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Chapter 1

Material Behavior
(contd)

BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE CONFINED BY

LATERAL REINFORCEMENT
Richart, Brandtzaeg and Brown (1928):

BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE CONFINED BY

LATERAL REINFORCEMENT
Zia and Cowan:
Using Richarts test results
Based on revised version
of Mohr-Coulomb Failure
Theory,

f cl = f c + 4.0 2

CONFINEMENT of RC COLUMNS

The confinement provided by the rectangular hoop is not

as effective as the circular hoops or the spiral, due to the
difference in geometry.

CONFINEMENT of RC COLUMNS
The passive lateral pressure applied to the
concrete core is a function of the
deformation of the confining
reinforcement (spiral or tie). The confining
pressure decreases as the deformation of
the lateral steel increases.

The circular spiral is

subjected to axial
tension, thus axial
elongation occurs.

In spiral columns, the deformation increases as the core

diameter and spiral spacing increase and spiral diameter
decreases.

CONFINEMENT of TIED COLUMNS

In the rectangular hoop,
the deformation is mainly
due to flexure and
therefore depends on the
flexural stiffness of the
bar.

Since flexural stiffness is much smaller than the axial stiffness and
since maximum flexural deformation takes place at the midspan,
the passive pressure provided by the lateral reinforcement
disappears rapidly moving from the corner to the midspan of the
hoop.

CONFINEMENT of TIED COLUMNS

The distance between two
longitudinal bars which are held
in place by ties, shown as a in
figure, is also an important
parameter. As a increases, the
deformations increase,
decreasing the confining
pressure. The distance a is
either called as the
unsupported length of the tie
or as the tie span.
Therefore, in case of tied columns, the deformation increases as the
diameter of the tie decreases and tie spacing increases.

CONFINEMENT of TIED COLUMNS

The effectiveness of
confinement decreases
significantly in between
as shown in figure.
In practice, it is assumed
that rectangular hoops
are only 50 percent as
effective as the circular
spirals.

CONFINEMENT MODELS
Most commonly used confined concrete models:

Modified Kent and Park model

J. B. Mander, M. J. N. Priestley, and R. Park, Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete, Journal of
Structural Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 8, August 1988, p.p. 1804-1825

Sheikh and Uzumeri model

Sheikh, S.A., and zmeri, S.M., Analytical Model for Concrete Confinement in Tied Columns, Journal of
Structural Engineering-ASCE., v.108, ST12, Dec. 1982, p.p. 2703-2722

Saatolu and Razvi model

Saatcioglu, M., Razvi, S.R., Strength and Ductility of Confined Concrete, Journal of Structural EngineeringASCE, v.118, ST6, June 1992, p.p. 1590-1607

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

The strength of confined concrete is expressed as a function
of lateral confining pressure 2.

f cc = k3 f ck + k1 2
For normal strength concrete, k3 can be taken as 0.85. k1
is expressed as a function of the confining pressure 2.

k1 =

6.7

( 2 )0.17

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

For spiral columns the confining pressure is,

2A0
f ywk
2 =
D(s )
In the above equation Ao, s and fywk are the crosssectional area, spacing and the yield strength of the
spiral used. D is the core diameter of the column
(area inside the spiral).

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

RECALL:
In the spiral column, the confining pressure is uniform. This is not the case
in rectangular tied columns.
The displacement of a rectangular tie varies from zero to a maximum at the
midspan of the tie.
Since the confining pressure varies inversely with the deformation, it is
maximum level at the tie supports and decreases towards the midspan.
In practice, it is assumed that rectangular hoops are only 50 percent as
effective as the circular spirals.

The probable variation of the confining pressure for two

different steel configurations is shown in the figure.

Saatolu and Razvi proposed to replace this nonuniform pressure

with an equivalent uniform pressure 2e . Thus the equation
developed by Zia and Cowan can be rewritten as:

f cc = k 3 f ck + k 1 2e

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

f cc = k 3 f ck + k 1 2e
where;

k1 =

6.7

( 2e )0.17

where;

2 =

A0 f ywk (sin )
s bk

bk bk 1.0

= 0.26
a s 2

= 2

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

where;
Aofywk sin : summation of tie forces on a section taken in
horizontal or vertical direction. The inclination of
the tie to the section taken as shown in the figure.

Section A-A

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

: spacing of ties

bk

longitudinal bars held in place. Bars are held in place either

by the corner of ties or by cross ties

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

For a rectangular section 2e is expressed as,

2e

2ex bkx

(b

kx

+ 2ey bky
+ bky

where;

2ex = x2x

and

2y = y2y

b b 1.0
1.0
x = 0.26 kx kx

a x s 2x

1.0
y = 0.26
a y s 2y

2x

2y =

(s bkx )

(s b )
ky

where:
A0x sin

Aoy sin

ax , ay

bk

bkx , bky

fywk

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

The stress-strain relationship of confined concrete is expressed as a
parabola with a linear descending portion (negative slope).

Ascending portion:
1
2 1+ 2

2
c = f cc c c
coc coc

f cc

The strain corresponding to the peak stress fcc , is expressed as;

coc = co [1 + 5 ]

where

k1 2e
=
k 3 f ck

SAATCIOGLU AND RAZVI MODEL

Descending portion:

Aoxy sin

s(bkx + bky )

where;

Aoxy
u85

summation of cross-sectional areas of the ties on sections

taken in x and y directions
= 0.0038 (for unconfined concrete)

Example 1.3
Given:

Consider the square column cross-section shown in the figure.

Cross-sectional dimensions of the column are, 500500 mm,
with core dimensions of 400400 mm. The unsupported length
of the ties is a = 183 mm. Longitudinal steel is 8-24 and ties are
2-10/72 mm. Yield strength of longitudinal bars and ties are,
420 MPa and 310 MPa respectively. Unconfined concrete
strength is 23 MPa.

Required:

Determine the stress-strain characteristics of confined concrete

using Saatolu-Razvi model

EXAMPLE
The ties on sections cut in vertical and horizontal directions will be identical. On
such sections, four ties are cut, two being perpendicular (=900)
to the section taken and the other two making and angle of =
0
45 with the plane.
First the confined concrete strength shall be calculated. For this purpose the
effective confining stress has to be determined.

Ao f ywk sin = 2 78.5 310 (sin 900 ) + 2 78.5 310 (sin 450 ) = 83,085 N

In each direction,

Ao f ywk sin

=
=
s bk

83,085
= 2.88 MPa
72 400

bk bk 1.0
400 400 1.0

= 0.26
= 0.26 183 72 2.88 = 0.534
a
s

EXAMPLE
Thus;

k1 =

6.7

( 2e )0.17

6.7
= 6.2
0.17
(1.54 )

For the given concrete grade f ck = 23 MPa we have k3=0.85

k3fc=0.8523=19.5 MPa
Therefore,
fcc=k3fck + k1 2e=19.5 + 6.2 1.54=29 MPa

EXAMPLE
To have the complete stress-strain curve coc and c85 should
also be calculated. This requires the
calculation of first.

k1 2e 6.2 1.54
=
= 0.49
k3 f ck
19.5

coc = co [1 + 5 ] = 0.002 [1 + 5 0.49 ] = 0.0069

In order to find c85 , should be calculated first.

0
0
2
A
sin
=
2
2

78.5sin90
+
2

78.5sin45
=
536
mm
oxy

EXAMPLE
Therefore;

oxy sin

s(bkx + bky )

536
= 0.0093
72(400 + 400)

Having found , c85 can be calculated as

u85=0.0038.
c85=260 coc + u85=2600.00930.0069+0.0038=0.0205

EXAMPLE
Now the equations of the ascending and descending portions of the
confined stress-strain curve can be written
ASCENDING PART:

2
c
c

c = 29

0.0069
0.0069

0.5

MPa

29 0.85 29
(c 0.0069) = 29 320(c 0.0069) MPa
c = 29 +

0.0069 0.0205

EXAMPLE
30

fc = 23 MPa

25
Stress

fcc = 29 MPa

20
15
10
5
0
0

0.01
coc = 0.0069

o = 0.002

0.02

0.03

Strain

0.04

0.05

EXAMPLE
30

Stress

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

Strain
Saatcioglu Razvi predicts softer stiffness in the ascending
branch.