t days. Will all students
1 4999e 0.8t
on the campus be infected with the flu? After how many days is the virus spreading the fastest?
__________________________

0
0

f x
f ' x
.
lim
x a g x
x a g ' x

xa

xa

and
.

## 1.7 Indeterminate Forms and the LHopitals Rule

(TC7 634-649 / TCWAG 650-665)

11

TO DO!!!
1.

2.

lim

x 1

x 1 x2 x 2

lim

x 0

sin x x
x3

f x
f ' x
.
lim

g
x
g
xa
x a ' x

xa

xa

TO DO!!!
1.

2.

lim

x2

x e x

cot x
x 0 ln x
lim

## MUST REMEMBER . . . NOT REALLY

LHopitals Rule was named after Guillaume Francois Antoine de LHopital but he is not who
discovered it! The man behind this rule was Johann Bernoulli.

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of 0 ! ! !
0

1
1
Convert 0 to a form
or
by expressing as
or 0 as
, respectively. Then,

0
0
use LHopitals Rule on the converted form.

## Other indeterminate forms: 0 , , 0 0 , 0 and 1 .

12

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of ! ! !
Express the given as a single quotient. Then, use LHopitals Rule if

or
is obtained.

WHAT TO DO . . . in case of 0 0 , 0 or 1 ! ! !
1. Consider y f x .
2. Get the natural logarithm of both sides of y f x so that ln y ln f x .
3. Use property of logarithms so that the form 0 0 can be converted to a form 0 .
4. By now, lim ln y is of the form 0 . Get lim ln y by resolving 0 .
xa

xa

xa

xa

## TO DO!!! Evaluate the following.

1.

2.

lim ln x 1
2

x

lim x sin x

x 0

______________

tan x x
x 0 x sin x
lim

1
1
lim

x 1 x ln x ln x

lim x x

x 0

The following are PSEUDO-indeterminate forms. These can be resolved using the techniques
above without the use of LHopitals Rule.

1
0

Evaluate:

13