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TOM DICKINS AND IRINA MOORE

S AZOV

Edited and produced by


ALEKSANDR POLYAKOV

S AZOV
(Russian from Scratch)

(Russian from Scratch)

TOM DICKINS AND IRINA MOORE

INDEX

S AZOV (Russian from Scratch)


Introduction and acknowledgements (iii)
Table of contents (iv-ix)
Summary of the principal grammar points (x-xii)
Introductory Chapter (Pages 1-16)
Chapter One - Introductions (Pages 17-32)
Chapter Two - An object lesson (Pages 33-50)
Chapter Three - Work / Nationality (Pages 51-64)
Chapter Four - At the airport (Pages 65-80)
Chapter Five - Shopping for food (Pages 81-98)
Chapter Six - I cant hear you very well! (Pages 99-116)
Chapter Seven - At the hotel (Pages 117-134)
Chapter Eight - Russian cuisine (Pages 135-150)
Chapter Nine - Now and then (Pages 151-168)
Chapter Ten - Hobbies and interests (Pages 169-192)
Chapter Eleven - Health (Pages 193-210)
Chapter Twelve - Education (Pages 211-230)
Chapter Thirteen - My family and (other) animals (Pages 231-248)
Chapter Fourteen - The weather (Pages 249-270)
Chapter Fifteen - A horrible sight (or aspect?) (Pages 271-292)
Chapter Sixteen - In the town (Pages 293-314)
Chapter Seventeen - Bon voyage! (Pages 315-342)
Chapter Eighteen - At home (Pages 343-362)
Chapter Nineteen - Personal information (Pages 363-382)
Chapter Twenty - A further step in reading and writing (Pages 383-410)
Listening passages (Pages 411-436)
Vocabulary (Pages 437-536)

ii

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The authors, Tom Dickins and Irina Moore, decided to write S azov (Russian from Scratch)
because of the lack of suitable communicative ab initio Russian language courses for more mature
learners. S azov has been used extensively with our own degree-level students, and has thus
benefited from considerable testing in practical classroom situations. It is appropriate for a wide
range of learners, from school pupils with a background in foreign languages to evening-class
students and undergraduates and postgraduates.
The textbook consists of an introductory chapter and twenty further chapters based on themes
which exemplify and consolidate a series of new linguistic concepts. Particular emphasis is placed
on the use of authentic up-to-date materials, such as advertisements, newspaper clippings,
timetables, tickets, official forms and recent photographs, and on the creation of meaningful and
relevant contexts for language learning. Wherever possible, the students are asked to deduce
unfamiliar syntactic and morphological principles for themselves from regular paradigms, before
being required to apply the new rules or to cope with irregularities.

INTRODUCTION

Introduction and acknowledgements

Each chapter begins with a summary of the competences which the students will acquire and with
a list of the main points of grammar which are to be introduced. Roughly equal weighting is given
to the four skills (speaking, reading, listening and writing), which are developed through a series
of lexical and interactive activities, including memory games, crosswords, gap-filling tasks and
role plays. Vocabulary glossaries are provided at the foot of each page, where necessary, and
there is a comprehensive alphabetical Russian-English and English-Russian vocabulary list at the
end of the course. There is also a grammar section at the end of each chapter, with more detailed
explanations and grammatical exercises. All the listening activities are recorded on audio cassette
by educated native Russian speakers and are accompanied by transcripts.
We are enormously indebted to our friend, Aleksandr Polyakov, who painstakingly produced
and designed the layout of the course. Particular thanks go to our former colleague and Head of
Russian, Peter Rooney, for his invaluable support and encouragement, to Ludmila Khalilova for
her contribution in the early planning stages and to Elena Kazimianets for her work on Chapters
10, 15 and 20. We also wish to express our gratitude to Katrina Fraser and Igor Babanov for
their practical help and to Vicki Whittaker for sharing the benefit of her knowledge of publishing.
We would similarly like to acknowledge Linda Aldwinkle and Christine Barnard of the University
of Westminster for the interest that they have shown and for their constructive feedback.Without
their assistance and the efforts of numerous other colleagues and friends, the task of completing
S azov would have been considerably more onerous, if not altogether impossible.
Finally, there is one academic source which merits a special mention, namely A Comprehensive
Russian Grammar by Terence Wade. We consulted this unparalleled work extensively when
writing our Grammar sections, and we owe a great deal to Professor Wades clear and detailed
explanations.
The authors acknowledge all registered trademarks as belonging to their respective owners.
Tom Dickins and Irina Moore
School of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences, University of Wolverhampton
November, 2003
A new ab initio Russian course

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of contents
Introductory Chapter (Pages 1-16)
1. the Cyrillic alphabet
2. word recognition
3. pronunciation
Chapter One - Introductions (Pages 17-32)
Competences
1. understanding basic introductions
2. using appropriate greetings
3. recognizing and forming patronymics
Grammar
1. the three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter)
2. the possessive pronoun my
3. regular plurals
Chapter Two - An object lesson (Pages 33-50)
Competences
1. identifying and locating objects
2. expressing possession
3. stating where you live
4. recognizing numbers
Grammar
1. the possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, our, their, whose
2. the verb to live
3. the prepositional case after and
4. the numerals 1 to100
Chapter Three - Work / Nationality (Pages 51-64)
Competences
1. recognizing and talking about jobs
2. stating your nationality and identifying the nationality of other people
3. expressing movement on foot and by transport
4. using simple constructions of time
Grammar
1. the use of (+ dative) in set expressions
2. the verbs to work () and to go (, )
3. the accusative case with movement and expressions of time
Chapter Four - At the airport (Pages 65-80)
Competences
1. speaking with a passport control officer and a customs officer
2. changing currency
3. reading addresses and telephone numbers
4. understanding airport announcements

iv

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter Five - Shopping for food (Pages 81-98)


Competences
1. finding your way around a Russian supermarket
2. saying I have / I havent
3. expressing a request
4. asking about the price of food
5. asking where somebody / something is from
Grammar
1. adjectives (m, f, n, pl) in the nominative case
2. the prepositional singular of adjectives
3. the genitive singular of nouns
4. the genitive of personal pronouns
5. the numerals 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Grammar
1. the prepositional case ending - after and
2. the prepositional case after (about)
3. the accusative case to indicate the direct object

Chapter Six - I cant hear you very well! (Pages 99-116)


Competences
1. using the telephone
2. saying how old you are
3. expressing likes and dislikes (using the verb )
4. shopping for clothes
Grammar
1. expressing possession (to have)
2. the numerals 1,000 +
3. impersonal expressions and the dative case (pronouns and singular nouns)
4. the accusative of adjectives
Chapter Seven - At the hotel (Pages 117-134)
Competences
1. booking a hotel room
2. registering
3. finding your way around the hotel
4. making general requests
5. saying there is / are (not)
Grammar
1. ordinal numerals
2. the declension of titles
3. the instrumental singular of nouns and personal pronouns (after )
4. the accusative case to express duration of time
5. the verbs to want () and to speak, say, tell ()

A new ab initio Russian course

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Eight - Russian cuisine (Pages 135-150)


Competences
1. reading a Russian menu
2. ordering a meal
3. expressing a preference
4. asking for a bill
Grammar
1. the instrumental singular of adjectives
2. the instrumental plural of nouns
3. the instrumental case of function (without a preposition)
4. the verbs to eat () and to drink ()
Chapter Nine - Now and then (Pages 151-168)
Competences
1. talking about past events
2. saying when things happened
3. asking about and answering things in the past (affirmative and negative)
Grammar
1. the past tense of regular verbs
2. the instrumental case after the verbs , ,
3. the reflexive verbs (present and past tense)
4. the dates (years - 2002 )
Chapter Ten - Hobbies and interests (Pages 169-192)
Competences
1. talking about hobbies and interests
2. speaking about sport, cinema, theatre
3. expressing wrong in Russian
Grammar
1. the genitive singular of adjectives
2. the instrumental plural of adjectives
3. double negatives ( , , etc.)
4. the multidirectional verbs of motion, and
Chapter Eleven - Health (Pages 193-210)
Competences
1 saying how you feel
2. calling an ambulance
3. making an appointment with a doctor
4. giving and seeking advice
Grammar
1. the dative singular of adjectives
2. the dative plural of nouns
3. the dative plural of adjectives
4. verbs of the type
5. diminutive nouns

vi

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Twelve - Education (Pages 211-230)


Competences
1. understanding school and university timetables
2. filling in and interpreting forms relating to education
3. expressing precise time using dates and years
Grammar
1. the genitive case with dates
2. the prepositional plural of nouns and adjectives
3. the genitive plural of nouns and adjectives
Chapter Thirteen - My family and (other) animals (Pages 231-248)
Competences
1. talking about your family
2. talking about animals
Grammar
1. pronouns
2. the animate accusative
3 miscellaneous nouns
4. prepositions which take the accusative case
Chapter Fourteen - The weather (Pages 249-270)
Competences
1. understanding a Russian weather forecast
2. enquiring about the weather
3. comparing the weather in different seasons and countries
4. expressing ideas relating to frequency
Grammar
1. adverbs derived from adjectives
2. the verb and frequency adverbs
3. negative adverbs
4. the future tense of the verb
5. the comparative of adjectives and adverbs
6. the superlative of adjectives and adverbs
Chapter Fifteen - A horrible sight (or aspect?) (Pages 271-292)
Competences
1. distinguishing between the imperfective and perfective aspects
2. using the appropriate aspectual form in the past
3. using the appropriate aspectual form in the future
Grammar
1. perfective verbs formed by adding a prefix
2. perfective verbs formed by the process of shortening
3. perfective verbs formed by other internal adjustments
4. perfective verbs formed in other ways

A new ab initio Russian course

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Sixteen - In the town (Pages 293-314)


Competences
1. asking for and giving directions
2. asking for and giving information
3. asking for and giving instructions
4. making and carrying out requests
Grammar
1. the formation of the imperative
2. the prepositions which take the instrumental case
3. the formation of the conditional mood
4. the formation of the subjunctive mood
Chapter Seventeen - Bon voyage! (Pages 315-342)
Competences
1. expressing the time of the day (a.m./p.m.)
2. telling the time more precisely
3. understanding train and plane timetables
4. requesting and giving information about travel
Grammar
1. reflexive verbs
2. numerals in oblique cases
3. unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion
4. compound verbs of motion
Chapter Eighteen - At home (Pages 343-362)
Competences
1. talking about household goods and chores
2. talking about everyday electrical appliances
3. talking about broken equipment and faults
Grammar
1. the pronoun -self ()
2. the pronoun such ()
3. verbs with consonant mutation
4. the verb to put
Chapter Nineteen - Personal information (Pages 363-382)
Competences
1. talking about ages, weights and heights
2 talking about peoples appearance
3. talking about personality types
Grammar
1. expressions of approximation
2. the short form of adjectives
3. nouns in apposition
4. the particle

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S azov (Russian from Scratch )

A new ab initio Russian course

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Twenty - A further step in reading and writing (Pages 383-410)


Competences
1. using essay lubricants
2. writing a letter
3. using different forms of address
4. understanding and using abbreviations
Grammar
1. participles (long and short forms)
2. gerunds
3. fill vowels

ix

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

Summary of the principal grammar points


BASICS
the Cyrillic script (Introductory chapter)
word recognition (Introductory chapter)
pronunciation (Introductory chapter)
CASES AND THEIR USAGE
NOMINATIVE CASE

the three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) (Chapter 1)


the possessive pronoun my (Chapter 1)
regular plurals (Chapter 1)
the possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, our, their, whose (Chapter 2)
adjectives (m, f, n, pl) in the nominative case (Chapter 5)
ACCUSATIVE CASE

the accusative case with movement and expressions of time (Chapter 3)


the accusative case to indicate the direct object (Chapter 4)
the accusative of adjectives (Chapter 6)
the accusative case to express duration of time (Chapter 7)
prepositions which take the accusative case (Chapter 13)
GENITIVE CASE

the genitive singular of nouns (Chapter 5)


the genitive of personal pronouns (Chapter 5)
the genitive singular of adjectives (Chapter 10)
the genitive case with dates (Chapter 12)
the genitive plural of nouns and adjectives (Chapter 12)
the animate accusative (Chapter 13)
DATIVE CASE

the use of in set expressions (Chapter 3)


impersonal expressions and the dative of pronouns and singular nouns (Chapter 6)
the dative singular of adjectives (Chapter 11)
the dative plural of nouns (Chapter 11)
the dative plural of adjectives (Chapter 11)
INSTRUMENTAL CASE

the instrumental singular of nouns and personal pronouns (after ) (Chapter 7)


the instrumental singular of adjectives (Chapter 8)
the instrumental plural of nouns (Chapter 8)
the instrumental case of function (without a preposition) (Chapter 8)
the instrumental case after the verbs , , (Chapter 9)
the instrumental plural of adjectives (Chapter 10)
the prepositions which take the instrumental case (Chapter 16)
x

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

the prepositional case after and (Chapter 2)


the prepositional case ending - after and (Chapter 4)
the prepositional case after (about) (Chapter 4)
the prepositional singular of adjectives (Chapter 5)
the prepositional plural of nouns and adjectives (Chapter 12)
GENERAL DECLENSIONS

the declension of titles (Chapter 7)


diminutive nouns (Chapter 11)
miscellaneous nouns (Chapter 13)
short forms of adjectives (Chapter 19)

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

PREPOSITIONAL CASE

PRONOUNS
pronouns (Chapter 13)
the pronoun -self () (Chapter 18)
the pronoun such () (Chapter 18)
VERBS
CONJUGATIONS
the verb to live () (Chapter 2)
the verbs to work () and to go (, ) (Chapter 3)
expressing possession (to have) (Chapter 6)
the verbs to want () and to speak, say tell () (Chapter 7)
the verbs to eat () and to drink () (Chapter 8)
reflexive verbs (present and past tense) (Chapter 9)
the past tense of regular verbs (Chapter 9)
verbs of the type (Chapter 11)
the future tense of the verb (Chapter 14)
reflexive verbs (Chapter 17)
verbs with consonant mutation (Chapter 18)
the verb to put (Chapter 18)
VERBS OF MOTION
the multidirectional verbs of motion, and (Chapter 10)
the unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion (Chapter 17)
the compound verbs of motion (Chapter 17)
ASPECTS
perfective verbs formed by adding a prefix (Chapter 15)
perfective verbs formed by the process of shortening (Chapter 15)
perfective verbs formed by other internal adjustments (Chapter 15)
perfective verbs formed in other ways (Chapter 15)
IMPERATIVES

the formation of the imperative (Chapter 16)


A new ab initio Russian course

xi

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

MOODS
the formation of the conditional mood (Chapter 16)
the formation of the subjunctive mood (Chapter 16)
GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES
gerunds (Chapter 20)
participles (long and short forms) (Chapter 20)
ADVERBS
negative adverbs (Chapter 14)
adverbs derived from adjectives (Chapter 14)
the verb and frequency adverbs (Chapter 14)
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
the comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs (Chapter 14)
the superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs (Chapter 14)
NUMBERS AND DATES
the numerals 1 to 100 (Chapter 2)
the numerals 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000 (Chapter 5)
the numerals 1,000 + (Chapter 6)
the ordinal numerals (Chapter 7)
the dates (years - 2002 ) (Chapter 9)
numerals in oblique cases (Chapter 17)
DOUBLE NEGATIVES
the double negatives ( , , etc.) (Chapter 10)
MISCELLANEOUS
or ? (Chapter 19)
expressing approximation (Chapter 19)
nouns in apposition (Chapter 19)
the particle (Chapter 19)
fill vowels (Chapter 20)

xii

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

INTRODUCTORY
CHAPTER THE BASICS

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER - THE BASICS


THE RUSSIAN (CYRILLIC) ALPHABET
Mastering the alphabet
The Russian alphabet, which is also called Cyrillic, is based on the Greek alphabet. It owes
its origins to the Greek missionary brothers Cyril and Methodius, who were sent to Moravia
(now part of the Czech Republic) in the 9th century to spread the Christian
message. The alphabet, which they devised for the purpose of translating Greek religious
texts, first became established in Russia in around the 10th-11th century. The modern
Russian alphabet is a direct descendant of the original Cyrillic script. Russian belongs to a
group of languages which are known collectively as Slavonic. Other languages in this group
include Ukrainian, Polish, Czech and Bulgarian.
The Russian alphabet may appear strange at first, but you will quickly get used to it. A
number of the letters are similar in both Russian and English; e.g. A , O and T. Other letters,
although they may look the same, are pronounced quite differently; e.g. Russian is
pronounced as an English S, Russian as a trilled English R etc. Some letters are specific to
Russian but represent sounds which are familiar to English speakers; e.g. Russian is
equivalent to our P sound. You should have little difficulty reading the following word:
. It is, of course, the Russian for PASSPORT.
The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. They will be introduced roughly in terms of the
difficulties they pose to native speakers of English.
Note that capital letters are not used as frequently in Russian as in English. They are used
only at the beginning of sentences and in proper names and titles. Small letters are for the
most part simply half-sized versions of capitals.

I.

Letters which are similar or are recognizable


CAPITAL

Vowels
F
J
Consonants
R
V
N
P
2

SMALL

ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

f
j

a as in pack
o as in stork

r
v
n
p

k as in key
m as in moon
t as in tea
z as in zoo
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

rfr
vfr
rjn
pf

how
poppy
cat
behind

nfv
njv
njn
rnj

there
volume
that
who

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out each of the letters several
times.

Ff -

Jj -

Rr -

Vv -

Nn -

Pp -

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.
jn
frn
nfr
nfrn

from
act
so
tact

njr
rjv
vfn
pfv

current
lump
mat
deputy

False friends - letters which are similar to English

II.

ones in appearance but have different sounds


CAPITAL

Vowels
T
E
Consonants
D
Y
H
C
{

SMALL

ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

ye as in yes
oo as in spoon

t
e

v as in valley
n as in note
r as in Scottish bracken
s as in stop
ch as in Scottish loch

d
y
h
c
[

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
dtc
djh
yjc
hjn
hjcn

weight
thief
nose
mouth
growth

cjy
cjr
[jh
ec
e[*

sleep, dream
juice
choir
whisker
fish soup

* The accent is used to denote stress. Stress marks are generally not found in written Russian, although they are
widely used in dictionaries and grammar books. They are included in the first half of this course purely as an aid
to pronunciation.
A new ab initio Russian course

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out each of the letters several
times.

Tt -

Ee -

Dd -

Yy - Hh -

Cc -

{[ -

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.

century
out
here (is/are)
coke
fate

III.

Letters which do not occur in English but have an


equivalent English sound
CAPITAL

Vowels
?
B

>
Z
Consonants
<
U
L
K
G
A

hand, arm
course
sort
hundred
henna

SMALL

ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

/
b

.
z

yo as in yonder
ee as in meet
e as in egg
you as in youth
ya as in yak

,
u
l
k
g
a

b as in bottle
g as in gas
d as in day
l as in long
p as in paint
f as in face

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
,fk
,fh
lf
ljr
ujk
pfk
ck/n
cgjhn
ajhn
akjn
4

ball
bar
yes
dock
goal
hall
gathering
sport
fort
fleet

uhfa
dpk/n
kbcn
vbh
vz
hf
vh
k.rc
zr

count
take-off
leaf
peace, world
name
era
mayor
de luxe
yak

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

?/ -
Uu -

Bb -
Ll -

>. -
Kk -

Zz -
Gg -

<, -
Aa -

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.

,jr
,jrc
uyjv
uhbgg
lyj
ljv
lfh
lfk
k/y
vjk

side
boxing
gnome
flu
bottom
house
gift
gave
flax
mole, pier

gjk
gk.c
pfkg
gkbc
gbh
cgbhn
akbhn
abyy

vf

floor
plus
volley
velveteen
feast
spirit
flirtation
Finn
sir
pit

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out each of the letters several
times.

Letters which are peculiar to the Cyrillic script but


have an approximate English equivalent

IV.

CAPITAL

Consonants
:*
I*
O
W
X

SMALL

ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

s as in pleasure
sh as in shell
long shh (i.e. be quiet!)
ts as in bits
ch as in cheese

;*
i*
o
w
x

* As you will hear on the tape, and are much harder-sounding than their English equivalents. To produce these
sounds push your lower jaw forward, turn the tip of your tongue up and slightly back and raise the back part of
your tongue to where the Russian sound is pronounced.

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
;er
;fh
ihfv
ighbw
ob
obn
,jho

beetle
heat
scar
syringe
shchi (cabbage soup)
shield
borsch (beetroot soup)

A new ab initio Russian course

wdtn
xfc
x/hn
xby
cx/n
uhfx

colour
hour
devil
rank
bill
rook

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out each of the letters several
times.

:; -

Ii -

Oo -

Ww -

Xx -

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.

;ytw
;bh
ifyc
if[
ibi
oeg

reaper
fat
chance
check
fig
probe

kto
gkfo
gkfw
gkfx
x/n

bream
cloak
parade-gound
weeping
even number
rank

Two letters which are peculiar to the Cyrillic script


and have no sound of their own

V.

() - this letter, which is rarely used, is called the hard sign or separating hard
sign. It appears only after the consonants , , and c when it separates them
from the softening influence of any one of the vowels , , and .
e.g. c]tk (ate, have/has eaten), d]tpl (entry), j,]/v (volume)
() - this letter, which is used much more frequently than the hard sign, is called the
soft sign. It serves to make the preceding consonant soft. It is very important to
soften consonants which are followed by since the soft sign can change the
meaning of a word. Compare the following, which are recorded on the tape:
vtk
djy
, h fn

(chalk)
(over there)
(brother)

vtkm
djym
,hfn m

(shoal)
(stench)
(to take)

Note: because the hard sign and the soft sign always follow other letters and never begin a word
they appear in capitals only when all the letters in a word are capitalized (e.g. in certain signs and
notices).

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
abkmv
c]tv
c]tk
c]/vrf
dtlm

film
(I) will eat
ate
shooting (of a film)
you see, you know

,jkm
hjkm
lhzym
rjhm
vfnm

pain
role
rubbish
measles
mother

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

}] -

Mm -

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.
c]tcn
c]tcnm
c]/v
czlm
cjkm

(s/he) will eat


to eat
removal
sit down
salt

dfkmc
ktym
ltym
wfhm
ybnm

waltz
laziness
day
tsar
thread

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out both the letters several times.

Activity 4
Listen to the native speaker reading the following pairs of words, the second of which
has the soft sign () at the end. Note the difference in both sound and meaning. Look at the
printed text, listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
(was eating)
(chalk)
(gave)
(became)
(was lying)
(goal)
(table)
(given)
(kitty)
(mat)
(Pete)
(raft)
(is eating)

tk
vtk
lfk
cnfk
dhfk
ujk
cnjk
lfy
rjy
vfn
Gbn
gkjn
tcn

VI.
Q q

tkm
vtkm
lfkm
cnfkm
dhfkm
ujkm
cnjkm
lfym
rjym
vfnm
gbnm
gkjnm
tcnm

(fir tree)
(shoal)
(distance)
(steel)
(liar)
(the poor)
(so)
(tribute)
(horse)
(mother)
(to drink)
(flesh)
(to eat)

Two more letters which are peculiar to the Cyrillic


script and have no direct English equivalent
this letter is called short (or in Russian b ). It usually
acts as part of a dipthong and it frequently makes a sound similar
to an English y as in boy, yacht etc.
e.g. ,jq (battle), vjq (my), hjq (swarm)

S* (s)* - the nearest approximate sound in English is i as in writ, but as you


will hear on the tape there is a significant difference.
e.g. ,sk (was), lsv (smoke), csy (son)

Listen again to these Russian words and compare them with similar- sounding English
words:
,sk : bill
lsv : dim csy : sin
* To produce this sound you should begin by pronouncing a Russian . Then put your tongue flat against the
bottom of your mouth, thereby tensing the muscles at the side and back of the throat. If you now try again to
make the sound the result should be a Russian .

Note: like the soft sign and the hard sign, never begins a word and therefore appears in capitals
only when all the letters in a word are capitalized (as in certain signs and notices).
A new ab initio Russian course

Activity 1
Look carefully at the following words as the native speaker pronounces them on the
tape. Then listen again and repeat the words in the gaps provided on the tape.
-

csh
vs
ysnm
gskm
csgm
,jq
vjq

cheese
we
to moan
dust
rash
battle
my

hjq
vfq
hfq
rhfq
rbq
rktq
qnf

swarm
May
paradise
edge
billiard cue
glue
iota

Activity 2
Now look at how Russians write these letters. Write out both the letters several times.

Qq

Ss

Activity 3
Read the following words, compare the handwritten and printed versions, then copy
out the handwritten version.

,sn
,snm
csn
gsk
nsk
hsnm
ktq

way of life
to be
satisfied, full
heat
rear
to dig
pour

gksnm
lfq
gfq
gjq
ckjq
cnjq
gtq

to sail
give
share
sing
layer
stand
drink

RUSSIAN ALPHABET -
PRINTED
LETTERS

WRITTEN
LETTERS

Capital Small Capital Small

F
<
D
U
L
T
?
:
P
B
Q

f
,
d
u
l
t
/
;
p
b
q

R
K
V
Y
J
G

r
k
v
y
j
g

RUSSIAN
NAME

f
,
d
u
l
t (q')
/ (qj)
;
p
b
b
(b rhfnrjt)
rf
()

j
g

NEAREST
EQUIVALENT

a in pack
b in bottle
v in valley
g in gas
d in day
ye in yes
yo in yonder
s in pleasure
z in zoo
ee in meet
y in boy
k in key
l in long
m in moon
n in note
o in stork
p in paint

PRINTED
LETTERS

WRITTEN
LETTERS

Capital Small Capital Small

H
C
N
E
A
{

X
I
O
}

h
c
n
e
a
[

x
i
o
]

S
M

s
m

>
Z

.
z

RUSSIAN
NAME

[f

x
if

nd/hlsq
pyfr
s
vzurbq
pyfr

. (qe)
z (qf)

NEAREST
EQUIVALENT

r in bracken
s in stop
t in tea
oo in spoon
f in face
ch in loch
ts in bits
ch in cheese
sh in shell
(long) shh
i in writ
e in egg
you in youth
ya in yak

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity 1
The following pages are taken from an old Russian calendar. Write underneath each of
them the name of the month in English.

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

Word recognition

Activity 2
Match up the following sporting terms with the appropriate illustrations.
ujk m a
nyybc
d jk t q , k
htath

A new ab initio Russian course

dbylchabyu
aen,k
[j r r q
,fcrtn,k

hfrnrf
ubvycnbrf
hu,b
,flvbyny

Activity 3
Label the illustrations of food and drink, using the list of names below.
uh qgahen
cfkn
ceg
ahrns
gtgcb-rkf
xfq
c yldbx
cjccrf
, f y y
dl r f

Activity 4
Match the list of professions below with the places where the people work.
HOSPITAL
CONCERT HALL
CAR
STADIUM
SHOP

PARLIAMENT
BANK
DIRECTORS OFFICE
UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OFFICE

vytl ;th ghjaccjh i j a / h


,fyrh
rfcch
ctrhtnhm

vbycnh
lrnjh

aen ,jk c n
rjvgjpnjh

Activity 5
Look at the following puzzle and jot down (in English) 17 places or objects which you
might find in or near to a town.
R F AT
VT
J
W T YN H
<
B N
H
F H J G J
R Y T F
C H
I
NFRC
R
J
N
P J J GF H R F
K F F
L
F < F YR B
J
RBY
10

N H J
T
FH
N
H N
B

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

eybdthcbnn bycnbnn cnelyn k r w b z c t v b y h l b g k v ctvcnh


ghjaccjh
ltntrnd rpvty irkf rkfcc
ntcn
The exception: _________________
The others:

1.
4.
7.
10.

2.
5.
8.
11.

3.
6.
9.
12.

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

Activity 6
All except one of the following words relate to education. Which is the odd one out and
what do the others mean?

Activity 7
The following are names of famous and infamous people. Can you identify them?
Njk c n q
kmwby
<hnnty

Girby
Uj h , fx/d
Itrcgh

Ljcnjdcrbq
Cnkby
Vec cjk y b

Xfqrdcrbq
Xhxbkkm
Hp td tkmn

Ijcnfr d b x
U nk t h
Vwfhn

Activity 8
Locate and identify the following countries on the map of Europe below.

RHNF TDHGS

Hj c cz
Dtkbrj,hbn y b z
Ut h v y b z
Ah y w b z
Bn k b z
Bcg ybz
Bhkylbz
Idwbz
Uh w b z
Erhfyf
Gkmif
Gjhneu kbz
X[bz
dcnhbz

A new ab initio Russian course

11

Activity 9
When you have completed Activity 8, see how many other countries you can identify .
This can be done as an oral exercise together with your teacher. Your teacher will simply ask
you; e.g. ? (Where is Norway?) and you will point to it and reply
(Norway is here).
Activity 10
Now match up the following capital cities with the countries in Activity 8.
<thky
Fa y s
Vjcrd

K y l j y
Ghuf
Dfhidf

Gfh;
Hbv
Rtd

Dyf
Kbccf, y
L,kby
Vflhl
C n j r uk m v

Activity 11
Complete the following crossword about the family by choosing from the list below.
vvf
ctcnh

ggf
,,eirf

csy
lleirf

ljx m
ve;

, h fn
;ty

ACROSS
1. brother
2. sister
3. grandfather
4. husband
6. dad
DOWN
1. grandmother
2. son
3. daughter
4. mum
5. wife
Pronunciation
You should read through the following section carefully, but you are not required to absorb
all the information at this stage. Do not be deterred by the apparent complexity of the rules
on pronunciation, as you are not expected to master them all at once. Many languages,
including English, pose a similar range of difficulties, which non-native speakers come to
terms with gradually.
STRESS

As in English, Russian words are pronounced with the stress on certain syllables. However,
Russian words never have more than one stressed syllable. For example, the Russian for
dddy is ggf. In both words the first syllable is stressed and the second is unstressed. In
Russian the stressed syllable is even more pronounced than in English.
12

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Vowels in unstressed positions

Vowels in unstressed syllables are pronounced shorter (or have a reduced value) and some
of them can vary in sound (or change their quality).
Unstressed J^ T^ Z

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

If a word only has one syllable the vowel is of course always stressed and if a word contains
the letter the stress is always on the , regardless of the number of syllables; e.g.
(liqueur), (gun), (to fidget).

J - in unstressed syllables is pronounced like a weak (Russian) f


ljv
(house)
ljv [dam ] (houses)
y
(he)
jy
[an ]
(she)
T - in unstressed syllables is pronounced like a weak b
ktc
(forest)
ktc
[lis ]
(forests)
Z - in unstressed syllables, at the beginning of a word,
is pronounced yi (as in Yiddish)
zpr
(language)
[yizr ]
Zgybz (Japan)
[Yiponiya]
Other vowels do not change their quality to such an extent, but are pronounced with a
reduced value. The meaning of a word can change depending on the position of the stress.
p v j r (castle) - p f v r (lock)
v r f (torment) - v e r (flour)
Activity 1
Listen to how the native speaker pronounces the following pairs of words, the second
of which has a vowel , or in unstressed position. Then listen again to the native speaker
reading the words and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
ljv
jy
yjc
hjcn
gjcn
ktc
dtc
ldeirf
pdf
vf
[nf

A new ab initio Russian course

(house)
(he)
(nose)
(growth)
(post)
(forest)
(weight)
(girl)
(ulcer)
(pit)
(yacht)

ljv
jy
yjc
hjcnr
gjcn
kt c
dtc
ltdxbq
zpr
zh k r
zxvym

[dam]
[an]
[nas]
[rastk]
[past]
[lis]
[visy]
[divchiy]
[yizk]
[yirlk]
[yichmyn]

(houses)
(she)
(noses)
(sprout)
(posts)
(forests)
(scales)
(girlish)
(language)
(tag)
(barley)

13

SOFT CONSONANTS

Soft consonants are very common in Russian. You already know that one of the
functions of the soft sign () is to soften the preceding consonant. What is not apparent
from the alphabet is that certain other letters, namely , , , and , can also act like a soft
sign. If a consonant precedes one of these letters, it is always pronounced soft.
Activity 2
Listen to how the native speaker pronounces the following pairs of words, the second
of which has one of the soft vowels (, , , , ) after the consonant. Then listen again to
the native speaker reading the words and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
(mother)
(current)
(to howl)
(nose)
(onion)
(lynx)
(sir)

v fn m
njr
dsnm
yjc
ker
hscm
ch

vzn m
n/r
dbnm
y/c
k.r
hb c
c h b z

(to crumple)
(flowed)
(to weave)
(carried)
(hatchway)
(rice)
(serial)

Most Russian consonants have two forms of pronunciation: hard and soft. However , there
are three which only have a hard form. These are , and . When the soft vowels and
follow these consonants they are pronounced and respectively.
Activity 3
Listen to how the native speaker pronounces the following words. Then listen again to
the words and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
l;ycs
;bh
wbrk
wbhr
iyf
ibi

(jeans)
(fat)
(cycle)
(circus)
(tyre)
(fig)

; t pk
;tcn
wtynh
itcnm
iz

(rod)
(gesture)
(centre)
(six)
(neck)

VOICED AND VOICELESS CONSONANTS

Most Russian consonants can be divided into two groups:

a) Voiced consonants (i.e. the vocal chords vibrate) -


b) Voiceless consonants (i.e. the vocal chords do not vibrate) -
These two groups form pairs as follows:
Voiced
,
d
u
l
;
p
14

Voiceless
g
a
r
n
i
c
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Voiced consonants become voiceless at the end of a word, as in the following cases.
,
d
u
l
;
p

g
a
r
n
i
c

le,
hjd
ak f u
v/l
n ;
ufp

[doop]
[rof]
[flak]
[myot]
[etash]
[gas]

(oak tree)
(ditch)
(flag)
(honey)
(floor)
(gas)

Activity 4
Listen to how the native speaker pronounces the following words. Then listen again to
the words and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
hf,
rhf,
kj,
ktd
h/d
ghf d

(slave)
(crab)
(forehead)
(lion)
(roar)
(right)

dhfu
,tu
vbu
cgf l
k/l
hzl

(enemy)
(running)
(instant)
(slump)
(ice)
(row)

ve;
ufh;
gkz;
hfp
uk f p
ghb p

Introductory Chapter - The Basics

1. Voiced consonants in final position

(husband)
(garage)
(beach)
(once)
(eye)
(prize)

2. The effect of voiced and voiceless consonants on each other in combinations (or
clusters) of consonants.
When the last consonant in a combination (of two or more) is voiced, preceding voiceless
consonants are pronounced as their voiced equivalents; e.g.
c , h y b r [zbrnik]
nls[
[ddykh]
c lljv* [zdydom]*

(anthology)
(rest, holiday)
(with grandfather)

Exception: d does not make preceding voiceless consonants voiced; e.g.


cdtn

[svyet]

(light)

Conversely, when the last consonant in the group is voiceless, all preceding voiced consonants are pronounced as their voiceless equivalents; e.g
dc/
d lr f
d rby*

[fsyo]
[vtka]
[fkin]

(everything)
(vodka)
(to the cinema)

* This rule also applies with prepositions (which are pronounced as if they were joined to
the following word).
Activity 5
Listen to how the native speaker pronounces the following words. Then listen again to
the words and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
A new ab initio Russian course

15

The final consonant in group is voiced (therefore the preceding consonant is


voiced)
jnlk
jn,h
c,jh
c,sn
cub,

(department)
(selection)
(collection)
(sale)
(bend)

c ujy
clfnm
clkrf
c; t x m
cplb

(herding)
(to hand over)
(deal)
(to burn down)
(from behind)

The final consonant in group is voiceless (therefore the preceding consonant is


voiceless)
h,rbq
dr k f l
dn h y b r
dibnm
dc tul

16

(timid)
(deposit)
(Tuesday)
(to sew in)
(always)

dcle
k tur
pf u c
hlrj
klr f

(everywhere)
(easy)
(registry office)
(rarely)
(boat)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER ONE -
INTRODUCTIONS

In Chapter One you will learn how to do the following:

1. to understand basic introductions


2. to use appropriate greetings
3. to recognize and to form patronymics (i.e. Russian middle names, which are
always based on the first name of ones father)
You will learn the following points of grammar:

1. the three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter)


2. the possessive pronoun my
3. regular plurals

Activity One -
Listening/Reading
Informal greetings. Listen to and read the following.

nj Jku^ Kyf^ Yfnif b Ukz&

- Plhdcndeq, Jku.
- Plhdcndeq, Yfnif.
nj
b
jy

18

this is / these are


and
they (are)

Jy cnelyns&

- Plhdcndeq, Kyf.
- Plhdcndeq, Ukz.
cnelyns
plhdcndeq
ghbdn

- Ghbdn, Jku.
- Ghbdn, Kyf.
students
hello (informal)
hi

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 1

Activity Two -
Listening/Reading
Formal greetings. Listen to and read the following.

nj vcnth Vfrtypb^
ujcgjly <tkd^
vccbc Cvbn^
ujcgj; Cckjdf b
vbcc Njvcjy& Jy
ghtgjlfdntkb&

- Plhdcndeqnt^ vcnth Vfrtypb&


- Plhdcndeqnt^ ujcgjly <tkd&

- Plhdcndeqnt^ vccbc Cvbn&


- Plhdcndeqnt^ ujcgj; Cckjdf&

- L,hsq ltym^ vbcc Njvcjy&


- L,hsq ltym^ ujcgj; Cckjdf&

- L,hsq ltym^ ujcgjly <tkd&


- L,hsq ltym^ vccbc Cvbn&

Activity Three -
Speaking Greet the following people, using an appropriate register.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
vcnth
ujcgjly
vccbc
ujcgj;

Your lecturer / teacher


The person sitting nearest to you
Your closest acquaintance in the room
The person you know least well in the room
Someone else in the room
Mr (used of English speakers)
Mr (Russian title)
Mrs (used of English speakers)
Mrs (Russian title)

A new ab initio Russian course

vbcc
ghtgjlfdntkb
plhdcndeqnt
l,hsq ltym

Miss (used of English speakers)


lecturers
hello (formal and/or plural)
good afternoon

19

Activity Four -
Speaking How would you respond to the following greetings? (You should fill in your
first name or surname, as appropriate, on the lines provided.)
Name of speaker
1. Fktrcq
2& Ujcgjly Bdfyd 3. Ujcgj; <tkzrdf 4. Vfhyf
5& Lrnjh* Geufx/d * Doctor (used in titles)

His/her form of address to you


Plhdcndeq^
Plhdcndeqnt^ vcnth#vccbc#vbcc
Plhdcndeqnt^ vcnth#vccbc#vbcc
Ghbdn^
L,hsq ltym^ vcnth#vccbc#vbcc
RUSSIAN NAMES

Russians very often do not use any title when addressing one another, although in
formal contexts uj cgjly and uj cgj;, followed by a surname, are becoming
increasingly common. The title njdhbo (comrade) has largely disappeared since the
collapse of Communism.
When introducing someone in a very formal context (e.g. an official function or business meeting) it is customary to use the persons full name, i.e. first name [vz], patronymic (or fathers
name) [nxt cndj] and surname [afvkbz]. However, if the person being
introduced is younger, it is common practice to omit the patronymic.
Russians use the first name together with the patronymic as a sign of respect in semi-formal
situations. Hence, it is normal to employ this mode of address when speaking to an older person
(e.g. to a teacher). Newly acquainted adults will also adopt this style before switching to purely
first name terms.
It is the custom to refer to young children and to friends, relatives and members of the same peer
group by just the first name. The use of diminutive or affectionate forms (as illustrated below)
and abridged forms, such as >h for hf or Kty for Kyf, is also extremely widespread.

MENS NAMES
First name Diminutives

Endearing forms

male

Fktrcylh
Fktrcq
<jhc
Dkflvbh
Bdy
Ybrjkq
G/nh

Citymrf^Citxrf^Ihjxrf
Fk/itymrf^ K/itymrf
<htymrf^ <htxrf
Djkltymrf^ Ddjxrf
Dfyif^ Dytxrf^ Dfyi(tx)rf
Rktymrf^ Ybrjkif
Gntymrf^ Gtnhi(r)f

Fktrcylhjdbx /
Fktrctdbx
/
<jhcjdbx
/
Dkflvbhjdbx /
Bdyjdbx
/
Ybrjktdbx
/
Gtnhdbx
/

Cif^ Ihf^ Cyz


Fk/if^ K/if
<hz
Djklz^ Ddf
Dyz
Rkz
Gnz

Patronymics

female

Fktrcylhjdyf
Fktrctdyf
<jhcjdyf
Dkflvbhjdyf
Bdyjdyf
Ybrjktdyf
Gtnhdyf

WOMENS NAMES

20

First name Diminutives

Endearing forms

yyf
Tkyf
Bhyf
Yfnkmz
kmuf
Cdtnkyf
Nfnmyf

ytxrf^ Fyn(jxr)f
Kyjxrf
hjxrf^ Bhi(r)f
Yfnitymrf
ktymrf^ ktxrf
Cdnjxrf^ Cdtnkyrf
Nytxrf^ Nfyif

yz
Kyf
hf
Yfnif
kz
Cdnf
Nyz

Female Patronymics
Female patronymics are formed
from the fathers name in every
case (see above).

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

As you can see from the charts above, it is quite easy to form patronymics. Simply take the
fathers first name and add the appropriate endings.
Masculine Feminine -

Usual forms: -jdbx or -(m)tdbx (when name ends in -q or -m)*


Usual forms: -jdyf or -(m)tdyf (when name ends in -q or -m)*

e.g. < j h c
Fk trcq
Dfckbq
ujhm

Chapter 1

How to form patronymics

<jhcjdbx / <jhcjdyf
Fk trctdbx / Fk trctdyf
Dfckmtdbx / Dfckmtdyf
ujhtdbx / ujhtdyf

* Patronymics are frequently shortened in everyday speech. Hence, instead of Bdyjdbx / Bdyjdyf you
may hear Bdysx / Bdyyf.

Activity Five -
Reading/Writing
Look at the following graffiti and complete the activity below.

1.
2.

Jot down the Russian equivalents of the following:


i) Olga, ii) Anthony, iii) Sonya, iv) Michael, v) Peter, vi) Maria, vii) Vera, viii) Andrew

Write out the following in Russian:


i) Natalya Ivanovna Pushkina, ii) Yuri Ivanovich Pushkin

3.

Do you think Sasha Karenina is the name of a man or a woman?

5.

Could Sergei Pavlovich Borodin have a son called Sergei Sergeevich Borodin?

4.
6.
7.
8.

Could Sergei Pavlovich Borodin have a daughter called Anna Pavlovna Borodina?
What are the first names of the fathers of the following in Russian?
i) Sofia Sergeevna, ii) Ivan Ivanonich, iii) Nikolai Stepanovich, iv) Anna Igorevna

If Anton Pavlovich Pushkin has a son, Nikolai, and a daughter, Anna, what will their full names be
in Russsian?
Write out in Russian the male and female patronymics from the following names:
i) Anton, ii) Semion, iii) Pyotr, iv) Pavel, v) Sergei

A new ab initio Russian course

21

Activity Six -
Speaking
Work out with a partner suitable dialogues based on the following
situations. (In some cases more than one form of address is acceptable.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Two school friends, Sasha and Kostya, greet each other in the street.
Two young women, Klara and Olga, who are already acquainted, acknowledge
each other at the hairdressers.
A mother says hi to her little daughter Lyuda (whom she knows affectionately as
Lyudochka). [The Russian for mummy is vvf.]
Sergei Sergeevich meets his bosss wife, Anna Pavlovna, at the bus-stop.
Miss Derby-Jones meets her Russian teacher, Natalya Antonovna, in the buffet.
A young Russian, Igor Petrovich, says hello to his new English teacher, Mrs
Cuttlefish.
An elderly couple, Fyodor Mikhailovich Karamzin and Lidia Vasilevna
Lomonosova, greet each other in a queue.
A young Russian businesswoman, Galina Vadimovna Derzhavina, meets her
American business partner, Mr Wellsbury, at Sheremetyevo airport.
Activity Seven -
Reading/Writing
Complete the family tree.

The Prokofievs, Marina and Pavel, have a daughter and son. Fill in their names and the
names of their children, by selecting carefully from the list below.
Camz Gdkjdyf^ Tkyf Fynyjdyf^ ujhm Fynyjdbx^ Dfk tyny
Ybrjktdbx^ Nfnmyf Ybrjktdyf^ Ybrjkq Gdkjdbx^ Fhrlbq
Ybrjktdbx

GHJRAMTDS - HJLJCKDYJT LHTDJ

THE PROKOFIEVS - FAMILY TREE

Vfhyf A/ljhjdyf Ghjramtdf Gdtk Gtnhdbx Ghjramtd

Fyny

Kfhcf

Fktrcylhjdbx

22

Fylhtdyf

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

My fathers name was Pyotr.


My children are called Sofia and Larisa.
Nikolai is my son-in-law.
Igor is my daughters son.
Tatyana is Antons niece.
Tatyanas great-grandfather was called Pyotr.

Chapter 1

Activity Eight -
Reading/Writing
Marina is getting old and confused. She no longer really
remembers the family relationships. Say whether her assertions, listed below, are True
(Ghdbkmyj) or False (Ytghdbkmyj).

Activity Nine -
Listening/Reading
Getting better acquainted. Listen to and read the following.

nj Fktrcq^
Bhyf^
Nfnmyf
b Bdy&

Plhdcndeqnt&
Plhdcndeqnt&
Rfr dfc pjdn$
Vty pjdn Fktrcq
Cthutdbx&
F afvkbz$
<tkd&
F dfc$
Vty pjdn Bhyf
Vfrcvjdyf^ f
afvkbz Gjgdf&

Plhdcndeqnt&
- Hfphtint ghtlcndbnmcz%
Plhdcndeqnt&
vty pjdn Bdy
Rfr dfc pjdn$
Bdyjdbx &&& f afvkbz
Vj afvkbz Rhgjdf& Bdfyd&
F vz b nxtcndj$
- xtym ghbnyj&
Vj/ vz Nfnmyf^
f nxtcndj Gdkjdyf&
- Nfnmyf Gdkjdyf
Rhgjdf&

rfr dfc pjdn$


vty pjdn &&&
f dfc$ (formal)
afvkbz
vjq (masculine), vj (feminine),
vj/ (neuter), vj (plural)
A new ab initio Russian course

whats your name?


my name is ...
and yours?
surname
my

vz
nxtcndj
hfphtint
ghtlcndbnmcz
xtym ghbnyj

first name
patronymic
allow me to introduce
myself
pleased to meet you
(literally: very pleasant)

23

Activity Ten -
Listening/Reading
Informal meeting. Listen to and read the following.

nj G/nh^ yyf
b Dhf&

- Plhdcndeq!
- Plhdcndeq!
- Vty pjdn G/nh^
kb ghcnj Gnz&
F nt, $
- Vty pjdn yyf^
kb yz&
- F rnj nj$
- nj vj gjlhuf^
Dhf&
- Plhdcndeq^ Dhf&
- Plhdcndeq! Rfr
nt, pjdn$
- Vty pjdn G/nh&
- Lj cdblybz^ yz&
- Lj cdblybz^ Gnz&

1.

Activity Eleven -
Speaking
Role-play

You are meeting your new Russian teacher for the first time. Your partner will play
the role of the teacher.
Your role

Say hello.
Introduce yourself by your first name.
Give your second name.
Say goodbye.

2.

Reply appropriately.
Ask the student his/her second name.
Express pleasure at meeting him/her.
Reply appropriately.

You are at a night club in Moscow and you have just met someone you quite like.
Your partner will play that person.
Your role

Say hello.
Ask your partner what his/her name
is.
Give your name. Ask him/her who
his/her friend is.

kb
ghcnj

24

Your partners role

or
simply

Your partners role

Reply appropriately.
Choose a suitable Russian name and
ask what his/her name is
Say that it is your (girl)friend, Zina.

f nt,? (informal) and you?


rnj nj$
whos this

gjlhuf
lj cdblybz

(girl)friend
goodbye

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 1

Activity Twelve -
Listening/Reading
In a business context. Listen to and read the following.

- Gjpyfrvmntcm^ gj;keqcnf^ nj
Cthuq Hjvyjdbx Lth;dby&
- Hlf c dvb gjpyfrvbnmcz&

- Gjpyfrvmntcm^ gj;keqcnf^ nj
Ykkb Dbnkmtdyf Ajydpbyf&
- Hl c dvb gjpyfrvbnmcz&

Activity Thirteen -
Listening/Reading
Back in the night club. Listen to and read the following.
Fk trc y l h
Vfhz
Fktrcylh
Vfhz
Fk trc y l h
Vfhz

yyf
Vfhz

Fk trc y l h

D jk l z

Djklz b yyf -

Plhdcndeq^ Vif&
Ghbdn^ Cif& F rnj nj$
nj vj ctcnh^ yyf&
yyf$
Lf^ yyf&
Vs to/ yt pyfrvs&
xtym ghbnyj&
xtym ghbnyj&
F nj vjq ,hfn^ Djklz&
Ds pyfrvs$
Ytn^ vs yt pyfrvs&
xtym ghbnyj&
xtym ghbnyj&
(Embarrased pause)
F vs pyfrvs!
Lj cdblybz!

gjpyfrvmntcm
gj;keqcnf
hlf (female speaker) c dvb
gjpyfrvbnmcz
hfl (male speaker) c dvb
gjpyfrvbnmcz
ctcnh

A new ab initio Russian course

let me introduce you


(literally: get to know each other)
please
(Im) glad to make your
acquaintance
(Im) glad to make your
acquaintance
sister

lf
vs
to/ yt
pyfrvs (plural)
,hfn
ytn
f

yes
we
not yet
acquainted
brother
no
and, but

25

Activity Fourteen -
Listening/Reading
Describing how you feel. Listen to and read the following.

RFR LTK$

- Cgfc,j^ (xtym) - Yjhvkmyj&


[jhji&

- Ybxtu&

- Gk[j&

- E;cyj&

Activity Fifteen -
Speaking
Role-play
Look at the drawings below and take it in turns to play the role of the person depicted. The
question will be the same in each case: Rfr ltk$

Activity Sixteen -
Listening
State how each of the following people feels.
1. Marina
2. Vitaly
3. Aleksandr

4. grandmother
5. the doctor
6. the student

Activity Seventeen -
Reading
Using the phrases below, state how you would most probably feel if you
had the following.
1. fggtylbwn
2. vbkkby lkkfhjd

XTYM {JHJI
rfr ltk$ hows things?
cgfc,j thanks

26

3. ntvgthfnhf
4. bynthcyfz ryuf

{JHJI

[jhji
fine, good
yjhvkmyj OK

G K {J

ybxtu
middling
(pronounced ybxtd)

E:CYJ
gk[j
bad, poor
(jq) e;cyj (oh) awful

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

yt
/
o

v
cd

let me introduce you please

Im glad to make your acquaintance

gj

(f)
dj
vcn
hl

r
pyf
gjp
y
f
rv
gjp
mn t c
yfr
m
vb
nmc
vs
z
r
f
py

vs

Chapter 1

Activity Eighteen -
Reading In this chapter you have already met a number of similar-sounding words
connected with getting to know people. The common element in each case is pyfrv
(acquainted) which has the same root as the verb pyfnm (to know).Unfortunately, in the list
below the phrases have got rather muddled up. Sort them out and match them with the
appropriate translation on the right-hand side, if possible without referring back.

ke
qc

introductions

nf

we are not yet acquainted

Activity Nineteen -
Reading/Writing
The two most common Russian equivalents of bye! are very
informal and are only used when you know someone quite well. Find the words for bye
(running vertically below) and also state the meaning of each of the words running horizontally. (You can check whether you are right by looking at Activity Twenty-One.)

1&

2&

g
u j
l j r
p y f

h
c
e
r

b
g
v
j

d
j
t
v

t
l
y
c

n
b y
n
n d j

p l h f d c
j n x
a f
u j c
c t c n
g j ; f k
c g f c b
h t d
j

n
t
v
g
h
e
,
j
x

d
c
b
j
f
q
j
k
t

e
n
k
;

q n t
d j
b z
f

c n f
m d t h
y m

Activity Twenty -
Writing
Devise similar charts to the one above to illustrate each of the following
words (using the written form of the alphabet) and then try them out on someone else.

1&
2&
3&
4&

,
c
g
g

f
n
j
h

,
e
p
j

e
l
y
c

i r f
t y n
f r j v m n t c m
n j

A new ab initio Russian course

27

Activity Twenty-One -
Reading
There are a number of ways to say goodbye in Russian. You have already
met lj cdblybz!, which is the most neutral expresssion and can be used in both formal
and informal situations. In Activity Nineteen you also came across gjr! (bye) and
cxfcnkdj! (which is rarely written and is a corrruption of cxfcnkdjuj gen! (bon
voyage!). Another alternative is lj pdnhf! (see you tomorrow).
Look at the following and say if you think that the form suggested below is appropriate.

- Gjr!

- Lj cdblybz!
- Lj cdblybz!

- Cxfcnkdj! - Lj pdnhf!

Activity Twenty-Two -
Speaking
Which of the four forms listed above would appear most suitable in the
following situations? (You may choose more than one if you wish.)
1. A boy saying goodbye to his teacher.
2. A business woman saying goodbye to her partner.
3. A student saying cheerio to his friend who is returning home (before they go out again
in the evening).
4. A policeman saying goodbye to an old woman.
5. A schoolgirl saying goodbye to her friend after school on a Monday afternoon.
6. A priest saying goodbye to his flock after a church service.
Activity Twenty-Three -
Listening/Reading/Speaking
Firstly, listen twice to the following scene which takes
place at a Russian wedding and answer the questions below in English (without referring to
the text). Then read the transcript on the next page with your partner(s) and, if possible, act
out the scene.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is Marias patronymic?


What is Ivans surname?
Who is Igor?
How is Igor feeling?
How is Petya feeling?
What diminutive is used with reference to Natasha?

Yf cdlm,t At a Wedding

Bdy Gtnhdbx
Vfhz Cntgyjdf
Bdy Gtnhdbx
Vfhz Cntgyjdf
28

- Plhdcndeqnt
- Plhdcndeqnt& Hfphtint ghtlcndbnmcz% vty pjdn
Vfhz Cntgyjdf&
- xtym ghbnyj&
- F rfr dfc pjdn$
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Vty pjdn Bdy Gtnhdbx&


F dif afvkbz$
Cckjd&
(Recognizing the surname) F-f-f^ rjyxyj^ Bdy Gtnhdbx
Cckjd& Hlf c dvb gjpyfrvbnmcz&
Bdy Gtnhdbx
- F crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ rnj nj$
Vfhz Cntgyjdf - nj vjq csy^ ujhm&
Bdy Gtnhdbx
- ujhm^ djn vj ljxm& Gjpyfrvmntcm^ gj;keqcnf&
ujhm
- Rfr nt, pjdn$
Yfnif
- Vty pjdn Yfnif& F nj vjq lheu^ Gnz& Ds
pyfrvs$
Gnz
- Lf^ vs pyfrvs& Rfr ltk^ ujhm$
ujhm
- Cgfc,j^ [jhji& F rfr ndj ltk$
Gnz
- Ybxtu&
(Several minutes later)
Gnz
- Gjr^ Yfnitymrf&
Yfnif
- Cxfcnkdj!
Gnz
- Lj pdnhf^ ujhm!
ujhm
- Lj pdnhf^ Gnz! Lj cdblybz^ Yfnif!
Yfnif
- Lj cdblybz!

Chapter 1

Bdy Gtnhdbx
Vfhz Cntgyjdf
Bdy Gtnhdbx
Vfhz Cntgyjdf

In Soviet times people either had a simple, unpretentious wedding ceremony in the local registry office ( PFUC)
or a more elaborate and grand affair in the so-called Wedding Palace (Ldjhw ,hfrjcjxtnybz). Nowadays
there is an increasing tendency for people to get married in church. The festivities which follow the wedding
ceremony have always been big occasions, with an abundance of food and drink, which can last anything up to
two or three days (especially in rural areas). The celebrations include numerous speeches, a great deal of music and
dancing and countless toasts, frequently to the accompaniment of the refrain uhmrj! (bitter!), which is the
prompt for the newly-weds to kiss, thereby sweetening the atmosphere. Couples who decide to take their
honeymoon (vtldsq vczw) after the wedding (which is by no means the norm) will not usually leave until
all the revelry has finished.
dif afvkbz (formal)
rjyxyj (pronounced rjyiyj)
crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf
csy
djn
A new ab initio Russian course

your surname
of course
tell me please
son
here is/are

ljxm (feminine)
lheu
rfr ndj ltk$ (informal)
(literally: how are your
things?)

daughter
friend
how are things with
you?

29

GRAMMAR
TO BE OR NOT TO BE?

You may have already noticed, there is no present tense of the verb to be in Russian. You
have already met the following examples:
we are acquainted
- vs pyfrvs
are you acquainted?
- ds pyfrvs$
they are students / teachers - jy cnelyns / ghtgjlfdntkb
A / THE

Russian similarly does not have the definite article (the) or the indefinite article (a). Hence,
nj cnelyn means both this is the student and this is a student. The plural form nj
cnelyns means both these are the students and they/these are students.
GENDERS IN RUSSIAN

Russian, like German, has three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) in the singular and
one plural form. Normally it is possible to guess the gender of a word by looking at the
ending.
Masculine
Nouns ending in a consonant or - are usually masculine:
e.g. ,hfn (brother), ljv (house/block of flats), rfhfyli (pencil), Ekmc (Wales), nhfvdq
(tram)
Note: ggf (dad) and lleirf (grandfather) are clearly also masculine, despite ending in a vowel
rat (coffee) is also masculine, despite ending in -
Some nouns ending in a soft sign (-) are masculine:*
e.g. ghtgjlfdntkm (lecturer), gjhnakm (briefcase), exntkm (teacher), lj;lm (rain), ltym
(day)

Feminine

Nouns ending in the letters - or -/ - / - are usually feminine:


e.g. ctcnh (sister), rdfhnhf (flat/apartment), ,,eirf (grandmother), hxrf (pen),
vtklbz (tune), Ijnkylbz (Scotland), Fvhbrf (America), afvkbz (surname), ctvm
(family)
Some nouns ending in a soft sign (-) are feminine:*
e.g. ljxm (daughter), ntnhlm (exercise book), xfcnm (part), yfwbjykmyjcnm (nationality)

Neuter

Nouns ending in - and -/ -/ - are usually neuter:


e.g. nxtcndj (patronymic), gbcmv (letter), jry (window), vht (sea), eghf;yybt
(exercise), cxcnmt (happiness)
Note: there is a small group of words ending in -, including vz (first name) and dhvz (time),
which look feminine but are in fact neuter
* All words ending in soft signs must be learnt separately. Make a note of their gender as soon as
you come across them!
30

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

HOW TO SAY MY

Masculine
Neuter

vjq
vj
vj/

Masculine, Feminine & Neuter

vj

Feminine

Singular
vjq ,hfn
my brother
vj ctcnh
my sister
vj/ nxtcndj my patronymic

Chapter 1

You have already met all the different forms for my. They are as follows:

Plural
vj cnelyns my students
vj ihns
my shorts

Activity Twenty-Four -
Reading
The following phrases have got jumbled up. Draw lines to indicate which
form of my should go with which word. Each form of my appears three times.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

vj
vj/
vj
vjq
vjq
vj/
vj
vj
vj
vj/
vj
vjq

gbcmv
,hfn
ctcnh
cbufhns
afvkbz
rfhfyli
cnelyns
nxtcndj
gjhnakm
ntnhlm
ghtgjlfdntkb
cxcnmt

(letter)
(brother)
(sister)
(cigarettes)
(surname)
(pencil)
(students)
(patronymic)
(briefcase)
(exercise book)
(lecturers)
(happiness)

REGULAR PLURALS

Masculine
To form a plural from a masculine noun, you normally just add -:
c n el y n
vfufpy
ljrevyn

(student)
(shop)
(document)

c nel y n s
vfufpys
ljrevyns

(students)
(shops)
(documents)

Note the spelling rule: if the final letter is , , , , , or , you must use - instead of -:
gkz;
rfhfyli

(beach)
(pencil)

gk;b
rfhfylfi

(beaches)
(pencils)

(Note the change in stress)

If the noun ends in a soft sign (-) or -, remove the final letter and add -:
gjhnakm
nhfvdq

(briefcase)
(tram)

A new ab initio Russian course

gjhnakb
nhfvdb

(briefcases)
(trams)

31

Feminine
To form a plural from a feminine noun, you normally remove the final - and add -:
;yobyf
cbufhnf
rdfhnhf
rhnf

(woman)
(cigarette)
(flat)
(map)

;yobys
cbufhns
rdfhnhs
rhns

(women)
(cigarettes)
(flats)
(maps)

ryuf
kbyqrf

(book)
(ruler)

ryub
kbyqrb

(books)
(rulers)

xfcnm
n/nz
cnywbz
ctvm

(part)
(aunt)
(station)
(family)

xcnb
n/nb
cnywbb
cvmb

(parts)
(aunts)
(stations)
(families)

(Note the change in stress)

jry
gbcmv
vcnj

(window)
(letter)
(place)

ryf
gcmvf
vtcn

(windows)
(letters)
(places)

(Note the change in stress)


(Note the change in stress)
(Note the change in stress)

vht
eghf;yybt
ghtlvcnmt

(sea)
(exercise)
(suburb)

vjh
eghf;yybz
ghtlvcnmz

(seas)
(exercises)
(suburbs)

(Note the change in stress)

Note the spelling rule: if the final letter is , , , , , or , after you have removed -, you must use
- instead of -:

If the noun ends in a soft sign (-) or - /- / -, remove the final letter and add -:

Neuter
To form a plural from a neuter noun, you normally remove the final - and add -:

If the noun ends in - or - / -, remove the final letter and add -:

Activity Twenty-Five -
Writing
Put the following words into the plural.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

pfdl
c n el y n
rhnf
jry
fdnjvj,km (m)
kvgf
ntnhlm (f)
,b,kbjnrf
gkz;
cj,hybt
nxtcndj
eybdthcbnn
gkt
ctvm
vtklbz

(factory)
(student)
(map)
(window)
(car)
(light, lamp)
(exercise book)
(library)
(beach)
(meeting)
(patronymic)
(university)
(field)
(family)
(tune)

Activity Twenty-Six -
Writing The following phrases are in the plural. Put them back into the singular.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
32

vj rfhfylfi
g jk
vj ,,eirb
vj gcmvf
ryub
vj fdnjvj,kb

(my pencils)
(fields)
(my grandmothers)
(my letters)
(books)
(my cars)
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 1
A new ab initio Russian course

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER TWO -
AN OBJECT LESSON

In Chapter Two you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

to identify and locate objects


to express possession
to state where you live
to recognize numbers

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

the possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, our, their, whose
the verb to live ()
the prepositional case after d and yf
the numerals 1 to 100
Activity One -
Listening/Reading
Object identification. Listen to and read the following.

cfvjdh&

rhnf Hjccb& jly h,km&


?

vfnh/irf&

ryuf Djqy b vbh& ufpnf Ctulyz& ;ehyk Jujy/r&


cfvjdh
rhnf Hjccb
jly
he,km (m)
vfnh/irf
xnj nj nfrt$
Djqy b vbh

34

samovar (type of Russian tea urn)


map of Russia
one
rouble
matrioshka (Russian doll)
what (exactly) is this / are these?
War and Peace (epic novel by Count
Leo Tolstoy, written 1863 - 1869)

ufpnf
newspaper
Ctulyz
Segodnya = Today (quality
(pronounced Ctdjlyz) daily newspaper)
;ehyk
magazine, journal
Jujy/r
Ogonek = Small Flame
(popular monthly current
affairs magazine)
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

cnelyn^ ghtgjlfdntkm^ htdjkmdh^ ljv^ rfhfyli^ nhfvdq^ gjhnakm^


vtklbz^ rat^ hxrf^ Ijnkylbz^ ntnhlm^ ihns^ cbufhns^ vfnh/irf^ ryuf^
ufpnf^ gbcmv^ rhnf^ ;ehyk

Chapter 2

Activity Two -
Reading/Speaking Identify the objects/people illustrated below by matching them
up with the following list of words. (You have already met all twenty words.)

Then point to different illustrations and ask your partner rfr gj-hccrb &&&$ (how
do you say ... in Russian?). He/She will reply nj gj-hccrb &&& (in Russian it is ...)
and will thereupon ask you to identify an object/person, and so on.
Finally, shut your books and see how many of the twenty objects/people you can recall
in one minute. This can be played as a game in pairs or groups.

Activity Three -
Listening/Reading
Identifying animals. Listen to and read the following.
Note: when Russians talk about animals or pets they do not say Whats this? but Whos this?
rfr gj-hccrb &&&$

how do you say ... in Russian?

A new ab initio Russian course

nj gj-hccrb &&&

in Russian it is ...

35

Rnj nj$

nj cj,rf&

nj rirf&

nj rhkbr&

nj xthtg[f&

nj ckjy&

nj kiflm&

nj vsim&

nj ktd&

Whilst Russias rural population or peasantry has, of course, been brought up with farm animals, the vast majority
of town-dwellers live in large blocks of flats and hence have always found it difficult to keep pets. The ravages of
the Second World War and the harsh economic realities of life under Communism likewise had a dramatic effect on
pet-ownership. However, in recent times an increasing number of people have begun to keep cats and dogs and
other small domestic animals and there are considerably more stray animals roaming the streets. As a result of the
increase in organized and petty crime, many more Russians have invested in large dogs, such as Alsatians and
Rottweilers, to protect themselves and their property. For some of Russias new lite, stud farms with expensively
equipped stables and emaculately groomed horses are now becoming a status symbol to match their latest Mercedes
and BMW cars.

Activity Four -
Writing
Fill in the grid below with the names of the animals you have met so far.

cj,rf
rjn/rirf
rhkbr

36

dog
cat
rabbit

xthtg[f
ckjy
kiflm (f)

tortoise
elephant
horse

vsim (f)
ktd

mouse
lion (also the Russian for
Leo, as in Leo Tolstoy)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

QUESTION

ANSWER

Chapter 2

Activity Five - Gznjt pflfybt


Reading
The Russian for whose is xtq (m), xmz (f), xm/ (n), xmb (pl). Look at
the questions on the left and provide an appropriate reply by selecting the correct forms from
the other two columns. Then match up your answer with the most likely speaker of those
illustrated on the right.
SPEAKER

Xtq nj rk.x$

nj vj/

rk .x&

Xmz nj cbuhf$

nj vj

gknmt&

Xm/ nj gknmt$

nj vj

ihns&

Xmb nj ihns$

nj vjq

cbuhf&

Activity Six -
Speaking
Imagine that you are working in a lost property office (,.h yf[ljr)
and that a number of people are waiting to claim their missing possessions. Ask dif ferent
students in your group (or, if there are only two of you, your partner who will play several
roles) whose the objects are in the first list. The respondents will identify different objects as
their own; (e.g. you ask Xtq nj ;ehyk$ and someone replies nj vjq ;ehyk&)
Then change the roles with respect to the second list. Remember to pay attention to the
correct forms of the words in each case.
1.
2&

rk.x^ cbuhf^ kbyqrf^ rhnf^ htdjkmdh^ gbcmv^ ntnhlm^ vfnh/irf^ ihns^


rfhfyli^ cjxbyybt^ gjgeuq
ryuf^ ajnjrgbz^ ljrevyn^ cbufhns^ hxrf^ ;ehyk^ dlrf^ gfkmn^ gknmt^
gjhnakm^ xfq^ rhns

,.h (indeclinable) yf[ljr


xtq (m), xmz (f), xm/ (n), xmb (pl)
xtq (etc.) nj &&&$
rk.x
cbuhf
gjgeuq

A new ab initio Russian course

lost property office


whose
whose is this ...?
key
cigar
parrot

ajnjrgbz
gfkmn (indeclinable)
gknmt
xfq
cjxbyybt

photocopy
coat
dress
tea
essay

37

Activity Seven -
Listening/Reading/Speaking
First, listen to the following dialogue which involves
an argument between young people and their teacher, Anna Pavlovna, about cigarettes. Then
read it aloud or act it out in groups.
- Xmb nj cbufhns$ nj ndj cbufhns^ <jhc$
- Ytn^ yt vj^ yyf Gdkjdyf& nj ndj cbufhns^
Yfnif$
Y fnif
- Ytn^ nj yt vj cbufhns& nj t/ cbufhns& (Pointing at
Marina)
Vfhyf
- nj ytghdlf& nj yt vj cbufhns& nj^ v;tn ,snm^
tu cbufhns& (Pointing at Igor)
ujhm
- Ytn^ yt vj& Z yt reh& nj b[ cbufhns!
(Pointing at the twins, Sasha and Masha)
Cif b Vif - nj yt yib cbufhns&
ujhm
- Cif b Vif^ nj dib cbufhns&
Cif b Vif - Ytn^ nj yt yib cbufhns& Vs yt pytv^ xmb nj
cbufhns&
<jhc
- Hpdt nj yt dib cbufhns^ yyf Gdkjdyf$
Exntkmybwf - Vj$
<jhc
- Lf^ dib&
Exntkmybwf - Jq^ ghjcnnt& Lf^ nj vj cbufhns&
(Everyone laughs)

Exntkmybwf
<jhc

Activity Eight -
Listening/Speaking
Listen again to how the native speakers pronounce the following phrases and repeat them in the gaps provided on the tape.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6.
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

Xmb nj cbufhns$
Vs yt pytv^ xmb nj cbufhns&
nj ndj cbufhns^ <jhc$
Ytn^ yt vj&
Ytn^ nj yt vj cbufhns&
nj^ v;tn ,snm^ tu cbufhns&
nj b[ cbufhns!
nj ytghdlf&
nj yt yib cbufhns&
Hpdt nj yt dib cbufhns^ yyf Gdkjdyf$
Vj$
Lf^ nj vj cbufhns&

ndjq (m), ndj (f), ndj/ (n), ndj (pl)


(informal)
tu (m, f, n & pl) (pronounced tdj)
t/ (m, f, n & pl)
yfi (m)^ yif (f)^ yit (n)^ yib (pl)
dfi (m)^ dif (f)^ dit (n)^ dib (pl)
(formal)
b[ (m, f, n & pl)

38

your
his
her
our
your
their

yt
ghdlf
nj ytghdlf
v;tn ,snm
z yt reh
vs yt pytv
hpdt
ghjcnnt

not
truth
thats not true
perhaps, maybe
I dont smoke
we dont know
in fact, really
forgive (me)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Bhyf Ktynmtdyf^ Gdtk^ Trfnthyf Vb[qkjdyf Ajvby^ Pz^


Lvnhbq^ Hjcnbckd Cntgyjdbx^ Yfl;lf hmtdyf^ A/ljh Rjycnfynyjdbx
Ucntd^ Rcybz^ Tkbpfdnf Fktrctdyf^ Fyfnkbq Rfcghjd^ Cdtnkyf

Chapter 2

Activity Nine -
Listening/Reading/Writing
Look at the map of Russia and listen to where the
interviewees say they live. Then match up each person (from the following list) with the
appropriate town.

You will need to know the Russian for where do you live? - ult ns ;bd/im$ (informal and used
with children) or ult ds ;bd/nt$ (formal/plural) and also the reply I live in ... - z ;bd d ... .
Note: the form of the word changes slightly after the preposition d.
If the town is masculine the letter - is added; e.g. Hjcnd (Rostov) changes to d Hjcndt.
If the town is feminine the final - (or -) is removed and the letter - is added; e.g. Vjcrd (Moscow)
changes to d Vjcrd.
RHNF HJCCB

Activity Ten -
Speaking
Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays B, then reverse
the roles.
A

1. Say hello. (formal)


Ask your partner his/her name.
Ask him/her how he/she feels.
Ask him/her where he/she lives.
Say goodbye.

Give an appropriate reply.


State your name.
Describe how you feel.
Say where you live.
Respond appropriately.

2. Say hi. (informal, of course)


Give your name.
Express pleasure at meeting the friend.
State where you live.
Respond appropriately.

Reply and ask your partner his/her name.


Introduce a friend.
Ask your partner where he/she lives.
Say: see you tomorrow.

ult ns ;bd/im$ (informal)


ult ds ;bd/nt$ (formal)
A new ab initio Russian course

where do you live?


where do you live?

z ;bd
d (+ prepositional)

I live in

39

Activity Eleven -
Reading/Speaking
Look at the list of names in the left-hand column and state where
you think he or she is most likely to live. All the possibilities are provided, in jumbled-up
form, in the right-hand column.
You will need to know the Russian for where does he/she live? - ult jy#jy ;bd/n$ and the reply
he/she lives in ... - jy#jy ;bd/n d ... .
Note: if a country ends in - the final - is removed and the letter -b is added; e.g. yukbz (England)
changes to d yukbb. In France is dj Ahywbb, for ease of pronunciation.

Rnj nj$
1&
2&
3.
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

Ult jy#jy ;bd/n$

Rkelbz ajy Rhept


Vfh-Gmth L.gy
Gllb J~Hqkb
{ey Rhkjc <tkmdtkmh
Fhyf Dfy Lqr
Nflei Njvfidcrbq
Ahfyxcrj <jynnb
Hfl;d Gfnk
Fylhtc Gfgfylhe
ujhm Tduymtdbx <f,yjd
{bhrj Rehfcdf
L;jr VfrVkkfy

Bcgybz
Ijnkylbz
ylbz
Ahywbz
Uthvybz
Bnkbz
Zgybz
Uhwbz
Bhkylbz
Gkmif
Ujkkylbz
Hjccz

Activity Twelve -
Writing
Read the biographies below and write down similar details about where
you live. Include the following information: type of accommodation, name of city/town/
village, country.
Vty pjdn Ybrjkq&
Z ;bd d rdfhnht d
uhjlt Djhyt;^ d
Hj c cb&

jy ;bd/n
jy ;bd/n
yukbz
Ahywbz
Bcgybz
Ijnkylbz

40

he lives
she lives
England
France
Spain
Scotland

Vty pjdn Yrjkfc&


Z ;bd d lvt d
lthdyt Gnnbyutv^
d yukbb&

ylbz
Uthvybz
Bnkbz
Zgybz
Uhwbz
Bhkylbz

India
Germany
Italy
Japan
Greece
Ireland

Gkmif
Ujkkylbz
Hjccz
uhjl
lthdyz
d lthdyt

Vty pjdn Ybrkm&


Z ;bd d lvt d
uhjlt Yyn^ dj
Ahywbb&

Poland
Holland
Russia
town
village, countryside
in a/the village, in the country
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

z
ns
jy
jy
(we) v s
ds
(they) j y

;bd/im
;bd/n
;bdn
;bd/nt
;bd
;bd/n
;bd/v

we live
he lives
they live
you live (informal)
you live (formal/plural)
I live
she lives

Chapter 2

Activity Thirteen -
Writing Without looking back at the previous pages, sort out the correct forms for
the verb to live by drawing arrows linking the appropriate parts. In order to help you, one
of the two forms which you have not yet met has been done for you. (You can check your
solution by referring to the Grammar section.)

Activity Fourteen -
Reading
Where do the people pictured below live?

A new ab initio Russian course

41

Activity Fifteen -
Reading/Writing
State in which towns the following famous European football clubs
play. The towns are given below. You will use the same construction each time.
e.g. Fhctyfk buhtn d Kyljyt - Arsenal play in London

1. Fcnjy Dbkkf
2& >dtynec

3&
4&

{b,thybjy
Cgfhnr

5& Njnnty[v {jncgh


6& Fzrc

Vjcrd^ lby,hu^ Fvcnthlv^ Nehy^ <bhvbyuv^ Kyljy


Activity Sixteen -
Speaking
As in English, nouns can be replaced by pronouns (it/he/she, they).
In Russian masculine nouns are replaced by jy, feminine nouns by jy, neuter nouns by
jy and plural nouns by jy. State whether the following electrical items are working or
not, using the appropriate pronouns.
You will either use one of the constructons lf^ jy#jy#jy hf,nftn (yes, its
working) or lf^ jy hf,nf.n (yes, they are working) or you will use a negative ytn^
jy#jy#jy yt hf,nftn (no, it is not working) or ytn^ jy yt hf,nf.n (no,
they are not working).

ntktdpjh

hlbj

gkqth

rjvgmnths

rfccnybr

kvgf

ncnth

ghynth

dbltjrvthf

ajnjfggfhns

ghjrnjh

ghjuhsdfntkm

jy (m)
jy (f)
jy (n)
jy (pl)
(jy#jy#jy) buhtn
(jy#jy#jy) hf,nftn
(jy) hf,nf.n

42

it/he
it/she
it
they
(he/she/it) plays
(he/she/it) works
(they) work

ntktdpjh
hlbj
gkqth
rjvgmnth
rfccnybr
kvgf
ncnth

television
radio
walkman
computer
cassette player
lamp
toaster

ghynth
dbltjrvthf
ajnjfggfhn
ghjrnjh
ghjuhsdfntkm (m)

printer
camcorder
camera
projector
recordplayer

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

jl y
ldf
nhb
xtnht
gznm
itcnm
ctvm
dctvm
ldznm
lcznm

11&
12&
13&
14&
15&
16&
17&
18&
19&
20&

jlyyflw fnm
ld tylw fnm
nhbylw fnm
xtnhyflw fnm
gznylw fnm
i t cnylw fnm
c tvylw fnm
dj c tvylw fnm
l tdznylw fnm
ldlw fnm

21&
22&
30&
40&
50&
60&
70&
80&
90&
100&

ldlw fnm jly


ldlw fnm ldf
nhlw fnm
chjr
gznmltcn
itcnmltcn
cvmltczn
dctvmltczn
ltdzycnj
cnj

Chapter 2

Cardinal numbers (1 - 100)

Numbers do not normally pose great problems in Russian. It might help to consider the following:

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

ldf has the same derivation as the English word two;


nhb is, of course, the same as the English three;
lcznm has the same root as decimal, decibel, decade etc. (i.e. Latin: decimus - tenth);
the numbers from eleven to nineteen are basically 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9 on 10,
e.g. jlyyflwfnm = jly (one) yf (on) lwfnm [shortened form of lcznm] (ten);
v) twenty and thirty are two ten(s) ld+lwfnm and three ten(s) nhb+lwfnm [shortened
forms];
vi) fifty, sixty, seventy and eighty are basically five/six/seven/eight ten(s) [ordinary forms];
e.g. gznmltcn = gznm ltczn(m);
vii) forty (chjr), ninety (ltdzycnj) and a hundred (cnj) must be learnt separately;
viii) to form larger numbers, simply add new elements as in English; e.g. 135 = cnj nhlwfnm
gznm.
Do not try to memorize all the numbers at once! Deal with them in smaller groups.

Activity Seventeen -
Listening You will hear three different activities recorded on the tape.

1. Bingo (Kjn). Fill in the boxes below with numbers between 1 and 20 of your own
choice. The native speaker will then read out a series of numbers twice each and you should
cross out your numbers as soon as they are called. The winner is the first to cross out all his/
her numbers.
I.

II.

III.

IV.

2. The native speaker will test your arithmetic by reading out a number of simple subtraction
and addition sums. (Listen for the words gk.c and vyec.)
3. The native speaker will count in four recognizable patterns. Jot down the particular
pattern in each case.
I. ............................................................ III. ............................................................
II. ............................................................ IV. ............................................................
A new ab initio Russian course

43

Activity Eighteen -
Speaking
You and your partner should jot down ten different expressions of quantity in English (e.g. pints in a gallon) and then ask each other to provide relevant responses
in Russian; e.g. your partner says players in a rugby league team and you reply
nhbylw fnm.
Activity Nineteen -
Listening
You will hear ten numbers recorded on the tape, each of which relates to a
different place or building below. Write alongside each picture the number which relates to it.
Choose from the following: ntnh^ eybdthcbnn^ irkf^ j,ot;nbt^ rby^
djrpk^ gfhr^ cj,h^ cnflby^ gvznybr

Activity Twenty -
Listening
You will hear six Russians saying where they live. You should fill in the
following information: i) the number of their block of flats ( ljv), ii) the number of their flat
(rdfhnhf) and iii) their telephone number (ntktay), which will consist of six digits
divided into three blocks of two.
1

Vty pjdn Bdy


Gtnhdbx Cjkjdm/d&
Z ;bd d Vhvfycrt&
Vjq lhtc%
<jkmiq ghjcgrn^
_____, . _____,
. ___________&

Vty pjdn Bhyf


Bdyjdyf Vjbctdf&
Z ;bd d Hjcndt&
Vjq lhtc%
kbwf Nhel^
_____, . _____,
. ___________&

Vty pjdn Gdtk


<jhcjdbx Pfckyjd&
Z ;bd d Djhyt;t&
Vjq lhtc%
Vjcrdcrbq ghjcgrn,
_____, . _____,
. ___________.

Vty pjdn Yfnkmz


Vb[qkjdyf Rfnrdf&
Z ;bd d Nfv,dt&
Vjq lhtc%
gkoflm Ufuhbyf^
_____, . _____,
. ___________&

Vty pjdn Ykkb


Dflvjdyf A/ljhjdf&
Z ;bd d Ydujhjlt&
Vjq lhtc%
Ndthcrz kbwf^
_____, . _____,
. ___________&

Vty pjdn Fktrcq


Dbnkmtdbx Hfvpy&
Z ;bd d Nvcrt&
Vjq lhtc%
ghjcgrn Gj,ls^
_____, . _____,
. ___________&

ntnh
irkf
j,ot;nbt
rby (indeclinable)
djrpk
gfhr

44

theatre
school
student hostel
cinema
station
park

cj,h
cnflby
gvznybr
ntktay
lhtc
,jkmiq

cathedral
stadium
monument
telephone
address
big

ghjcgrn
kbwf
kbwf Nhel
vjcrdcrbq (adjective)
gkoflm (f)
ghjcgrn Gj,ls

avenue
street
Labour Street
Moscow
square
Victory Avenue

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

gj ytl kmybr*
dnhybr
c h tl
xtndhu
gnybwf
ce,,nf
djcrhtcymt

Lyb ytlkb
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

Chapter 2

Days of the week

* Days of the week do not begin with a capital letter unless they are the first word in a sentence.

Three of the days are connected with numbers, i.e. dnhybr = dnjhq (ltym) : second (day);
xtndhu = xtnd/hnsq (ltym) : fourth day; gnybwf = gnsq (ltym) : fifth day.

Two days have religious connections: ce,,nf = the sabbath; djcrhtcymt is cognate with
djcrhtcybt (resurrection).
The word chtl means milieu or medium. It is the day which is in the middle of the week.

The word gjytlkmybr suggests the day after Sunday. (Its origin can be traced back to Old
Church Slavonic.)

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Using the grid below, fill in the days of the week. (Only one order is
possible.)

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing Using the grid on the next page, check that you got the days of the week
right in the previous exercise. Then complete the missing squares by filling in the appropriate
Russian names from the list provided below. The names are given in random order.
A new ab initio Russian course

45

Russian names

Hccrbt bvty

GJ

UJHBPJYNKB(ACROSS)
ujhm
<kkf
Fhrlbq
Cyz
kz
yz
yyf
V f ul f k y f

46

Hvvf
Pz
Cn/gf
Vz
F k t rc q
Bhyf
kz
Rkhf

GJ DTHNBRKB
F k trcylhf
Ybrnf
hf
Hnf
Rbhkk
Y fnif

(DOWN)
Hvf
kz
Nyz
Vfhz
Hz
Vb[fk

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

HOW TO SAY YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR, WHOSE

The attributive possessive pronouns can be summarized as follows:


Masc.
Fem.
Neut.
Plur.

MY

YOUR

vjq
vj
vj/
vj

ndjq
ndj
ndj/
ndj

HIS

tu
tu
tu
tu

HER

OUR

t/
t/
t/
t/

yfi
yif
yit
yib

YOUR

dfi
dif
dit
dib

THEIR

b[
b[
b[
b[

WHOSE

Chapter 2

GRAMMAR

xtq
xmz
xm/
xmb

Note: The above forms also express the predicative possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours,
theirs.

Activity Twenty-Three -
Reading/Writing
Express the following phrases in Russian. To assist you, a list of
all the required forms and nouns is provided below, although not in the right order.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

my cigarettes
my house
their school
our university
your radio (formal)
your shorts (informal)
our library
his sister

vj
ndj
yfi
yif
ndj/
yib
dif
vj

ghtgjlfdntkb
irkf
vvf
ihns
rk .x
gknmt
cbufh
ljv

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

my mum
your exercise book (informal)
your exercise (formal)
our letters
my dress
your pen (formal)
her key
your lecturers (informal)

t/
dit
b[
ndj
tu
vjq
ndjq
vj/

ctcnh
hxrf
,b,kbjn rf
eghf;yybt
eybdthcbnn
gcmvf
ntnhlm
hlbj

Activity Twenty-Four -
Speaking/Writing
Now write up another sixteen phrases and their English
equivalents beginning with the following forms. You can then test your partner on them by
asking either Rfr gj-hccrb &&&$ (What is the Russian for ...?) or Rfr gjfyukqcrb &&&$ (What is the English for ...?).
1.
2.
3.
4.

vj
yif
dif
ndj/

A new ab initio Russian course

5.
6.
7.
8.

ndj
yfi
vj/
yit

9.
10.
11.
12.

vj
dit
yib
vjq

13.
14.
15.
16.

ndjq
dib
dfi
ndj

47

THE PRONOUNS HE, SHE, IT, THEY (WHICH REPLACE NOUNS)


MASCULINE NOUNS
FEMININE NOUNS
NEUTER NOUNS
PLURAL NOUNS

=
=
=
=

jy
jy
jy
jy

(it/he)
(it /she)
(it)
(they)

Instead of repeating the noun, Russian (like English) frequently uses pronouns. When
referring to people the gender is obvious.
e.g.

ghtgjlfdntkm ;bd/n plt cm - jy ;bd/n plt cm


the lecturer lives here - he lives here
cnelynrf ;bd/n n fv - jy ;bd/n nfv
the (female) student lives there - she lives there
lnb ;bdn pltcm -jy ;bdn pltcm
the children live here - they live here

However, when referring to objects you must remember the gender of the object and use
the appropriate pronoun for that object:
e.g.

Ul t cnjk$
Wheres the table?
Ul t ,b,kbjnrf$
Wheres the library?
Ul t jry$
Wheres the window?
Ul t cbufhns$
Where are the cigarettes?

Cnjk pl t cm&
The table is here.
<b,kbjnrf nfv&
The library is there.
Jry nfv&
The window is there.
Cbufhns pltcm&
The cigarettes are here.

Jy pltcm&
It is here.
Jy nfv&
It is there.
Jy nfv&
It is there.
Jy pltcm&
They are here.

THE VERB TO LIVE - :BNM

z
ns
jy
jy}
jy

; b d
;bd/im
;bd/n

I
live
you live
he
she} lives
it

vs
ds

;bd/v
;bd/nt

we
you

live
live

jy

;bdn

they

live

In addition to conveying the idea I live etc., the above forms also express the notions I am living, I do
live etc. because there is only one present tense in Russian. Hence, ult ns ;bd/im$ means where do
you live? Note that only has a capital letter at the beginning of sentences.
HOW TO EXPRESS IN, ON AND AT
The prepositions (in, at) and (on, at, in) take what is called the Prepositional case.
Masculine -

In most instances simply add -t

xtvjly (suitcase)
Hjcnd (Rostov)

48

d xtvjlyt (in a/the suitcase)


d Hjcndt (in Rostov)

cnjk (table)
rjywhn (concert)

yf cnjk (on a/the table)


yf rjywhnt (at a/the concert)

If a noun ends in a soft sign (-), remove the soft sign and add -t
gjhnakm (briefcase)
d gjhnakt (in a/the briefcase) fdnjvj,km (car)

yf fdnjvj,kt (in the car/by car)

If a noun ends in -q, remove -q, and add -t


Rbnq (China)
d Rbnt (in China)

yf nhfvdt (in the tram/by tram)

nhfvdq (tram)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

In most instances simply remove -f or -z and add -t

Vjcrd (Moscow) d Vjcrd (in Moscow)

gcyz (song)

d gcyt (in a/the song)

a,hbrf (factory)

yf a,hbrt (in a/the factory)

Chapter 2

Feminine

If a noun ends in a soft sign (-), remove the soft sign and add -
gtxnm (print)
d gtxnb (in print)
If a noun ends in -, remove - and add -
yukbz (England) d yukbb (in England)

Neuter

krwbz (lecture)

yf krwbb (at a/the lecture)

- In most instances simply remove -j and add -t

gbcmv (letter)

d gbcmv (in a/the letter)

If a noun ends in -, the ending remains unchanged


gkt (field)
d gkt (in the field(s))

jry (window)

yf jry (in a/the window)

vht (sea)

yf vht (at sea)

If a noun ends in -, remove - and add -


plybt (building) d plybb (in a/the building) pfynbt (class)

yf pfynbb (in a/the class)

Usually means in and means on, but sometimes is used to convey the meaning in, as in some
of the examples above and with the following words: pfdl (factory), cnflby (stadium), Ehk (the
Urals), ehr (lesson), hf,nf (work), vfiyf (car) and other forms of transport.
Note: some foreign words ending in vowels do not change; e.g. d Ukpuj (in Glasgow), yf nfrc (by
taxi), yf vtnh (by metro / on the underground), d rby (in/at a/the cinema).

Activity Twenty-Five -
Speaking
First, look at the picture below in which one object is piled on top of
another and state where each object is situated. Start at the top and work down. (You will
begin Rfhfyli yf gbcmv& Gbcmv yf ryut& Ryuf yf &&& &) Then go
round the class adding another object each time.

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

(f) _______________________________

A new ab initio Russian course

_______________________________

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49

50

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER THREE

WORK
NATIONALITY

In Chapter Three you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

to recognize and talk about jobs


to state your nationality and identify the nationality of other people
to express movement on foot and by transport
to use simple constructions of time

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1. the use of (+ Dative) in set expressions
2. the verbs to work () and to go (^ )
3. the accusative case with movement and expressions of time
Activity One -
Listening/Reading
Listen to people talking about their jobs.

Rnj ds gj ghjaccbb$ (Rnj ns gj ghjaccbb$)

Z gj ghjaccbb
vtlctcnh&

Z gj ghjaccbb
by;tyh&

F z ghtgjlfdntkm(ybwf)&

Rfrz e dfc ghjaccbz$ (Rfrz e nt, ghjaccbz$)

Z dhfx&
rnj ds gj ghjaccbb$ (formal)
rnj ns gj ghjaccbb$ (informal)
rfrz e dfc ghjaccbz$ (formal)
rfrz e nt, ghjaccbz$ (informal)

52

Z ija/h&
what is your profession?
(literally: who are you by
profession?)
what is your profession?
(literally: what profession
do you have?)

F z jabwbynrf&
vtlctcnh
by;tyh
ghtgjlfdntkm(ybwf)
dhfx
ija/h
jabwbynrf

nurse
engineer
lecturer
doctor
driver
waitress

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Question

Rfr tu#t/ pjdn$


Rnj jy#jy gj ghjaccbb$
Ul jy#jy ;bd/n$

What is his/her name?


What is his/her profession?
Where does he/she live?

ntktajycnrf
vfibycnrf
frnhcf
ljviyzz [jpqrf

telephone operator
typist
actress
housewife

A new ab initio Russian course

Reply

Tu#T/ pjdn &&&


Jy#Jy (gj ghjaccbb) &&&
Jy#Jy ;bd/n d &&& (+ prepositional)

;ehyfkcn
exntkm (m)
gtdwf
utkju

journalist
teacher
singer
geologist

Chapter 3

Activity Two -
Speaking Look at the pictures below and the accompanying captions (which state
briefly the persons name, job and place of residence) and interview your partner about the
people. You should ask the following questions in each case.

aen,jkcn
fldjrn
,fyrh
ubvycnrf

footballer
barrister
banker
gymnast

53

Activity Three -
Reading/Writing Work out the Russian for builder (in the bold box which runs
vertically) by filling in the answers to the clues provided in the grid below. Words which you
have not yet met are given at the foot of the page.

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&

Jy hf,nftn d ,jkmywt&
Jy hf,nftn d ntnht&
Jy hf,nftn d ,yrt&
Jy hf,nftn d htcnjhyt&
Jy hf,nftn yf pfdlt&
Jy hf,nftn d rfywtkhbb&
Jy hf,nftn d g,t&
Jy hf,nftn d eybdthcbnnt&
Jy hf,nftn d irkt&

Activity Four -
Speaking
Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays B, then reverse
the roles. You will need to know the expressions z hf,nf. (I work), and ult ns
hf,nftim$ # ult ds hf,nftnt$ (where do you work?).
A

Say hello to your partner. (formal)


Ask your partner what job he/she does.
Ask him/her where he/she works.
Say goodbye.
A

Say hello to your partner. (informal)


Tell him/her that you are fine.
Say that you are a doctor and that you
work in a hospital in Moscow.
Say goodbye.
jabwbyn
,fhvy
,jkmywf
ntnh
,fyr
htcnjhy

54

waiter
barman
hospital
theatre
bank
restaurant

Express your pleasure at meeting him/her.


Say that you are a teacher.
Say that you work in a school in Saint
Petersburg.
Reply appropriately.
B

Say hello and ask him/her how he/she is.


Ask your partner what he/she does.
Tell him/her that you are an engineer in a
factory in Kiev.
Reply appropriately.
rfywtkhbz
gf,
z hf,nf.
ult ns hf,nftim$ (informal)
ult ds hf,nftnt$ (formal/plural)

office
pub
I work
where do you work?
where do you work?

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

hf,nftim

ns

hf,nftn

jy

hf,nftv

jy

hf,nftnt

vs

hf,nf.

ds

hf,nf.n

jy

hf,nftn

we work

you work (formal/plural)

Chapter 3

Activity Five -
Writing You have now met all the forms of the verb hf,nfnm (to work), except
vs (the first person plural). Match up the appropriate endings below. The vs-form is
done for you. (You can check your solution by referring to the Grammar section.)

they work

you work (informal)

she works
he works
I work

Activity Six -
Listening
Listen twice to the descriptions on the tape and answer the following
questions in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Where does the woman work?


What is the mans job?
In which country does the footballer play?
What is the womans job?
What is the equivalent English name of the restaurant where the waiter works?
In which town does the builder work?

Activity Seven -
Reading/ Speaking/Writing You are by now quite familiar with the prepositional case
after and & As you know, in Moscow = d Vjcrd. However, if a word ends in - the
ending is not - but -. Hence, ujcnyfz (lounge) becomes d ujcnyjq.
Bearing in mind the above rule, first of all put the following into Russian:
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

dining room
bedroom
study
toilet
attic
bathroom
kitchen
cellar
basement
garage

cnjkdfz
cgkmyz
rf,byn
nefkn
xthlr
dyyfz
r[yz
guht,
gjldk
ufh;

in the dining room


in the bedroom
in the study
in the toilet
in the attic
yf
in the bathroom
in the kitchen
yf
in the cellar
in the basement
in the garage

Then answer the questions on the next page (relating to the drawing of the house). You will
need to recognize the following vocabulary:
rfhnyf (picture)^ rhjdnm (f) (bed)^ ry;ysq irfa (book cupboard)^ ufhlth, (wardrobe)^ gtxm (f)
(oven, stove)^ ,ean (sideboard)^ gbfyyj (indeclinable) (piano)^ hrjdbyf (sink, wash-basin)^ rknrf
(cage)^ rhckj (armchair)^ kvgf (lamp, light)^ phrfkj (mirror)^ xfc (pl) (clock, watch)^ dyyf (bathtub)^ cnjk lkz yfcnkmyjuj nyybcf (table-tennis table)^ xtvjlys (suitcases)^ dby (wine)^ vfiyf
(car).
A new ab initio Russian course

55

VJQ LJV

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Xnj yf xthlfr$
Xnj d cnjkdjq$
Xnj d ujcnyjq$
Xnj d rf,bynt$
Ult hlbj$
Ult gtxm$
Ult dby$
Ult vfiyf$
Rnj d dyyjq$
Ult vvf$

Yf xthlfr

Jy d

Ghtgjlfdntkm
(r[yz)

Now interview your partner about the contents of the various rooms and the location of
different objects.
Activity Eight -
Listening/Reading
Nationalities. Listen to and read the following.
Rnj ds gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$ (Rnj ns gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$)

Z gj yfwbjykmyjcnb
hccrbq&

Z n;t hccrfz&

rnj ds gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$ what nationality are you?


rnj ns gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$ (literally: who are you by nationality?)
z gj yfwbjykmyjcnb &&&
I am ... / my nationality is ...

56

Vs hccrbt&
hccrbq (m), hccrfz (f) Russian
hccrbt (pl)
Russians
n;t
also
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

(Rfrz e nt, yfwbjykmyjcnm$)

Chapter 3

Rfrz e dfc yfwbjykmyjcnm$

Z fvthbrytw&

Z fyukbxyrf&

Z rfyltw&

Activity Nine -
Listening/Reading
First, study the table of nationalities below, then (with the help
of the table) answer the listening comprehension questions which follow. You may need to
listen twice to each description.
Nationality

American
Australian
Canadian
Chinese
English
French
German
Indian
Italian
Japanese
Russian
Spanish
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

fvthbrytw
fdcnhfktw
rfyltw
rbntw
fyukbxyby
ahfywp
yvtw
byltw
bnfkmytw
zgytw
hccrbq
bcgytw

PL

fvthbryrf
fdcnhfkqrf
rfylrf
rbnfyrf
fyukbxyrf
ahfyw;tyrf
yvrf
bylbyrf
bnfkmyrf
zgyrf
hccrfz
bcgyrf

fvthbryws
fdcnhfkqws
rfylws
rbnqws
fyukbxyt
ahfywps
yvws
bylqws
bnfkmyws
zgyws
hccrbt
bcgyws

ADJECTIVE

fvthbrycrbq
fdcnhfkqcrbq
rfylcrbq
rbnqcrbq
fyukqcrbq
ahfywpcrbq
ytvwrbq
bylqcrbq
bnfkmycrbq
zgycrbq
hccrbq
bcgycrbq

What is Andreas nationality ?


What nationality is Igor and in which country does he live?
How many different nationalities live in the student hostel? ( j,ot;nbt)
What nationality is Robert and in which town does he live?
What is the nationality of the lads playing football in the park?
What is the nationality of the ballerina?
What is the nationality of the speaker s father and what job does he do?
What is the nationality of the speaker s mother and what does she do?

Activity Ten -
Reading/Writing
State the nationalities of the following people (assuming that they
were all born in the capital city where they now live).
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Jy ;bd/n d d Dibyunjyt&
{hbcnby ;bd/n d <thkyt&
<h.c ;bd/n d Ry,thht&
Vhnf ;bd/n d Hvt&
Cnelyns ;bdn d Kyljyt&
Vs ;bd/v d Vflhlt&

rfrz e dfc yfwbjykmyjcnm$ (formal)


rfrz e nt, yfwbjykmyjcnm$ (informal)
j,ot;nbt

A new ab initio Russian course

Jy
Jy

Vs
what is your nationality?
(literally: what nationality do you have?)
student hostel, hall of residence

57

Activity Eleven -
Reading
Match up the names of the people with their likely nationality from the list
in bold below.
1&
2&
3&
yvrf

Af,bty
L;jy
Dfwkfd

bylbyrf

bhkyltw

4&
5&
6&

{fqlb
Cjylbg
Frtvb

bcgytw

zgyrf

7&
8&
9&
fvthbrytw

{efy
Tktyf
Gfnhbr

hccrfz

xt[

ahfyw;tyrf

The Verbs bln (to go/be going on foot) and [fnm (to go/be going by transport)

BLN TO (BE) GO(ING) ON FOOT


z bl
ns bl/im
jy#jy#jy bl/n

I am going
you are going
he/she/it is going

{FNM
z le
ns ltim
jy#jy#jy ltn

we are going
you are going
they are going

vs bl/v
ds bl/nt
jy bln

TO (BE) GO(ING) BY TRANSPORT

I am going
you are going
he/she/it is going

we are going
you are going
they are going

vs ltv
ds ltnt
jy len

The Russian for Where are you going? is Rel ns bl/im#ltim$ or, using the formal/plural form,
Rel ds bl/nt#ltnt$ (Do not use ult &&&$ with movement.) When you state the name of your
intended destination (e.g. Im going to the park) you normally use d or yf (as appropriate) followed
by the Accusative case. The endings of the Accusative case are easy:

M
F
N
PL

z
z
z
z

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Igor
Masha
Lena
Petya
Vanya and Anna
Kolya and Natasha
Klara
Alyosha

bl#le d gfhr
bl#le d irke
bl#le d ctk
bl#le d Fays

Im going to the park


Im going to school
Im going to the village
Im going to Athens

gfhr - gfhr
irkf - irke
ctk - ctk
Fays- Fays

(no change)
(-f replaced by -e)
(no change)
(no change)

Activity Twelve -
Listening
A group of students are discussing where they are planning to go in the
evening. Jot down in each case both their intended destination and the form of transport they
hope to use. (You will need to know the word for on foot - gtirv.)

bhkyltw#bhkylrf
xt[#xirf

58

Irishman/Irish woman
Czech (man/woman)

rel &&&$
ctk

where ... (to)?


village

gtirv

on foot

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Writing Express the following in Russian by selecting appropriate phrases
from the columns on the right. (They are of course in random order.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

English

Pronoun

Verb form

d#yf (+ accusative) yf (+ prepositional)

Im going to Odessa by car.


Were going to the university on foot.
He is going to the library on a bike.
Are you going to the stadium on foot?
She is going to the theatre by tram.
They are going to school on foot.
Im going to Moscow by train.
We are going to town on the trolleybus.

Vs
Jy
Ns
Z
Z
Vs
Jy
Jy

le
bl/im
ltv
ltn
bl/v
ltn
bln
le

d ,b,kbjnre
d ntnh
d Vjcrd
d irke
d uhjl
d Jlcce
yf cnflby
d eybdthcbnn

Chapter 3

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking
Memory game. One of you begins by saying where you are going (e.g.
z ble d eybdthcbnn) and the next person both repeats your phrase and adds another
destination (e.g. z ble d eybdthcbnn b d ,b,kbjnre) and so on. You start with
ten points and lose one point each time you forget a destination or make a grammatical
mistake. The winner is the last person to lose all ten points.

or gtirv

yf nhfvdt&
gtirv&
yf nhjkkq,ect&
yf gtplt&
gtirv$
gtirv&
yf dtkjcbglt&
yf vfiyt&

Activity Fifteen -
Speaking/Writing Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays B, then
reverse the roles.
A

Meeting in the street

Say hello to your partner. (formal)


Return the greeting.
Ask your partner what nationality he/she is. Tell him/her your nationality.
Ask him/her where he/she works.
Say that you work in a school in Moscow.
Ask what his/her profession is.
Say that you are a teacher.
Ask where he/she is going (on foot)?
Say that you are going to work ( yf hf,ne).
Say goodbye.
Reply appropriately.

Meeting in a Russian bus

Say hello to your partner. (formal)


Tell him/her that you are going to town.
Because (gjnjv xnj) you work in the
town in a restaurant.
Confirm that you are a waiter/waitress.
Ask what job he/she does?
Say cheerio.

Say hello and ask him/her where he/she is going.


Ask him/her why? (gjxtv$)
Ask him/her if he/she is a waiter/waitress.
Say that you are also going to work.
Say that you are a lecturer at a university.
Reply appropriately.

Now make up your own role-play. You should include questions relating to the following:
i) health, ii) nationality, iii) work, iv) your partner s intended destination. Stick to what you
know and do not be over-ambitious.
uhjl
Jlccf
nhjkkq,ec

town
Odessa (Black Sea resort)
trolleybus

A new ab initio Russian course

gtpl
dtkjcbgl
gjxtv($)

train
bicycle
why(?)

gjnjv xnj

because

59

Activity Sixteen -
Listening/Reading Telling the time. Listen to and read the following.

Crkmrj ctqxc dhvtyb$

Rjnhsq xfc$

(Ctqxc) xfc&

(Ctqxc) ldf xfc&

(Ctqxc) nhb xfc&

Xtnht xfc&

(Ctqxc) gznm xfcd&

Itcnm xfcd&

Ctvm xfcd&

Dctvm xfcd&

Lcznm xfcd&

Jlyyflwfnm xfcd&

Ldznm xfcd&

Ldtylwfnm xfcd&*

* midday = gkltym (m); midnight = gkyjxm (f)

Activity Seventeen -
Listening
Listen twice to the following recordings from the radio in which an announcer tells you different times in Moscow. Jot down the times after the second listening.
Each announcement begins Ujdjhn Hlbj Vjcrd& Vjcrdcrjt dhvz &&&
(Radio Moscow speaking. Moscow time is ...). Notice that the announcer uses the twentyfour hour clock.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Activity Eighteen -
Writing Fill in the appropriate forms of the Russian for hour(s) or oclock: xfc
(after numbers ending in 1, except 11), xfc (after numbers ending in 2, 3, 4, except 12,
13, 14) and xfcd (after all other numbers).
i& 5 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& ii. 12 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& iii. 4 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& iv. 23 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
v. 21&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& vi. 11 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& vii. 16 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& viii. 22 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
crkmrj ctqxc dhvtyb$ (colloquial) whats the time?
(literally: how much now is the time?)
rjnhsq xfc$ (higher style)
what is the time?
(literally: which (is the) hour?)

60

ctqxc
gkltym (m)
gkyjxm (f)
ujdjhn

now
midday
midnight
is speaking

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The footballer
Galina
Aleksandr
The doctor
Yevgeniya
Nikita

Chapter 3

Activity Nineteen -
Listening
The following speakers are all talking about their plans to go out. State
where each person is intending to go and at what time. To express at a given time, Russians
simply use d (+ accusative). The endings do not change; e.g. d xfc (at one oclock), d
ldf xfc (at two oclock), d xtnht xfc (at four oclock), d gznm xfcd (at five
oclock), d lcznm xfcd (at ten oclock), d gkyjxm (at midnight).

On, used with days of the week


To express on with days of the week, simply use d (+ accusative)

d gjytlkmybr
dj * dnhybr
d chle
d xtndhu
d gnybwe
d ce,,ne
d djcrhtcymt

on
on
on
on
on
on
on

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

* The sound - is added purely for ease of pronunciation; (cf. dj Ahywbb).

Activity Twenty -
Listening
Say on which days of the week Inna (who has eclectic taste) listens to the
types of music listed below. Note that the noun goes into the Accusative case after the
phrase z ckif. (I listen to). This rule is explained in the next chapter.
hjr-y-hkk
gjg-vpsrf
l;fp
cnhlyfz vpsrf
rkfccxtcrfz vpsrf
huub
yfhlyfz vpsrf
(d) xfc
(d) ldf#nhb#xtnht xfc
(d) gznm#itcnm (etc.) xfcd
z ckif. (+ accusative)
hjr-y-hkk
gjg-vpsrf

A new ab initio Russian course

___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

(at) one oclock


(at) two/three/four oclock
(at) five/six (etc.) oclock
I listen to
rock and roll
pop music

l;fp
cnhlyfz vpsrf
rkfccxtcrfz vpsrf
huub
yfhlyfz vpsrf

jazz
light music
classical music
reggae
folk music

61

GRAMMAR
THE USE OF GJ (+ DATIVE) IN SET EXPRESSIONS

You do not need to know all the endings of the Dative case at this stage. However, you
should remember that the preposition gj usually takes the Dative and you should learn the
following expressions by heart:
rnj ns#ds gj ghjaccbb$
z gj ghjaccbb &&&

- what is your profession? (literally: who are you by profession?)


- I am a ... (literally: I am by profession a ...)

rnj ns#ds gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$


z gj yfwbjykmyjcnb &&&

- what is your nationality? (literally: who are you by nationality?)


- I am ... / my nationality is ... (literally: I am by nationality ...)

REGULAR VERBS : HF<NFNM (TO WORK)

By now you will realize that all verbs, apart from to be, have special forms for the present
tense. It is important to distinguish between these forms since verbs are generally just listed
under the infinitive in Russian dictionaries (to do, to work etc.). You can easily recognize the
infinitive by its last two letters, usually - (e.g. lkfnm - to do) and occasionally -
(e.g. gtxm - to bake) or - (e.g bln - to be going).
As you will have noticed, the ending of the verb is determined by the personal pronoun
(z^ ns^ jy^ jy^ jy^ vs^ ds^ jy). In most cases you simply remove - from the
infinitive and add the relevant endings:
HF<NFNM

z hf,nf-.
vs hf,nf-tv
ns hf,nf-tim
ds hf,nf-tnt
jy, jy, jy hf,nf-tn jy hf,nf-.n
The endings -^ -tim^ -^ -^ -^ - are very common when the infinitive ends in
- or - (e.g. vtynm - to change). Verbs in this group (which in future we will refer
to as first conjugation or type I verbs) always adhere to the following two rules:
1)
2)

they retain - (or -) in their conjugated forms (e.g. z hf,nf-.);


they have fixed stress (i.e. the stress remains the same in their conjugated forms
as in the infinitive).

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing
Work out how to conjugate the verbs xbnnm (to read) and ckifnm
(to listen to).
z xbn&&&
ns xbn&&&
jy#jy xbn&&&

62

vs xbn&&&
ds xbn&&&
jy xbn&&&

z ckif&&&
ns ckif&&&
jy#jy ckif&&&

vs ckif&&&
ds ckif&&&
jy ckif&&&

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing
Match the personal pronouns with the appropriate forms of the verb
vtynm (to change).
vty.n
vty.
vtytv
vtytim
vtytn
vtytnt

Chapter 3

vs
ns
jy
ds
z
jy#jy

THE VERBS BLN (TO BE GOING ON FOOT)


AND {FNM (TO BE GOING BY TRANSPORT)
z bl
ns bl/im
jy#jy#jy

bl/n

BLN TO (BE) GO(ING) ON FOOT


I am going
vs bl/v
you are going
ds bl/nt
he/she/it is going
jy bln

we are going
you are going
they are going

{FNM TO (BE) GO(ING) BY TRANSPORT


I am going
vs ltv
we are going
you are going
ds ltnt
you are going
he/she/it is going
jy len
they are going

z le
ns ltim
jy#jy#jy ltn

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE (WITH MOVEMENT)

In response to the question Where are you going? - Rel ns bl/im#ltim$ # ds


bl/nt#ltnt$, you normally use d or yf (as appropriate) followed by the Accusative
case. The endings of the Accusative case are as follows:
M
F

z bl#le d gfhr
z le d <ptkm*

Im going to the park


Im going to Basle

z bl#le d irke Im going to school


z le d lthdy. Im going to the country

z bl#le d ctk
z le yf vht

P L z bl yf nyws
z le d Fays

gfhr
- gfhr
< p t k m - <ptkm

(no change)
(no change)

i r k f - irke
(-f replaced by -e)
l t h d y z - lthdy. (-z replaced by -.)

Im going to the country


Im going to the seaside

ctk
vht

Im going to a dance
Im going to Athens

n y w s - nyws
Fays - Fays

- ctk
- vht

(no change)
(no change)
(no change)
(no change)

Only the feminine singular forms ending in -f or -z change.

* The names of towns and islands ending in a soft sign ( -m) are masculine.

Activity Twenty-Three -
Writing The following expressions all use the Accusative case. What would the
standard (or Nominative) form of the word in the Accusative be?
1. Jy ltn d lthdy.&
2. Vs ltv d Vjcrd&
3& Z bl d uhjl

A new ab initio Russian course

4& Ds bl/nt yf rjywhn$ 7& Z bl yf nyws&


5& Jy len d yukb.&
8& Jy ltn d Jlcce&
6& Ns ltim d irke$
9& Vs bl/v d rby&

63

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE (WITH TIMES OF THE DAY AND DAYS OF THE WEEK)

The Accusative case is used after d to express at a certain time and on a day of the
week. However, you will find it easier just to remember the following as set phrases.
Telling the time - 12-hour clock
at one oclock/ at midday/ at midnight
at two/three/four oclock
at five/six/seven/eight > twelve oclock

d xfc#gkltym#gkyjxm
d ldf#nhb#xtnht xfc
d gznm#itcnm#ctvm#dctvm > ldtylwfnm xfcd

Telling the time - 24-hour clock


d
d
d
d

xfc (etc.) The same as the 12-hour clock up to 1200 hours.


nhbylwfnm#xtnhyflwfnm > ldlwfnm xfcd
ldlw fnm jly xfc
ldlwfnm ldf#nhb#xtnht xfc

at 1300/1400 > 2000 hours


at 2100 hours
at 2200/2300/2400 hours

Days of the week


d gjytlkmybr
dj dnhybr
d chle
d xtndhu

on
on
on
on

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday

d gnybwe
d ce,,ne
d djcrhtcymt

on Friday
on Saturday
on Sunday

MASCULINE AND FEMININE FORMS FOR PROFESSIONS

As in many other languages, some jobs only have masculine or feminine forms, whilst others
have two possibilities. Here is a list of the jobs you have met so far.
MASCULINE

fldjrn*
frn/h
,fyrh**
,fhvy
dhfx **
u t k j u**
ubvycn
;ehyfkcn
by;tyh**

vtl,hn
jabwbyn
gtdw
g h t g jl f d n tk m

cnhjntkm**
ntktajycn
exntkm
a e n , jk c n
ija/h**

FEMININE

rnhcf

,hvtyif

ubvycnrf
;ehyfkcnrf

vfibycnrf***
vtlctcnh
jabwbynrf
gtdwf
g h t g jl f d n tkmybw f * * * *
ctrhtnhif*****

ntktajycnrf
exntkmybwf
a e n , jk c n r f

ENGLISH

barrister
actor/actress
banker
barman/bar woman
doctor
geologist
gymnast
journalist
engineer
typist
(male) nurse
waiter/waitress
singer
lecturer
secretary
builder
telephonist
teacher
footballer
driver, chauffeur

Theoretically the form fldjrfnccf exists but the masculine form is generally preferred even
for women, since fldjrfnccf sounds over-stylized and pedantic.
**
If no generally acceptable female form exists, the masculine form is used; e.g. jy [jhibq
dhfx (she is a good doctor), jy bpdcnysq utkju (she is a well-known geologist).
*** The masculine word vfibycn means machinist/machine engineer or engine driver.
**** The form ghtgjlfdntkmybwf is used less frequently than ghtgjlfdntkm and can
have somewhat pejorative overtones.
***** The masculine form ctrhtnhm refers to the secretary of an organization. Note that
ctrhtnhm is also used of women, especially in compound forms (e.g. ctrhtnhmvfibycnrf).
64

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER FOUR -
AT THE AIRPORT

In Chapter Four you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

to speak with a passport control officer and a customs officer


to change currency
to read addresses and telephone numbers
to understand airport announcements

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.

the prepositional case ending - after and


the prepositional case after (about)
the accusative case to indicate the direct object

Activity One -
Reading
Work out the meaning of the following words which relate to passport
control and customs. To help you with the more difficult ones, clues are provided. (You will
find the answers in the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page.)
Checks

gcgjhnysq rjynhkm
nfv;yz

Places

fhjghn
,.h

Clues:
1. Nfv;yz - traditions or habits, now
disappearing within the European Union?
2. The Russian verb yjcnm means to carry.
3. The Russian word uhfywf means
a frontier or border.
4. The word valuta is in the English
dictionary. Does it mean i) a ballroom dance
in triple time, ii) courage, iii) currency,
iv) a gentlemans personal attendant?

People

yjckmobr
nfv;tyybr
gjuhfyxybr
nehcn(rf)

Objects

,fu;
dpf
ltrkfhwbz
gcgjhn
dfknf

On arrival in Russia you are required to go through


passport control where uniformed officers will check
your passport, visa and intended length of stay. Then
you have to go on through customs which has two
channels, red and green. Like all foreigners, you are
obliged to pass through the red channel, rhcysq
rjhblh, where you may be stopped and searched.
It is important that you declare currency and other
valuables, such as precious metals or stones, so that
you can take them out with you again when you leave
the country.

66

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

At Pulkovo - 2 Airport

Chapter 4

D fhjgjhn Gkrjdj - 2

Activity Two -
Listening/Reading
The following is a dialogue between an English tourist and a
Russian passport control officer (or, more strictly speaking, a border guard). Listen to it and
then read it out in pairs.

GCGJHNYSQ RJYNHKM

Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n
Gjuhfyxybr
Ne h c n

- Plhdcndeqnt! Dfi gcgjhn^ gj;keqcnf&


- Plhdcndeqnt! Djn vjq gcgjhn&
- F ult dif dpf$
- Djn jy&
- Ds fyukbxyby$
- Lf^ z fyukbxyby&
- F gjxtv ds ;bd/nt d Fvhbrt$
- Vj ;ty fvthbryrf^ b vs ;bd/v b hf,nftv d Ym.-Qhrt&
- F rnj ds gj ghjaccbb$
- Z - exntkm& * Z hf,nf. d irkt&
- Rfr dfc pjdn$
- Vty pjdn Vqrk&
- F afvkbz?
- Vj afvkbz Nvcjy
- {jhji& Dc/ d gjhlrt& Lj cdblybz&
- Cgfc,j& Lj cdblybz&

* Russian frequently uses a dash to indicate the present tense of the verb to be.
gcgjhnysq
rjynhkm
gcgjhn
nfv;yz
nfv;tyybr
fhjghn
d fhjgjhn

passport control ,.h


yjckmobr
passport
gjuhfyxybr
customs
nehcn(rf)
customs officer ,fu;
airport
pf
at the airport
dfknf

A new ab initio Russian course

office
porter
border guard
tourist
luggage
visa
(hard) currency

ltrkfhwbz
gj;keqcnf
djn
;ty
dc/
d gjhlrt
dc/ d gjhlrt

declaration (form)
please, youre welcome
here (is/are)
wife
everything, all
in order
everything is OK

67

Activity Three -
Speaking Role-play. Passport control. You play the role of A, the passport control
officer or boarder guard (gjuhfyxybr), and your partner plays the role of B, the tourist
(nehcn#rf). Then reverse the roles.
A

Say hello.
Ask to see his/her passport.
Ask for his/her visa.
Ask him/her what his/her nationality is.
Ask why he/she lives in England.
Ask what job he/she does.
Ask him/her for his/her name.
Say goodbye.

Respond appropriately.
Offer him/her your passport.
Present your visa.
Say you are Canadian.
Say that you work in Manchester.
Tell him/her that you are a doctor.
Tell him/her your name.
Reply appropriately.

Activity Four -
Listening/Reading
The following is a dialogue between the English tourist, Mr
Thomson, and a Russian customs officer. Listen to it and then read it out in pairs.

NFV:YZ
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr
Ne h c n
Nfv;tyybr

L,hsq ltym& nj ,fu;?


L,hsq ltym& Lf^ nj ,fu;&
{jhji^ f ult dif ltrkfhwbz$
Djn jy&
E dfc tcnm dfknf$
Lf^ tcnm&
F rfrz e dfc dfknf b crkmrj$
Fyukqcrbt ayns& E vty 1000 (nczxf) aynjd&
F h,kb e dfc tcnm$
Ytn^ he,kq e vty ytn& F ult v;yj gjvtynm ayns$
D ,yrt kb d ,.h gj j,vye dfkns& *
Cgfc,j& Lj cdblybz&
Lj cdblybz&

* A common alternative is j,vyysq geyrn - d j,vyyjv gyrnt&

Activity Five -
Speaking Run through the above dialogue in pairs replacing the italicized words with
the following:
Plhdcndeqnt
L,hjt nhj
Fvthbrycrbt lkkfhs
800 (djctvmcn) lkkfhjd
lkkfhs
e dfc (tcnm) &&&$ (formal)
lf^ tcnm
rfrz e dfc dfknf$
crkmrj$
aeyn
fyukqcrbt ayns
e vty (tcnm) &&&
nczxf

68

do you have ...?


yes, I do
what currency do
you have?
how much/many?
pound
British pounds,
pounds sterling
I have ...
a thousand

nczxf aynjd
he,km (m) (he,k)
e vty ytn he,kq
v;yj($)
gjvtynm
,.h gj j,vye dfkns
l,hjt nhj
lkkfh
fvthbrycrbt lkkfhs
djctvmcn lkkfhjd

a thousand pounds
rouble (roubles)
I do not have any roubles
can one/I/you/we?, one can
to change
currency exchange bureau
good morning
dollar
American dollars
eight hundred dollars

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&

Rfr dfc pjdn$

nj
dfi ,fu;$
E dfc tcnm dfknf$
Ult dif ltrkfhwbz$
Rnj ds gj ghjaccbb$
Ds fyukbxyby$
Ult v;yj gjvtynm dfkne$

D ,yrt&
Djn jy&
Z exntkm&
Lf^ z fyukbxyby&
Lf^ vjq&
Vty pjdn Vqrk&
Lf^ tcnm&

Chapter 4

Activity Six -
Reading
Match the following questions with the appropriate answers.

Activity Seven -
Reading
Look at the Russian declaration form and answer the questions below.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is the persons surname?


What is the persons patronymic?
What is the persons nationality?
Is the purpose of his visit a) business, b) tourism or c) personal?
How much currency is the person carrying and in which denominations?
What is the full Russian phrase for customs declaration form?
What is the Russian for (i) drugs, (ii) radioactive materials?

A new ab initio Russian course

69

Activity Eight -
Reading/Speaking/Writing Answer the following questions in English relating to the
business cards below. Then write down your answers to the same questions in Russian with
reference to the box below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the persons first name?


What is the persons profession?
Where does the person live?
What is the number of the house/flat?
What is the persons telephone number?

Dbyjuhljdf kmuf Gtnhdyf


ghtgjlfdntkm
. Vjcrd
ek&* Ltrf,hcnjd^ l& 30^ rd& 67
ntk& 350 - 43 - 70**

H,byjd Vb[fk Fk trcylhjdbx


utkju
. Njv cr
gh&* Djccnybz^ l& 17^ rd& 95
ntk& 19 - 26 - 52

Gtcrd Bdy hmtdbx


by;tyh
. Rehcr
ek& Yjdjc t kjd***^ l& 40^ rd& 81
ntk& 63 - 09 - 98

Bctdf Vfhyf Cthutdyf


dhfx
Cfyrn-Gtnth,hu
gh& Rekmn hs^ l& 50^ rd& 106
ntk& 110 - 47 - 84

* Abbreviations: ek& = kbwf^ l& = ljv^ rd& = rdfhnhf^ gh& = ghjcgrn^ ntk& = ntktay
** Moscow has seven-digit numbers. 350 = nhcnf gznmltcn
*** Yjdjc/kjd - Russians usually omit the two dots (or diaeresis) in writing.

T/ pjdn kmuf&
Jy ghtgjlfdntkm&
kmuf ;bd/n d Vjcrd
yf kbwt Ltrf,hcnjd^
d lvt @ nhlwfnm^
d rdfhnht @ itcnmltcn ctvm&
T/ ntktay% 350 - 43 - 70&

Finally use the business cards and the model above as the basis for four interviews with your
partner. You should reverse the roles each time. The questions you should ask will be as
follows:
Rfr tu#t/ pjdn$
D rfrv lvt$
Rnj jy#jy gj ghjaccbb$ D rfrq rdfhnht$
Ult jy#jy ;bd/n$
Rfrq e ytuj # e yt/
ntktay$
ek& Ltrf,hcnjd
gh& Djccnybz
ek& Yjdjc/kjd

gh& Rekmnhs
yvth (=@)

70

Decembrists Street
Avenue of the Uprising
New Setttlers Street
Culture Avenue
number

rfrq
d rfrv (m) ... / d rfrq (f) ...?
(adjectives in prepositional case)
e ytu
e yt/

(In which block of flats?)


(In which flat?)
(What is his/her
telephone number?)

which(?), what (sort of)(?)


in which ...?
he has
she has
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

At the Bureau de Change

L,hsq ltym& Z [jnkf ,s gjvtynm dfkne&


L,hsq ltym& F rfrz e dfc dfknf$
E vty fyukqcrbt (1) __________________ b fvthbrycrbt (2) __________________.
{jhji& Crkmrj aynjd ds [jnnt gjvtynm$
F rfrq ctqxc rehc aynf$
Rehc aynf - 44 (chjr xtnht) he,k&
Z [jnkf ,s gjvtynm (3) __________________ aynjd&
F crkmrj lkkfhjd ds [jnnt gjvtynm$ Rehc lkkfhf - 31
(nhlwfnm jly) h,km&
- Z [jnkf ,s gjvtynm (4) __________________ lkkfhjd&

Chapter 4

Activity Nine -
Listening
Listen twice to the following dialogue and fill in the gaps in the partial
transcription below.

Activity Ten -
Speaking Act out the above dialogue in pairs, replacing the amounts you wish to
change with the following. You should change roles each time.
1.

(3)
(4)

180
$65

2.

(3)
(4)

75
$130

3&

(3)
(4)

125
$50

4&

(3)
(4)

48
$195

Activity Eleven -
Listening/Reading
A small group of masculine nouns take the Prepositional case
ending - (always stressed) after d and yf. With very few exceptions (e.g. fhjghn - d
fhjgjhn), they are monosyllabic (i.e. they consist of only one syllable). Look at the
pictures below and note where the people and objects are.
Ult Bdy$

Ult jxr$

Ult yyf$

Ult knf$

Jy d ktc&

Jy yf yjc&

Jy yf ,fk&

Jy d Rhsv&

z [jnk (m) ,s (+ infinitive)


z [jnkf (f) ,s (+ infinitive)
gjvtynm dfkne
ck;fobq (m) # ck;fofz (f)
crkmrj aynjd # lkkfhjd$
ds [jnnt($)
ldt # nhb # xtnht nczxb
ctqxc
A new ab initio Russian course

I would like
I would like
to change foreign currency
clerk, employee
how many pounds / dollars?
(do) you want(?)
two / three / four thousand
at the moment, now

rehc aynf
rehc lkkfhf
ktc (d ktc)
jxr
yjc (yf yjc)
,fk (yf ,fk)
knf
Rhsv (d Rhsv)

sterling exchange rate


dollar exchange rate
forest, wood
glasses, spectacles
nose
ball
Yalta (town in Crimea)
Crimea

71

Activity Twelve -
Reading
Look at the following pictures and, using the vocabulary at the foot of the
page, answer the questions below.

Ult yjckmobr$

Ult nfrc$

Ult ,fu;$

Ult cj,rf$

Activity Thirteen -
Reading
There is another common preposition (or before the vowels , , ,
, ) - about, which takes the Prepositional case. Note: when j is used before any of the
monosyllabic nouns above, the ending is -; (e.g. j vcnt - about the bridge). Look at
the front covers of these books and suggest what each is about.
e.g.

This is a book
about a dog.

nj ryuf
j cj,rt&

1&

2&

3&

4&

5&

6&

7&

8&

Activity Fourteen -
Speaking Which town are you thinking about? - J rfrv uhjlt ns
lvftim$
You should split up into pairs or groups and then run through the English alphabet from A to Z
each naming in turn a town beginning with the appropriate letter; e.g. the first player might
begin z lvf. j, F,thlyt, the second might say z lvf. j <cnjyt, the third z
lvf. j Rv,hbl;t and so on. You have five seconds to answer and you score one
point for each town you name. If you fail to think of a town or get the ending wrong you score
no points.
fhjghn (d fhjgjhn) airport
nfrc (n indeclinable)
taxi
vjcn (yf vjcn)
bridge

72

gjk (yf gjk) floor


cfl (d cfl)
garden
cgjhn
sport

gjknbrf politics
htkubz
religion
vpsrf
music

ylbz
India
lvfnm (I) to think

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

QUESTION ( J

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&

x/v$ # J rjv$

J x/v ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$
J ___ ns lvftim$

SUBJECT

irkf
;yobyf
aen,jkcn
gjhnakm
cj,rf
ve;xyf
yukbz
ktc

ANSWER ( Z

lvf. j #j, ____)

Z lvf. j irkt&
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______
Z lvf. _______

Chapter 4

Activity Fifteen -
Reading/Writing
The Prepositional forms of xnj (what) and rnj (who) are j
x/v (about what) and j rjv (about whom) respectively. Write out questions and answers
relating to the nouns below, using the completed example (no.1) as your model.

Activity Sixteen -
Listening/Reading
Listen to all the forms of the personal pronouns ( z, ns, jy,
jy, jy, vs, ds, jy) in the Prepositional case. Then listen again and match up the
different forms with the appropriate pronouns. (You will notice that the phrase for about me
is somewhat unusual.)
about me
about you (informal)
about him/it
about her/it
about it (n)
about us
about you (plural/formal)
about them

,j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j

yfc
y/v
ytq
dfc
yb[
nt,
vyt
y/v

Activity Seventeen -
Reading
Look at the picture of the Aeroflot ticket and answer the questions below.
You should refer to the vocabulary provided at the foot of the page.

1. What is the passengers full name?


2. Where was the passenger flying from?
3. Where was the passenger flying to?
j rjv ($)
j x/v ($)
;yobyf
ve;xyf

about whom (?)


about what (?)
woman
man

A new ab initio Russian course

,bkn
htqc
vcnj
dhvz jnghfdkybz

4. What was the flight number?


5. What was the departure date?
6. How much did the ticket cost?
ticket
flight number
seat, place
departure time

dhvz ghb,nbz
vfhihn (jn # lj)
gjclrf
d[jl

arrival time
route (from / to)
boarding
gate, exit

73

Activity Eighteen -
Listening
Listen to the following airport announcements, which are recorded on the
tape. You you should not expect to understand everything, but you should be able to
recognize the flight numbers, gate numbers and destinations. When you have heard all the
announcements once, listen to each of them again and fill in the gaps in the partial
transcription below.
1& J,]zdktncz htubcnhwbz ,bknjd b ,fu;f yf htqc @
dsktn.obq d

2& J,]zdktncz gjclrf yf htqc @

^ dsktn.obq d

3& Ghjbpdlbncz gjclrf yf htqc @


D[jl @

4& Gfccf;hjd^ dsktn.ob[ hqcjv @


ghczn ghjqn yf gjclre r d[jle @

Activity Nineteen -
Reading/Writing
Look at the following timetable and answer the questions below in
Russian. You should refer to the vocabulary list at the foot of the page.
VJCRD

KYLJY

fhjghn Ithtvnmtdj - 2

fhjghn {bnhe (nthvbyk 2)

(CFVJKN - <BYU 767)

Lyb ytlkb

Dhvz
jnghfdkybz

Dhvz
ghb,nbz

Xhtp

Htqc @

Gjytlkmybr

12.00

18.30

Gfh;

N194

Dnhybr

10.15

14.15

ghzvq

N192

C h tl

15.45

19.25

<thky

N087

Gnybwf

12.00

18.30

Gfh;

N194

Ce,,nf

10.15

14.15

ghzvq

N192

Djcrhtcymt

20.00

03.10

Dyf

N065

Xtndhu

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
dsktnnm (I)
ghb,sdnm (I)
ktnnm (I)

74

At what time does the plane leave for London on Monday?


On what days can you go to London via Paris?
Where does the plane stop on Wednesday?
At what time does the flight via Vienna arrive in London?
What is the number of the direct flight to London?
On what days can you take direct flights?
Via which city does the plane fly on Sunday?
On which day does the plane not fly?
At which terminal does the plane arrive in London?
What sort of plane is it?
to depart (flying)
to arrive (flying)
to fly

cfvjk/n
ghzvq
xhtp (+ accusative)

plane
direct
via
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You already know that the Accusative case is used after d (with verbs of movement, days and times). It
is also used after very many verbs. Nouns and pronouns which receive the action of the verb (i.e.
which have an action performed upon them) and which take the Accusative case without a preposition
are called direct objects. The direct object always answers the one-word question whom? or what?.

In Russian the direct object (or Accusative) form is usually the same as the standard, nominative forms
for masculine, neuter and plural nouns. However, when a feminine noun is at the receiving end of the
verb, the final - is replaced by -. Hence, to change currency is gjvtynm dfkne (not dfknf).

Chapter 4

ACCUSATIVE CASE (DIRECT OBJECTS)

Activity Twenty -
Listening/Reading
Listen to the following extract from a Russian childrens poem
and see how many feminine Accusative forms you can spot. Then read through it carefully
and make a note of all the feminine nouns in the Accusative case.
<FU: (C& Vfhir)
Lvf clfdkf d ,fu;
Lbdy^
X t vjl y ^
Cfrdj;^
R f hn y e^
Rjh p y e^
R f hn y re^
B vk tymre. cj,fxyre&
Dlfkb lvt yf cnywbb
Xtnht ptk/ys[ rdbnywbb
J njv^ xnj gjkxty ,fu;%
Lbdy^
X t vjl y ^
Cfrdj;^
Rfhnyf^
Rjh p y f ^
Rfhnyrf^
B vk tymrfz cj,fxyrf&
Ghb[fkb d uhjl :bnvbh&
Yjckmobr gznylwfnsq yvth
Dtp/n yf ntk;rt ,fu;%
Lbdy^
X t vjl y ^
Cfrdj;^
R f hn y e^
Rjh p y e^
R f hn y re^
F cplb dtln cj,fxyre&

Lvf clfdkf d ,fu;


Lbdy

A lady checked in
Settee

Cfrdj;

Grip

Rjhpyf
Rfhnyrf
vktymrfz cj,fxyrf

Basket
Hat-box
small dog

Dlfkb lvt yf cnywbb


Xtnht ptk/ys[ rdbnywbb
J njv^ xnj gjkxty ,fu;

They issued the lady at the station


Four green receipts
As proof that they had received her luggage

Ghb[fkb
gznylwfnsq yvth
Dtp/n yf ntk;rt

cplb dtln cj,fxyre

They have arrived


number fifteen
Carries on a trolley

behind (them) follows a small dog on a lead

Activity Twenty-One -
Speaking Look at the following list of objects and say which items are normally
checked in and which are not. (Remember the Accusative endings.)

J,xyj clfn d ,fu; &&& # yt clfn d ,fu; &&& (+ accusative)


Usually people check in ... / dont check in ...

gbfyyj xtvjlys cfrdj; cj,rf htdjkmdh gjhnakm ,v,f rirf


j,xyj

usually

A new ab initio Russian course

gbfyyj (n indeclinable)

piano

,v,f

bomb

75

Activity Twenty-Two -
Listening/Reading Just as some nouns change in the Accusative case, so too do
pronouns (cf. English: The lecturer knows me, him, her, us, them). The Accusative form
of rnj (who) is rju (whom), in which is pronounced . Listen to the different forms of
the personal pronouns (z, ns, jy, jy, jy, vs, ds, jy) in the Accusative case,
which are recorded three times. Then match up the various forms with the appropriate pronouns, in response to the following question:
Rju pytn ghtgjlfdntkm$
he knows me
he knows you (informal)
he knows him/it
he knows her/it
he knows it (n)
he knows us
he knows you (formal/plural)
he knows them

Who(m) does the lecturer know?*


jy
jy
jy
jy
jy
jy
jy
jy

pytn
pytn
pytn
pytn
pytn
pytn
pytn
pytn

dfc
b[
vty
tu
yfc
tu
nt,
t/

* The Accusative of xnj (what) is the same as the Nominative, hence What does the lecturer know? is
Xnj pytn ghtgjlfdntkm$

Activity Twenty-Three -
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and your partner plays the role of B.
Then reverse the roles.
A

Say hello. (formal)


Introduce your friend, Vadim.
Ask your partner whether he/she knows
his (i.e. Vadims) sister.
Say that she is called Svetlana.
Say that you do not know them.
Ask where they live.
Conclude the conversation appropriately.
A

76

Return the greeting.


Point out that you are already acquainted.
Say that you do not know her and ask
your partner what her name is.
Ask your partner if he/she knows Galina and
Marina.
Tell your partner that they know him/her.
Say that they live on prospekt Stachek.
Respond accordingly.
B

Say hello. (informal)


Ask him/her what the time is.
Ask him/her if he/she is reading the novel
(hjvy) Brothers Karamazov.
Say that you are reading a newspaper.
Say no, you always (dctul) read Pravda.
Ask him/her if he knows the magazine
(;ehyk) Krokodil.
Reply that you usually read Krokodil.
Say goodbye.
rju (pronounced rjd)
(accusative of rnj)
pyfnm (I)
ghjcgrn Cnxtr
hjvy
<hnmz Rfhfvpjds

whom

Return the greeting.


Reply that it is seven oclock.
Say yes, you are reading it and ask your
partner what he/she is reading.
Ask if it is Izvestiya.
Say that you also (n;t) read it.
Say that you know it but do not read it. Ask
him/her what magazine he/she usually reads.
Say you prefer (,kmit k.,k) Ogonek.
Reply appropriately.
Bpdcnbz
Ghdlf
dctul
Rhjrjlk

to know
Avenue of Strikes
novel
Brothers Karamazov (novel by
(z) ,kmit
Fyodor Dostoevsky, 1879 - 1880) k.,k

Izvestiya = News (daily paper)


Pravda =Truth (hard-line paper)
always
Krokodil = Crocodile (satirical
magazine)
I prefer (literally: I like more)
S azov (Russian from Scratch )


ns
jy#jy#jy
vs
ds
jy

xbn.
xbntim
xbntn
xbntv
xbntnt
xbn.n

ckif.
ckiftim
ckiftn
ckiftv
ckiftnt
ckif.n

lkf.
lkftim
lkftn
lkftv
lkftnt
lkf.n

u ek .
u ek t i m
u ek t n
u ek t v
u ek t n t
u ek .n

j nl s [ .
j nl s [ t i m
j nl s [ t n
j nl s [ t v
j nl s [ t n t
j nl s [ . n

Chapter 4

Activity Twenty-Four -
Listening/Reading
Revising type I verbs. Look at the following first conjugation
verbs, some of which you have already met: xbnnm (to read) ckifnm (to listen), lkfnm
(to do, make), ueknm (to go for a stroll), jnls[nm (to rest, go on holiday), dcnhtxnm
(to meet). In the list below you will find them in all their conjugated forms. Listen twice to the
telephone conversation on the tape and circle any forms of the verbs which you hear .
dcnhtx.
dcnhtxtim
dcnhtxtn
dcnhtxtv
dcnhtxtnt
dcnhtx.n

Activity Twenty-Five -
Listening Listen twice to the recording and fill in the table in English. In addition to
the vocabulary at the foot of the page, you will find the following phrases helpful:

ctulyz nfrz [jhifz gjulf (its such good weather today), e llb <hb (at Uncle Boryas),
r;tncz (it seems, apparently), (ns) xtv pfybvtimcz$ (what are you up to?), xhtp xfc (in an hour),
jy knbn r yfv bp Vjcrd (she is flying here from Moscow), ns hpdt yt pytim (dont you really
know?), ye^ yt ,le nt, ,kmit pflh;bdfnm (well, I wont detain you any longer).

Who is doing what?

Rnj xnj lk ftn$

Natasha (Yfnif)

Home alone, reading and listening to music

Tanya (Nyz)

Natashas children (lnb Yfnib)

Natashas husband (ve; Yfnib)


Tanyas husband (ve; Nyb)

Her husbands sister (ctcnh t/ v;f)

Activity Twenty-Six -
Listening Listen twice to the descriptions of peoples daily routines and fill in the grid
below in English. (Some of the answers are completed for you.)

VZ$

Ivan

LKFTN
P F D N H F R F T N $ RFR JY() J < L F T N $
LKFTN
:BYFTN$
XNJ JY()
P F HZ L RE $ DJ CRKMRJ$ LTN D
DJ CRKMRJ$ L J V I Y T T DJ CRKMRJ$ L K F T N
BYCNBNEN$
PFLYBT$
DXTHJV$

bus

12 oclock

Yuri

listens to
music

ueknm (I)
j,lfnm (I)
jnls[nm (I)
dcnhtxnm (I)

to go for a stroll
to have lunch
to rest, go on holiday
to meet

A new ab initio Russian course

rjyathywbz
lkfnm (I) pfhlre
pdnhfrfnm (I)
dj crkmrj$

conference
to do exercises
to have breakfast
at what time?

ljviytt homework
pflybt
;byfnm (I) to have supper
dxthjv
in the evening

77

GRAMMAR
THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE ENDING -/ (ALWAYS STRESSED) AFTER D AND YF

Nominative (xnj$)

fhjghn
,fk
Rhsv
ktc
vjcn
yjc
g jk
cfl
,htu
,jhn
uk f p
rhfq
k/l
kj,
keu
gjhn
gjcn
g h el
hjn

(airport)
(ball)
(Crimea)
(forest, wood)
(bridge)
(nose)
(floor)
(garden)
(shore, bank)
(side of ship, board)
(eye)
(edge)
(ice)
(forehead)
(meadow)
(port)
(post)
(pond)
(mouth)

Prepositional (ult$)
d f hjgjhn
yf ,fk
d Rhsv
d ktc
yf vjcn
yf yjc
yf gjk
d cfl
yf ,thtu
yf ,jhn
d uk fp
yf rhf
yf kml
yf k,
yf keu
d gjhn
yf gjcn
d ghel
dj hn

(soft ending)
(fleeting vowel, plus filling m )
(fleeting vowel)

(dj used for ease of pronunciation; fleeting vowel)

THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE AFTER O (ABOUT)


The endings are normally the same as with and &
MASCULINE
ljv
gjhnakm
nhfvdq
FEMININE
rdfhnhf
ntnhlm
Ahywbz
NEUTER
gbcmv
vht
plybt

(house)
(briefcase)
(tram)

j lvt
j gjhnakt
j nhfvdt

(about a/the house)


(about a/the briefcase)
(about a/the tram)

(flat)
(exercise-book)
(France)

j rdfhnht
j ntnhlb
j Ahywbb

(about a/the flat)


(about a/the exercise-book)
(about France)

(letter)
(sea)
(building)

j gbcmv
j vht
j plybb

(about a/the letter)


(about the sea)
(about a/the building)

The preposition changes to before the vowels , , , , .


jry
y uk b z

(window)
(England)

j, jry
j, yukbb

(about a/the window)


(about England)

The ending - is used after masculine nouns which take - / -


after and &
,htu
ktc
rhq

78

(shore, bank)
(forest, wood)
(edge)

j ,htut
j kct
j rht

(about the bank)


(about a/the forest)
(about the edge)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Nominative
rnj($)
xnj(?)
z
ns
jy#jy
jy
vs
ds
jy

Prepositional
j rjv($)
j x/v(?)
j ,j vyt
j nt,
j y/v
j ytq
j yfc
j dfc
j yb[

(about what(?))
(about whom(?))
(about me)
(about you)
(about him/it)
(about her/it)
(about us)
(about you)
(about them)

(Equivalents with () and )


(d#yf rjv($))
(d/yf x/v(?))
(yf#dj vyt)
(yf#d nt,)
(yf/d y/v)
(yf#d ytq)
(yf#d yfc)
(yf#d dfc)
(yf#d yb[)

Chapter 4

Pronouns

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE (DIRECT OBJECT)


Nouns and pronouns which receive the action of the verb without a preposition (i.e. which have an
action performed upon them) usually take the Accusative case. These nouns and pronouns are known
as direct objects. The direct object always answers the one-word question whom? or what?; e.g.
who(m) do you see in the park? - I see the girl (direct object = the girl), what do you see in the park? I see the bench (direct object = the bench).

The direct object (or Accusative) form is generally the same as the standard, nominative forms for
masculine, neuter and plural nouns.
MASCULINE
;ehyk
(magazine)

cnelyn xbntn ;ehyk

(the student is reading a magazine)

NEUTER
gbcmv

(letter)

cnelyn xbntn gbcmv

(the student is reading a letter)

PLURAL
ufpns

(newspapers) cnelyn xbntn ufpns

(the student is reading the newspapers)

However, when a feminine noun is at the receiving end of the verb, the final - is replaced by - and the
final - is replaced by -. The ending does not change if the final letter is -.
FEMININE
ryuf
ctcnh
n/nz
vfnm

(book)
(sister)
(aunt)
(mother)

cnelyn
cnelyn
cnelyn
cnelyn

xbntn ryue
pytn t/ ctcnh
pytn t/ n/n.
pytn t/ vfnm

(the student is reading a/the book)


(the student knows her sister)
(the student knows her aunt)
(the student knows her mother)

Pronouns
Nominative Accusative
rnj($)
xnj($)
z
ns
jy#jy
jy
vs
ds
jy

rju ($)
xnj($)
vty
nt,
tu
t/
yfc
dfc
b[

A new ab initio Russian course

rju jy ckiftn$
xnj jy ckiftn$
jy ckiftn vty
jy ckiftn nt,
jy ckiftn tu
jy ckiftn t/
jy ckiftn yfc
jy ckiftn dfc
jy ckiftn b[

(to whom is she listening?)


(what is she listening to?)
(she is listening to me)
(she is listening to you)
(she is listening to him/it)
(she is listening to her/it)
(she is listening to us)
(she is listening to you)
(she is listening to them)
79

80

Official invitation for a private visa

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER FIVE -
SHOPPING FOR FOOD

In Chapter Five you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

to find your way around a Russian supermarket


to say I have and I havent
to express a request
to ask about the price of food
to ask where somebody or something is from

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

adjectives (m, f, n, pl) in the nominative case


the prepositional singular of adjectives
the genitive singular of nouns
the genitive of personal pronouns
the numerals 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000

There are many places in Russia where people buy food.


Despite the appearance of the new western style supermarkets (cegthvhrtns or eybdthcvs ) and private
shops (xcnyst vfufpys), most people still shop at
the state-owned stores which are called ufcnhjyvs. In
a ufcnhjyv the choice is limited but prices are low. There
are also markets hyrb (sing. = hyjr) or ,fphs
which offer a wide choice, but prices tend to be high. Street
trading is a comparatively new phenomenon with small stalls
kfhmr (sing. = kfh/r) and kiosks (rbcrb) springing
up in every available space. Although their prices seem low,
the quality is sometimes very poor and they are best avoided.
Russian currency is based on the rouble (he,km) which
is divided into 100 kopecks (rjgqrf). Due to inflation,
the kopeck is now not used very frequently, although it
continues to exist.

cegthvhrtn / eybdthcv
xcnysq vfufpy
ufcnhjyv
hyjr / ,fph

82

supermarket
private shop
food store
market

rbcr
kfh/r
he,km (m)
rjgqrf

kiosk
stall
rouble
kopeck
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

$ - Which department is it?

nj

nj

nj

nj

nj

nj

vjkxysq jnlk
[k,ysq jnlk
h,ysq jnlk

dairy products department


bread department
fish department

A new ab initio Russian course

vzcyq jnlk
rjylnthcrbq jnlk
jdjoyq jnlk

Chapter 5

Activity One -
Writing Look at the pictures below of various departments in a Russian supermarket.
Choose the appropriate name for each department from the vocabulary list at the foot of the
page. Fill in the correct name above each picture.

meat department
confectionary
vegetable department

83

Activity Two -
Reading
Read and translate the following text. Complete the tasks after the text,
using the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.

Yfnif bl/n d ufcnhjyv


Ctulyz xtndhu& Yfnif [xtn ghbujndbnm drcysq j,l& Yj cyfxkf y;yj
regnm ghjlrns^ b Yfnif bl/n d ufcnhjyv& Pltcm v;yj regnm dc/^ rhvt
ahrnjd& Ahrns ghjlfncz yf hyrt&
Djn [k,ysq jnlk& Pltcm Yfnif gjregtn ,ksq [kt, b ,kjxrb& Gjnv
jy bl/n d vjkxysq jnlk b gjregtn ckdjxyjt vckj b gjke;hyjt
vjkjr& Gjnv jy bl/n d jdjoyq jnlk& Pltcm ghjlfncz cd;fz rfgcnf^
vjhrdm^ cfkn b lheut djob& Yfnif ds,bhtn ptk/ysq ghtw b rhcyst
gjvblhs&
h,yjv jnlkt ghjlf/ncz x/hyfz brh^ yj jy xtym ljhjuz& Yfnif
gjregtn nkmrj h,e&
B yfrjyw^ y;yj regnm xn-yb,elm yf ltchn& rjylnthcrjv jnlkt
Yfnif ds,bhtn ,jkmiq njhn&
1. All the words in bold are adjectives. Fill in the nouns they describe in the table below.
Indicate their gender, number and case. The first one is done for you.
adjective
drcysq
[k,ysq
,ksq
vjkxysq
jdjoyq
,jkmiq
ptk/ysq
ckdjxyjt
gjke;hyjt
cd;fz
ljhjuz
x/hyfz
rhcyst
d h,yjv
d rjylnthcrjv

noun
j,l

gender / number / case


masculine / singular / accusative

2. Complete the following rule:


In Russian the adjective always agrees with the noun it describes in ______________,
______________ and ______________.
3. What gender are the adjectives drcysq and jdjoyq?
4. Complete the following rule:
Hard masculine adjectives have the unstressed ending ______ and the stressed ending
_______.
84

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. Natasha buys some brown bread.


2. She buys butter at the dairy
department.
3. Then she goes to the fish
department.
4. At the vegetable department she
buys carrots and salad.
5. For pudding she chooses a big
cake.

(Ytn^ jy gjregtn* ,ksq [k,)


(
)

Chapter 5

Activity Three -
Reading/Writing Indicate whether the following sentences (based on Activity Two)
are True () or False () and correct the sentences in Russian where required. The first
sentence is done for you.

Activity Four -
Reading/Listening/Writing Read the following text and fill in the gaps choosing the
adjectives from the box below. Put the adjectives in the appropriate gender, number and
case. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
,ksq
gjke;hysq

cd;bq **
ckdjxysq

,jkmiq
;/knsq

rhcysq
x/hysq

ptk/ysq
ljhjuq

Ctulyz vs bl/v yf hyjr& Pltcm ghjlfncz hpyst ghjlrns% __________


djob b ahrns^ _________ vckj^ ________ h,f^ ________ brh^ f nr;t
[kt, b vcj& Vs gjregtv __________ [kt,^ ,jkmit _________ gjvblhs^
_________ ghtw b _________ vjkjr& X/hyfz brh xtym _________^ b vs
gjregtv h,e& Gjnv vs bl/v gjregnm ahrns& Vs ds,bhtv __________
,f y y s&
* You come across two verbs for to buy in this chapter: gjregnm (from which the present tense is
formed) and regnm. Do not worry about the distinction at this stage. This is dealt with in detail in
Chapter Fifteen.
**Some masculine adjectives have the ending -. This is determined by the spelling rule. See the
Grammar section for more details.

ghbujndbnm
jy [xtn
drcysq j,l
yj cyfxkf
y;yj
regnm
ghjlrns
rhvt ahrnjd
ghjlfncz
gjregnm (I)
,ksq [kt,
,kjxrf

to cook
she wants
delicious dinner
but first (of all)
it is necessary to
to buy
food
except for fruit
are sold
to buy
white bread
bread roll

A new ab initio Russian course

gjnv
ckdjxyjt
vckj
gjke;hyjt
vjkjr
cd;fz rfgcnf
vjhrdm (f)
cfkn
lheuq
djob
ds,bhnm (I)
ptk/ysq ghtw

then
butter
half fat milk
fresh cabbage
carrots
salad
other
vegetables
to choose
green pepper

rhcyst
gjvblhs
x/hyfz brh
ljhjuq
nkmrj
h,f
yfrjyw
xn-yb,elm
(yf) ltchn
njhn
;/knsq
,fyy

red
tomatoes
black caviar
expensive
only
fish
finally
something
(for) dessert
cake
yellow
banana

85

Activity Five -
Speaking/Writing Pairwork. Look at the following pictures of food products and
ask your partner in which department you can buy them. Use the model in the box below to
help you. Complete the sentences underneath each picture.
Note: an adjective in a phrase such as in the bread department should be used in the Prepositional case (since
it agrees with the case of the noun department). In order to use a masculine adjective in the Prepositional case,
simply remove the nominative masculine ending - and replace it with -:
d [k,y jnlk
in the bread department

[k,y jnlk
bread department

- Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^* d rfrv jnlkt v;yj regnm brh$


- Brh v;yj regnm d h,yjv jnlkt&
Ult nj v;yj regnm$

Where can I buy it?

H,e v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

Vjkjr v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

Ghtw v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

{kt, v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

Vcj v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

Njhn v;yj regnm d

jnlkt&

* Many requests in Russian start with direct phrases such as crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ &&& (tell me, please ...),
,lmnt lj,h &&& (be so kind ...) or ghjcnnt^ gj;keqcnf^ &&& (excuse me, please ...). These phrases are largely
interchangable.

86

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You will need to know how to form the Prepositional case of feminine adjectives, as the names of some shops in
Russian look like feminine adjectives. They are part of a small group of so-called adjectival nouns, which look like
adjectives, and change their endings in the same way as adjectives. In order to use a feminine adjective in the
Prepositional case simply remove the nominative feminine ending - and replace it with -:
,kjxy
bakery

Chapter 5

Activity Six -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner where it is possible to buy different products
in Russia. You should use the model in the box below and you may refer to the photographs
to help you.

d ,kjxy

at the bakery

- Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ rfrq nj vfufpy$


- nj ,kjxyfz&
- F xnj v;yj regnm d ,kjxyjq$
- D ,kjxyjq v;yj regnm &&&

Cardinal numbers (200 - 1,000)


200
300
400

ldcnb
nhcnf
xtnhtcnf

500
600
700

gznmcn
itcnmcn
ctvmcn

800 djctvmcn
900 ltdznmcn
1,000 n c z x f

Note: compound numerals are formed by placing simple numerals in sequence, exactly as in English; e.g. 456
(xtnshtcnf gznmltcn itcnm - four hundred and fifty-six)^ 1,973 (nczxf ltdznmcn cvmltczn
nhb - one thousand nine hundred and seventy-three)&
,kjxyfz
rjylnthcrfz

bakery
confectioners

A new ab initio Russian course

vfufpy vjkjr\
fgnrf

dairy products shop


chemist

87

Activity Seven - Ctlmvjt pflfybt


Listening /Writing
Listen twice to the following numbers and write them out in
figures. When you have checked your answers write the numbers out in full in Russian. The
first one is done for you.
1. 1,649
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Nczxf itcnmcn chjr ldznm

How much does it cost?

Crkmrj nj cnbn$

To ask the price of a single item, simply use the phrase crkmrj cn + a singular noun in the Nominative case:
Crkmrj cn vjkjr$
Crkmrj cn [kt,$
Crkmrj cn h,f$

How much is the milk?


How much is the bread?
How much is the fish?

If the noun that you want to ask about is plural, use the phrase crkmrj cn + a plural noun in the Nominative
case:
Crkmrj cn ,fyys$
How much are the bananas?
Crkmrj cn gjvblhs$
How much are the tomatoes?

Activity Eight -
Reading/Speaking
Read the following statements about the prices of various foodstuffs and fill in the price tags below in figures. Then ask your partner about the prices, using
the model in the box below to help you.
- Ghjcnnt^ gj;keqcnf^ crkmrj cnbn rjrf-rkf$
- Rjrf-rkf cnbn lcznm he,kq ,enkrf*&
* When you have to use the phrases per kilo/bottle or each simply say the price + the noun kilo/ bottle or
each in the Nominative case.

1&
2&
3&
4&

Njhn cnbn dctvmltczn he,kq rbkjuhvv&


<fyys cnzn ldlwfnm gnm he,kq rbkjuhvv&
Kbvys cnzn nh he,k inrf&
Vjkjr cnbn ldlwfnm jly h,km ,enkrf&

,fyys

,enkrf

88

bottle

njhn

inrf

each

vjkjr

rbkjuhvv

kbvys

kilogramme

kbvy

lemon

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Purchase

Price

Chapter 5

Activity Nine - Ltdznjt pflfybt


Listening
Listen to the following dialogues twice and find out what the people are
buying and the price of each purchase. Fill in your answers in English in the table below, using
the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

Per

1.
2.
3.
How to say Where are you from?
Where from is one word in Russian - jnrlf. Simply say jnrlf + the Nominative case of a
personal pronoun or noun:
Jnrlf ds/ns$
Where are you from?

Jnrlf jy/jy$
Where is he/she from?

Jnrlf Yfnif$
Where is Natasha from?

The answer to the above questions is expressed by the preposition (from) + the place name in the
Genitive.
If the place name is masculine the ending - is added: Kyljy (London) - bp Kyljy (from London).
If the place name is feminine the final - (or -) is removed and the ending - (or -) is added respectively:
Vjcrd (Moscow) - bp Vjcrd (from Moscow); yukb (England) - bp yukb (from England).
Jnrlf ds$

I am from Russia

Z bp Hjccb

Activity Ten -
Speaking/writing Look at the following pictures and say who these people are and
where they are from. Complete the sentences under each picture in Russian. Then find out
where your fellow students are from.

nj

nj

nj

Jy bp

Jy bp

Jy bp

dby
cjr

wine
juice

A new ab initio Russian course

gfrn
csh

carton
cheese

xfq

tea

89

A ctivity Eleven -
Reading
Read the newspaper advertisement below of a Russian import company
and answer the following questions in English. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page
to help you.

1.
2.
3.
4.

In which city is the company located?


What products are advertized for sale?
Which countries supply goods to the company?
What do you think the adjective wnhecjdst means? Why is it in the plural form?

Activity Twelve -
Speaking
Pairwork. Using the countries and products mentioned in the advert from
Activity Eleven, compose and act out dialogues along the lines of the following model.
- Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ jnrlf dfi c[fh$
- Yfi c[fh c* Erhfys&
* In Chapter 1 you learned that some nouns require instead of + the Prepositional case. These nouns require
/ instead of + the Genitive case; e.g. Erhfyt (in Ukraine) - c Erhfys (from Ukraine). Almost all
islands require + the Prepositional and accordingly require + the Genitive case.

rhgysq bvgjhn/h
dscjrjrxtcndtyysq
ghjlrns gbnybz
CYU
Tdhgf
X[bz
ghtlkfunm (I)

90

large importer
high quality
foodstuffs
CIS
Europe
Czech Republic
to offer

c/cj (+ genitive)
crkfl
c[fh
rat (m indeclinable)
Rbgh (yf Rght)
Wtqky
Ujkkylbz

from
warehouse
sugar
coffee
Cyprus
Sri Lanka
Holland

Erhfyf
vjkxyst
ghjlrns
lncrjt gbnybt
rjyans
vjkxysq
ijrjkl

Ukraine
dairy
products
baby food
sweets
milk
chocolate

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Personal pronouns (Nominative case)


Z
NS
JY
JY
JY
VS
DS
JY

Personal pronouns (Genitive case)


D FC
T? (YT?)*
Y FC
B{ (YB{)*
NT<
TU (YTU)*
VTY
TU (YTU)*

Chapter 5

Activity Thirteen -
Listening/Reading
Listen to the forms of the personal pronouns (z^ ns^ jy^ jy^
jy^ vs^ ds^ jy) in the Genitive case. Then listen again and match up the various
forms with the appropriate pronouns. One of them is done for you.

* Personal pronouns in the Genitive case are frequently used after the preposition in phrases expressing
possession (to have). When , , are used after a preposition, the letter y is added to the pronoun, so they
become , , (to facilitate pronunciation); e.g. e ytu/yt/ tcnm ljv$ - does he/she have a house?; e yb[
tcnm vfiyf$ - do they have a car?

Activity Fourteen -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner if he/she possesses any of the objects below.
You will need to know the Russian for do you have a + noun? - e dfc/nt, tcnm + noun in the Nominative
case?; e.g. e nt,/dfc tcnm ljv$ - do you have a house? If you want to give an affirmative reply, simply add lf
at the beginning of the sentence and change the personal pronoun to e vty to refer to youself; e.g. f^ e vty
tcnm ljv - yes, I have a house. If you want to give a negative reply, use the negative word ytn + e vty ytn +
noun in the Genitive case; e.g. ytn^ e vty ytn lvf - no, I dont have a house. Note: I dont have a watch =
e vty ytn xfcd&

A new ab initio Russian course

91

Activity Fifteen -
Writing
There are five differences in the following two pictures. Spot them and
complete the sentences below in Russian.

1. E ytu tcnm ____________________&


2. E ytu tcnm ____________________&
3. E ytu tcnm ____________________&
4. E ytu tcnm ____________________&
5. E ytu tcnm ____________________&

1. E ytu ytn ____________________&


2. E ytu ytn ____________________&
3. E ytu ytn ____________________&
4. E ytu ytn ____________________&
5. E ytu ytn ____________________&

Activity Sixteen -
Listening Listen to the dialogue. Although you will not understand everything, you
should be able to complete the table below. Use ticks to indicate which items the couple have
and which they do not have.
GHJLRNS
vckj
[k t,
,fyys
rat
cfkn
v jk j r
kbvys
vjhrdm
cjr
xfq
dby
csh
ghtw

92

TCNM

YTN

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

GRAMMAR
Adjectives are words which describe the quality of something, for example, red dress, fresh
bread, hot tea.
In Russian the adjective always agrees with the noun it describes in gender, case and number.
Therefore, if the noun is masculine, singular, nominative, the adjective must have a masculine,
singular, nominative ending; e.g. [k,ysq jnltk& This is also the form in which adjectives
appear in dictionaries.

Chapter 5

ADJECTIVES

Most adjectives have the following endings in the Nominative case:


Position of stress

Preceding
consonant
unstressed ending various
, , *
, , , *

stressed ending

any

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

[k,y
rjylnthc
cd

[k,y
[k,y
[k,y
rjylnthc rjylnthct rjylnthc
cd
cd
cd

jdjoyq

jdjoy

jdjoy

Plural

jdjoy

* Some endings are determined by the spelling rules:

(i) replaces after , , , , , and - lku (long), hccr, n[ (quiet), cd;, [jhi
(good), ujhx (hot), yfcnjo (real);
(ii) unstressed j is replaced by after , , and - cd;, [jhi, ujhx, yfcnjo.
Remember that the stressed ending - is used after any consonant.

There are also about thirty so called soft adjectives which end with - in the masculine
nominative form. They have the following endings:
Masculine
cy (blue)

form.

Feminine
cy

Neuter
cy

Plural
cy

Activity Seventeen -
Writing
Fill in the gaps in Russian using the following adjectives in the appropriate

1. d r c y s q
__________ dby^ __________ [kt,^ __________ h,f^ __________ ,fyys
2. c d ; b q
__________ vckj^ __________ njhn^ __________ rfgcnf^ __________ djob
3. l j h j u q
__________ brh^ __________ rat^ __________ ahrns^ __________ vjkjr

A new ab initio Russian course

93

Activity Eighteen -
Writing/Speaking/Listening Using the appropriate form of rfrq, make each of
the phrases from Activity Seventeen into (i) a question, (ii) an exclamation. Use the model
below to help you. Then listen to the tape to check your answers. Listen again and repeat
each phrase in the gap provided on the tape, trying to imitate the native speaker s intonation.
- Rfrt nj dby$ (What wine is it?)
- Rfrt drcyjt dby! (What delicious wine!)
1.

2.

3.

dby$

[k,$

h,f$

,fyys$

dby!

[k,!

h,f!

,fyys!

vckj$

nhn$

rfgcnf$

djob$

vckj!

nhn!

rfgcnf!

djob!

brh$

rat$

ahrns$

rjyans$

brh!

rat!

ahrns!

rjyans!

Singular adjectives in the Prepositional case


Like nouns, adjectives have a set of endings for each case. For the Prepositional case they are:
Adjective
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative case
[k,y/cd
[k,y/cd;
[k,y/cd
Prepositional case
d [k,y/d cd* d [k,y/d cd* d [k,y/d cd*
Prepositional case soft adj. d cy
d cy
d cy
* The endings - and - are determined by the spelling rule - the letter is replaced by after , ,
and in unstressed adjective endings& Remember that - (cy) is a soft ending, not a spelling rule.

Activity Nineteen -
Writing/Reading Put the adjectives in brackets in the appropriate form, and translate the sentences into English. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
1. Yfnif ;bd/n d (,jkmiq^ [jhibq) lvt& 2& D (rjylnthcrbq) jnlkt
v;yj regnm nhn^ ijrjkl b rjyans& 3& J (rfrq) akmvt ds
hfccrpsdftnt^ j (ahfywpcrbq) kb j (hccrbq)$ 4& D (rfrz) rvyfnt ;bdn
nb cnelyns^ d (,jkmiz) bkb (vktymrfz)$ 5& D (cd;tt) vjkjr vyuj
rkmwbz^ f d (cd;fz) vjhrdb vyuj rfhjnyf& 6& Z j,xyj gjreg. [k, d
(,kjxyfz)^ f yt d ufcnhjyvt& 7& D (cytt) vht dkys gkoen^ d (cytt) y,t
pd/pls ,koen&
hfccrpsdfnm (I) to talk, relate
rvyfnf
room
vktymrbq
small

94

vyuj
rkmwbq
rfhjny

a lot
calcium
carotene

vht
sea
dkys the waves
gkoen are lapping

y,j
sky
pd/pls the stars
,koen are shining

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You have already used forms of the Genitive case when talking about the time and prices.
Some of the forms you learned were singular (e.g. d 2 xfc) and some were plural (e.g. d 5
xfcd or 100 he,kq). The Genitive is always used after numbers above one. After two,
three, four and any other number which ends with two, three or four (but not 12, 13, 14)
nouns are used in the Genitive singular. From five onwards nouns are used in the Genitive
plural, which will be dealt with later.

Chapter 5

THE GENITIVE SINGULAR OF NOUNS

There are four basic endings for singular nouns in the Genitive case. They are -^ - (masculine
& neuter) and -^ - (feminine).
Masculine

(i) if the noun ends with a consonant simply add -:


Nominative
kbv
gjvbl

Genitive
ldf kbvf
xtnht gjvblf

(ii) if the noun ends with - or - replace it with -:


Nominative
h,k
xf

Genitive
nhb he,k
ldf xz

Feminine
All feminine nouns have exactly the same endings as in the Nominative plural and choice between - or - is governed by the same rules (see Chapter 1). But the Genitive singular can
differ from the Nominative plural in the position of the stress (as in the first example):
Nominative (singular)
ctcnh
rjgqrf
vjlkm
dakz (wafle)

Nominative (plural)
c/cnhs
rjgqrb
vjlkb
dakb

Genitive (singular)
nhb ctcnh
ldlwfnm xtnht rjgqrb
ldt* vjlkb
xtnht dakb

* The form ldt is used with feminine nouns.

Neuter
(i) if the noun ends with -^ replace it with -:
Nominative
gbcmv

Genitive
ldf gbcmv

(ii) if the noun ends with - replace it with -:


Nominative
vht

A new ab initio Russian course

Genitive
ldf vhz

95

The Genitive case is also used:


(i) to express the meaning of. For example, in the expression bottle of milk, the word of
is omitted in Russian and the noun milk has a Genitive ending; e.g. ,enkrf vjkjr&
(ii) after certain prepositions; e.g. bp/c (from), ,tp (without), e (by, near) etc.; e.g. rat bp
<hfpkbb - coffee from Brazil; xfq ,tp vjkjr - tea without milk; ljv e vhz - a
house by the sea.
(iii) with the word ytn and other negative expressions; e.g. e yc ytn vjkjr b xz (we
dont have any milk and tea).
Activity Twenty -
Writing
Look at the following pictures and complete the sentence below each picture in Russian, using a construction of the type nj ,enkrf vjkjr . The words for the
various containers are given in the vocabulary list at the foot of the page.

nj _____________________________

nj __________________________________

nj _____________________________

nj __________________________________

Note: only the second element of rrf-rkf declines; gtxymt is always singular; the masculine genitive
singular of vqcrbq is vqcrjuj , and rat is an indeclinable masculine noun!
rjh,rf
gtxymt

96

box
biscuit(s)

gxrf
,yrf

packet
jar
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

- Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ crkmrj cnbn nf rjh,rf vfhvtklf$


- 25 he,kq&
- F vfhvtkl cd;bq$
- L^ cd;bq&
- Njul z djpmv* rjh,re vfhvtklf b to/ gxre rfrj&

Chapter 5

Activity Twenty-One -
Reading/Listening
Listen to and translate the following dialogue. Use the
vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

* When a phrase containing the Genitive case, which expresses the meaning of , is used after a verb requiring the
Accusative case, only the first part of the phrase is put into the Accusative. The second part remains in the
Genitive case (z djpmv (+ acc) > rjh,re (+ gen) > vhvtkflf).

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing/Speaking Write out two dialogues of your own, using the dialogue from
Activity Twenty-One as a model, and then act out your dialogues in pairs.
Activity Twenty-Three -
Writing
Write down the answers to the following questions using the words in brackets
in the correct form (remember to use bp, c or ,tp as appropriate).
1. Jnrlf nb cnelyns$ (yukbz^ Hjccz^ Fvhbrf^ Bhy)

2. Jnrlf ds gjkextnt ufpns b ;ehyks$ (Vjcrd^ Kyljy^ Ym.-Qhr)

3. Jnrlf bl/n Vfrcv$ (eybdthcbnn^ ,b,kbjnrf^ gxnf^ dcnfdrf^ rby)

4& Ds [jnnt xfq ,tp vjkjr$ (say yes and without c[fh^ v/l^ dfhymt)*

* Russians sometimes drink tea with honey or jam instead of sugar .

vfhvtkl
njul
z djpmv (+ acc)
rfrj (n indeclinable)
gjkexnm (I)
A new ab initio Russian course

fruit jellies
then
Ill have
cocoa
to receive

gxnf (yf gxnt)


dcnfdrf (yf dcnfdrt)
rby (n indeclinable)
v/l
dfhymt

post office (at the post office)


exhibition (at the exhibition)
cinema
honey
jam

97

98

- bon apptit!

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER SIX -
I CANT HEAR YOU VERY WELL! - !
In Chapter Six you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

to use the telephone


to say how old you are
to express likes and dislikes (using the verb )
to shop for clothes

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

expressing possession (to have)


the numerals 1,000 +
impersonal expressions and the dative case (pronouns and singular nouns)
the accusative of adjectives

Activity One -
Writing
The Russian for a female telephone operator is, as you already know,
ntktajybcnrf. See how many Russian words you can make in 5 minutes using these
letters. (The letters and may each appear twice in words.)

Until recently, using the telephone in Russia posed quite a problem and
required both patience and perseverance. It was often difficult to get
through and reception could be very poor. Most long-distance and
international calls on public phones had to be booked in advance at the
central telegraph office (wtynhkmysq ntktuha) or a head postoffice (gjxnvn). However, the situation has changed for the better in
the last few years. About half the population now has a mobile phone
(vj,kmysq ntktay or cjnjdq ntktay), and in big cities it is
possible to phone virtually anywhere from a public phone ( ntktayfdnjvn or nfrcja y), using coins ( vjy ns), a phone card
(nfrcja yyfz gkfcn rjdfz rhnjxrf) or even a credit card
(rhtl nyfz rhnjxrf).

Activity Two -
Reading The words and phrases below are all associated with telephoning. By using
the knowledge of Russian which you have already acquired and a process of deduction, see
if you can identify their meaning from the jumbled-up list of equivalent English terms. (You
will find the answers in the vocabulary section.)
gjhnfndysq ntktay^ ntktajyhjdfnm^ ntktajybpwbz^ ntktayyfz cnywbz^
ujdjhnm gj ntktaye^ ntktayyfz ,lrf^ fdnjvj,kmysq hflbjntktay^
ntktayysq hfpujdh^ vj,kmybr&
to speak on the telephone, portable phone, telephone installation, telephone conversation,
mobile, carphone, telephone booth, to telephone, telephone exchange
100

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq

Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq
Nehcn(rf)
Ck;fobq

- Plhdcndeqnt& V;yj pfrfpnm hfpujdh c Iaabkljv*$


- V;yj^ rjyxyj& Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ d rfrq cnhfy
yf[lbncz Iaabkl$
- Iaabkl yf[lbncz d Dtkbrj,hbnybb^ nj tcnm d yukbb&
- Ctqxc ,ltnt ujdjhnm$
- Lf^ ctqxc&
- Yvth f,jyynf^ gj;keqcnf&
- Yvth f,jyynf$ Z yt gjybv.&
- Rfrq yvth ds yf,bhtnt$
- F-f-f^ ctqxc gjynyj& Z yf,bh. 269-18-75 (ldcnb itcnmltcn
ldznm - djctvylwfnm - cvmltczn gznm)&
- F ds yt pytnt rjl uhjlf$
- Py.& Rjl - 0114 (yjkm - cnj xtnhyflwfnm)&
- Pyxbn 044-114-269-18-75 (yjkm chjr xtnht - cnj
xtnhyflwfnm - ldcnb itcnmltcn ldznm - djctvylwfnm cvmltczn gznm)& Rju ds dspsdtnt$
- Tu afvkbz - lfvc^ f vz Rhcnjath&
- Yf crkmrj vbyn$
- Yf gznm vbyn^ gj;keqcnf&
- Gznm vbyn& nj 115 (cnj gznylwfnm) he,kq&
- Gkfnnm dfv$
- Lf^ vyt&
- Gj;keqcnf& (Hands over the money)
- Djn dif clxf& <lrf yvth gznm& :lnt^ gj;keqcnf^ e
ntktayf&
- Cgfc,j&
- Lj cdblybz!

Chapter 6

Activity Three -
Listening/Reading/Speaking
Read and listen to the following text about booking
an international phone call and then take it in turns to play the parts of the speakers.

* = with Sheffield - you will learn this construction in Chapter 7.

Activity Four -
Speaking Pairwork. Using the above dialogue as your model, make up two similar
conversations in a telegraph office, taking the names and telephone numbers of friends or
relatives. (Or if you cannot recall a suitable number, invent friends in, say, Brighton [01273]
and Aberdeen [01224].) Reverse the roles after the first dialogue.
Remember: in Scotland = d Ijnkylbb, in Wales = d Ekmct, in (Northern) Ireland = d (Cdthyjq)
Bhkylbb, in America = d Fvhbrt, in Canada = d Rfylt. If a number has five digits, you should split
it up into two elements of three and two (e.g. 45897 = 458 97) and if it has six digits you should refer to three twofigure numbers (e.g. 918462 = 91 84 62).
v;yj($)
pfrfpnm
hfpujdh
cnhfy
yf[lbncz
Dtkbrj,hbnybz
n tcnm
,ltnt ujdjhnm?
yvth f,jyynf

one can, can one?


to book
conversation
country
is situated
Great Britain
i.e.
will you speak?
subscribers no.

A new ab initio Russian course

gjybvnm (I)
yf,bhnm (I)
gjynyj
rjl uhjlf
yjkm = yekm
pyxbn
dspsdnm (I)
yf crkmrj
vbyn?

to understand
to dial
understood
town code
zero, nill
thats to say
to call
for how many
minutes?

yf 5 vbyn
115 he,kq
gkfnnm dfv$
vyt (dative)
clxf
,lrf
;lnt
e ntktayf

for 5 minutes
115 roubles
do I pay you?
(to) me
change
booth
wait
(here:) by the
telephone

101

Activity Five -
Reading/Speaking Read the following statements about prices and write them out in
figures on the products below. Then interview your partner about the prices. (Your question
will, of course, be Crkmrj cnbn &&&$ each time.)
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Dby cnbn ldcnb chjr he,kq&


Njhn cnbn cnj ldtylwfnm he,kq&
Csh cnbn ltdzycnj ctvm he,kq&
Vcj cnbn dctvmltczn gznm he,kq&
Gdj cnbn ldlwfnm gznm he,kq&
{kt, cnbn icnm he,kq gznmltcn rjgtr&

Cardinal numbers (1,000 +)

Below are the numbers from1,000 onwards. (You have already learnt the numbers 1 to 100 in
Chapter Two and 200 to 1,000 in Chapter Five.) After 10,000 you will recognize the recurring
patterns and forming larger numbers should pose few serious problems.
1^000
2^000
3^000
4^000
5^000
6^000
7^000
8^000
9^000
10^000

( jl y )
nczxf
ldt
nhb
nczxb
xtnht
gznm
itcnm
ctvm
nczx
dctvm
ldznm
lcznm

20^000
100^000
200^000
1^000^000
2^000^000
3^000^000
4^000^000
5^000^000
20^000^000
100^000^000

ldlwfnm
cnj

ldcnb
( jl y )
ldf
nhb

xtnht
gznm
lcznm

cnj

nczx
v b k k b y*
v b k k b y f*
vbkkbyjd

* The forms vbkkby and vbkkbyf equally apply in numbers such as 21,000,000 and 22,000,000.

Activity Six -
Listening/Writing
Listen twice to the following numbers and jot them down in
figures. When you have checked your answers write the numbers out in full in Russian. To
help you, the first one is done for you.
1& 7896
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
102

Ctvm nczx djctvmcn ltdzycnj itcnm___________________________

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. 998345
2. 356729
3. 1076354

4. 728018
5. 42217
6. 601844

7. 9015534
8. 304066
9. 85623

Chapter 6

Activity Seven -
Speaking/Writing First, read out the following telephone numbers in Russian. Then
write them out in full, paying particular attention to spelling. (Remember that seven-digit
numbers split up into three elements of three, two and two [e.g. 579-85-91], that six-digit
numbers split up into three equal elements of two [e.g. 88-17-11] and that five-digit numbers
split up into two elements of three and two [e.g. 338-29].)
10. 2948670
11. 665941
12. 5171282

Activity Eight -
Listening Listen twice to the following telephone numbers in Russian and write them
down in the spaces provided below. To help you, the first one is done for you.
1. 1845932
2. _______
3. _______

4. _______
5. _______
6. _______

7. _______
8. _______
9. _______

10. _______
11. _______
12. _______

Activity Nine -
Listening/Reading/Speaking Read and listen to the transcript of the following
telephone call and then take it in turns to play the parts of the speakers.
Yyf
Cntgy
Yyf
Cntgy
Yyf

Cntgy

Yyf

Cntgfy
Yyf
Cntgy

Fkk!
Gjghjcnt Yfnie^ gj;keqcnf&
Dfc gk[j ckiyj& Ujdjhnt uhvxt&
Yfnie^ gj;keqcnf&
Ds^ yfdhyjt^ ji,kbcm yvthjv& Rfrq yvth ds
yf,bhtnt$
79-64-23 (cvmltczn ldznm - itcnmltcn xtnht - ldlwfnm
nhb)&
nj 79-64-32 (cvmltczn ldznm - itcnmltcn xtnht nhlwfnm ldf)&
Bpdbynt^ gj;keqcnf&
Ybxtu& Lj cdblybz&
Lj cdblybz&

Gjghjcnt Yfni - Accusative case

Remember that the direct object of the verb (i.e. Yfnfif) goes into the Accusative case.
fkk! (used on phone)
gjghjcnt (imperative)
dfc gk[j ckiyj
ujdjhnt (imperative)

A new ab initio Russian course

hello!
ask for, call
I cant hear you
(very) well
speak

uhvxt
yfdhyj(t)
ds ji,kbcm yvthjv
bpdbynt
ybxtu

louder
probably
youve got the wrong number
sorry, excuse me
(here:) it doesnt matter

103

Activity Ten -
Listening/Reading/Speaking Read and listen to the transcript of the following
telephone call and then take it in turns to play the parts of the speakers.
Cntgy
kmuf
Cntgy
kmuf
Cntgy
kmuf
Cntgy
kmuf

Fkk$
Z dfc ckif.&
nj Yfnif$
Ytn^ nj yt Yfnif&
F Yfnie v;yj$
Jy pltcm e; yt ;bd/n& Gjpdjynt gj yvthe 15-74-89&
{jhji& 15-74-89& Cgfc,j ,jkmit&
Gj;keqcnf& Lj cdblybz&

Activity Eleven -
Listening/Reading/Speaking Listen to the telephone conversation and fill in the gaps
in the partial transcription below. When you are sure that you know all the missing words,
read through the conversation in pairs.
Yfnif
Cntgy
Yfnif
Cntgy
Yfnif
Cntgy
Yfnif
Cntgy
Yfnif
Cntgy

Yfnif Cntgy Yfnif Cntgy -

Fkk! Ckif.&
_______________& nj ns^ Yfnif$
Lf^ e ntktayf&
nj _______________ Cntgy& Gvybim vty$
Rjyxyj gvy.&
Z cydf d ________________& E nt, tcnm cdj,lyjt dhvz$
Lf^ tcnm&
Lfdq dcnhnbvcz&
Lfdq& F rjul$
Xhtp___________ e d[lf d {hfv {hbcn Cgfcntkz& Ns pytim^
ult yf[lbncz {hfv {hbcn Cgfcntkz$
Ytn^ yt_____________&
nj cjdcv ydjt plybt& Nfv^ ult hymit yf[jlkcz jnrhnsq
,fccqy `Vjcrd\&
Lf^ ctqxc gvy.& Lj _______________!
Gjr!
RUSSIAN TELEPHONE ETIQUETTE

There are many more standard telephone expressions in Russian than in English. When making a call Russians
usually say Fkk! (sometimes pronounced Fk/!), which may be followed by the name of the town (e.g. Fkk!
Vjcrd$). The most frequent response is either Fkk! or Z dfc ckif.^ Ckif. dfc or simply
Ckif. (literally: I hear you). Russians rarely give their names when they pick up the receiver, although if

they expect the call to be for them personally they sometimes reply E ntktayf (literally: On/By the phone).
If they wish to identify themselves they may, of course, use the phrase nj ujdjhn &&& (literally: this is ...
speaking). When the quality of the line is poor, you will often hear Russians remark Dfc (or Nt,) gk[j
ckiyj or Z dfc (nt,z) gk[j ckie (I cant hear you very well).
(z dfc) ckif.
v;yj (gjghjcnm) (+ acc) $
e; yt
gjpdjynt gj
yvthe
e ntktayf
nj ujdjhn &&&
gvybim vty$
gvy. (nt,)

104

yes, speaking
can I speak
to ...?
no longer
call (number)
..., ring ...
speaking
... speaking
remember me?
I remember you

cydf
e nt, (tcnm) &&&$
cdj,lyjt dhvz
lfdq dcnhnbvcz
rjul ($)
xhtp xfc
e d[lf d (+ acc)
{hfv {hbcn
Cgfcntkz

again
do you have?
spare time
lets meet
when (?)
in an hour
by the
entrance to
Cathedral of
Christ the
Saviour

ult yf[lbncz &&&$


cjdcv ydsq
hymit
f[jlkcz (m)
jnrhnsq
,fccqy
lj dcnhxb

where is ...
(situated)?
brand new
previously
was
situated
open(-air)
swimmingpool
till we next
meet

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

{HFV {HBCN CGFCNTKZ


In 1931 Stalin decided to destroy one of the most
powerful symbols of Russian Orthodoxy, the
imposing 19th century Cathedral of Christ the
Saviour, situated in the heart of Moscow. In its
place Khrushchev ordered the construction of a
huge open-air heated swimming pool, named
Moskva. In a seemingly extravagant act of
reconciliation with the past, the mayor of
Moscow, Luzhkov, resolved to rebuild the
cathedral on its original site.

Chapter 6

CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST THE SAVIOUR

Activity Twelve -
Listening Listen to the following recordings of Russians stating their age and fill in the
details below. The first one is done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Anna Pavlovna
Galya
Boris Ivanovich
Yuri Popov
Svetlana

46
__________
__________
__________
__________

6. Viktor Luzhkov
7. Nelya Sergeevna
8. Pyotr
9. Katya
10. Pavel Oblomov

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

Activity Thirteen - Nhbyflwfnjt pflfybt


Reading
Look at the picture of the Kuligin family and identify the names and ages of
the family members, using the description below.

nj Rekubys& Djn lleirf^ Bdy Gdkjdbx^ b ,,eirf^ Vfhz Gtnhdyf&

Tv dctvmltczn ctvm ktn^ f tq dctvmltczn itcnm ktn& nj b[ csy^ Dfkhbq


Bdyjdbx& Tv itcnmltcn ktn& Tu ;ty pjdn Trfnthyf& Tq gznmltcn itcnm
ktn& E yb[ ldt ltnq^ Hfcf b ujhm& Bv nhlwfnm ktn b ldlwfnm ldznm
ktn& Hfcf hfpdtlty^ b e yt/ jly ht,/yjr^ Gnz& Tve gznm ktn&

ldt ltnq

two children

A new ab initio Russian course

jy hfpdtlty

she is divorced

ht,/yjr

child

105

HOW OLD ARE YOU?

CRKMRJ NT< (DFV) KN$

When Russians talk about age they say to me ... years, to you ... years etc., which is expressed by use
of the Dative case. You have already met most of the Dative forms of the personal pronouns: to me =
vyt, to you = nt, or dfv (see above), to him = tv, to her = tq, to them = bv.

Activity Fourteen -
Writing Work out the Russian for the English phrases on the left-hand side by
matching up the ages on the right with the appropriate personal pronouns in the middle. (The
only unfamiliar form is done for you.)
He is eighteen years old

Vyt

ldlwfnm gznm ktn

She is eleven years old

Nt,

ldznm ktn

You (formal/plural) are thirty-six years old

Tv

ltdzycnj ctvm ktn

We are twenty-five years old

Tq

djctvylwfnm ktn

They are seventy years old

Yfv

jlyyflwfnm ktn

I am ninety-seven years old

Dfv

cvmltczn ktn

You (informal) are nine years old

Bv

nhlwfnm itcnm ktn


//
>
The most common form of the word for years is , as you already know; e.g. Crkmrj nt, ktn$
(How old are you?) - Vyt jlyyflwfnm ktn& (I am eleven years old.). However, for reasons which
will become clear later in the course, after the number one you must use the word ; e.g. tv jly
ujl (he is one year old), tq ldlwfnm jly ujl (she is twenty-one years old). After two, three and
four you must use the form ; e.g. tv nhb ulf (he is three years old), tq nhlwfnm xtnht
ulf (she is thirty-four years old), dfv cnj ldf ulf (you are a hundred and two years old).

Activity Fifteen -
Speaking Establishing the ages of other students in the class. Every student in the
class should ask every other student his or her age Crkmrj nt, ktn$ or Crkmrj
dfv ktn$ if you wish to be more formal. The student being questioned can either tell the
truth or make up an alternative age. The questioner then has to decide whether the age
suggested is ghdbkmyj (correct) or ytghdbkmyj (incorrect). If the questioner guesses
correctly the interviewee will respond ns ghd() or, more formally, ds ghds (youre
right), but if he/she gets it wrong, the response will be ns yt ghd() or ds yt ghds.
If the questioner is right he/she gets a mark, if not, the interviewee gets the mark. However ,
the interviewee will get no marks if the questioner spots a mistake in his/her use of the forms
ujl, ulf and ktn. The winner is the student who emerges with the largest overall number
of marks.
106

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. You are on holiday in Moscow and you have fallen ill. You have gone to the
gjkbrkybrf (the equivalent of your local medical centre or GPs surgery) and the receptionist asks to take down your details. Reverse the roles when you have completed the
scene.
Your role

Chapter 6

Activity Sixteen -
Speaking Role-play

Your partners role - the receptionist

Say hello.
State your first name and your surname.
Give your nationality.
Say that you are living in the Hotel Rossiya.
State your age.
Thank the receptionist.

Respond appropriately. Ask the patient for


his/her name.
Ask the patient what nationality he/she is.
Ask him/her where he/she is living in Moscow.
Ask him/her how old he/she is.
Tell the patient to take a seat. ( Cflntcm)

2. You have been asked by the local police to find out some basic information about a
(non English-speaking) Russian tourist who has got lost from his/her party. Reverse the roles
when you have completed the scene.
Your role

Say hello and introduce yourself.


Ask the tourist his/her name.
Ask him/her where he/she is living.
Ask for his/her age.
Ask him/her if he/she has a passport.
Ask if he/she knows London well.
Tell him/her not to worry. (Yt ,tcgjrqntcm)
and offer him/her a seat.

Russian tourist

Respond appropriately.
Give a suitable Russian name.
Say in a hostel (j,ot;nbt) in Enfield.
State your age.
Reply that your passport is in the bus.
Say no.
Express your gratitude.

Activity Seventeen -
Writing Write a short description of your family in Russian, giving their names, ages,
where they live and other relevant information (e.g. their nationality, their interests/hobbies,
their jobs and their place of work).
You may find the phrases below helpful. (Do not worry about the endings and other unfamiliar forms they will all be explained at a later stage.)
gge#jnw pjdn &&&
vve#vfnm pjdn &&&
vj[ hjlntktq pjdn &&&
e vty jly ,hfn^ e vty
ldf#nhb#xtnht ,hnf
e vty jly ctcnh^
e vty ldt#nhb#xtnht
ctcnh
lleire pjdn &&&
e vty ldt#nht#
xndthj ltnq
cyf pjdn &&&
vj[ ltnq pjdn &&&
ggt &&& ujl#ulf#ktn

cflntcm^ gj;keqcnf
A new ab initio Russian course

(my) father/dad is called ... tu pjdn &&&


(my) mum/mother is called ... t/ pjdn &&&
my parents are called ...
b[ pjdn &&&
I have one brother,
,hnf#vj[
two/three/four brothers
,hnmtd pjdn &&&
I have one sister,
ctcnh#vj[ ctcn/h
two/three/four sisters
pjdn &&&

he is called ...
she is called ...
they are called ...
my brother/s
is/are called ...
my sister/s
is/are called ...

(my) grandfather is called ... ,,eire pjdn &&&


(my) grandmother is called...
I have two/three/
four children
(my) son is called ...
ljxm pjdn &&&
(my) daughter is called ...
my children are called ...
dad is ... years old
vvt &&& ujl#ulf#ktn mum is ... years old
please take a seat

yt ,tcgjrqntcm (imperative)

do not worry

107

Activity Eighteen -
Listening/Writing As you will have noticed in the exercise above, not only do the
personal pronouns change in the Dative case, but nouns also change their forms. There are
four basic endings: , -, -, -:
(m) Bdy > Bdye, Dfckbq > Dfckb., exntkm > exntk.
(f) yyf > yyt, n/nz > n/nt, Vfhz > Vfhb

Listen to the statements about the following people and fill in their ages in the gaps below.
The first one is done for you. When you have completed the listening task, write out the
nominative form of the people mentioned.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Cdtnkyt Bdyjdyt _____ ktn&


<jhce Ybrjktdbxe _____ ktn&
Cnelyne _____ ktn&
Cnelynrt _____ ktn&
<,eirt _____ ktn&
Fylh. Cljhjde _____ ktn&
K.lvkt Gtnhdyt _____ ktn&
Ghtgjlfdntk. _____ ktn&
Yfl;lt Dfckmtdyt _____ ktn&
Dbnkb. Lvnhbtdbxe _____ ktn&

Activity Nineteen -
Reading
The Dative case is also used in a wide range of impersonal expressions,
such as Bdye crxyj - Ivan is bored (literally: To Ivan it is boring). (For a more
comprehensive list of impersonal expressions, see the Grammar section.)

Drnjhe [jhji&

Pbyflt crxyj&

A/ljhe dctkj&

Ldeirt [kjlyj&

Bv ntgk&

Vkmxbre gk[j&

Tv yhdbncz ukma&

Tq yhdbncz nyybc&

ht yhdzncz rjyans&

crxyj
dctkj
ldeirf

108

bored
happy
girl

[kjlyj cold
ntgk
warm
vkmxbr boy

(dative) yhdbncz (+ nom. singular)


(dative) yhdzncz (+ nom. plural)

... like(s) (+ object),


(subject) please(s) ...

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Name
Ivan
Mariya
Yuri
Igor
Alya
Yekaterina

Likes a lot
Beer

Quite likes

Dislikes
Coffee

Chapter 6

Activity Twenty -
Listening Listen to the recording in which members of the Petrov family talk about
which drinks they like and dislike and complete the table below. Some of the items are
already filled in. (All the drinks are given in alphabetical order at the foot of the page,
together with other essential vocabulary.)

Tea

Note: n;t - also (used when the object is the same but the subject is different); (f) nr;t - also, likewise (broader
usage - can be used when the subject is the same). See Chapter Thirteen, p. 241.

Activity Twenty-One -
Speaking Now agree upon the choice of six drinks with your partner, but do not tell
each other your order of preference. You should ensure that there is one drink which you like
a great deal, another four which you like to varying degrees (to be listed in declining order of
preference) and a sixth which you positively dislike. Your objective is to try to establish in
the least number of goes possible each others order of preference, by asking the question Nt, yhdbncz &&&$ or Dfv yhdbncz &&&$, if you wish to be more formal. If you
very much like the drink mentioned you should reply Lf^ vyt ,kmit dctu yhdbncz
&&& or Lf^ vyt xtym yhdbncz &&& and if you strongly dislike the drink mentioned you
reply Ytn^ vyt cjdcv yt yhdbncz &&& . Otherwise, you reply in every case Lf^
vyt yhdbncz &&&^ yj vyt ,kmit yhdbncz &&& and you name the drink which is
next highest on your list. This activity can, of course, be repeated with other subjects such as
different football teams.
Activity Twenty-Two -
Speaking/Writing
Answer the following questions in writing, then use the questions
as the basis for interviewing your partner about his/her likes and dislikes.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&

Nt, (Dfv) ,kmit yhdbncz xfq kb rat$


Nt, (Dfv) yhdbncz gjknbrf$
Nt, (Dfv) ,kmit yhdbncz utjuhabz kb bcnhbz$
Nt, (Dfv) yhdbncz rkfccxtcrfz vpsrf$
Nt, (Dfv) ,kmit yhdbncz gjg-vpsrf kb l;fp$
Nt, (Dfv) yhdbncz aen,k$
Nt, (Dfv) yhdbncz Ekmzv Itrcgh$
Rfrq uhjl nt, (dfv) ,kmit dctu yhdbncz$

dby
rrf-rkf
rjymr
kbvjyl
gdj

wine
coca-cola
cognac
lemonade
beer

A new ab initio Russian course

vyt ,kmit dctu yhdbncz &&&


vyt ,kmit yhdbncz &&&
vyt cjdcv yt yhdbncz &&&
xfq

I like ... most of all


I prefer ... (literally: I like ... more)
I do not like ... at all
tea

109

Activity Twenty-Three -
Reading
Logic exercise. Five schoolchildren (Natasha, Boris, Lyena, Ivan and
Marina) were asked to place Russian, Maths, History, Latin and English in declining order of
preference. They all agreed that thay had one subject which they liked a great deal, one
which they strongly disliked and three which they liked to varying degrees. However ,
remarkably, none of them placed any of the subjects in exactly the same position as any of
the others. Below are the details of their preferences.
Yfnit yhdbncz fyukqcrbq zpr^ yj ,kmit yhdbncz vfntvnbrf&
<jhce yhdbncz bcnhbz^ yj ,kmit yhdbncz fyukqcrbq zpr& Kyt
yhdbncz kfnycrbq zpr b xtym yhdbncz vfntvnbrf& Bdye cjdcv
yt yhdbncz vfntvnbrf^ yj tv yhdbncz kfnycrbq zpr& Bdye
nr;t xtym yhdbncz bcnhbz& Vfhyt yhdbncz b bcnhbz^ b
vfntvnbrf^ yj tq cjdcv yt yhdbncz hccrbq zpr& <jhce ,kmit
yhdbncz fyukqcrbq zpr^ xtv Yfnit& Yfnit ,kmit yhdbncz
fyukqcrbq zpr^ xtv Bdye& Kyt cjdcv yt yhdbncz fyukqcrbq
zpr& Bdye ,kmit yhdbncz hccrbq zpr^ xtv kfnycrbq zpr b
,kmit yhdbncz kfnycrbq zpsr^ xtv fyukqcrbq zpr& Kyt ,kmit
yhdbncz hccrbq zpr^ xtv bcnhbz& Yfnit n;t ,kmit yhdbncz
hccrbq zpr^ xtv bcnhbz& Vfhyt ,kmit yhdbncz bcnhbz^ xtv
vfntvnbrf^ b tq yhdbncz vfntvnbrf ,kmit^ xtv kfnycrbq zpr&
Kyt ,kmit yhdbncz kfnycrbq zpr^ xtv Bdye& <jhce ,kmit
dctu yhdbncz hccrbq zpr&
Now, by putting the appropriate subjects in the correct squares below, see if you can work
out the order of preference of each of the children. (No.1 represents the children s favourite
subject, while No.5 is the subject which they liked least of all.)

Remember: strong dislike is expressed by the phrase &&& cjdcv yt yhdbncz &&&, while
strong liking is expressed either by &&& ,kmit dctu yhdbncz &&& or by &&& xtym
yhdbncz &&& Note that since none of the children placed a single subject in the same
position as any of the others you should have different subjects in each column, both horizontally
and vertically.
Yfnif

<jhc

Kyf

Bdy

Vfhyf

1
2
3
4
5
hccrbq zpr
vfntvnbrf
110

Russian (language)
mathematics

kfnycrbq zpr Latin


fyukqcrbq zpr English

b &&& b
xtv

both ... and


than

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity Twenty-Four -
Listening/Reading/Speaking
Read and listen to the following text about shopping
for clothes and then take it in turn to play the parts of the speakers.
- Plhdcndeqnt! Xtv z vju dfv gjvxm$
- Gjrf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ vt[jd. igre&
- Gj;keqcnf&
- Crkmrj jy cnbn$
- 580 (gznmcn dctvmltczn) he,kq& Ghbvhmnt&
- Jy vyt dtkbr& F vymit e dfc tcnm$
- Ytn^ e yfc nkmrj ,jkmit hfpvhs&
- F x/hyst r;fyst gthxnrb e dfc tcnm$
- Djn^ gj;keqcnf& Gjcvjnhnt&
- Jy vyt vfk& <kmibt gj hfpvhe tcnm e dfc$
- Tcnm& Ghbvhmnt&
- nj rfrq hfpvh$
- Ctlmvq*&
- {jhji^ jy vyt rfr hfp& Crkmrj jy cnzn$
- 320 (nhcnf ldlwfnm) he,kq&
- Lqnt^ gj;keqcnf^ ldt ghs&
- nj 640 (itcnmcn chjr) he,kq
- Cgfc,j& Lj cdblybz!

Chapter 6

G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm
G h jl f d w
Gjregntkm

* Ctlmvq (Seventh) = Size 7. Russian sometimes uses ordinal numbers where English uses cardinal numbers.

Activity Twenty-Five -
Speaking You are in a Russian shoe shop and you have seen a pair of black shoes
which you really like. You play the part of the customer and your partner the role of shop
assistant. Reverse roles when you have completed the scene.
Customer

Say hello.
Ask the assistant to show you the black leather
shoes (nakb) and say how much you like them.
Say that you are size 37.
Say that they are big on you.
Say thank you and ask how much they cost.
Tell the assistant that you will take them.

ghjlfdw (ghjlfdowf)
gjregntkm(ybwf)
xtv z vju dfv gjvxm$
gjrf;nt (imperative)
vt[jdq
igrf
ghbvhmnt (imperative)
jy(-^ -^ -) vyt
dtkr (-^ -^ -)
vymit
nkmrj
,jkmiq hfpvh
x/hysq
A new ab initio Russian course

shop assistant
customer, shopper
(how) can I help you?
show (me)
fur
hat
try (it/them) on
its (they are) big
on me
smaller, less
only, just
large size
black

Sales assistant

Say hello and ask how you may help.


Ask the customer what size he/she is.
Say that you only have size 38 and ask the
customer to try them on.
Tell the customer that you have some very
nice shoes in brown (xtym rhfcdst
rjhxytdst nakb), size 37.
Say that they cost 980 roubles.
Say thank you and goodbye.

r;fysq
gthxnrb (sing. gthxnrf)
gjcvjnhnt (imperative)
jy(-^ -^ -) vyt
vfk (-^ - ^ -)
,kmibq (-fz^ -tt^ -bt)
gj hfpvhe
tcnm e dfc$ = e dfc tcnm$
jy (-^ -^ -) vyt
rfr hfp
lqnt ldt ghs
rjhxytdsq
nakb (sing. nakz)

leather
gloves
have a look
its (they are) small
on me
bigger size (literally:
according to size)
do you have?
it is (they are) just
right on me
Ill have two pairs
brown
shoes

111

GRAMMAR
EXPRESSING POSSESSION (TO HAVE)

You have now met the majority of the forms used for expressing possession. As you will have noticed,
there is no verb to have in Russian. Instead, Russians say e vty (tcnm) &&& in my possession (is)
... (etc.). The full forms are as follows:

e
e
(pronounced e ytd) e
e
e
e
e
1) E rju tcnm vzx$
Who has a ball?

vty (tcnm)
nt, ( t c n m ) (informal)
ytu ( t c n m ) (m & n)
yt/ ( t c n m )
yfc ( t c n m )
dfc ( t c n m ) (formal/plural)
yb[ ( t c n m )

I have
you have
he/it has
she/it has
we have
you have
they have

Use of the word tcnm to denote existence


E vty tcnm&
I do.

2) E rju vzx$*
Who has the ball?

E vty&
I have.

In the first example, the question aims to establish the existence of the ball. In the second example, the
existence is not in doubt - the question seeks merely to identify the location of the ball.

Omission of tcnm with adjectives

The word tcnm is therefore usually omitted in statements where the noun is qualified by an adjective,
since in such cases we tend to be more concerned with the quality of an object than with its existence.
1) E vty tcnm vzx&
I have a ball.

2) E vty ydsq vzx&


I have a new ball.

Use of tcnm with adjectives to provide supplementary information

The word tcnm is, however, used with adjectives when their function is merely to provide supplementary information about an object, (in cases where the existence of the object is already established). By
extension, therefore, tcnm is used when the adjective is seen more or less as an integral part of the
noun.
1) E vty tcnm ,ksq vzx&
I have got a white ball.

2) E vty tcnm nyybcysq vzx&


I have got a tennis ball.

In the first example, the adjective white merely serves to give us a clearer idea of what the ball looks
like. In the second example, tennis ball is virtually a single entity .

Use of tcnm in questions

Hence, tcnm is commonly used in questions (even when the noun is qualified by an adjective), since
questions frequently seek to establish the existence, rather than the quality, of an object.
1) E nt, tcnm ydsq vzx$ Lf^ tcnm&
Do you have a new ball?
Yes, I do.
Use tcnm for:

2) E nt, ydsq vzx$


Lf^ yjdsq&
Do you have the new ball? Yes, the new one.

SUMMARY OF USES

1) Existence
2) Existence & supplementary information

Do not use tcnm for:

1) Quality (=adjectives)
2) Location

* All italicized words are stressed. We are indebted to Robert L. Baker, who provides a useful summary
of the main points listed here in Russian for Everybody, Sixth Edition, pp. 165 - 166.
112

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE DATIVE CASE

There are four basic endings for nouns in the Dative case, which are illustrated below by the use of the
preposition (towards, to [someones place]) The endings are -^ - (masculine & neuter) and -^ -
(feminine).
MASCULINE
d h fx
nhfvdq
g h t g jl f d n t k m
NEUTER
jry
vht
plybt
FEMININE
vtlctcnh
Nyz
y uk b z
gkoflm

(doctor)
(tram)
(lecturer)

[r] dhfx
[r] nhfvd.
[r] ghtgjlfdntk.

([to] the doctor[s] )


([towards] the tram)
([to] the lecturer)

(window)
(sea)
(building)

[r] jry
[r] vh.
[r] plyb.

([to] the window)


([towards] the sea)
([towards] the building)

(nurse)
(Tanya)
(England)
(square)

[r]
[r]
[r]
[r]

([to] the nurse)


([to] Tanya[s])
([towards] England)
([towards] the square)

vtlctcnh
Nyt
yukbb
gkoflb

Chapter 6

SINGULAR ENDINGS OF NOUNS

Note: masculine nouns ending in - or - (e.g. ggf or Rkz) are treated the same as feminine
nouns.

Pronouns
Nominative

Dative

rnj($)
xnj($)

rjv ( $ )
xtv($)

z
ns
jy
jy
vs
ds
jy

vyt
nt,
tv
tq
yfv
dfv
bv

(to/for [etc.] whom?)


(to/for [etc.] what?)

(to/for [etc.] me)


(to/for [etc.] you)
(to/for [etc.] him)
(to/for [etc.] her)
(to/for [etc.] us)
(to/for [etc.] you)
(to/for [etc.] them)

Dative (with prepositions)

[r#gj] rjv ( $ )
[r#gj] x t v ( $ )

[rj#gj] v y t
[r#gj] n t ,
[r#gj] y t v
[r#gj] y t q
[r#gj] y f v
[r#gj] d f v
[r#gj] y b v

Activity Twenty-Six - Ldflwfnm itcnjt pflfybt


Writing
Translate the following phrases into Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I am going to the doctor s.


He is going towards the building.
We are going to Ivans place.
She is going towards the park.
They are going to Anna Petrovnas.
Are you [ns] going to Boris Petrovs?
I am going to (see) the nurse.
Are you [ds] going to Natalya Ivanovnas?

A new ab initio Russian course

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113

MAIN USES OF THE DATIVE CASE

1. Impersonal constructions
Sensations and feelings

vyt (etc.) ... [jhji^ gk[j^ kxit^ [;t^ dctkj^ uhcnyj^ bynthcyj^ crxyj^ ntgk^ ;hrj^
liyj^ [kjlyj^ el,yj^ cnhiyj^ niyj
I feel/am (etc.) ... fine, poorly, better, worse, happy, sad, interested, bored, warm, hot, suffocated, cold,
comfortable, terrified, sick
Age

vyt (etc.) jly ujl


ldf#nhb#xtnht ulf
gznm > ldlwfnm ktn

(ldlwfnm jly ujl^ nhlwfnm jly ujl)


(ldlwfnm ldf#nhb#xtnht ulf)
(ldlwfnm gznm#itcnm#ctvm#dctvm#ldznm ktn)

Note: the form ujl is used only when the number actually ends in jly (e.g. 21, 31, 41, 81, 101) and the form
ulf is used only when the number actually ends in ldf#nhb#xtnht (e.g. 22, 32, 43, 73, 104). Hence, I am
eleven = vyt jlyyflwfnm ktn and I am twelve = vyt ldtylwfnm ktn.

Likes and dislikes


vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)

(yt) yhdbncz &&& (+ singular subject - Nominative case)


(yt) yhdzncz &&& (+ plural subject - Nominative case)
,kmit dctu yhdbncz &&& # yhdzncz &&&
,kmit yhdbncz &&& # yhdzncz &&& ^ xtv &&&
cjdcv yt yhdbncz &&& # yhdzncz &&&

Expressions containing verbs


vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)

yt dhbncz (^ xnj &&&)


r;tncz^ xnj &&&
ghtlcnjn (+ infinitive) &&&
ghb[lbncz (+ infinitive) &&&
ckletn (+ infinitive) &&&
[xtncz (+ infinitive) &&&

Set phrases

vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)
vyt (etc.)

;km^ xnj &&&


ylj (+ infinitive) &&&
y;yj (+ infinitive) &&&
y;ty (+ m. sing. noun - nom.)
ye;y (+ n. sing. noun - nom.)
ye;y (+ f. sing. noun - nom.)
ye;y (+ pl. noun - nom.)
gjh (+ infinitive) &&&
dc/ hfdy

Idiomatic usage (relating to clothes)

jy (- -^ ) vyt (etc.) bl/n


jy vyt (etc.) bln
jy (-^ -^ -) vyt (etc.) dtkr (-^ -^ - )
jy (-^ -^ -) vyt (etc.) vk (-^ -^ -)
jy (-^ -^ -) vyt (etc.) rfr hfp
jy (-^ -) vyt (etc.) gjljql/n
jy vyt (etc.) gjljqln
114

I (do not) like ...


I (do not) like ...
I like ... most of all
I like ... more than ...
I do not like ... at all

I do not believe it; I cannot believe that ...


it seems to me that ...
I have to ..., I am to ... (i.e. the necessity awaits me)
I must ..., I have to ...
I ought to ...
I want to ...

Im sorry that...
I must ..., I have to ...
I must ..., I have to ...
I need ...
I need ...
I need ...
I need ...
it is time for me to ...
I dont mind (literally: its all the same to me)

it suits me
they suit me
it is (they are) big on me
it is (they are) small on me
it is (they are) just right on me
it will suit me (i.e. meet my requirements)
they will suit me (i.e. meet my requirements)
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The Dative case is used to express to or for (with living objects), after verbs such as to give, to say/
speak, to write, to show, to buy etc. In these examples the Dative form is known as the Indirect
object.
lqnt vyt (etc.), gj;keqcnf^ hxre
jy vyt (etc.) dctul ujdjhn ytn\
jy gitn vyt (etc.) gj-hccrb
gjrf;nt vyt (etc.)^ gj;keqcnf^ vzx
jy vyt (etc.) xcnj gjregtn hps

please give the pen to me; please give me the pen


she always says no to me; she always tells me no
he writes to me in Russian
please show the ball to me; please show me the ball
he often buys roses for me; he often buys me roses

Chapter 6

2. To express the indirect object (to or for)

There are many other verbs (which you will meet in later chapters) that also take the Dative case. These
include: dhbnm (to believe), pdjynm (to ring), gjvjunm (to help), gjpdjknm (to permit, allow),
hfphtinm (to allow), hfccrpsdfnm (to relate, narrate, tell) and cjdnjdfnm (to advise).

3. After the prepositions , and


The prepositions r (to [someones place], towards), gj (along, according to, by etc.) and, less commonly, djghtr (in spite of) are also followed by the Dative case. Several examples of r are given in
the section on singular endings and you have also met gj in several set phrases.
z bl r dhfx
jy bl/n rj vyt
vs bl/v (gj yfghfdkyb.) r ghre
jy bln r ,,eirt

I am going to the doctor s


he is coming to my place
we are going towards the park
they are going to grandmother s

rnj jy# gj ghjaccbb$


rnj jy# gj yfwbjykmyjcnb$

what is his/her job? (lit.: who is he/she by profession?)


what is his/her nationality (lit.: who is he/she by
nationality?)
it is (they are) the right size (lit.: it is/they are according
to size)
ring (number) ..., call (number) ...
an exam in physics
on the radio/television
go along the street
in my opinion
in spite of advice, despite the advice

jy (-^ -^ -) gj hfpvhe
gjpdjynt gj yvthe &&&
rpvty gj apbrt
gj hlbj#ntktdpjhe
blnt gj kbwt
gj vjtv vyyb.
djghtr cjdne

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Writing
Write out the Russian for the following ages, paying particular attention to
the Dative case and the forms j, and .
1. Ivan is 67 years (old)
2. She is 35 years (old)
3. Petya is 2 years (old)
4. I am 44 years (old)
5. Marina Pavlovna is 28 years (old)
6. Fyodor Petrovich Karamzin is 31 years (old)
7. He is 53 years (old)
8. They are 12 years (old)
9. Sergei Alexandrovich is 59 years (old)
10. Grandmother is 91 years (old)
A new ab initio Russian course

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115

THE ACCUSATIVE OF ADJECTIVES


You have already been introduced to the Accusative case of nouns in Chapter Four and you learnt about the
Nominative forms of adjectives in the previous chapter.
In this chapter you have come across several adjectives in the Accusative case. Masculine and neuter
Accusative adjective endings are usually the same as in the nominative case, but the feminine forms - and
- change to - and -, respectively.
MASCULINE (no change)
Djn b gbl;r&
Vvf vyt gjregtn b gbl;r&
Djn ukcner&
Z gjreg. tv ukcner&

Here is the red and (dark) blue jacket.


Mum is buying me the red and (dark) blue jacket.
Here is the (light) blue tie.
I am buying him the (light) blue tie.

NEUTER (no change)


Djn b gfkmn&
Ggf vyt gjregtn b gfkmn&
Djn gknmt&
Z tq gjreg. gknmt&

Here is the green and (dark) blue coat.


Dad is buying me the green and (dark) blue coat.
Here is the yellow dress.
I am buying her the yellow dress.

FEMININE (- changes to -; - changes to -)


Djn igrf&
Z nt, gjreg. igr&

Djn ,rf&
Ns vyt gjregtim ,r$

Here is the black hat.


I am buying you the black hat.

Here is the (dark) blue skirt.


Are you buying me the (dark) blue skirt?

PLURAL (no change)


Djn nakb&
Vjq ,hfn vyt gjregtn nakb&
Djn gthxnrb&
Z gjreg. ctcnh gthxnrb&

Here are the brown shoes.


My brother is buying me the brown shoes.
Here are the grey gloves.
I am buying my sister the grey gloves.

Activity Twenty-Eight -
Writing Write out the Russian for the following, paying particular attention to the adjective
endings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

116

Mum is buying me a black jacket.


I am buying her a (light) blue coat.
He is buying me a red dress.
I am buying mum grey shoes.
Dad is buying me a green hat.
I am buying you a red tie.
My brother is buying me the yellow gloves.
My sister is buying me a new brown coat.
I am buying him a (dark) blue jacket.
Are you buying me a (dark) blue skirt?

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S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 7

CHAPTER SEVEN -
AT THE HOTEL -
In Chapter Seven you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

to book a hotel room


to register
to find your way around the hotel
to make general requests
to say there is/are (not)

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ordinal numerals
the declension of titles
the instrumental singular of nouns and personal pronouns (after c)
the accusative case to express duration of time
the verbs to want () and to speak, say, tell ()
When looking for accommodation in Russia, the traveller
is presented with several possibilities. Western-style
hotels have now appeared in major cities. They are of
high quality but the rooms (yjvth) are often very
expensive. The old Intourist hotels, which once were the
best available, now tend to occupy the middle range.
Municipal hotels are cheap but standards are generally
low. They often have inadequate plumbing, periods
without hot water and poor hygiene. (You may need to
know the Russian word for cockroach - nfhfry!).

118

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Note: floors in Russian are numbered differently than they are in English. The English ground floor is
called the first floor (ghdsq n;) in Russian and so on up.

Chapter 7

Activity One -
Listening
The tape outlines the facilities available at an hotel in St. Petersburg.
Listen to the recording twice and complete the tables below. In the first table tick any
facilities which you hear mentioned. Listen again and indicate in the second table where the
different facilities are located. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

Ordinal numbers (first, second etc.) decline like hard adjectives with the endings - /-, except for
nhnbq. Like adjectives, ordinal numbers agree in gender, case and number with the noun they qualify.
For further details, see the Grammar section.

Facilities
restaurant

car-park snack- bar satellite swimming- sauna


hairbar
TV
pool
dresser

car
hire

currency
exchange

Gr.
1st
2nd
3rd
4th

Activity Two -
Speaking Pairwork. Using the information from Activity One, say which facilities
are present in the hotel and which are not. Use the following model as a guide:
Xnj tcnm d ujcnybwt $ - D ujcnybwt tcnm ,fh&
Xtu ytn d ujcnybwt $ - D ujcnybwt ytn ,hf&
You will need to know the Russian for there is / are - tcnm + Nom and there isnt / arent - ytn +
Genitive.
Note: the English word order is different from Russian; e.g. d ujcnybwt tcnm ,fh - there is a bar in the
hotel; d ujcnybwt ytn ,hf - there isnt a bar in the hotel.
ujcnm (m) / ucnmz (f)
ljhjut ucnb
eckub
r dibv eckufv bv.ncz
,ean
,fccqy
geyrn gj j,vye dfkns
gfhbrv[thcrfz
ceyf
A new ab initio Russian course

guest
dear guests
services
for your use there are
snack-bar
swimming-pool
currency exchange office
hairdresser
sauna

ghjrn / fhylf vfiy


fdnjcnjyrf
cgnybrjdjt ntktdltybt
hfcgjk;tys
ghdsq n;
dnjhq n;
nhnbq n;
xtnd/hnsq n;
gnsq n;

car hire
car-park
satellite TV
are situated
ground fioor
1st floor
2nd floor
3rd floor
4th floor

119

Activity Three -
Writing / Speaking
Pairwork. Look at the tables below and write down where the
various facilities are located in each hotel. Then repeat the activity orally. Use the following
model as a guide:
- Ult yf[lbncz gfhbrv[thcrfz d ujcnybwt Tdhgf / d Tdhgt$
- Jy yf[lbncz yf dnjhv nf;&
Note: if the names of hotels are quoted, they are declined, unless they are preceded by ujcnybwf
(hotel), which is itself declined, instead.

n;

ujcnybwf Hjccz

n;

ujcnybwf Tdhgf

You will need to know the Russian for it is situated in/on ... - jy/jy/jy yf[lbncz d/yf
+ Prepositional; e.g. ,fh yf[lbncz yf xtnd/hnjv nf; - the bar is situated on the fourth floor (3rd
floor in the UK).
When asking questions, remember that the English word order is different from the Russian; e.g. ult
yf[lbncz ,fh$ - where is the bar situated?

Activity Four -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner the role of B, then
reverse the roles. Use vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
A (guest)
Say good afternoon.
Ask whether there is a bar in the hotel .
Ask where it is situated.
Say thank you.

Give an appropriate reply.


Give an affirmative reply.
Say it is situated on the ground floor.
Respond appropriately.

Say good morning.


Ask whether there is a fax at the hotel.
Ask where the nearest fax is situated.
Say thank you.

Give an appropriate reply.


Give a negative reply.
Say it is situated at the hotel Metropole .
Respond appropriately.

Tdhgf
yf[lbncz
flvbybcnhnjh
nhtyf;/hysq pfk
geyrn vtlbwycrjq gvjob
gjxndsq obr

120

B (receptionist)

Europe
is situated
receptionist
gym
first aid room
post box

afrc
rjyathyw-pfk
crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf
,kb;qibq
Vtnhjgkm (m)

fax
conference room
could you tell me please
nearest
Metropole

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Fyrnf ucnz
afvkbz
vz^ nxtcndj
yvth gcgjhnf
wtkm gjplrb
chjr ght,sdybz
ljviybq lhtc

Chapter 7

Activity Five -
Reading/Writing Upon arrival at a hotel all guests are required to fill in a registration
form (fyrnf ucnz) like the one given below. Read the form using the vocabulary list at the
foot of the page and try to fill it in.

ltkjdz^ kxyfz^ nehpv


c ...
gj ...

lnf

glgbcm

Activity Six -
Reading /Speaking After registration all guests are issued with a guest card. This is
used to re-enter the hotel and collect the room key. Look at the card below and answer the
following questions in Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Rfr pjdn ucnz$


Rfrq e ytu yvth rvyfns$
Crkmrj lytq jy ,ltn ;bnm d ujcnybwt$*
D rfrv uhjlt yf[lbncz ujcnybwf$
Rfrq yvth ntktayf d ujcnybwt$
Rjul d ujcnybwt hfcx/nysq xfc$

* To answer this question you will need to know the Russian for (for) 1, 2, 3 ... days:
1 (jly)
2 (ldf)
3 (nhb)
4 (xtnht)
5 (gznm )

wtkm (f) gjplrb


ltkjdz gjplrf
kxyfz gjplrf
nehpv
chjr ght,sdybz # ghj;bdybz
c &&& (+ gen) gj &&& (+ acc)
ljviybq lhtc
A new ab initio Russian course

ltym
lyz
lyz
lyz
lytq

purpose of the trip


business trip
private trip
tourism
length of stay
from ... until ...
home address

(for) one day


(for) two days
(for) three days
(for) four days
(for) five days

lnf
glgbcm (f)
yvth rvyfns
crkmrj lytq
,ltn ;bnm
hfcx/nysq xfc
ghjlkybt

date
signature
room number
(for) how many days
(he/she) will stay
check-out time
extension

121

Irregular verb to want - [jnnm


This verb combines the personal endings of the 1st and 2nd conjugations and doesnt conform to any of the patterns of regular verb types.
Singular (1st conjugation)

Plural (2nd conjugation)

z [jx
ns [xtim
jy/jy/jy [xtn

vs [jnv
ds [jnnt
jy [jnn

I want
you want
he/she/it wants

we want
you want
they want

Activity Seven -
Listening/Reading The following is a dialogue between a hotel receptionist and a
family of three (mother, father and teenage daughter). Listen to it and repeat it with your
partner.
Jnw
Flvbybcnhnjh
Jnw
Flvbybcnhnjh
Jnw
Flvbybcnhnjh
Vfn m
Ljxm
Vfnm
Flvbybcnhnjh
Jnw
Flvbybcnhnjh
Vfn m
Flvbybcnhnjh
Vfn m
Flvbybcnhnjh
Jnw
Flvbybcnhnjh
Vfn m

Plhdcndeqnt^ vs [jnv pfrfpnm ldf yvthf&


L,hsq ltym^ rfrt yjvth ds [jnnt$
Jly lde[vcnysq yvth b jly jlyjvcnysq&
B yf crkmrj lytq ds [jnnt pfrfpnm yjvth$
Yf nhb lyz&
F rfrt yjvth ds [jnnt - c litv kb c dyyjq$
C dyyjq^ gj;keqcnf&
F z [jx c litv^ ckb v;yj&
Ye^ [jhji& Jly yvth c dyyjq b jly c litv&
Z vju ghtlkj;nm dfv 4-sq kb 8-q* 'n;&
F yf 1-jv kb 2-v 'nf; e dfc ybxtu ytn$
R cj;fkyb.^ ytn&
Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ f kban e dfc d ujcnybwt tcnm$
Lf^ tcnm&
Ye^ njul yf 4-jv 'nf;&
Pfgkybnt fyrns^ gj;keqcnf&
Ujndj&
Cgfc,j& Dib yjvth - 425-sq** b 426-q&*** Djn
dib rk.x& :tk. dfv ghbnyjuj nls[f&
- Cgfc,j&

*
djcmvq 'n;
** xtnhtcnf ldlwfnm gnsq
*** xtnhtcnf ldlwfnm itcnq
pfrfpnm (+ acc)
yvth (pl. yjvth)
lde[vcnysq yvth
jlyjvcnysq yvth
yf crkmrj lytq ...?
yf nhb lyz
lei
c litv
ckb v;yj
dyyf

122

to book, order
hotel room
double / twin room
single room
for how many days ...?
for three days
shower
with a shower
if possible
bath

c dyyjq
z vju ghtlkj;nm
e dfc ybxtu ytn$
r cj;fkyb.
kban
pfgkybnm (+ acc)
pfgkybnt (imperative)
ujndj
;tk. dfv ghbnyjuj
nls[f

with a bath
I can offer
do you have anything?
unfortunately
lift
to fill in
could you fill in
its done
I wish you a pleasant
stay

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&

Jy [jnn pfrfpnm ldf yvthf


Ljxm [xtn yvth c dyyjq
Jnw b vfnm [jnn yvth c litv
Jy [jnn pfrfpnm yjvth yf nhb lyz
Ljxm ,ltn ;bnm d jlyjvcnyjv yvtht
D ujcnybwt ytn kanf
Jy [jnn ;bnm yf xtnd/hnjv nf;

Chapter 7

Activity Eight -
Listening/Reading Listen to the dialogue again and indicate whether the following
statements are True (G) or False (Y). The first answer is already provided for you.
G

INSTRUMENTAL CASE (with the preposition c)


The preposition c (with) takes what is called the Instrumental case. The main meaning of c is with,
accompanied by:
yvth
z [jx ,snm
csy

c dyyjq
c dvb
c jnwv

a room with a bath


I want to be with you
a son with his father

The endings of the Instrumental singular of nouns are:


m
ntktay/ujcnm
c ntktayjv
c ucntv

Nom (hard/soft)
Instr (hard)
Instr (soft)

f
dyyf/n/nz
c dyyjq
c n/ntq

n
jry/gkt
c jryv
c gktv

Activity Nine -
Speaking Role-play. Make up a new traveller - receptionist conversation. You play
the role of A and your patner plays the role of B. Then reverse the roles. You should refer to
the vocabulary list at the foot of the page.
A (traveller)

B (receptionist)

Say good evening.


Ask whether they have any vacant rooms.
Say you would like to book a single
room with a TV and telephone.

Return the greeting.


Give an affirmative reply.
Say all rooms have TVs and telephones, and
ask whether your partner wants a room with
a shower or bath.
Say you can offer single rooms on the ground
floor or on the 10th floor.
Ask how many days the traveller wants a
room for.
Say: O.K. and ask the guest to fill in a
registration form.
Say: here is the key to your room; your room
number is 106.
Reply appropriately.

Make your own choice.


Say you want a room on the ground floor.
Reply that you want to book a room for 5
days.
Say: its done.
Say: thank you very much.
cdj,lysq
jlyyflwfnsq n;
jn (+ gen)

vacant, free
tenth floor
from

A new ab initio Russian course

rk.x() jn dituj yvthf


,jkmit cgfc,j / cgfc,j
,jkmit

key(s) to your room


thank you very much

123

Activity Ten -
Listening/Reading/Writing Listen to the following extract from a Russian childrens
poem and see how many masculine and feminine Instrumental forms you can recognize.
Then read it through carefully and write the appropriate Nominative forms for them in the
spaces provided. Finally, complete the partial translation below.
VCNTH NDCNTH (C& Vfhir)
Vcnth
Ndcnth^
<dibq vbycnh^
Vcnth
Ndcnth^
Vbkkbjyh
D[lbn d ujcnybwe
Fyuktnh
Lh;bn dj hne
Pjkjn. cbuhe
B ujdjhn
Gj-fyukqcrb
Idtqwhe%
- Tcnm kb
D jnkt
E dfc yjvth$
Dfv ntktuhvve
Gjckkb dxth&
- Tcnm^ - ujdjhn jy^Ldt rvyfns hljv
C dyyjq^
Ujcnyjq^
Ajynyjv
B cljv&
Ghdfz kcnybwf^
Nhnbq n;&
Ckljv pf dvb
Ljcndzn ,fu;&
Djn pf idtqwhjv
Ghj[lzn wtgxrjq
Ndcnth
C ;tyq^
J,tpmyrjq
B lxrjq&

124

Twister

The ex-

The

Enters the hotel

He has in his mouth


A golden

To the doorman

Was sent to you yesterday.

Two rooms next to each other

First staircase,
Closely behind they will bring
Your

The doorman

Is followed in file by

With a little monkey

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

- Ghjcnnt^ vyt y;ty enu&


- {jhji^ f rfrq e dfc yvth rvyfns$
- Ldcnb nhlwfnm gnsq&

enu

jltkj

gjlirf

gjkjnywt

bukrf

ynrb

aty lkz djkc

y;ybws

Chapter 7

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Pairwork. Look at the following pictures of objects which you might need
in your hotel room. Taking alternately the roles of guest and receptionist, ask for each item in
turn and give an appropriate reply based on the model below (Choose a different room
number each time.)

In Chapter 6 you learned how to say I need + verb - vyt y;yj + verb. In this construction, the word
y;yj is an adverb, which doesnt change. However, when you want to say that you need an object (I
need + nom), the word need - y;ty (ye;y^ ye;y^ ye;y) is a short adjective which agrees in
gender and number with the following noun. The noun is always used in the Nominative case.
vyt y;ty ;ehyk (m sing)
vyt ye;y ryuf (f sing)
vyt ye;y hlbj (n sing)
vyt ye;y cbufhns (pl)

I need a magazine
I need a book
I need a radio
I need cigarettes

Note: when asking for an extra item (e.g. blanket, pillow etc.) use to/ jly (jly^ jly^ jly); e.g.
vyt ye;y to/ jly gjlirf - I need an extra pillow. The form jly is used with plural-only
nouns; e.g.vyt ye;y to/ jly y;ybws - I need another pair of scissors.
enu
jltkj
gjlirf
gjkjnywt
bukrf

iron
blanket
pillow
towel
needle

A new ab initio Russian course

ynrb (pl)
aty lkz djkc
y;ybws (pl)
to/ jly (jly^ jly^ jly)

thread
hair-drier
pair of scissors
extra, one more

125

Activity Twelve -
Reading Read the following extract from a hotel brochure.You will not understand
everything, but you should be able to glean enough information to answer , in English, the
questions below. (Note that the stress marks are not generally included in written Russian.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

What types of room are available in the hotel?


What specific facility is available in all rooms?
What types of vehicles are available for hire?
What communication services did you recognize?
Is there a hair-dressing salon in the hotel?
Is there a swimming pool in the hotel?
How many restaurants does the hotel have?
What is the gist of the final sentence?


- .
-.

,
.
.

:
-500, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , .
: , ,
Internet, .
: -
, , ,
.
: , -,
, , 6, 9, 12, 15
.
!

!

126

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Fyukbxyby
Flvbybcnhnjh
Fyukbxyby
Flvbybcnhnjh
Fyukbxyby
Fyukbxyrf

Flvbybcnhnjh Fyukbxyrf
Flvbybcnhnjh Fyukbxyby
Flvbybcnhnjh Fyukbxyrf
Flvbybcnhnjh Fyukbxyby
-

Plhdcndeqnt^ vs [jnv pfrfpnm yvth c litv&


L,hsq ltym^ jnrlf ds$
Vs bp yukbb&
Ds [jhji ujdjhnt gj-hccrb&
Vj ;ty ujdjhn kxit vty&
nj yt ghdlf^ Gnth& Z ujdjh gk[j& Ns ujdjhim
,scnht& Vs xcnj ujdjhv gj-hccrb c
ghtgjlfdntktv&
Fyukbxyt j,xyj ujdjhn nkmrj gj-fyukqcrb&
Yfi csy <,,b ujdjhn cdj,lyj gj-ahfywpcrb&
Ds vjkjlw! Nfr^ ds [jnnt yvth c litv& Yf
crkmrj lytq ds [jnnt pfrfpnm yvth$
Yf xtnht lyz&
{jhji& E yfc tcnm jnkxysq yvth c litv yf
dnjhv nf;& Yvth - 254-sq&
F ntktdpjh tcnm$
Rjyxyj^ tcnm&
{jhji&

Chapter 7

Activity Thirteen -
Reading Read the following text and translate it into English (with the help of the
vocabulary at the foot of the page).

After all the preliminaries have been completed

Flvbybcnhnjh - Djn dfi rk.x&


Fyukbxyrf
- Cgfc,j&
Flvbybcnhnjh - Gj;keqcnf&

Activity Fourteen -
Writing If you have been especially observant, you may have noticed that the text
above contains all six forms of the type II (or second conjugation) verb ujdjhnm (to
speak, say, tell). Using the text to help you, try to complete the table below. (You can check
your answers in the Grammar section.)
z ujdjh___
ns ujdjh___
jy#f ujdjh___
vs ujdjh___
dsujdjh___
jy ujdjh___

fyukbxyby#fyukbxyrf
fyukbxyt
jnrlf ds$
bp yukbb
ujdjhnm (II)
kxit vty
,scnht
xcnj

A new ab initio Russian course

Englishman/woman
the English
where are you from?
from England
to speak, say, tell
better than me
quicker, more quickly
often

I speak
you speak
he/she speaks
we speak
you speak
they speak

c ghtgjlfdntktv
j,xyj
nkmrj
ujdjhnm (II) gj-fyukqcrb
cdj,lyj
ujdjhnm (II) gj-ahfywpcrb
ds vjkjlw!
jnkxysq

with the teacher


usually
only
to speak English
fluently
to speak French
well done!
excellent

127

GRAMMAR
ORDINAL NUMERALS (1 - 100)

Apart from ghdsq (first) and dnjhq (second) all ordinal numbers derive from their
respective cardinal numbers (see Chapter 2). They are as follows:
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th

ghdsq
dnjhq
nhnbq
xtnd/hnsq
gnsq
itcnq
ctlmvq
djcmvq
ltdnsq
ltcnsq
jlyyflw fnsq
ldtylwfnsq
nhbylwfnsq
xtnhyflwfnsq
gznylwfnsq
itcnylwfnsq
ctvylwfnsq
djctvylwfnsq
ltdznylwfnsq

20th
21st
22nd
30th
31st
40th
41st
50th
51st
60th
61st
70th
71st
80th
81st
90th
91st
100th
101st

ldflwnsq
ldlwfnm ghdsq
ldlwfnm dnjhq
nhblwnsq
nhlwfnm ghdsq
c j h j rjd q
chjr ghdsq
gznbltcnsq
gznmltcn ghdsq
itcnbltcnsq
itcnmltcn ghdsq
ctvbltcnsq
cvmltczn ghdsq
djcmvbltcnsq
dctvmltczn ghdsq
ltdzycnsq
ltdzycnj ghdsq
cnsq
cnj ghdsq

Ordinal numbers decline like hard adjectives with the endings -/-, except for nhtnbq
which has irregular endings (which should be learned by heart). Like adjectives, ordinal
numbers agree in gender, case and number with the noun they qualify:
Hard:

Irregular:

Nom
ghd yvth
ghd ryuf
ghd gbcmv

Prep
d ghd yvth
d ghd ryut
d ghd gbcmv

nhn ljv
nhn rvyfnf
nhn jry

d nhnmtv lv
d nhn rvyfn
d nhn jry

Ordinal numbers from 50th to 80th have central -- which appears in place of the central -in cardinal numbers:
cardinal
gznltcn

ordinal
gznltcnsq

In compound numbers only the final component has the form of an ordinal number and is
declined: itcnmltcn xtnd/hnsq yvth - d itcnmltcn xtnd/hnjv yvtht&
Note: Russian ordinal numbers are used with house/room numbers, pages, chapters, channels etc.
where cardinals are used in English:
ctlmvq njv
gj xtnd/hnjq ghjuhvvt
yf gznylwfnjq cnhfywt
128

volume seven
on channel four
on page fifteen
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&

3 htcnjhyf^ uhbkm-,fh^ rfatnhbq b ,eans hfcgjk;tys yf 6 nf;^ 9


nf;^ 12 nf; b yf 15 nf; ujcnbybws&
Rjyathyw-pfk yf[lbncz d 50 rvyfnt yf 1 nf;&
D 8 xfcd ,eltn bynthcysq abkmv gj 3 ghjuhvvt&
Cthuq Gtnhdbx ctqxc ;bd/n d 65 rdfhnht yf 17 nf;^ yj jy [xtn
regnm 10 rdfhnhe yf 3 nf;&
13 pflybt yf[lbncz yf 11 cnhfywt&

Chapter 7

Activity Fifteen -
Writing Replace the figures with words in the appropriate forms in the sentences
below.

HOW TO SAY THERE IS/ARE (NOT)


In Chapter 5 you learnt the word tcnm with the meaning of have in such constructions as e vty
tcnm &&& - I have ... The word tcnm (+ Nominative) is also used to express there is/are. Remember: when
translating sentences such asthere is a bank in this street, the English word order is different to the
Russian:
yf njq kbwt tcnm ,fyr
- there is a bank in this street
yf njq kbwt tcnm 2 ,yrf - there are 2 banks in this street
Note: the same word order applies to questions; e.g. yf njq kbwt tcnm ,fyr$ - is there a bank in this street?
The opposite of tcnm (there is / are) is ytn (there isnt / arent). Ytn is always followed by the Genitive

case:

yf njq kbwt ytn ,yrf - there isnt a bank in this street

Activity Sixteen -
Writing Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. There is a hairdresser in this hotel.

_______________________________

2. There are restaurants and bars in this street. _______________________________


3. There is no telephone in this room.

_______________________________

4. There are 4 bars and 2 restaurants on the


ground floor.

_______________________________
_______________________________

5. Is there any milk in the bottle?

_______________________________

6. Are there any roubles on the table?

_______________________________

7. I have 250 pounds.

_______________________________

8. Do you have any apples?

_______________________________

9. Are there any lemons in the fridge?

_______________________________

10. There are 4 lemons and a bottle of wine


in the fridge.

_______________________________
_______________________________

A new ab initio Russian course

129

THE DECLENSION OF TITLES

If the names of hotels or titles of books, magazines, newspapers, films etc. are quoted, they
are declined unless preceded by the words ujcnybwf^ ryuf^ ;ehyk^ ufpnf^ abkmv
etc. (which themselves are declined instead).
Activity Seventeen -
Reading Pairwork. Read the following dialogues putting each title given in brackets
into the appropriate case.
1& -

Xnj ds lkftnt ctulyz dxthjv$


Vs bl/v yf ,fkn (Otkryxbr), f ds$
F vs bl/v yf (Xqrf)&

3& -

Crf;nt^ gj;keqcnf^ e dfc tcnm


(Rhjrjlk)$
Ytn^ r cj;fkyb.^ (Rhjrjlk) ytn&
F (Ydsq vbh) tcnm$
Lf^ tcnm&

Otkryxbr
Rhjrjlk
Xqrf
Ydsq vbh
Jnkkj

2& 4& -

Xnj ns xbntim$

(Djqy b vbh)&

F xnj ns xbntim$
F z xbn. (Jnkkj)&
Ds ;bd/nt d ujcnybwt
(Tdhgf)$
Lf^ z ;bd d (Tdhgf), f ds$
F z ;bd d (Vtnhjgkm)&

The Nutcracker (ballet by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, written in 1892)


Crocodile (popular satirical magazine)
The Seagull (play by Anton Chekhov, written in 1896)
Novyi mir (monthly literary magazine)
Othello

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE TO EXPRESS DURATION OF TIME


The Accusative case without a preposition is used in Russian to express the length of time that an
action lasts in constructions such as to read for an hour; to stay for a week etc.:
xbnnm
;bnm

xfc
(jly) ytlk.
vczw
u jl

to read
to stay

for an hour
for a week
for a month
for a year

If a numeral is involved; e.g. for 2 hours; 4 weeks etc. the numeral takes the Accusative case and the
subsequent noun takes the Genitive (see Capter 5):
xbnnm
;bnm

2 (ldf), 3 (nhb),
to read
4 (xtnht) xfc
2 (ldt), 3 (nhb),
to stay
4 (xtnht) ytlkb^
vbyns
2 (ldf), 3 (nhb),
4 (xtnht) vczwf
2 (ldf)^ 3 (nhb)^
4 (xtnht) ulf

for 2, 3,
4 hours
for 2, 3,
4 weeks,
minutes
for 2, 3,
4 months
for 2, 3,
4 years

As you have already learned, nouns used with numbers 5 and above take the Genitive plural. You do not
need to know all the plural endings of the Genitive case at this stage. However, the following phrases
are frequently used and should be learned by heart:
5
5
5
5
5
130

... xfcd
... vbyn
... ytlkm
... vczwtd
... ktn

for 5 ... hours


for 5 ... minutes
for 5 ... weeks
for 5 ... months
for 5 ... years
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE IRREGULAR VERB TO WANT -

Singular
(First conjugation)
z
ns
jy/jy/jy

[jx
[xtim
[xtn

Plural
(Second conjugation)
I
you
he/she/it

want
want
wants

vs
ds
jy

[jnv
[jnnt
[jnn

we
want
you want
they want

Chapter 7

This verb combines the personal endings of 1st and 2nd conjugations and doesnt conform to any of
the patterns of regular verbs.

Note: the verb [jnnm is generally used with an infinitive of another verb; e.g. z [jx ckifnm hlbj - I want
to listen to the radio. If [jnnm is followed by a noun, the noun should be used in the Accusative case; e.g. Dhf
[xtn rvyfne c litv - Vera wants a room with shower. However, if the noun denotes food or drinks it is
normally used in the Genitive case (which is expressed in English by some); e.g. z [jx vjkjr/[k,f - I want
some milk/bread.

Activity Eighteen -
Reading /Writing Complete the sentences given below.

1.

Z ([jnnm) regnm ...

2&

ujhm b Vfhyf ([jnnm) cvjnhnm ...,


f ,,eirf ([jnnm) ckifnm ...

3&

Vs ([jnnm) ...

4&

- Ns ([jnnm) ...$
- Ytn^ z ([jnnm) ...

5&

- Ds ([jnnm) ...$
- Lf^ ([jnnm)

A new ab initio Russian course

131

THE TYPE II VERB TO SPEAK, TELL, SAY -


Type II (or second conjugation) verbs follow the pattern of ujdjhnm below:
z
ujdjh
ns
ujdjhim
jy/jy/jy ujdjhn

I
you
he/she

speak
speak
speaks

vs
ds
jy

we
you
they

ujdjhv
ujdjhnt
ujdjhn

speak
speak
speak

Note: some type II verbs have different endings in the infinitive than -; e.g. cjlth;nm (to contain), ghbyflkt;nm (to belong), dltnm (to see), cvjnhnm (to watch), cnjnm (to stand).
If the stem of a class II verb ends in certain consonants, the verb usually mutates in the first person
singular, as follows: > , > , c > , > , > ; e.g. gkfnnm (to pay): z gkfx^ ns gknbim^
jy/ gknbn^ vs gknbv^ ds gknbnt^ jy gknzn&
If the stem is a sibilant (, , or ), the third person plural changes from - to -&

Activity Nineteen -
Writing Conjugate the following type II verbs in full.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&
13&
14&
15&
16&

cvjnhnm (to watch)


dfhnm (to boil)
dhbnm (to believe)
cjlth;nm (to contain)
ghbyflkt;nm (to belong)
dltnm (to see)
cnjnm (to stand)
[dfknm (to praise)
[jlnm (to go)*
djpnm (to convey) *
ghjcnm (to ask, request) *
iennm (to joke)*
gecnnm (to let go)*
ckifnm (to hear)**
lth;nm (to hold)**
cnexnm (to knock) **

* Remember the rule about the mutation in the first person singular.
**Remember the rule about the change in the third person plural after sibilants.

INSTRUMENTAL CASE (WITH PREPOSITION C)


The preposition c (with) takes what is called the Instrumental case. The main meaning of is with/
(together) with, accompanied by:
yvth
z [jx ,snm
vkmxbr

c ntktayjv
c ctcnhq
c ,hnjv

a room with a telephone


I want to be with my sister
a boy with his brother

The ending of the Instrumental singular of nouns are:


Nom (hard/soft)
Instr (hard)
Instr (soft)
132

m
ljv/gjhnakm
c lv
c gjhnak

f
vvf/n/nz
c vv
c n/n

n
gbcmv/vht
c gbcmv
c vh
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

z
ns
jy
jy
jy

cj vyq
c nj,q
c ybv
c ytq
c ybv

with me
with you
with him
with her
with it

vs
ds
jy
rnj
xnj

c
c
c
c
c

yvb
dvb
yvb
rtv
xtv

with us
with you
with them
with whom
with what

Chapter 7

THE INSTRUMENTAL OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Note: in phrases such as you and I; mother and father; bread and butter etc., the preposition is translated into
Russian as c: z c nj,q (literally: I with you), vvf c ggjq^ [kt, c vckjv

Activity Twenty -
Writing Fill in the gaps using personal pronouns in appropriate forms.
1& nj Vfhyf& Z hf,nf. c __________ d ,yrt& 2& Z ctqxc tle d vfufpy&
Rnj [xtn gj[fnm cj __________$ 3& nj Ybrjkq Fynyjdbx& Vjq ggf ltn
c __________ d Vjcrd& 4& Vj ,,eirf b lleirf ;bdn d Rhsv& Z xcnj
hfpujdhbdf. c ___________ gj ntktaye& 5& Vs dctul jnls[tv yf vht& D
njv ujl Jku n;t [xtn jnls[nm c ___________& 6& Ns bl/im ueknm$ Z
n;t gjql c__________& 7& Ds ltnt d eybdthcbnn yf vfiyt$ Z [jnk ,s
gj[fnm c___________^ ckb v;yj&
HOW TO SAY I NEED + (NOUN)

When you want to say that you need an object (I need + noun), the word need - y;ty
(ye;y^ ye;y^ ye;y) is a short adjective which agrees in gender and number with the
following noun. The noun is always used in the Nominative case. Personal pronouns in such
constructions are always used in the Dative case.
vyt
vyt
vyt
vyt

y;ty nls[ (m sing)


ye;y dpf (f sing)
ye;y n/gkjt gfkmn (n sing)
ye;y lymub (pl)

I
I
I
I

need a rest
need a visa
need a warm coat
need money

Remember: when you ask for an extra item, you use to/ jly (jly^ jly^ jly); e.g.
vyt ye;y to/ jly jltkj - I need an extra blanket& The form jly is used with

plural-only nouns; e.g.vyt ye;y to/ jly jxr - I need another pair of glasses.

Activity Twenty-One -
Speaking Look at the pictures below and say what each person needs based on the
following model.
Tq ye;y jxr&

A new ab initio Russian course

133

134

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER EIGHT -
RUSSIAN CUISINE -
In Chapter Eight you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

to read a Russian menu


to order a meal
to express a preference
to ask for a bill

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

the instrumental singular of adjectives


the instrumental plural of nouns
the instrumental case of function (without a preposition)
the verbs to eat () and to drink ()

The Russian system of naming meals is both simple and


universal. The three main meals of the day are: pdnhfr
(breakfast), j,l (lunch) and ;by (supper); lunch being
taken between 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. On special occasions,
such as birthdays, anniversaries etc. and especially when
guests are invited, j,l - the main meal of the day - can be
moved to the evening.
pdnhfr

j,l

;by

Activity One -
Speaking
Pairwork. Look at the pictures above, then ask your partner what is
being served for breakfast, lunch and supper. Use the following model as a guide:
- Xnj ctulyz yf pdnhfr$
- Ctulyz yf pdnhfr [kt, b rat&
Note: the English word order is different from Russian; e.g. xnj ctulyz yf pdnhfr$ - what is for breakfast
today?
pdnhfr
j,l
;by
yf pdnhfr
yf j,l

136

breakfast
dinner
supper
for breakfast
for dinner

yf ;by
rhbwf
;htyfz h,f
gjvblh
wdtnyz rfgcnf

for supper
chicken
fried fish
tomato
cauliflower
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The Russian breakfast tends to be a major meal which can comprise porridge, sausage, cold meat, eggs
and cheese as well as the usual bread, butter, jam etc. with coffee or tea. You can choose as much or as
little as your appetite dictates. To follow the conversation you will need to understand: z [jnkf ,s
pfrfpnm ... (I would like to order ...), rat cj ckdrfvb (coffee with cream), jy e yfc xtym
drcyst b cd;bt^ nkmrj xnj bcgtrk (we have very tasty and fresh ones, just baked).

Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf
Uj cnm
Jabwbynrf

Chapter 8

Activity Two - Dnjhjt pflfybt


Listening/Reading Listen twice to the following telephone conversation between a
hotel guest and room service and find out what the guest has ordered for breakfast. T ick
what she ordered in the table below the dialogue.

- L,hjt nhj^ z [jnkf ,s pfrfpnm pdnhfr d yvth&


- L,hjt nhj^ xnj ds [jnnt yf pdnhfr$
- Fgtkmcyjdsq cjr^ gj;keqcnf^ gjnv zxybwe^
ndhju b rat&
- {jhji& Ds [jnnt ndhju c c[fhjv kb c dfhymtv$
- C dfhymtv^ gj;keqcnf&
- F rat c vjkjrv kb cj ckdrfvb$
- C vjkjrv&
- Vjkjr ujhxtt kb [jklyjt$
- {jklyjt^ gj;keqcnf&
- Ds yt [jnnt pfrfpnm ,kjxrb kb hjukbrb r rat$
Jy e yfc xtym drcyst b cd;bt^ nkmrj xnj bcgtrk&
- Z xtym k.,k hjukbrb& Jly hjukbr^ gj;keqcnf&
- {jhji& Gjdnjh. dfi pfrp% fgtkmcyjdsq cjr^
zxybwf^ ndhju c dfhymtv^ jly hjukbr b rat c
[jklysv* vjkjrv&
- Lf^ cgfc,j&
- Gj;keqcnf&
Breakfast order
orange juice
coffee with cream
coffee with hot milk
coffee with cold milk
fried eggs
cottage cheese with sugar
cottage cheese with jam
buns
croissants

* The adjective [jklysq is used in the Instrumental case. The Instrumental singular of adjectives is very
simple to form. For masculine and neuter adjectives just remove the Nominative ending -/- and add the
ending -. If the stem of an adjective ends with , , , , , , , then remove -/- and add -:
[jklysq cjr
[jklyjt vjkjr

c [jklysv crjv
c [jklysv vjkjrv

ujhxbq xfq
ujhxtt vjkjr

For feminine adjectives remove - (or soft -) and add - (or soft -):
[jklyfz djl
c [jklyjq djlq
cyzz cvrf
jabwbynrf
fgtkmcyjdsq cjr
zxybwf
ndhju (ndjhu)
dfhymt
ujhxbq

waitress
orange juice
fried egg(s)
cottage cheese
jam
hot

A new ab initio Russian course

[jklysq
,kjxrf
hjukbr
r rat
gjdnjhnm (I)
pfrp

c ujhxbv xtv
c ujhxbv vjkjrv

c cytq cvrjq
cold
bun
croissant
with coffee
to repeat
order

137

Activity Three -
Speaking Role-play. Using the breakfast menu below play the part of A and your
partner the role of B, then reverse the roles.
VTY PDNHFRF
1& dfh/yst qwf drhen.
2& dfh/yst qwf dcvnre
3& jvkn
4& zxybwf
5& csh
6& cjccrb
7& jdcyfz rif
8& vyyfz rif
9& hcjdfz rif

10& jklmb cj cvtnyjq


11& ,kyxbrb c ndhjujv
12& ndjhu cj cvtnyjq
13& ndjhu c dfhymtv
14& fgtkmcyjdsq cjr
15& fyfycysq cjr
16& uhtqgahnjdsq cjr
17& rat c vjkjrv / cj ckdrfvb
18& xfq c kbvyjv/v/ljv

A (waiter/waitress)

B (guest)

Say good morning.


Ask: What would you like to order ?
Ask: Would you like it hard or soft boiled?
Ask if the guest wants anything else. (Ds
[jnnt to/ xnj-yb,lm$)
Ask if the guest wold like some tea or coffee.

Respond appropriately.
Choose any fruit juice and an egg.
Make your own choice.
Say you would like some pancakes, but
without cottage cheese. Order them with jam
and soured cream.
Say you would like some coffee with hot milk.

Say hello (formal).


Ask if the guest would like some juice.
Offer some tea or coffee.
Ask if the guest would like anything else.
Offer some drop-scones; say they are very
tasty.
Reply positively and repeat the whole order.

Give an appropriate reply (formal).


Say you dont want any juice.
Order some tea with cold milk without sugar.
Choose some sausage and porridge.
Ask if you can order them without soured
cream but with butter and pineapple jam.
Confirm it and say thank you.

Activity Four -
Speaking Pairwork. Look at the pictures on the next page and ask your partner at
what time people have their breakfast, lunch and supper. Then change roles and answer
your partner questions about the time of your meals.
You will need to remember the Russian for to have breakfast/lunch/supper, first introduced in Chapter
Four, which are expressed by one word. Simply add - to the noun for the meal in question:
pdnhfr +fnm = pdnhfrfnm
breakfast
to have
breakfast
vty (n indeclinable)
zqw (pl qwf)
dfh/yjt zqw
drhen. (adverb)
dcvnre (adverb)
jvkn
cjccrf
rif
jdcyfz rif

138

menu
egg(s)
boiled egg
hard boiled
soft boiled
omelette
frankfurter
porridge
oat porridge

j,l
lunch

+fnm = j,lfnm
to have
lunch
vyyfz rif
hcjdfz rif
jklmz (pl jklmb)
jklmb cj cvtnyjq
,ky(xbr)
fyfycysq cjr
uhtqgahnjdsq cjr
v/l
,tp (+ gen)

;by +fnm
supper

= ;byfnm
to have
supper

semolina
rice pudding
drop-scone(s)
drop-scones with soured cream
pancake, small pancake
pineapple juice
grapefruit juice
honey
without
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 8

The Irregular verb to eat -

This verb has very unusual singular endings. Learn the conjugation of this verb by heart:

TCNM

Singular
z
tv
I
eat
ns
tim
you
eat
jy/jy/jy tcn
he/she/it eats

Plural
vs tlv
ds tlnt
jy tln

we
you
they

eat
eat
eat

The verb is followed by the Accusative case: tcnm ceg/vcj/h,e&


The verb to drink -

This verb has regular first conjugation endings. The only thing to remember is that you have
to replace the -- of the infinitive with -- in all personal forms:

GBNM

Singular
z
gm.
I
drink
ns
gm/im you
drink
jy/jy/jy gm/n
he/she/it drinks

Plural
vs gm/v
ds gm/nt
jy gm.n

we
you
they

drink
drink
drink

The verb is followed by the Accusative case: gbnm cjr/vjkjr/dle&


Activity Five -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner what his/her family members usually eat and
drink at breakfast time. Then reverse roles. Check the results with the rest of the group to
discover the most popular breakfast food and drink. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the
page to help you.
tcnm (irregular)
gbnm (irregular)
tcnm / gbnm yf pdnhfr
njcn
[kgmz (pl)

to eat
to drink
to eat / drink for breakfast
toast
flakes, cereals

A new ab initio Russian course

vpkb (pl)
rjycthdhjdfyyfz afckm (f)
,try
(aherndsq) quehn
l;tv

muesli
baked beans
bacon
(fruit) yoghurt
marmalade

139

Activity Six -
Reading Read the following extract from a book for young parents which gives
advice on feeding a child. Answer the questions below in English. Use the vocabulary list at
the foot of the page to help you.
CJDNS HJLNTKZV
Ljhjut hjlntkb^ tl ht,/yrf ljk;y ,snm drcyjq b hfpyjj,hpyjq&
Pdnhfr lk;ty drk.xnm d ct, ldlwfnm gznm/nhlwfnm ghjwynjd cnjxyjuj
hfwbyf^ j,l - nhlwfnm gznm/chjr ghjwynjd b ;by - nhlwfnm/chjr
ghjwynjd&
Yt ghbye;lqnt ht,/yrf tcnm^ ckb jy yt [xtn& Yt hfphtiqnt tv
hfpujdhbdfnm^ xbnnm ryue bkb cvjnhnm ntktdpjh dj dhvz tl& C itcn
ktn jy v;tn tcnm pf ,obv cnjkv c hjlntkzvb&
Gvybnt% cklrjt ghnbn fggtnn& Yt lfdqnt ht,/yre ckljcnb lj tl&
Ht,/yjr lk;ty tcnm xhtp nhb c gjkjdyjq - xtnht xfc&
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What percentage of the daily ration is provided by dinner?


What three activities are discouraged at meal times?
At what age is it suggested that a child may eat with adults?
How frequently should a child be fed?
What problem is associated with eating sweets?
How can this problem be overcome?

pdnhfr - 25%/30%%
cnjxyjuj hfwbyf

Activity Seven -
Listening The following recording outlines a suitable breakfast menu for children.
Listen to it twice and fill in the partially completed table below in English.

Food

Quantity

hard-bolied egg
drop-scones with soured cream
rice pudding

semolina
cottage cheese with soured
cream and jam

cjdn
ljhjuq
hjlntkb (pl only)
ljk;y (f) ,snm
drcy s q
hfpyjj,hpy s q
drk.xnm d ct,

140

advice
dear
parents
should be
tasty
varied
to contain

80 gm
-----------

-----200 gm
200 gm
200 gm

ghjwyn
cnjxysq hfwby
dj dhvz (+ gen)
ghbye;lnm (+ acc)
ckb
hfphtinm (I) (+ dat)
tl (sing)

Drink

Quantity

fruit juice
coffee with milk
-----------

-----------

-----------

------

-----percent
daily ration
during
to force
if
to allow
meal(s)

200 gm
200 gm

-----gvybnm (II)
cklrbq
ghnbnm (+ acc)
ckljcnm (f)
lj (+ gen)
nhb c gjkjdyjq
gckt (+ gen)

to remember
sweet
to ruin, damage
sweetmeat
before
three and a half
after

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

([jklyst / ujhxbt) pfrcrb


ghdst ,klf
dnjht ,klf
cklrbt ,klf or ltchn
,tpfkrjukmyst / fkrjukmyst yfgnrb

(cold / hot) starters


first courses (usually various soups)
main courses
dessert
non-alcoholic / alcoholic drinks

Chapter 8

Activity Eight -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. As in Britain, the menu in Russia is usually divided into
sections. Read the following menu and complete the dialogue on the right. Use the vocabulary
list at the foot of the next page to help you.

Note: you will see some words with the endings - (hard) /- (soft). These are the Instrumental
plurals of nouns: uhb, (mushroom) - c uhb,vb; [kgmz - c [kgmzvb&

Vty

Lbfku

[jklyst pfrcrb%
1& x/hyfz/rhcyfz brh
2& cfkn c gjvblhfvb b cvtnyjq
3& jctnhyf c jdjovb

Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn

ujhxbt pfrcrb%
1& uhyrb c dtnxbyq^ chjv b jdjovb
2& uhb, c krjv
ghdst ,klf%
1& ,jho
2& ob
3& e[
4& ,ekmy c gbhj;rvb
dnjhst ,klf%
1& hcn,ba c ufhyhjv
2& ,tacnhufyjd c hcjv
3& iywtkm c rfhnatkmysv g.h
4& jctnhyf gfhjdz
5& gknec ;htysq
ltchn%
1& ,kjxysq gbhu
2& vjh;tyjt
3& dbiy/dsq rjvgn

Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm

fkrjukmyst
1& dlrf
2& rjymr
3& l;by
4& dhven
5& kbr/h

yfgnrb%

,t pfkrjukmyst yfgnrb%
1& fgtkmcyjdsq/fyfycysq cjr
2& rbckm
3& rrf-rkf/ggcb-rkf
4& vbythkmyfz djl
5& xfq
6& rat

A new ab initio Russian course

Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn

- L,hsq dxth& Ckif. dfc&


- Order some black caviar.
- R cj;fkyb.^ brh ytn&
- Ask if they have any sturgeon.
- Give an affirmative reply.
- Order some sturgeon with vegetables.
- Ds yt [jnnt pfrfpnm ujhxbt
pfrcrb$
- Ytn^ cgfc,j&
- Ask what your partner would like to
order for first course (yf gthdjt).
- F xnj ds cjdnetnt pfrfpnm$
- Say that the clear soup is delicious and
that the small turnovers are just baked.
- Order the clear soup with turnovers.
- F xnj ds [jnnt yf dnjht$
- Say that you would like to order some
meat. Ask what the waiter would advise
you to order.
- Say that all the dishes are fresh and
tasty.
- Make your own choice.
- {jhji& F xnj ds [jnnt yf ltchn$
- Order some ice-cream.
- Ask if your partner would like some tea or
(other) drink.
- Order some mineral water and an
alcoholic drink of your choice.
- Ask if your partner would like some
tea or coffee.
- Order some coffee without milk or
sugar.
- {jhji^ gjdnjh. dfi pfrp
(repeat the order).
- Lf^ cgfc,j&
- Ghbnyjuj fggtnnf&

141

Activity Nine -
Reading/Writing Read the menu from Activity Eight again. Choose one dish from
each section for your friend. He/she doesnt like meat, but likes fish, as well as fruit and
vegetables. He/she is allergic to dairy products, citrus fruit and coffee and doesnt drink
vodka. Fill in the table below with the dishes of your choice in Russian.
[jklyst pfrcrb
ujhxbt pfrcrb
ghdst ,klf
dnjht ,klf
ltchn
,tpfkrjukmyst yfgnrb
fkrjukmyst yfgnrb

Activity Ten -
Listening/Reading/Speaking Listen twice to the following extract about table
manners from a book for young parents and see how many Instrumental forms of the noun
you can recognize. Then read it through carefully and answer the questions below in Russian.
Ljhjut hjlntkb^ cktlnt pf ntv^ xn,s ht,/yjr ghdbkmyj lth;k k;re%
yt d rekfr^ f nhtv gkmwfvb ghdjq her* yt tk k;rjq nj^ xnj ylj tcnm
dkrjq& Ghbexqnt ht,/yrf gkmpjdfnmcz yj;v& Ylj lth;nm yj; d ghdjq
her^ f dkre - d kdjq&
Gckt tl ht,/yjr lk;ty ghjgjkjcrnm hjn djlq&
1&
2&
3&
4&

Rfr y;yj lth;nm k;re$


D rfrq her y;yj lth;nm yj;$
D rfrq her y;yj lth;nm dkre$
Xtv y;yj ghjgjkjcrnm hjn gckt tl$

Note: you should have found five forms of the Instrumental case of the noun in this text. They are:
gkmw (pl), k;rjq (f sing), dkrjq (f sing), yj;v (m sing), djl (f sing). As you can see, the
Instrumental case in this text is used without a preposition. When it is used in this way, it indicates the
instrument by which an action is performed. This is often called the Instrumental of function; e.g.
tcnm yj;v b dkrjq - to eat with a knife and fork. In English, this meaning is generally expressed by
the preposition with + noun.
sturgeon
crouton
ham
mushroom
ker
onion(s)
,ekmy
clear soup
gbhj;r
small pasty
hcn,ba
roast beef
ufhyh
garnish
,tacnhufyjd beef stroganoff
iywtkm (m)
breaded veal cutlet
rfhnatkmyjt mashed potatoes
g.h
gfhjdq
steamed

jctnhyf
uhyrf
dtnxby
uhb,

142

gknec
;htysq
,kjxysq gbhu
dbiy / dsq rjvgn
rjymr
l;by
dhven
kbr /h
rbckm (m)
cktlnt pf ntv^
xn ,s
ghdbkmyj
lth;nm (II)
rekr

halibut
fried
apple pie
cherry compote
cognac
gin
vermouth
liqueur
fruit jelly
make sure that
correctly
to hold
fist

nhvz
gkmwfvb
ghdsq
her
k;rf
nj, xnj
dkrf
ghbexnm
gkmpjdfnmcz
yj;
ylj lth;nm
kdsq
ghjgjkjcrnm
hjn (+ instr)

with three
fingers
right
hand, arm
spoon
what, that which
fork
to teach
to use
knife
one should hold
left
to rinse out ones
mouth (with)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

DJOB (C& Vb[fkrd)


Vv f jly;ls c ,fphf ghbik^
Vvf c ,fphf ljvq ghbytck%
R f h n i r e^
R f g c n e^
V j h r d r e^
Uj h [ ^
Gtnhire b cd/rke&
J[!&&
D jn djob cgjh pfd tk yf cnjk Rnj kxit^ drecyq b ye;yq yf ptvk%

One day
,
,

Chapter 8

Activity Eleven -
Listening/Reading Listen twice to the following poem by the Russian childrens poet
S. Mikhalkov and see if you can spot any nouns used in the Instrumental case of function.
Then read it through carefully and complete the partial translation below.

came back from the market


brought home from the market

Carrots,
Peas,
Parsley and beetroot.
Aaah!..
And the
began to argue
Who is the best, the tastiest and the most useful in the
world:
Rfhnirf$
?
Rfgcnf$
?
Vjhrdrf$
?
Uj h [ $
?
Gtnhirf bkm cd/rkf$
or
?
J[!&&
Aaah!..
Vvf ntv dhvtytv y;br dpzk
Meanwhile
took a small knife
B y;brjv nbv rhjinm yfxfk%
And with this knife began to chop:
R f h n i r e^
,
R f g c n e^
,
V j h r d r e^
,
Uj h [ ^
,
Gtnhire b cd/rke&
and
.
J[!&&
Aaah!..
Yfrhnst rhirjq d liyjv ujhir Packed tightly in the saucepan, covered with the lid
Rbgkb^ rbgkb d rhenv rbgznr%
Were boiling, boiling in the seething water:
Rfhnirf^
,
Rfgcnf^
,
Vjhrdrf^
,
Uj h [ ^
,
Gtnhirf b cd/rkf&
and
.
J[!&&
Aaah!..
B ceg jdjoyq jrfpkcz ytgk[!
And the vegetable
was delicious!

Activity Twelve -
Speaking Pairwork. Using the model below, ask your partner which sorts of food
and drink he/she prefers.
- Xnj ns ,kmit k,bim - xfq bkb rat$ - What do you prefer, tea or coffee?
- Z ,kmit k.,k xfq& - I prefer tea.
Note: the verb k.,nm (to like, love) is followed by the Accusative case; e.g. z k.,k vcj/h,e - I like
meat/fish.

A new ab initio Russian course

143

Activity Thirteen -
Listening/Writing Listen to the following dialogue, stopping and recapping as
often as you need, and fill in the gaps in Russian.
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm Jabwbynn% Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn

Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm
Jabwbyn

Gjctnntkm Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm Gjctnntkm Jabwbyn
Gjctnntkm -

L,hsq dxth& Djn _______________&


Ghjcnnt^ z byjcnhytw b gk[j py. ______________ ____________&
Xnj ds cjdnetnt ______________$
Yf _____________ cjdne.____________ x/hye. _________&
Brh - yfcnjobq hccrbq ltkbrfnc&
{jhji^ jly ghwb. brh c ____________ [k,jv b ____________&
Ds ____________ ceg$
Ytn^ cgfc,j& Z yt xtym ukjlty& F xnj kxit pfrfpnm yf ___________$
F xnj ds _____________ k,bnt - h,e kb ____________$
Z _____________ _____________ h,e&
Njul cjdne. pfrfpnm ___________& Jy xtym ____________ b
cd;fz&
{jhji^ ___________ c dfh/yjq rfhnirjq^ ___________ b __________&
F xnj ds [jnnt ____________$
Jly ,jrk ifvgycrjuj b _______________ vbythkmyjq djl&
Yf ___________ cjdne. pfrfpnm ___________ kb ___________
____________&
Ytn^ cgfc,j^ z yt ___________ cklrjt& Nkmrj rat^ ___________&
Ds [jnnt x/hysq rat kb c __________ $
C __________ ____________^ gj;keqcnf&
(an hour later)
Lqnt^ gj;keqcnf^ cx/n&
Djn^ ____________ cx/n&
Dc/ ,kj xtym drcyj& _______________&

Activity Fourteen -
Reading Pairwork. Read the completed version of the dialogue from Activity
Thirteen and answer the following questions in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What dish, in the waiters opinion, is a real Russian delicacy?


What does the customer order for starters?
What main course does he choose?
What is his choice for the side dish?
What alcoholic drink does he choose?
What is recommended by the waiter for dessert?
Why does he decline his recommendation?
What non-alcoholic drinks are ordered?
Was the customer satisfied with the meal?

cjdnjdfnm (cjdne.^
cjdnetim)
yfcnjobq
ltkbrfnc
ghwbz
z yt ukjlty/ujkjly

144

to advise
real
delicacy
portion
I am not hungry

kxit
dfh/ysq
rfhnirf
,jrk
cx/n
lqnt cx/n^ gj;keqcnf

better, best
boiled
potato
tall wine glass
bill
could you bring the bill, please
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

GRAMMAR
Chapter 8

THE INSTRUMENTAL SINGULAR OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectival endings in the Instrumental singular are as follows:


Masculine/Neuter: - (hard),- (soft)
Feminine: - (hard),- (soft)

hard
f

ydsq ydfz

Nominative
n

ydjt

cybq

soft
f

cyzz

cytt

Instrumental
hard
soft
m
f
n
m
f
yd yd yd cy cy

cy

End-stressed adjectives (e.g. ujke,q - blue) in the Instrumental case decline like ydsq.
Note: some adjectives whose stem ends with , , , , , , appear to have a mixed declension. For
example, hccrbq looks like a soft adjective in the masculine Nominative/Instrumental singular and all
plural forms. Remember the spelling rules:
1. replaces after , , , , , , ;
2. unstressed is replaced by after , , , (e.g. compare c ,jkmi h,jq and c [jhi
h,jq).

Activity Fifteen -
Writing Put the nouns and adjectives in brackets into the Instrumental case.
1& Ctulyz yf pdnhfr rif cj (ckdjxyjt vckj) kb zxybwf c (;htyfz
rjk,fc)^ rat b ncns c (rke,yxyjt dfhymt)& 2& Vvf dctul h;tn [kt,
(,jkmiq yj;)^ f ahrns - (vktymrbq yj;)& 3& Z xtym k.,k ob cj (cd;fz
rfgcnf)& 4& Vjz ctcnh- dtutnfhbyrf& Jy yt tcn vcj^ yj xtym k,bn djob
c (hfcnntkmyjt vckj)^ jdjoyt ceg b gbh;yst c (ijrjklysq rhtv)& 5&
<kby j,xyj gjlfn cj (cd;fz cv tnyf) b dfhymtv r x.& 6&
Nhflbwbyyjt hccrjt ,klj - ,kby c (rhcyfz kb x/hyfz brh)&
Activity Sixteen -
Speaking Pairwork. Name, in Russian, the dishes pictured below and say which
ones you like and do not like.

A new ab initio Russian course

145

THE IRREGULAR VERB TO EAT - TCNM

This verb has unusual singular endings. In the plural forms an extra consonant -- appears
which is absent from the infinitive and singular forms.
z tv

I eat

vs tlv

we eat

ns tim

you eat

ds tlnt

you eat

jy/jy/jy tcn

he/she/it eats

jy tln

they eat

THE VERB TO DRINK - GBNM

This verb has regular first conjugation endings, but you have to remember to replace the
-- of the infinitive with -- in all personal endings.
z gm.

I drink

vs gm/v

we drink

ns gm/im

you drink

ds gm/nt

you drink

jy/jy/jy gm/n

he/she/it drinks

jy gm.n

they drink

Activity Seventeen -
Listening/Writing Listen to the tape twice and fill in the gaps in Russian.
D Hjccb^ rfr b d yukbb^ xtym k,zn ___________&xfq& Fyukbxyt j,xyj&
___________&xfq c vjkjrv b ,tp c[fhf& F hccrbt ___________&xfq ,tp
vjkjr^ xcnj c c[fhjv b kbvyjv& R x. j,xyj gjlfn cklrjt% dfhymt^
v/l^ gbhju^ rjyans b gtxymt& Dfhymt b v/l ___________&c [k,jv kb
gtxymtv^ f byjul ghcnj rkfln d xfq& <kby - n;t nhflbwbyyjt ,klj
r x.& B[ v;yj ___________&c vckjv kb cvtnyjq^ c dfhymtv^ c v/ljv b
c ndhjujv& Hccrbt jc,tyyj k,zn ___________&xfq dxthjv^ gckt ;byf^
rjul v;yj cgjrqyj gjcblnm^ gjujdjhnm ljgjply^ jlyv ckdjv^
- gjxf/dybxfnm&
Activity Eighteen -
Reading/Speaking Read through the completed exercise above and answer the
following questions in Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
1&
2&
3&
4&

Rfr gm.n xfq d yukbb$


Rfr k,zn gbnm xfq hccrbt$
Xnj j,xyj gjlfn r x. d Hjccb$
Rjul hccrbt k,zn gbnm xfq b gjxtv$

byjul
ghcnj rkfln
cgjrqyj gjcblnm

146

sometimes
simply put
to sit quietly

gjujdjhnm (II) ljgjply


jlyv ckdjv
(gj-)xf/dybxfnm (I)

to talk till late


in a word
to have tea

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The Instrumental plural of nouns is very simple. Irrespective of gender, the endings
are - (for nouns with a hard stem - ending with a consonant, - or -) and -
(for nouns with a soft stem - ending with --, --, -- and --).
Gender
Nom sing
Instr pl

hard
m
yj;
yj;vb

f
k;rf
k;rfvb

n
dby
dyfvb

soft

m
rbckm
rbctkvb

f
diyz
diyzvb

Chapter 8

THE INSTRUMENTAL PLURAL OF NOUNS

n
dfhymt
dfhymzvb

Note: those nouns which have - in the Nominative plural (cnkmz^ csyjdm^ ,hnmz) have - in the
Instrumental plural ([kgmzvb^ cnkmzvb^ csyjdmvb^ ,hnmzvb).
A few feminine nouns have ending - instead of -& At this stage you need to remember only three of them:
ljxm - ljxthmv^ klb (people) - k.lmv^ ltnb (children) - ltnmv.

Activity Nineteen -
Speaking/Writing Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions. The
first question is already answered for you as an example.

1& C xtv njn ceg$

njn ceg c gjvblhfvb&

gjvblhs

2& C xtv nb gbhj;r$

,kjrb
3& C xtv nj vjkjr$

[kgmz
4& C rtv vvf pdnhfrftn$

lxthb b csyjdm

A new ab initio Russian course

147

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE OF FUNCTION (WITHOUT A PREPOSITION)

The Instrumental case without a preposition is generally used to indicate the instrument
with which an action is perfomed. In English this meaning is expressed by the preposition
with + noun: to write with a pen/pencil - gbcnm hxrjq/rfhfylfiv.
Activity Twenty -
Reading Read and translate the following Russian recipe for coffee cream. Underline
all adjectives and nouns used in the Instrumental case. Can you distinguish which of them
express the meaning of function? Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

Lthtdyyjq k;rjq hfcnthnm zxyst ;tknr c c[fhjv b dfybkyjv&
Dcrbgznnm ckdrb b lj,dbnm yf,[ibq d rat ;tkfny& Gjcntgyyj
dvtinm dkrjq ujhxbt ckdrb d zxye. vcce b gjlth;nm yf djlzyq ,yt&
Cvpfnm jkdrjdsv kb hfcnntkmysv vckjv vktymrbt ahvjxrb^
hfpkj;nm d yb[ rhtv b gjcndbnm d [jkjlkmybr yf xfc& Jghjryenm
ahvjxrb c rhvjv yf nfhkre& Erhcbnm rhtv ahrnfvb^ ijrjkljv^
dp,nsvb ckdrfvb& Gjlfdnm yf ltchn c xtv kb rat&
Note: all verbs in the text act as command forms (you should ...); e.g. hfcnthtnm - (you should) whisk.

case.

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Complete the sentences below, putting the missing words in the appropriate

1& Vs tlv [kgmz

2& Vcj tln

3& Yf Pgflt klb tln


f d ylbb xcnj tln

lthtdyysq
hfcnthnm
zxysq ;tknr
dfybky
dcrbgznnm (II)
lj,dbnm (II)
yf,[ibq ;tkfny
gjcntgyyj dvtinm

148

wooden
to whisk
egg yolk
vanilla
to boil
to add
dissolved gelatin
gradually fold in

vccf
gjlth;nm (II)
djlzyz ,yz
cvpfnm
jkdrjdsq
hfcnntkmysq
ahvjxrf
hfpkj;nm (II)

mass
to hold
bain-marie
to grease
olive
vegetable
mould
to spoon

gjcndbnm (II)
jghjryenm
nfhkrf
erhcbnm (II)
dp,nst ckdrb
gjlfdnm
pgfl
ylbz

to put
to turn out
plate
to decorate
whipped cream
to serve
west
India

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

There are two different ways to express preference in Russian. In Chapter 6 you learned
how to say I like - vyt yhdbncz. In this chapter you came across one more verb which
usually expresses a greater degree of preference: to love - k.,nm. As in English, these
verbs are often interchangeable, but you must remember that in Russian the two
grammatical constructions are different:

Chapter 8

HOW TO EXPRESS PREFERENCE

vyt yhdbncz h,f (I like fish) z k.,k h,e (I love fish)


dat + verb + nom
nom + verb + acc

To say that you prefer something simply add ,kmit (more) before the verb:
vyt ,kmit yhdbncz h,f= z ,kmit k.,k h,e

(I prefer fish)

If you want to express an alternative add xtv + noun in Nominative case:


vyt ,kmit yhdbncz rat^ xtv xfq = z ,kmit k.,k rat^ xtv xfq
(I prefer coffee to tea)
Note: there is an actual verb to prefer in Russian, namely ghtlgjxbnnm (I). This is usually found in
dictionaries as a direct translation of the English verb, but it is rarely used colloquially. Nevertheless, if
you choose to use it, remember that it is fairly formal and generally used when expressing an alternative:

z ghtlgjxbn. rat (acc) x. (dat)

(I prefer coffee to tea )

THE VERB TO LOVE -

This verb is of the same type as the verb ujdjhnm (type II; see Chapter Seven). However,
note:
1. an -k- in the first person singular only: ,/,k - k.,nm/k.,k
2. mobile stress: infinitive and first person singular - last syllable stressed; other
forms - penultimate syllable stressed: k.,nm - k.,k^ k,bim etc.
z k.,k
ns k,bim

I love

you love

jy/jy/jy k,bn he/she/it loves

vs k,bv
ds k,bnt
jy k,zn

we love

you love

they love

Activity Twenty-Two -
Listening On the tape a mother is describing her familys preferences for various
foods and drinks. Although you might not understand everything, you should be able to pick
out the preferences of the different members of the family. Listen to the recording twice and
indicate in the table on the next page these preferences. The first one is done for you as an
example.
You will need to know the Russian for (they) cant stand - nthgnm yt vjun and for (they)
adore - j,j;.n.

A new ab initio Russian course

149

150

food and drinks


vcj
rhbwf
,tacnhufyjd
hcn,ba
h,f
ahrns
cjr
,kjrb
,fyys
diy (cherries)
dbyjuhl (grapes)
fgtkmcys
gjvblhs
ker
vjhrdrf
cd/rkf
ijrjkl
dfhymt
rat
xfq
vjkjr

vfnm

ljxm

---------

jnw

-----

csy

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 9

CHAPTER NINE -
NOW AND THEN -
In Chapter Nine you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about past events
2. to say when things happened
3. to ask about things and reply in the past (affirmative and negative)
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1.
2.
3.
4.

the past tense of regular verbs


the instrumental case after the verbs ^ ^
the reflexive verbs (present and past tense)
dates (years - 2003 )

Activity One -
Reading /Listening Look at the photographs and read text A, then read and listen
to text < and answer the questions after the texts.

F nj Dkflvbh Bdyjdbx <tkd& Tv 74


ulf& Jy ;bd/n d Vjcrd& Ctqxc jy yt
hf,nftn^ jy yf gycbb& Jy xtym k,bn xbnnm
hjvys^ ueknm d ghrt b buhnm d i[vfns&
E ytu tcnm csy b dyer^ yj jy ;bdn d CfyrnGtnth,hut& Dkflvbh Bdyjdbx xcnj
dcgjvbytn ghikjt&

< D vkjljcnb
Dkflvbh
Bdyjdbx ;bk
d C f y r n Gtnth,hut& Jy
[jnk exnmcz d
eybdthcbnnt^ yj
cnfk cjklnjv^
gjnjv xnj nj
,sk 1941 ujl&
njn ujl - yfxkj dnjhq vbhjdq djqy* d
Hjccb& Gckt djqy jy gjcnegk d Vjcrdcrbq
eybdthcbnn yf vtlbwycrbq afrekmnn& Gckt
eybdthcbnnf jy hf,nfk dhfxv d lncrjq
,jkmywt&

* In Russian the Second World War is usually called Dtkrfz Jnxtcndtyyfz djqy (the Great Patriotic War).

gycbz
dyer/dyxrf
dcgjvbynm (I)
ghikjt (n)
vkjljcnm (f)

152

pension
grandson/granddaughter
to remember
the past
youth

yfxkj
beginning
dnjhz vbhjdz djqy World War II
gckt (+ gen)
after
cnfnm (+ instr)
to become
cjkln
soldier

gjcnegnm (II)
vtlbwycrbq
afrekmnn
lncrbq
,jkmywf

to enrol
medical
faculty
childrens
hospital

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Which text is about the present and which one is about the past?
Find an example of the past tense of the verb [jnnm&
What is the last letter of this verb in the past tense?
What is the last letter of the other verbs in text <?
What gender are these verbs?
Complete the following rule:

Chapter 9

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

To form the masculine past tense remove ___ from the infinitive and replace it with ___.
Note: in order to form the feminine, neuter and plural past tense add -, - or - respectively to the masculine past
tense.
xbnnm (infinitive)

xbnk (past m)

xbnkf (past f)

xbnkj (past n)

xbnkb (past pl)

Activity Two -
Listening/Writing Read text D and fill in the gaps choosing the appropriate verb from
the box below. Use the past tense in each case. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
dcnhnbnm
pf,jknm

k.,nm
cnfnm

,snm
;bnm

crexnm
ghj;nm

regnm
plbnm

D D ,jkmywt jy
cdj
,leoe. ;ty& Jy
vtlctcnhq& Jy xtym
lheu
lhuf b
dvcnt 35 ktn& 5 ktn
yfpl jy
b evthk&
Dkflvbh Bdyjdbx lkuj
jly^ yj ytldyj jy
cj,re
b ntghm tv yt nfr jlbyrj& D byt
Dkflvbh Bdyjdbx
d
Gtnth,hu b
e cyf^ f cj,rf
d Vjcrd c cjclzvb& Jy
xtym
lheu gj lhue&

dcnhnbnm (II)
cdjq
,leofz ;ty
k.,nm (II) lheu lhuf
ghj;nm dvcnt
5 ktn yfpl
pf,jknm
evthk (f)
A new ab initio Russian course

to meet
ones (own)
future wife
to love each other
to stay together
5 years ago
to fall ill
died

lkuj
ytldyj
tv yt nfr jlbyrj
plbnm (II)
ujcnnm (II) e (+ gen)
cjcl/cjclrf (f)
crexnm (I) lheu gj lhue

for a long time


recently
he is not so lonely
to go (by transport)
to stay with
neighbour
to miss each other

153

Activity Three -
Reading/Writing Complete the sentences below matching a part of the sentence
from column A with a part from column . Put the verbs in column into the past tense.
A
1& Gckt djqy &&&
2& Z cnfk cjklnjv d 1941 ujl^ &&&
3& Ctqxc z ;bd d Vjcrd^ &&&
4& Z dcnhnbk cdj ,leoe. ;ty
d ,jkmywt^ &&&
5& Vs xtym k.,kb lheu lhuf b &&&
6& Vj csy b dyer ;bdn
d Gtnth,hut^ &&&

vs ____________ (ghj;nm) dvcnt


25 ktn&
jy ____________ (hf,nfnm)
vtlctcnhq&
z ____________ (gjcnegnm) d
eybdthcbnn&
gjnjv xnj njn ujl ____________
(,snm) uljv yfxkf djqy d
Hjccb&
ytldyj z ____________ (plbnm) r
ybv&
yj lj djqy z ____________ (;bnm)
d Cfyrn-Gtnth,hut&

Activity Four -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask and answer questions using the phrase Rjul ns d
gjcklybq hfp &&&$ - When did you last ...?, plus a follow-up question each time. Make a
note of your partner s answers and tell the class what you learned about him/her. Use the
expressions from the list below.
nhjv > instr morning ghikjq yxm.
> instr last night
dxth
ly/v
> instr afternoon d ghiksq gjytlkmybr > acc last Monday
yesterday dxthjv > instr evening d ghike. gnybwe
> acc last Friday
d ghikjv ujl
> prep last year
d ghikjv vczwt
> prep last month
yf ghikjq ytlkt
> prep last week
- Nyz^ rjul ns d gjcklybq hfp j,lfkf d htcnjhyt$
- Yf ghikjq ytlkt&
- B xnj ns kf$
- Z kf ,jho b h,e&
Reporting back: D gjcklybq hfp Nyz j,lfkf d htcnjhyt yf ghikjq
ytlkt^ jyf kf ,jho b h,e&
You may like to use the following ideas for your questions:
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
154

[jlnm d vfufpy
;bnm d ujcnybwt
cvjnhnm dltj
ckifnm vpsre
gbnm ifvgycrjt

6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

xbnnm hjvy
,snm d ntnht
ujdjhnm gj ntktaye
tcnm ijrjkl
gbcnm gbcmv

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Note: the Russian verbs ,snm^ cnfnm^ hf,nfnm take the Instrumental case of the following noun
in constructions like jy [xtn ,snm dhfxv - he wants to be a doctor; jy hf,nftn dhfxv - she
works as a doctor; jy cnkb dhfxvb - they became doctors& This rule applies to all tenses.
However, remember that the verb to be - ,snm does not have a present tense form in Russian, therefore
the Nominative is used: jy dhfx - he is a doctor&

1& Dkflvbh (,snm) _____________&

1& Jy (,snm) ____________________&

3& Jy (hf,nfnm) ________________&

A new ab initio Russian course

4& Jy ([jnnm) ,snm _____________&

4& Cdnf ([jnnm) ,snm ____________&

3& G/nh b Jku (hf,nfnm) _________&

2& Jy ([jnnm) cnfnm _____________&

2& Vfhyf ([jnnm) cnfnm __________&

Ntghm

Hymit

Chapter 9

Activity Five -
Writing Look at the pictures below and complete the sentences. Use the verbs in
brackets in the appropriate tense.

155

Activity Six -
Writing/Listening Translate the following sentences into Russian, then listen to the
texts A, and from Activities One and Two. Can you find these sentences in the texts?
Number them in order of their appearance.
@ &&& She was a nurse.
@ &&& He wanted to study at university, but became a soldier.
@ &&& After university he worked as a doctor at a childrens hospital.
Activity Seven -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner the role of B, then
reverse the roles. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
A

Say hi (informal).
Ask your partner how he/she feels.
Say you are well.
Say you are a doctor.
Say you did work as a teacher for two years but
recently became a doctor. Ask your partner where
he/she is working.
Say you were pleased to meet your friend
and goodbye.

Reply appropriately.
Describe how you feel and ask the same
question.
Ask what job your partner is doing now.
Say you remember that your partner
wanted to be a teacher and work with children.
Say you work as an engineer at a big factory
as you always wanted.
Respond appropriately.

j j - At the job centre


A (client)

Say good morning.


Say you work as a secretary but would like a
new job.
Say you speak French and Russian well.
Say you dont want to be a teacher.
Say you would like to work as an interpreter.
Say that is interesting and thank him/her.
Say: Thank you very much, goodbye.

B (official)

Respond appropriately.
Ask what else ( Xnj to/ &&&$)your client
can do.
Say there is a vacancy at the local school
and ask whether you client would like to
work as a teacher.
Ask what your client would like to do.*
Say there is a vacancy in an oil firm in
London.
Say: I wish you luck. (:tk. elxb)
Reply appropriately.

* When asking about occupations, the phrase what would you like to do ...? is usually rendered in the
following way - rtv ns [xtim / ds [jnnt hf,nfnm &&&?
gvybnm (II)
dfrycbz
a,hbrf

156

to remember
vacancy
factory

evnm
vcnysq
gthtdlxbr

to be able (to do)


local
interpreter

ytanzyz ahvf
bynthcyj
;tknm (I) (+ gen)

oil firm
interesting
to wish

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

gbnm

cvjnhnm

ujdjhnm

plbnm

ckifnm

ktnnm

Chapter 9

Activity Eight -
Writing/Listening Look at the pictures below and complete the questions with the
appropriate verb from the box. Use the verbs in the past tense. Listen to the tape, paying
particular attention to the intonation of the questions.

100 ktn yfpl klb &&&


_____________ hlbj$

________ yf vfiyt$

_________ ntktdpjh$

________ yf cfvjk/nt$

_______ gj ntktaye$

_________ rjrf-rke$

Remember the following rule:


To ask a question about an event which occurred in the past, simply emphasize the verb
in the past tense by raising your voice.
Activity Nine -
Speaking Pairwork. Using the model below answer the questions from Activity Seven,
take turns with your partner asking and answering.
Question
- Klb ckifkb vpsre cnj ktn yfpl$

Possible answer
- Lf^ ckifkb&
(Yes, they did.)
- Ytn^ yt ckifkb&
(No, they didnt.)
- Z yt edhty(f)&
(I am not sure.)

Remember the following rule:


To make a negative statement about an event which occurred in the past, simply put the
negative particle yt before the verb in the past tense.
A new ab initio Russian course

157

Activity Ten -
Reading Read the text about the life of the Russian writer Anton Chekhov.
You will need to know the Russian for in 1884 and other dates. This is very simple: the first three
numbers are used in the Nominative case and the last one in the Prepositional (d nczxf djctvmcn
dctvmltczn xtnd/hnjv ujl)& If the date ends in zero, the last two digits are used in the Prepositional case; e.g. in 1920 - d nczxf ltdznmcn ldflwnjv ujl&

Fyny Gdkjdbx X[jd (1860 - 1904)


Fyny Gdkjdbx X[jd - dtkrbq hccrbq
gbcntkm-htfkcn& Tu hfccrps b gmcs
bpdcnys dj vyub[ cnhyf[&
Jy hjlkcz* d 1860 ujl d Nfufyhut^ yf
ut Hjccb& Tu jnw ,sk rjvvthcynjv b
cjlth;k yt,jkmi. kdjxre& Jy edktrkcz
vpsrjq^ [jhji hbcjdk b gtk& Fyny n;t
k.,k vpsre^ yj ,kmit dctu tv yhdbkcz
ntnh& Jy xcnj buhk d ljviyb[ cgtrnrkz[&
D 1876 ujl ;bpym Fynyf bpvtykfcm& Tu
jnw hfpjhkcz^ b dcz ctvm e[fkf d Vjcrd&
D Vjcrd Fyny exkcz d eybdthcbnnt yf vtlbwycrjv afrekmnnt b
pfryxbk tu d 1884 ujl& Cdjq ghdsq c,hybr hfccrpjd jy jge,kbrjdk d
1886 ujl& Jy ;bk d Vjcrd gznm ktn^ hf,nfk dhfxv b gbck hfccrps& Gjnv
jy pf,jkk ne,threk/pjv^ gtht[fk d Rhsv b ;bk d knt& Pltcm jy yfgbck
cdj pyfvtynst gmcs Llz Dyz (1900)^ Nhb ctcnh (1901) b Dbiy/dsq cfl (1903). Jy ;tykcz d 1901 ujl yf frnhct kmut Ryggth^ f d 1904
ujl jy vth&
* The verb hjlkcz is a masculine past tense of the infinitive hjlnmcz. All Russian verbs ending
with the particle - in the infinitive are called reflexive verbs. In order to form the past tense of reflexive
verbs follow the usual rule leaving the particle in place. However, the particle - changes to - when
preceded by a vowel:
infinitive
hjlnmcz

dtkrbq
gbcntkm (m)
hjlnmcz (II)
.u
gmcf
bpdcnys (pl)
hfccrp
rjvvthcyn
cjlth;nm (II)
edktrnmcz (I) (+ instr)

158

past (m sing)
hjlkcz

great
writer
to be born
south
play
known
short story
businessman
to own
to be keen on

past (f sing)
hjlbkcm

hbcjdnm
gtnm
ntnh
ljviybq
cgtrnrkm (m)
hfpjhnmcz (II)
pfryxbnm (II)
kdjxrf
c,hybr
ne,threk/p

to draw
to sing
theatre
domestic
performance
to go bankrupt
to graduate
small shop
volume
TB

past (n sing)
hjlbkcm

past (pl)
hjlbkcm

gtht[fnm d (+ acc)
Rhsv
Llz Dyz
Nhb ctcnh
Dbiy/dsq cfl
bpvtynmcz (II)
exnmcz (II)
vth (m)
;tynmcz (II) yf
(+ prep)

to move to
Crimea
Uncle Vanya
Three Sisters
The Cherry Orchard
to change
to study
died
to marry, get
married to

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 9

Activity Eleven -
Writing Look at the pictures below and complete the sentences. Use the verb
in its appropriate form.

____________

______________

____________

Activity Twelve -
Reading Indicate whether the following sentences are True () or False (). Correct
the false sentences in English. The first sentence is done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Anton Chekhov wrote poems.


His father was a businessman.
Anton was keen on drawing.
His father was very keen on theatre.
Anton studied medicine in Moscow.
He left for Yalta after graduation.
He wrote his plays in Moscow.
He was ill with tuberculosis.

(No, he wrote short stories and plays)


(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking Answer the following questions in Russian.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Rjul b ult hjlkcz Fyny Gdkjdbx X[jd$


Rtv ,sk tu jnw$
Xtv jy edktrkcz$
Xnj yhdbkjcm Fynye ,kmit dctu$
Gjxtv ;bpym Fynyf bpvtykfcm d 1876 ujl$
Ult jy exkcz d Vjcrd$
Rtv jy hf,nfk gckt eybdthcbnnf$
Gjxtv jy gtht[fk d Rhsv$
Rjul b yf rjv jy ;tykcz$
Rfrt gmcs jy yfgbck d Rhsv$
Activity Fourteen -
Writing Write, in Russian, about your past. Use the guide below to help you.

Hjlk cz/hjlbkcm
ult$
rjul$
crkmrj dfv ktn$

Hjl n tk b
dphfcn$
hf,nf$
ult$

A new ab initio Russian course

Irkf
rjul$
ult$
ghtlvns$

nls[
[,,b$
cgjhn$
lhepm$

Hf,nf/ Ey b d thcbnn
rfrz/rfrq$
rjul$
ult$
159

Activity Fifteen -
Listening Two people on the tape talk about how they met their spouse. Split up into
two groups. Group A listens to Marinas story and group B listens to Igor s story. Then
answer, in English, the questions about your couple.
How we met -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

When did they meet?


How did they meet?
What do they do now?
What did they do when they met?
When did they get married?
Do they have any children?
Where do they live?
What is Marinas husbands name?
Why did he change his job?
What is Igors wifes name?
What did she study at university?

Activity Sixteen -
Speaking Find a partner from the other group and compare information. Ask and
answer questions in Russian. Look at the photographs of the two couples. How old do you
think they are? How old were they when they met? Tell your own story or your parents
story. Use the questions below to help you.
You will need to know the Russian for he/she was ... years old - tv / tq ,kj &&& ktn/ujl/ulf&
Note: if you want to give an approximate age, he/she is/was about 19/23 years old, simply place the
words ktn/ujl/ulf before the number - tv/tq ,kj ktn 19 / ujlf 23&

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&

Ns pve;tv # ;tyn$
E nt, cnm ldeirf # ghtym$
Rjul b ul ds dcnhnbkbcm$
Crkmrj dfv ,skj kn^ rjul ds
dcnhnbkbcm$
Ult ds njul ;kb$
Ult ds njul hf,nfkb # exkbcm$
Xnj ds lkftnt ctqxc$
Xnj lkftn ndjz ldeirf # ndq ghtym$
Ult jy() hymit hf,nfk(f) #
exkcz (exkfcm)$

dcnhnbnmcz (II)
ajnjrjhhtcgjylyn
vjkjl/;ysq
ajnjuhabz
[,,b (n indeclinable)
gjlhf,nsdfnm (I)
ajnjfntkm
(n indeclinable)
;tyn (m) / pve;tv (f)

160

to meet (each other)


photo correspondent
for young people
photography, photograph
hobby
to earn extra
photo studio
married

cybvnm (I) rdfhnhe


pfhgknf
,kmit xtv
;ehyfkcnbrf
byp
ckexqyj
nh/[rvyfnyfz
rdfhnhf
ghtym (m) / ldeirf (f)

to rent a flat
salary
more than
journalism
foreign languages faculty
by chance
three-room
flat
boyfriend / girlfriend

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE PAST TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS

1.

The masculine past tense of verbs with an infinitive ending in - is formed by replacing
- with -:
infinitive
gbcnm
ujdjhnm
gjdnjhnm
,jknm

2.

past (m)
jy gbck
jy ujdjhk
jy gjdnjhk
jy ,jkk

he was writing/wrote
he was talking/talked
he was repeating/repeated
he was ill

The feminine, neuter and plural forms are formed by adding endings -f^ -j and -b
respectively to the masculine form:
past (m)
jy gbck
jy ujdjhk
jy gjdnjhk
jy ,jkk

3.

Chapter 9

GRAMMAR

past (f)
jy gbckf
jy ujdjhkf
jy gjdnjhkf
jy ,jkkf

past (n)
jy gbckj
jy ujdjhkj
jy gjdnjhkj
jy ,jkkj

past (pl)
jy gbckb
jy ujdjhkb
jy gjdnjhkb
jy ,jkkb

The past tense agrees with the subject of the verb in number (sing, pl) and gender (m, f, n):
z gbck
z gbckf
ns gbck
ns gbckf
vs^ ds^ jy gbckb

I was writing (male subject)


I was writing (female subject)
you were writing (male subject)
you were writing (female subject)
we, you, they were writing (plural)

Some types of verbs have no - in the masculine past tense, but in all other forms they follow
the usual rules. In this chapter you came across one such verb, namely evthnm (to die).
All verbs ending with - follow the same pattern: remove - from the infinitive in
order to form the masculine past tense; add - and the appropriate endings for the feminine,
neuter and plural past forms:
evthnm (inf)

vth (past m)

evthk (past f)

vthkj (past n)

vthkb (past pl)

To ask a question about the past simply emphasize the verb in the past tense by raising your
voice. The word order doesnt change in Russian as in English: jy [jlk d rby - he went
to the cinema; jy [jlk d rby$ - did he go to the cinema?
To give a negative reply about the past, use the negative particle before the verb in the
past tense:
- Ns xbnk ne ryue$
- Ytn^ yt xbnk&

A new ab initio Russian course

Did you read this book?


No, I didnt.

161

Activity Seventeen -
Speaking Pairwork. Choose a verb from the box below and make up a sentence in
the past tense. Use the nonsense verb nfnfk(-f, -j, -b) (which is something like English
blah-blah) instead of the verb you chose. Your partner should give the past tense of the
missing verb, then you should change roles if the missing verb is named correctly.
xbnnm
pf,jknm
evthnm

gbcnm
dcnhnbnm
k.,nm

dcgjvbynm
plbnm
hf,nfnm

gjcnegnm
,snm
cnfnm

pfryxbnm
ckifnm
regnm

A - Dxth z nfnk bynthcye. ryue&


< - xbnk
< - Jy nfnkf eybdthcbnn d 1989 ujl&
A - pfryxbkf
Activity Eighteen -
Listening/Reading You will hear people answering the questions given below. Before
you listen, read the sentences in the table. Indicate in the spaces provided which speaker you
think will use each one. Then listen to the tape and check your answers. The first one is done
for you.
F
<
D
U

Rjul
Rjul
Rjul
Rjul

ds d gjcklybq hfp gkb ifvgycrjt$


ds d gjcklybq hfp ,kb pf uhfywtq$
ds d gjcklybq hfp ujndbkb j,l$
ds d gjcklybq hfp [jlkb d ntnh$

F
F

Nfv ,kj xtym ;hrj&


Dctv gjyhdbkcz ltchn&
Z xtym k.,k vpsre Xfqrdcrjuj&
Yf cdlm,t lhuf&
nj rpjnxtcrfz cnhfy&
Vcj c jdjovb&
Jy ;tykcz yf fyukbxyrt&
Tduybq Jyuby
Dc/ ,kj xtym drcyj&

Activity Nineteen -
Listening/Writing Listen to the tape again and write down in Russian when each
activity happened.
1&
2&
3&
4&

162

Jy d gjcklybq hfp gbk ifvgycrjt


Jy d d gjcklybq hfp ,sk pf uhfywtq
Jy d gjcklybq hfp ujndbkf j,l
Jy d gjcklybq hfp ,sk d ntnht

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Write down what else happened or didnt happen yesterday.


1&

Cdnf yt cvjnhkf ntktdpjh&


<jhc

2&

<jhc xbnk ufpne&


Cdnf

3&

Cdnf ujndbkf ;by&


<jhc

4&

<jhc gbk gdj&


Cdnf

5&

Cdnf kf ijrjkl&
<jhc

Chapter 9

Activity Twenty -
Writing Look at the picture of Sveta and her husband Boris. They never do the
same things on the same day, for example:
Dxth Cdnf [jlkf d vfufpy&
Dxth <jhc yt [jlk d vfufpy&

Activity Twenty-One -
Reading/Listening/Writing
Read and translate the two texts below. There are
three factual mistakes in each text. Listen twice to the tape and find the correct details.
Write them down, as in the model provided.

Cjdncrbq k/nxbr hbq Ufuhby cnfk ghdsv xtkjdrjv^ rjnhsq gj,sdk
d rcvjct& nj ghjbpjik d 1961 ujl^ ldtylwfnjuj fghkz& Ufuhby dgthdt
j,ktnk Pvk. yf rjcvxtcrjv rjhf,k Djcnr, rjnhsq dcbk 5 njyy&
Gjk/n ghjljk;kcz 100 vbyn& Vfrcbvkmyfz dscjn ,sk 200 vbkm&
1& Gjkn ghjljk;fkcz yt 100 vbyen& Jy ghjljk;fkcz 108 vbyen&
2.
3.
Glossary
c

,


f

A new ab initio Russian course

the Soviet pilot


Gagarin was the first
man in space
it happened
on the 12th of April
for the first time




200

flew around the Earth


in a space ship
which weighed
the flight lasted
the maximum hight
200 miles

163


Ghdsq xtkjdr gj,sdk yf Key d 1967 ujl& nj ghjbpjik ldlwfnm
ghdjuj bkz d 3 xfc 58 vbyn enh& Fvthbrycrbq fcnhjydn Ybk
hvcnhjyu gjryek rjcvxtcrbq rjh,km Fgkkj - 12 b clkfk ghdsq ifu
yf Key&
Glossary


3 58

was on the Moon


on the 21st of July
at 3.58 a.m.

the American astronaut


left the space ship
made the first step

1.
2.
3.

The past tense when used to denote age


The neuter singular form is used in phrases expressing age in the past tense:
Vyt ,kj 18 ktn Nt, ,kj 23 ujlf Tq ,kj 8 ktn Tv ,kj 30 ktn Bv ,kj 19 ktn
I was 18 years old You were 23
She was 8
He was 30
They were 19
years old
years old
years old
years old
Note: if the last digit of the number is 1 (except in the case of 11 which complies with the above rule) the
masculine singular form is used:
Vyt ,sk 21 ujl

Nt, ,sk 31 ujl

Tq ,sk 1 ujl

Tv ,sk 41 ujl

Bv ,sk 51 ujl

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing Look at the pictures below and write down, in Russian, how old these
people are now and how old they were at different times in the past.

164

10 ktn

24 ulf

56 ktn

Ctqxc tve 10 ktn&


2 ulf yfpl _________
7 ktn yfpl __________
9 ktn yfpl __________

Ctqxc ______________
3 ulf yfpl _________
5 ktn yfpl __________
13 ktn yfpl _________

Ctqxc ______________
6 ktn yfpl __________
15 ktn yfpl _________
18 ktn yfpl _________
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

All Russian verbs ending with the particle - in the infinitive are called reflexive verbs. In the
present tense they conjugate like any other verb of a given type. To determine the type of the
reflexive verb simply ignore the particle; for example, the verb ;tynmcz is of the same
type as the verb ujdjhnm. The only thing to keep in mind is that the particle - changes
to - when preceded by a vowel:

Chapter 9

REFLEXIVE VERBS

Present tense
ujdjhnm
z
ns
jy/jy/jy
vs
ds
jy

;tynmcz

ujdjh
ujdjhim
ujdjhn
ujdjhv
ujdjhnt
ujdjhn

z
ns
jy/jy/jy
vs
ds
jy

;ty ;ybim ;ybn ;ybv ;ybnt ;yzn -

cm
cz
cz
cz
cm
cz

Past tense
In order to form the masculine past tense of reflexive verbs replace the - of the infinitive
by -, leaving the particle - in place:
dcnhnbnmcz (infinitive) - dcnhnbkcz (past m)
In order to form the feminine, neuter and plural forms in the past tense add -^ - and -
respectively to the masculine form. The particle - changes to - when preceded by a
vowel:
dcnhnbkcz (past m), dcnhnbkfcm (past f), dcnhnbkjcm (past n), dcnhnbkbcm
(past pl)
Activity Twenty-Three -
Writing The table below is partially completed with reflexive verbs from the text in
Activity Nine. Fill in the remaining spaces in the table.
infinitive

past (m sing)

past (f sing)

past (n sing)

past (pl)

* This verb applies only to men; a different one pf (+ acc) is used for women.

A new ab initio Russian course

165

Activity Twenty-Four -
Writing Fill in the gaps using the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense and form.
1& hbq Ufuhby ___________ (hjlnmcz) d 1934 ujl^ f tu cnhifz ljxm
___________ (hjlnmcz) d 1959 ujl& 2& Ctqxc Vfrcv ___________ (exnmcz)
d Vjcrdcrjv eybdthcbnnt^ f hymit jy ___________ (exnmcz) d irkt& 3& D
ghikjv ujl Cdnf xtym ___________ (edktrnmcz) gjg-vpsrjq^ f ctqxc
tq ,kmit ___________ (yhdbnmcz) rkfccxtcrfz vpsrf& 4& Vj hjlntkb
___________ (dcnhnbnmcz) 20 ktn yfpl& 5& Vs c ctcnhq __________ (hjlnmcz)
d jly b njn ;t ltym& 6& Ctqxc z ___________ (edktrnmcz) ntnhjv b
kbnthfnhjq^ f vj ,hnmz ___________ (edktrnmcz) nyybcjv b aen,kjv&
7& ujhm ___________ (dcnhnbnmcz) c Vfhyjq 2 ulf yfpl b &___________
(;tynmcz) yf ytq d ghikjv ujl&
How to answer the question D rfrv ujl &&&$ (In which year ...?)
Years in Russian are expressed by ordinal numerals; e.g. ctqxc nczxf ltdznmcn ltdzycnj gnsq
ujl - it is 1995 now (literally: it is the 1995th year now).
To answer the above question use the Prepositional case. In Chapter Seven you learned that in
compound numbers only the the final component has the form of an ordinal number and is declined.
Therefore, if you want to say in 1995, only the last digit should be used in the Prepositional case:
d nczxf ltdznmcn ltdzycnj gnjv ujl - in 1995
Note that the final component of a compound number may contain more than one digit:
in 1900 (three digits)
in 1980 (two digits)

d nczxf ltdznbcnjv* ujl


d nczxf ltdznmcn djcmvbltcnjv ujl

* Remember: ordinal numbers from 50th to 80th and from 500th to 900th have a central -- which appears
in place of the central -- in cardinal numbers. The central -- appears in all cases:
nczxf itcnbcnsq ujl / d nczxf itcnbcnjv ujl
nczxf ltdznmcn itcnbltcnsq ujl / d nczxf ltdznmcn
itcnbltcnjv ujl

1600 / in 1600
in 1960

Activity Twenty-Five -
Speaking Say in Russian in which year each of the people pictured below was born
and died.

Itrcgbh
(1564 - 1616)
166

Geirby
(1799 - 1837)

Vthbkby Vjyhj
(1926 - 1962)
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The Russian verbs ,snm^ cnfnm and hf,nfnm take the Instrumental case of the following noun in
constructions like ,snm/cnfnm dhfxv - to be/become a doctor and hf,nfnm dhfxv - to work
as a doctor& This rule applies to all tenses. However, remember that the verb to be - ,snm does not have
a present tense form in Russian, therefore the Nominative case is used: jy dhfx - he is a doctor.

Activity Twenty-Six -
Reading/Speaking Read the Curriculum Vitae given below and tell the story of
Alexanders life in Russian.

Chapter 9

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE AFTER THE VERBS , AND

Fdnj,bjuhabz
vz^ afvkbz^ nxtcndj%
Ujl hj;lybz%
Vcnj hj;lybz%
J,hfpjdybt%
Ghjaccbz%
Hf,nf%

Ctvm%

<hfr%
Lnb%
{,,b%

Fktrcylh Dkflvbhjdbx Pf[hjd


1960
Vjcrd
Vjcrdcrfz irkf @3^ 1967 - 1977
Vjcrdcrbq eybdthcbnn^ 1977 - 1982
,bkju
1982 - 1984 exntkm ,bjkubb (irkf @ 15)
1984 - 1989 ghtgjlfdntkm ,bjkubb
(gtlbycnbnn)
1989 - 1990 ,tphf,nysq
1990 - lj yfcnjotuj dhvtyb ,bkju rjycekmnyn (Bycnbnn j[hys ghbhls )
jntw - Dkflvbh Gtnhdbx Pf[hjd^
gtycbjyh
vfnm - Yyf Bdyjdyf Pf[hjdf^ dhfx
(,jkmywf @1)
1985^ ;ty - kmuf <jhcjdyf Uhfx/df^
gthtdlxbr
ljxm (ujl hj;lybz - 1987)
fh[bntrnhf^ ntnh^ nyybc

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Speaking/Writing Pairwork. Enquire about your partner s Curriculum Vitae in
Russian and write down the details. Tell the group what you have found out. (You havent yet
learnt how to use the phrase for from ... to ...with dates, so avoid this construction.)
fdnj,bjuhabz
ujl hj;lybz
vcnj hj;lybz
j,hfpjdybt
,bkju
,bjkubz
ghtgjlfdntkm (m)
gtlbycnbnn

curriculum vitae
year of birth
place of birth
education
biologist
biology
lecturer, teacher
pedagogical institute

A new ab initio Russian course

,tphf,nysq/-fz
lj yfcnjotuj dhvtyb
rjycekmnyn
Bycnbnn j[hys
ghbhls
gtycbjyh
,hfr
fh[bntrnhf

unemployed
until the present time
consultant
Environmental Protection
Institute
pensioner
marriage
architecture

167

168

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 10

CHAPTER TEN -

HOBBIES AND INTERESTS -


In Chapter Ten you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about hobbies and interests
2. to speak about sport, cinema, theatre
3. to express wrong in Russian
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. the genitive singular of adjectives
2. the instrumental plural of adjectives
3. double negatives ( , , , ,
, etc.)
4. the mutual pronoun ( , etc.)
5. the multidirectional verbs of motion and
Activity One -
Speaking
Say what the people in the pictures are doing. Use the words given below
the pictures together with the verbs above each picture.
(+ instr)

(+ instr)

()

()

(I) (+ instr)

170

to take part in, go in for

(I) (+ instr)

to enjoy

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

(+ instr)

Chapter 10

(+ instr)

( )

( )

Activity Two -
Writing/Speaking Insert the missing questions in the following exchanges. The first
one is done for you. When you have completed the exercise, ask your partner the same
questions relating to his/her interests. Then reverse the roles.
Note: the second conjugation verbs (to spend time), (to go on foot) and (to go
by transport) mutate in the first person singular: , , . (See the Grammar section for
further details.)

1. - ?
- .
2. - _______________________________________________________________?
- .
3 - _______________________________________________________________?
- .
4. - _______________________________________________________________?
- .
5. - .
- _______________________________________________________________?
6. - _______________________________________________________________?
- .

(II)

foreign
usually
to go on holiday
figure skating
aerobics
in my free time

A new ab initio Russian course

(I)

(II)

to collect stamps
stamps to do with space
often
to go (on foot)
at the disco
on Saturdays

171

Activity Three -
Listening
Listen to the following recordings by Russians and state in the boxes
below how they spend their leisure time. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to
help you.
Name

Leisure activities

How Russians spend their free time


Summer is the favourite holiday period for most Russians. This is when they take their annual break (),
and the children have their school holidays (rfyreks). The resorts of the Black Sea (X/hyjt vht) are
popular destinations, but most people visit the family dacha (lxf) - either a simple country cottage or a large
house, but always with its own plot of land (excnjr ptvk) and a vegetable garden (jujhl) or small
orchard (cfl). From early spring Russians make weekend trips to their dachas, where they prepare the ground for
planting after the long winter months. When summer comes, the whole family will often move to the dacha and
may continue to live there until the autumn, commuting to and from work. Most dachas are located in small villages
in the countryside, frequently near a lake, where the holidaymakers can go swimming, or a forest, where they can
pick mushrooms and berries (cj,bhnm uhb, b ujls). Russians still marinate and preserve a great deal of
natural produce, which provides a vital source of food throughout the winter and helps bring back pleasant
memories of the summer.

(I)

172

loads of free time


more often
classmate
to adore
violin
little free time
modern music
swimming
spring board diving

(, -) (+ instr)

(I) (+ acc)

(I)

sometimes
to be interested in
horse riding
to support
summer cottage, dacha
to grow flowers
fruit
vegetables

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

A
Ask how your partner spends his/her
free time.
Ask what he/she does on his/her days off.
Ask if he/she goes to the dacha.
Ask if your friend likes to go hiking.
A
Ask your friend how he/she spends
his/her holidays.
Ask your partner where he/she has been.*

B
Say that you have very little free time.
You are very busy.
Say that you usually go to the country.
Reply that you do not have a dacha and
you usually go mushroom picking in the woods.
Reply that you do not like hiking. You always
go by car.
B
Say that you like to go abroad.

Wish your partner a pleasant journey.

Reply that you have been to France, Germany


and Spain.
Reply appropriately.

A
Ask if your partner has a hobby.
Ask where your partner usually buys
them.
Ask what sort of CDs your partner collects.

B
Reply that you like to collect CDs.
Say that you usually buy them at the
supermarket or in a specialist shop.
Say that you collect rock-music CDs.

Chapter 10

Activity Four -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays B, then reverse
the roles.

* Use either (+ acc) or / (+ prep).

Activity Five -
Reading/Speaking Work out the meaning of the following dialogues, using the
vocabulary provided on the following page, and then read them in pairs. (Note: the words in
bold relate to Activity Six.)
VBH EDKTXYBQ
Rj y w hn
Dkz
Cif
Dkz
Cif
Dkz

- . ?
, .
- . ,
?
- . , .
- , . ?
- .
.

/




pvjv


A new ab initio Russian course

I am busy
on (ones) days off
to go to the country
to go mushroom picking
in the woods
to go hiking
" " "
to spend ones holidays

( /)

-
(I)

(?)
-
-

(I wish you) bon voyage,


have a pleasant journey
CD
to buy
specialist shop

what sort of(?)


rock music CDs

173

Ntnh
Dflv
Cyz
Dflv
Cyz
Yfnif
Kpf
Yfnif
Kpf
Yfnif
Kpf
Yfnif
Kpf
Yfnif
Kpf

Dkz
Vif
Dkz
Vif

- ?
- ,
.
.
- ? ?
- , .
.
* * *
- , . .
- ? ?
- . , .
.
- . ,
?
- , .
.
- ? ?
- , , .
- ? ?
- , , .
.
- , t .
.
Rby
- , ? ?
- , .
- ?
- ? .
.


?
,







...?





(, -)
(, )

174

world of entertainments
will you come with us?
the fact is that
spare ticket
variety show/music
solo concert
other singers as well
(they) will perform
(s/he) will also sing
well, in that case
you can listen to that
where will be?
concert hall
lets meet
main entrance
just
Swan Lake
(Duke) Bluebeards
Castle
to get, obtain
to buy
Maly (Small) Theatre


(I)

(II)


(I)




(I)

theatre
to prefer
operetta
to remember
last year
premiere
The Merry Widow
to invite
the stalls
balcony
middle
third row
famous, well known
it will be necessary
programme
foyer
Ill go
with pleasure
thanks for the invitation
to show
all the tickets are sold out
with great difficulty

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Masculine:
Neuter:
Feminine:

______
______
______
______
______
______

(hard)
(soft)
(hard)
(soft)
(hard)
(soft)

(near the new stadium)


(without a spare ticket)
(not far from the old building)
(by the blue sea)
(for the new student)
(opposite the New Years tree)

Chapter 10

Activity Six -
Writing The forms in bold in the previous exercise are singular adjectives in the
Genitive case. Bearing in mind that the masculine and neuter forms are the same, complete
the chart below. (You can check your answers in the Grammar section.)

Activity Seven -
Reading/Listening Read the following dialogue and work out what it means. Then
listen to the tape and fill in the gaps.
The form which you are listening out for in each case is the Instrumental plural of adjectives. As you will
hear, the ending is the same for all three genders, although soft adjectives differ in spelling from hard
adjectives and the spelling rule also affects some of the forms. (See the Grammar section for further
details.)

Bdfy d
Gtnh d
Bdfy d
Gtnh d

- , ?
?
- , _____ _____
? ?
- ______ ______
______ . ______
______ .
- , . _____
c______ ______ .

Activity Eight -
Writing/Speaking
Answer the following questions, using the vocabulary list at the
foot of the next page, if necessary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

?
?
?
: , , ?
: ,
?
6. ?
?

...?

hows things?
stamp collection
how do you know ?
foreign
second-hand book
physical map

A new ab initio Russian course

various types
computer game
Soviet
very old, ancient
New Year card

175

7. ? ?
8. ?
9. , , ?
10. ? ?
Activity Nine -
Listening Listen to the following dialogues and complete the table below. The first
one is done for you. The necessary vocabulary is provided for you at the foot of the page.
Name
Andrei
Tanya
Natasha
Oleg

Availability

Reasons given
He loves French films

Activity Ten -
Reading
Read the television schedules below and identify the programmes listed in
English. Dont expect to understand every word!
6
7.45, 2.45
8.00, 20.00, 22.35

8.10, 0.30
8.25

10.40 ,

12.20 -
13.20
13.55
14.40

16.15
16.45, 20.55

17.15
18.25 -, -
18.55 -
20.10
21.10, 22.45

0.45 -
!
2.30 - .

(m)

176

18.00
18.30
19.00, 22.00
19.30
20.00 , 4-
()
21.00
21.45
22.35
0.15
1.00

1.05

?
folk music
?
detective story
block buster

musical comedy
circle
tragedy
thriller

31
9.00, 17.20

9.35
11.00, 12.50, 17.50, 19.50, 21.20,
23.35 TV-Shop
13.05
14.35
15.35
15.50
18.05 -
19.45, 23.30

20.05 -

20.35
21.35
22.00

0.05
1.05

cartoon
soap opera
collecting
shall we go?
what is showing?
it seems; I think
comedy
maybe, perhaps

()

()

(+ gen) ...

another time
lets go
I cant
thing (to do)
lets go
I dont feel
like going to ...
soon, shortly

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. Theatrical Monday
2. The old flat
3. My dog and I
4. Motor plus
5. Serial Spies
6. Today
7. Scandals of the week
8. Window on Europe
9. Film The Russian Field
10. Good morning

8.00
8.45
9.05
9.30
9.55
. .

10.15 -
10.30

11.00
11.15
11.30
11.55 ?
12.25
12.50
-
13.00 -
. .
13.25
14.00, 20.00, 0.55
14.20
15.10 , ...
15.25 -
15.50
16.20
16.45 -2 :
17.40
18.05
19.00 . 5-

20.35
.
22.00
22.05
23.00
1.10

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

5
10.10
10.25
10.55, 12.55, 14.55, 16.55, 19.55
-
11.10
11.40
12.10
12.40 -
13.10
14.30

15.10
15.25

15.45 ?
16.10
16.25
17.10

17.35 .

18.05
18.35
19.40
20.20

21.55
22.10 -
22.50
23.05 . -
()
23.45

Chapter 10

8.00
8.20
9.40
10.00, 15.00
10.15 :

10.30 !
11.00
11.35
11.55
. 2-
12.30
13.00
14.30
15.20
. 3-
16.15 .
.
16.55 . () ()
-
18.55
20.45 , !
21.00
21.40

22.40 .
.
23.20 -
0.05 --96
0.25

The parade of parades


Good night, kids!
Cartoon film The Happy Prince
Film Fathers and Grandfathers
The paradoxes of history
Tomorrows weather
The morning post
Tea club
Sports review
New York, New York

Activity Eleven -
Speaking
Ask your partner when different programmes begin, based on the
examples given in the exercise above. Then reverse the roles. You will need to use the phrase
(or ) __________________?
A new ab initio Russian course

177

Activity Twelve -
Reading
Read the following text and indicate with arrows which TV programmes
Olegs family watches. The first one is done for you.

.
.
. - 1.
- .
. .
-.
. . . ,
, .
, ,
, !. , !.
,
.



, !

, !
- 1

()
(I)
(+ dat)


(, ,
) (+ gen)

178

every
never
to miss
match
world championship
football review
not at all
serial, series
to sit
to wait (for)

the start
Night Express
younger/youngest
sister

childrens programme
, ! Good night, kids!

favourite
, !
Just You Wait!

to go dancing

thus, thats why

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 10

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking
Pairwork. Ask your partner (i) whether he/she takes part in the following
sports, and (ii) whether he/she enjoys them, then reverse the roles. Use the vocabulary list at
the foot of the page to help you.

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Speaking
Math up the sports person in the left-hand column with the
appropriate sport in the right-hand column, as illustrated. Then say what each sports person
does, using (+ instr).

rowing
water skiing
running
track (athletics)
surfing

A new ab initio Russian course

American football
cycling
diving
fencing
shooting

179

Activity Fifteen -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. Using the table below ask your partner how many
games a team has won, draw or lost in the Russian Football League, based on the model
below.
- dbuhfnm
Win
- csuhnm dybxm
Draw
- ghjbuhnm
Lose
- // ?
- 22 , 6 ,
6 .
Note: the form is used with the following numerals: 5-20, 25-30, 35-40, etc.
- 96

1.
22
6
2.
21
9
3.
21
7
4.
20
7
5.
20
6
6. ()
15
10
7.
12
10
8. ()
13
6
9.
12
9
10.
13
4
11.
11
8
12.
10
11
13.
11
6
14.
10
6
15.
10
6
16.
8
9
17.
4
12
18.

6
4
6
7
8
9
12
15
13
17
15
13
17
18
18
17
18
24

Activity Sixteen -
Reading
The following page is taken from a brochure for Russian football fans
travelling to the European Championships. Answer the questions below in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
180

What was the name of the tourist company organizing the trip?
In which country were the championships taking place?
When and where did Russia play Italy?
When and where did the final take place?
What is the Russian for semi final?
How long was Tour 1 for?
Where did Tour 1 fly to and from?
What meals were provided in the tours?
What excursions did Tour 2 offer?
How much did Tour 2 cost, using a 3 star hotel?
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

11

16

!!!
,

19

26
,

30
,

1
9 20
12 /11

2
25 2
8 /7

-

!

:
- : - ,
- ;
- ***, *****;
- :
, ;
- :

;
- :
- ,
- ,
- ;
- ;
,
;
- ;
- ;
-
:
3050$, ***
3910$, *****

A new ab initio Russian course

Chapter 10

:
- : - ,
- ;
- ***, ****, *****;
- :
, ;
- :

;
- :
,
;
- ;

,
;
- ;
-
- ;
-
:
3575$, ***
4050$, ***
4385$, *****

181

Activity Seventeen -
Speaking
Answer the following questions which will almost certainty require a
negative response!
THE DOUBLE NEGATIVE

never - (); nowhere (location) - (); nowhere (movement) - ();


nobody - (); nothing - ()
Note that the particle is always used before a verb; e.g. c
- I am not going anywhere this evening.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

?
?
?
?
?

GRAMMAR
GENITIVE SINGULAR OF ADJECTIVES

You already know that the adjective always agrees with the noun in number (singular or
plural), gender (m, f, n) and case. The adjective endings for the Genitive singular are as
follows: (m, f, n)
- (hard)/- (soft) (pronounced - and -, respectively)
- (hard) and - (soft)

Masculine/Neuter:
Feminine:

Note the spelling rule: unstressed - cannot follow , , , , and is replaced by -; e.g.
- we dont have hot water

Nominative
Masculine/Neuter

/-
/-
/-
/-

...?

182

Feminine

last time
who of you ?

Genitive
Masculine/Neuter

Feminine

atomic physics

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity Eighteen -
Writing Complete the following sentences (using the Genitive case after a negative
verb). The first one is done for you.
Chapter 10

1. ( ) .
.
2. () .
______________________________________________.
3. () .
______________________________________________.
4. () .
______________________________________________.
5. ( ) .
______________________________________________.
6. () .
______________________________________________.
Activity Nineteen -
Writing Put the nouns and adjectives into the Genitive case.
( ), ( ),
( ), ( ) ( ). ,
( ) ( ). ,
( ) ( )*. (
). ,
( ).
* The Genitive case is also used with food and drink to denote some.







(II)

yesterdays
not a single, no
market
sweet
apple
we went
butter
new potatoes
full fat sour cream
green onions
fresh milk
to recall

A new ab initio Russian course



()
()


(II)
(I)

(II)

white bread
country cheese
she said
she would like
warm milk
strong tea
to offer, propose
to drink (up)
black coffee
to decide
a glass
orange

183

Activity Twenty -
Writing Translate the following sentences into Russian using the prepositions
provided in the boxes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

This is a present from my younger sister [ ].


We play football near the new stadium [ ].
He does not live here, he is from a different town [ ].
We are beginning from chapter ten (= the tenth chapter) [ ].
This is an article from yesterdays paper [ ].
They live by the beautiful blue sea [ ].
The church is situated opposite the old school [ ].
It is a textbook for the new (female) student [ ].
We bought a new wetsuit for scuba diving [ ].
I returned from [ ] the student library without the required book [ ].

INSTRUMENTAL PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES

The adjectives endings for the Instrumental plural are as follows:


Masculine/Neuter/Feminine:

- (hard), - (soft).

Note the spelling rule: - cannot follow , , , , , , , and is replaced by -:


- I am interested in rare stamps

All genders
Nominative

Instrumental

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Fill in the gaps using the adjectives given in brackets in the Instrumental
plural.
1. __________ () .
2. __________ () .
3. _________ () .

(f)

184

present
different
article
church
textbook

required
(wet)suit
scuba diving
I returned
student library
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 10

4. ________ () .
5. _________ () .
6. _________ ()
_________ () .
7. _______ () ,
________ () .
8. _________ () .
Activity Twenty-Two -
Reading
Read the following sentences and put the words in brackets into the
Accusative or the Instrumental case, as appropriate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

().
( ).
( ).
().
( ).
( ).
THE MUTUAL PRONOUN -/-/-/-

There is no Nominative form of this pronoun and only the second element declines.
Uses with verbs alone

Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr

- they know each other


- they are afraid of each other
- they help each other
- they are proud of each other

Uses with prepositions

Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

- we are looking at each other


- we receive letters from each other
- we missed each other
- we talk to each other
- we think about each other

/ (+ instr)


(I) (+ instr)

A new ab initio Russian course

content (with)
excellent
mark
sports
to work on
plan, project
wild

()
(II) (+ instr)

animal
plant
(ballroom) dancing
to be renowned for
Olympic games
weight-lifting

185

Activity Twenty-Three -
Speaking/Writing Complete the dialogues, using the mutual pronoun in
the appropriate cases.
1. - ?
- , _________ _________.
2. - ?
- ________ _________.
3. - ?
- , ________ ________.
4. - ________ ________?
- , ________ ________ ________
____________.
5. - , _________ _________.
- !
6. - - ?
- . , ________ ________.
- . , ________ ________.

USEFUL CONSTRUCTIONS WITH

to be friends
to correspond
to say hello
to meet
to quarrel
to speak
to talk

to talk
to be worried
to dream

to love
to recall
to respect
to remember
to hate
to hear
to listen

to give
to write
to phone
to send
to hand over
to help

(II) (+ instr)
(I)

(II) (+ dat)
(II) (+ acc)

186

to be friends with
to send
parcel
to relate to, think of,
get on with
to be angry at

to be angry
to rely on
to look at

Time Machine
lots of concert goers, a big
audience

people

almost
(, ) to be sitting
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 10

Activity Twenty-Four -
Writing In chapter 10 you have met the phrase , (the fact is that),
which is one of many expressions based on the construction , (that which, the thing
which, what, the fact that); e.g. , (what is necessary) and ,
(he found out what he needed to know). Similar constructions are , (someone who, the person who) and , (those who, people who); e.g. , ,
... (someone who thinks that ) and , (those who know me). Use one of
these phrases, as appropriate, in the following sentences.
1. , . ______________
-, .
2. - ?
- ______________ .
3. . ______________ .
4. - ?
- ______________ .
5. - -?
- ______________ .
6. _______________ - .

NEGATIVE PRONOUNS ,
The negative pronouns and adverbs are formed by adding - to the following pronouns and
adverbs: , , , , , (from where), , .
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

no one, nobody
nothing
not any, no
nowhere (location)
nowhere (direction)
from nowhere
never
by no means, in no way

(not a single, no) follows the normal adjective declension. and


decline as follows:
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

(II) (+ gen)
(II)
A new ab initio Russian course

to ask s.one
to reply, answer

recently
original

187

DOUBLE NEGATIVES

Remember: when these negative pronouns are used with the verb they are always accompanied by another negative.
Without prepositions
- no one answered my call
- there was no one at home
- he is not interested in anything
- I do not have any books
- I do not know anything about it
- I do not take part in any sport
With prepositions
- I do not correspond with anybody
- he is not thinking about anyone
Activity Twenty-Five -
Writing Use the pronoun in brackets in the appropriate form. Note that it will not
change in every sentence.
1. () .
2. () .
3. () .
4. () .
5. () .
6. () .
7. () .
8. () .
9. () .
10. () .
11. () .
12. () .
Activity Twenty-Six -
Writing Fill in the gaps with negative pronouns and adverbs.
___________ , ___________ ___________ .
___________ .
, ___________ , ,
___________ . ___________ ,
.
(, )
(II)
(, , )

188

to find
to leave the house
to be able (to)

(, )
/

to understand
to be alone

S azov (Russian from Scratch )



()


( )
( )
/ ( )
( )
( )
( )

Chapter 10

THE MULTIDIRECTIONAL VERBS OF MOTION (TO GO


[ON FOOT]) AND (TO GO [BY TRANSPORT])

The multidirectional verbs and are used to express the following types of
action:
1. to denote habitual or repeated movement (frequently with purpose) and non-occurrence
or irregular occurrence (sometimes accompanied by such words as , ,
, , and ), as well as more generalized action:
- my sister already goes to school
- I often go to the cinema
- we rarely go abroad
- they used go to town on Saturdays
? - do you usually go to the Black Sea?
- we never used to go to the swimming
pool

2. to denote movement there and back in the past (where it can be assumed that a return
journey has taken place):
- yesterday we went to the cinema
? - did you go to France in the summer?

3. to denote movement in more than one direction (frequently without a special purpose):
- she walked around the park
- in the autumn I like to walk through the
woods
- last year we went around
the Golden Circle

4. to denote physical ability or permission to do something:

- the child began to walk


- you are not allowed to walk after the
operation

A new ab initio Russian course

189

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Writing Fill in the gaps with the appropriate forms of verbs ( or ).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

__________ .
__________ .
__________.
__________ .
__________ , _________
.
6. _________ .
7. __________ - .
8. __________ , _________
.
9. __________ .
10. _________ .
Activity Twenty-Eight -
Speaking/Writing Change the sentences below based on the following model. Choose
or as appropriate:
.
.
1. .
_________________________________________________________________.

2. .
_________________________________________________________________.

3. , , 10
.
____________________________________________________________________.

4. - ? - .
_________________________________________________________________.
5. .
_________________________________________________________________.

6. .
_________________________________________________________________.

7. .
_________________________________________________________________.

(I)

190

to break ones leg


good for ones health

chemist, pharmacist
sports camp
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

EXPRESSING WRONG IN RUSSIAN


///

///

Chapter 10

The words below all mean wrong(-ly).

Activity Twenty-Nine -
Writing Translate the sentences below into Russian using the following examples to
help you.
.
.
.
, , .
1.
2.
3.
4.

He always does it wrong.


She is listening to the wrong CD.
They are going (in the) wrong (direction).
You bought the wrong (type of) cigarettes.

A new ab initio Russian course

191

192

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 11

CHAPTER ELEVEN -
HEALTH -
In Chapter Eleven you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

to say how you feel


to call an ambulance
to make an appointment with a doctor
to give and seek advice

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

the dative singular of adjectives


the dative plural of nouns
the dative plural of adjectives
verbs of the type
diminutive nouns

Note: from Chapter Eleven onwards, stress marks are only included for the purpose of emphasis. Y ou
will have to get used to coping without stress marks, since they are not normally used in written
Russian.

Activity One -
Reading
Give the meaning and grammatical form of the following words which
relate to health and medicine. Fill in your answers in the table below. The first one is done for
you. The answers are provided in the comprehensive vocabulary list at the end of the book.
fkkthubz
fynb,bjnbr

allergy (m noun, sing.)

fggtylbwbn
fcnvf
,hjy[bn
dbnfvby
bvveyyfz cbcntvf
jgthfwbz
ntvgthfnehf
gbltvbz

Activity Two -
Reading The following is a dialogue between two neighbours who are discussing
family health problems. Read the text and answer the questions below in English.
Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Plhfdcndeqnt^ Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf&
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - Lj,hsq ltym^ Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf& Lfdyj dfc yt
dbltkf& Rfr ltkf$
194

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 11

Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Yt jxtym [jhjij& D njv ujle vs dct xfcnj


,jkttv% b ltnb^ b ve;^ b vfvf^ b z&
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - Lf^ ctqxfc vyjubt ;fke.ncz* yf pljhjdmt&
Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Pbvjq^ rjulf ,skf gbltvbz uhbggf^ vs dct
gtht,jktkb& F rfr e dfc ltkf$
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - Ytn^ vs yt ,jktkb uhbggjv& Yj vs dc. pbve
ghbybvfkb dbnfvbys^ xnj,s erhtgbnm
bvveyye. cbcntve&
Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Vs nj;t gbkb dbnfvbys^ yj dc/ hfdyj
pf,jktkb uhbggjv&
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - Z yt vjue crfpfnm^ xnj e yfc ytn ghj,ktv cj
pljhjdmtv& E vjtq ljxthb fkkthubz yf jht[b^ f
e vkflituj csyf fcnvf&
Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Lf^ ctqxfc vyjubt k.lb ,jkt.n fcnvjq b
fkkthubtq^ jcj,tyyj ltnb&
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - F rfr xedcndetn ct,z dfif vfnm$ Jyf dtlm e;t
jxtym gj;bkfz ;tyobyf&
Ufkbyf Dfcbkmtdyf - Lf^ tq ctvmltczn ltdznm ktn& Ytlfdyj jyf
,jktkf ,hjy[bnjv& E yt/ ,skf dscjrfz
ntvgthfnehf b cbkmysq rfitkm& Tq ye;yj ,skj
ghbybvfnm fynb,bjnbrb& Ctqxfc tq ujhfplj
kexit& F rfr dfi ve;$ Z cksifkf^ xnj jy ,sk
d ,jkmybwt&
Vfhbyf <jhbcjdyf - Lf^ ldf vtczwf yfpfl tve cltkfkb jgthfwb.& E
ytuj ,sk fggtylbwbn^ yj ctqxfc jy xedcndetn
ct,z [jhjij&
* All verbs of this type have suffix -/- replaced by -e- in all personal forms; e.g. ;fkjdfnmcz - z ;fke.cm^
ns ;fketimcz^ jy ;fketncz^ vs ;fketvcz^ ds ;fketntcm^ jyb ;fke.ncz&

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

What common winter illness is mentioned?


What did Marina Borisovnas family take during the winter and why?
What particular problems do Marina Borisovnas son and daughter have?
How old is Galina Vasilevnas mother?
What illness did she suffer from recently?
What symptoms did she show?
What treatment did she take?
How does she feel now?
What happened to Marina Borisovnas husband?
When did it happen?

,jktnm (I) (+ instr)


to be ill (with)
;fkjdfnmcz / gj;fkjdfnmcz (III)* yf (+ acc) to complain about
gbltvbz
epidemic
hbgg
flu
gtht,jktnm (I) (+ instr)
to recover (from)
ghbybvfnm (I) / ghbyznm dbnfvbys
to take vitamins
erhtgkznm (I) / erhtgbnm (II) (+ acc)
to boost
bvveyyfz cbcntvf
immune system
pf,jktdfnm (I) / pf,jktnm (I) (+ instr)
to fall ill (with)
fkkthubz yf (+ acc)
allergy to
jht[
nut
A new ab initio Russian course

fcnvf
xedcndjdfnm (III)* ct,z
gj;bkjq
ytlfdyj
,hjy[bn
cbkmysq rfitkm (m)
fynb,bjnbr
ujhfplj kexit
,jkmybwf
jgthfwbz
fggtylbwbn

asthma
to feel
elderly
recently
bronchitis
bad cough
antibiotic(s)
much better
hospital
operation
appendicitis

195

Look at the picture, then answer the following questions.


1. What is the Russian equivalent
of ambulance?
2. What Russian telephone number is
used to summon this vehicle?

Activity Three -
Reading Read the dialogue below and indicate whether the sentences are True () or
False (). Where appropriate, correct the sentences in English. The first one is done for you.
Crjhfz gjvjom
Ljxm

- Vfvf^ rfr [jhjij^ xnj ns ghbikf& <f,eirf jxtym gkj[j ct,z


xedcndetn& Z yt pyf.^ xnj ltkfnm!
Vfn m - F xnj c ytq$
Ljxm - E yt/ dscjrfz ntvgthfnehf b jxtym ,jkbn cthlwt&
Vfn m - Yflj dspdfnm crjhe. gjvjom& Gjpdjyb gj ntktajye yjkm-nhb&
Ljxm - Fkkj^ crjhfz$*
C rj h f z - Yjkm-nhb ckeiftn&
Ljxm - Ghbvbnt dspjd^ gj;fkeqcnf& Ekbwf Xt[jdf^ ljv gznm^
rdfhnbhf ltcznm& Fyyf Ujhtkjdf&
C rj h f z - Nfr^ pfgbcfkf& Yf xnj ;fketncz ,jkmyfz b crjkmrj tq ktn$
Ljxm - Tq ctvmltczn ldf ujlf& E yt/ cbkmyfz ,jkm d cthlwt b dscjrfz
ntvgthfnehf&
C rj h f z - :lbnt^ crjhfz ,eltn d ntxtybt ldflwfnb vbyen&
Ljxm - Cgfcb,j& Lj cdblfybz&
* In colloquial Russian the phrase Crjhfz gjvjom is usually reduced simply to Crjhfz.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Grandmother feels very well


She has a high temperature and heart trouble
They phone the family doctor
Their address is ulitsa Chekhova, block 5, flat 9
Grandmother is 72 years old
The doctor will arrive in 30 minutes

xnj c &&&$ (+ instr)


cthlwt
dspsdfnm (I) / dspdfnm (+ acc)
crjhsq
gjvjom (f)

196

whats the matter with ...?


heart
to call
fast
help

No, she feels very unwell

ghbvbnt dspjd
pfgbcfnm
,jkm (f)
,jkmyjq/,jkmyfz
d ntxtybt (+ gen)

(could you) take a call


to note down
pain
patient
within

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 11

Activity Four -
Speaking Pairwork. Look at the pictures below and ask your partner what is wrong
with each person. Then change roles and answer your partner s questions. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

The Russian equivalent of the English phrase What is wrong with you/him/her/them? is Xnj e nt,z/dfc/ytuj/
yt//yb[ ,jkbn$ which translates roughly as What is hurting you/him/her/them?. To reply to this question
simply use the following construction:
e vtyz/ytuj/yt//yb[ ,jkbn (sing) / ,jkzn (pl) + nom (e.g. e vtyz ,jkbn ujkjdf - I have a headache)

Activity Five -
Listening/Reading/Writing Listen to the dialogue twice and fill in the gaps in the
partial transcription below.
V fn m
B uj h m
V fn m
B uj h m
V fn m
B uj h m
Vfnm

Bujhm
Vfnm

Bujhm^ gjxtve ns nfrjq ,ktlysq$


Z gkj[j ct,z _____________&
F xnj e nt,z ,jkbn$
E vtyz jxtym ,jkbn _____________&
Nt,t ye;yj_____________ r pe,yjve * dhfxe&
Lf^ z e;t pfgbcfkcz r _____________ yf _____________ xfcjd&
Yf _____________$ Nt,t to/ ljkuj ;lfnm& Dsgtq gjrf nf,ktnre
fyfkmubyf^ _____________ ,eltn vtymit _____________&
E _____________ ytn fyfkmubyf& Z ctqxfc c[j;e d fgntre&
Gjlj;lb^ z c[j;e r yfitq* yjdjq* _____________ b cghjie^
vj;tn ,snm^ e _____________ tcnm fyfkmuby&

* The adjectives pe,yjq^ yjdfz and the pronoun yfif are used in the Dative case. The Dative singular of
adjectives and pronouns is very simple to form. For masculine and neuter just remove the Nominative endings
-/-^ - and add ending -& If the stem of an adjective or a pronoun ends with , , , , remove -^
- and add the ending -%
bpdtcnysq/pe,yjq dhfx
,jkmyjt ujhkj

r bpdtcny/pe,y dhfxe
r ,jkmy ujhke

[jhjibq dhfx
[jhjitt gbcmvj

r [jhji dhfxe
r [jhji gbcmve

For feminine adjectives remove - (or soft -) and add - (or soft -):
yjdfz cjctlrf

r yjd cjctlrt

cbyzz nf,ktnrf

r cby nf,ktnrt

If the stem of a feminine pronoun ends with - then remove - and add -; e.g. yfif cjctlrf - r yfi cjctlrt
(for more details on pronouns see Chapter 13).
ujkjdf
ukfp()
ujhkj
e[j (eib)
yju (yub)
her (hrb)
,ktlysq

head
eye(s)
throat
ear(s)
leg(s), foot
arm, hand
pale

A new ab initio Russian course

pe,
pe,yjq dhfx
pfgbcsdfnmcz (I) / pfgbcfnmcz r (+ dat)
dsgtq gjrf nf,ktnre
fyfkmuby
gjlj;lb (imperative)
z cghjie

tooth
dentist
to make an appoinment with
for the time being take a tablet
common painkiller in Russia
hang on, wait
Ill ask

197

Activity Six -
Writing Look at the pictures below. Choose the appropriate name for each doctor
from the vocabulary list at the bottom of the page. Fill in the correct name above each picture
then complete the sentences beneath the pictures. The first one is done for you.
nj pe,yjq dhfx&

nj

Jy pfgbcfkcz r pe,yjve dhfxe&

nj

nj

Jyf pfgbcfkfcm r

Jyb pfgbcfkbcm r

ukfpyjq dhfx
ltncrbq dhfx

198

Jyf pfgbcfkfcm r

eye surgeon
pediatrician

dtnthbyfhysq dhfx

veterinary surgeon

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You will need to know the Russian for on Mondays etc. - gj + Dative (pl). The Dative plural ending for all nouns
is - (hard) /- (soft). Simply add -/- to masculine nouns; e.g. gjytltkmybr - gj gjytltkmybrfv^ ltym
- gj lyzv& With feminine and neuter nouns remove the final vowel and add -/-; e.g. chtlf - gj chtl^
djcrhtctymt - gj djcrhtctym.

Chapter 11

Activity Seven -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays the role of B, then
reverse the roles. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

* - At the reception desk


A (patient)

Greet the receptionist.


Say you would like to make an appointment
with an eye surgeon.
Say you would like to make an appointment
for Wednesday.
Say that you work on Wednesday mornings and
would prefer an appointment in the afternoon.
Say that Friday is OK.
Say you would like it at 3 p.m.
Give the required details.

B (receptionist)

Give an appropriate reply.


Say that the eye surgeon sees patients
() only on Mondays, Wednesdays
and Fridays. Ask the patient when he/she
would like an appointment.
Say that on Wednesdays the doctor sees
patients in the morning. Ask at what time
the patient would like an appointment.
Say that the doctor sees patients in the
afternoon on Fridays only.
Ask what time on Friday.
Confirm that it is OK and ask the patients
surname and first name.
Say: Here is your appointment card.
Repeat all details of the appointment.

* Russians go to polyclinics - gjkbrkbybrb. They differ from British health centres in that both GPs and
specialists work in them. If you wish to see a specialist the general receptionist will make an appoinment directly
with the specialist concerned without the need for an initial consultation with the GP. The patient is given an
appointment card (nfkjy) with the name of the specialist and the date and time of the appointment.

- At the doctors
A (doctor)

Greet the patient and invite him/her to sit down.


Ask what is wrong with the patient.
Ask if the patient has a temperature.
Say it is necessary to take his/her temperature now.
Say that the patient has a high temperature - 37.5.
Say you have to examine his/her stomach and
ask the patient to lie down.
Ask if it hurts on the right side.
Say that you think the patient has appendicitis.

B (patient)

Reply appropriately.
Say you have a bad stomach ache.
Say that yesterday evening it was 37.4*.
Agree to this suggestion.
Say that you thought so because you are
hot.
Express your agreement.
Reply that it hurts very much.
Say that you thought as much.

* a) 37.4 = nhblwfnm ctvm b xtnsht


b) in Russia doctors usually take a patients temperature by placing the thermometer under his/her armpit.
ghbybvfnm (I) / ghbyznm (+ acc)
yf (+ acc) chtle
cflbcm / cflbntcm (imperative)
;bdjn
bpvthznm (I) / bpvthbnm (II) (+ acc)
gjdsityysq
A new ab initio Russian course

to see (patients)
for Wednesday
sit down
stomach
to take (temperature)
high (literally: raised)

vyt ;fhrj
(gj-)oegfnm (I) (+ acc)
kzu(nt) (imperative)
,jkmyj
cghfdf
z nfr b levfk(f)

I am hot
to examine (by touching)
lie down
it hurts
on the right (side)
I thought as much

199

Activity Eight -
Reading Read the advertisement below from a Russian magazine for a brand of
medicine and answer the following questions in English. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of
the page to help you.

Pljhjdmt ltntq - cgjrjqcndbt hjlbntktq


Rfr hfljcnyj dbltnm cdjtuj ht,/yrf pljhjdsv! F xnj ltkfnm^ tckb
vfksie ytpljhjdbncz$ Vj;tn ,snm^ e ytuj ht;encz pe,s$ Bkb gjlyzkfcm
ntvgthfnehf$
Yf njn ckexfq dctulf [jhjij bvtnm gjl herjq yfl/;yjt ktrfhcndj&
Dfitve ht,/yre gjvj;tn Gfyfljk <,b yl Byafyn&
nj aatrnbdyjt b ,tpjgfcyjt chtlcndj hfphf,jnfyj cgtwbfkmyj lkz ltntq&
Ghbybvfz ckflrjt^ c rke,ybxysv drecjv ktrfhcndj^ Dfi ht,/yjr yt ,eltn
rfghbpybxfnm& Vfksie chfpe cnfytn ktuxt&
Jlj,htyj Vbybcnthcndjv plhfdjj[hfytybz Hjccbb&

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

For which age group is the medicine recommended?


What two conditions are mentioned for which the medicine may be beneficial?
Which three qualities is the medicine said to have?
What is the name of the medicine?
How is the taste of the medicine disguised?
What immediate effect is it said to have on the patient?
Given that the word j[hfyf means protection try to work out the meaning of
the phrase Vbybcnthcndj plhfdjj[hfytybz.
Write down in the table below three phrases in which a noun is used in the Dative
case.

Now complete the rules:


1.
2.

The Dative case is used to express ____________________________________.


The Dative case is used with the verb to help (__________________ in Russian).

cgjrjqcndbt
hfljcnyj
pljhjdsq
vfksi
ytpljhjdbnmcz
(+ dat)
(ghj-)htpfnmcz
gjlyzkfcm
ntvgthfnehf?

200

peace of mind
joyful(ly)
healthy
little one
to feel unwell
to teethe
has his/her
temperature
risen?


bvtnm gjl herjq
yfl/;ysq
ktrfhcndj
gjvjufnm (I) /
gjvjxm (+ dat)
aatrnbdysq
,tpjgfcysq
chtlcndj
hfphf,jnfyj

in such a case
to have at hand
reliable
medicine
to help
effective
safe
remedy
developed

cgtwbfkmyj

(adj.)

yt ,eltn
rfghbpybxfnm (I)
cnfytn ktuxt
(+ dat)
jlj,htyj (+ instr)

specially
(by) taking
strawberry
taste
(he/she) will
not play up
will become
easier (here:
get better)
approved (by)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1.

Chapter 11

Activity Nine -
Speaking/Writing Look at the pictures below and say how people feel. Write down
your answers beneath the pictures. The first one is done for you.

Vfhbz Bdfyjdyf b
<jhbc Gtnhjdbx
Vfhbb Bdfyjdyt b <jhbce
Gtnhjdbxe [jkjlyj

[jkjlyj

2&

Yfnfif b Vfrcbv
______________________
______________________
crexyj

3&

Nfnmzyf
______________________
______________________
gkj[j

4&

Cthutq
______________________
______________________
;fhrj

A new ab initio Russian course

201

5&

Rjn Vehpbr
______________________
______________________
k.,jgsnyj

6&

Fynjy
______________________
______________________
,jkmyj

Activity Ten -
Reading Read the doctors advice on keeping healthy and try to match each of the
suggestions with one of the pictures given below.
Xnj,s ,snm pljhjdsv xtkjdtrjv^ ye;yj yt rehbnm^ tcnm vyjuj jdjotq b
ahernjd^ htuekzhyj pfybvfnmcz cgjhnjv^ yt gbnm fkrjujkmyst yfgbnrb b yt
tcnm vyjuj ;bhys[ b ckflrb[ ghjlernjd&

202

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Cjdtn dhfxf
Jlyf;ls r dhfxe ghbi/k jlby xtkjdtr& Dhfx dybvfntkmyj jcvjnhtk tuj b
crfpfk%
- Ktrfhcndj dfv yt gjvj;tn& Dfv ye;yj [jhjij jnlj[yenm& Gjtp;fqnt yf
vtczw d lthtdy.^ cgfnm kj;bntcm hfyj^ gtqnt vjkjrj^ vyjuj uekzqnt b rehbnt
njkmrj jlye cbufhtne d ltym&
- Z cltkf. dc/^ rfr ds vyt cjdtnetnt^ ljrnjh^ - crfpfk ,jkmyjq b ei/k&
Xthtp vtczw jy jgznm ghbi/k r dhfxe&
- Ye^ rfr ltkf$ Rfr dfit pljhjdmt$ - cghjcbk tuj dhfx&
- Ctqxfc z xedcnde. ct,z kexit^ - jndtnbk xtkjdtr& - Z [jhjij jnlj[yek&
Kj;bkcz cgfnm hfyj^ gbk vjkjrj^ vyjuj uekzk& Yj vyt nhelyj ,skj rehbnm&
Hfymit z ybrjulf yt rehbk&
go on holiday do not smoke have plenty
of sleep

do not drink take lots


of walks

smoke only one


cigarette a day

Chapter 11

Activity Eleven -
Listening /Reading Read and listen to the recording of the text Doctors advice,
which is a commonly cited piece in Russian language textbooks, and tick in the table below
what the patient was advised to do. Then read the text again and translate it into English.

drink plenty
of milk

Activity Twelve -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. You are at the doctor s complaining about general
tiredness and the doctor questions you on your lifestyle and gives advice. Read through the
text and, where appropriate, translate the information given in English.
D h fx
- Lj,hsq ltym! Cflbntcm^ gj;fkeqcnf& Yf xnj ds ;fketntcm$
Gfwbtyn - Say hello to the doctor. Explain that you often have a headache and
sleep badly.
D h fx
- Ask if there are any problems at home or at work.
Gfwbtyn - Ytn^ ljvf b yf hf,jnt e vtyz dc/ d gjhzlrt&
D h fx
- Vj;tn ,snm^ ds jxtym vyjuj hf,jnftnt$
Gfwbtyn - Say that you often work a lot and sometimes even on Sundays.
D h fx
- Z levf.^ xnj dfv ye;yj [jhjitymrj jnlj[yenm& Gjtp;fqnt
d jngecr d lthtdy. bkb yf vjht&
Gfwbtyn - Say that you have just been on holiday but still feel unwell.
D h fx
- Ask whether the patient smokes and drinks coffee and alcohol.
Gfwbtyn - Lf^ z reh. b jxtym k.,k. rjat^ yj z jxtym htlrj gm.
fkrjujkmyst yfgbnrb&
cjdtn
ghbi/k
dybvfntkmyj
jcvjnhtnm (II)
gjtp;fqnt (imperative)
kj;bnmcz cgfnm
cgfnm (cgk.^ cgbim^ cgzn)
hfyj
A new ab initio Russian course

piece of advice
came
carefully
to examine
go
to go to bed
to sleep
early

gtq(nt) (imperative)
z cltkf.
dc/^ rfr
jgznm
cghjcbnm (II)
jndtnbnm (II)
vyt nhelyj ,skj
[jhjitymrj

drink
I will do
everything as
again
to ask
to answer
I found it difficult
properly, well and truly

203

D h fx
Gfwbtyn
D h fx

Gfwbtyn

Crjkmrj cbufhtn d ltym ds rehbnt b crjkmrj rjat ds gm/nt$


Say you smoke 35 cigarettes a day and drink 4 cups of coffee.
Tell your patient to smoke only one cigarette a day and drink two cups
of coffee. Also say that it is necessary to work less, to walk a lot, to
take vitamins and to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Cgfcb,j^ z cltkf. dc/^ rfr ds vyt cjdtnetnt^ ljrnjh&

Activity Thirteen -
Listening/Writing Listen twice to the tape and write down in Russian in each box
what the problem is and which of the suggestions is the most appropriate. The first one is
done for you in full and the others have also been partially completed.
Vfhbyf
Cfif
Vb[fbk
Fyyf <jhbcjdyf
Yfnfif
G/nh Bdfyjdbx
Cthutq
K.lf
Ds

E yt/ ,jkbn ujkjdf& Tq ye;yj dsgbnm fyfkmuby&

E ytuj ,jkbn _________& Tve ye;yj ____________________.

E ytuj ,jkbn _________& Tve ye;yj ____________________.


Jyf ___________& Tq ye;yj __________________________.

Jyf ___________________& Tq ye;yj ___________________.


E ytuj ,jkbn _________& Tve ye;yj ____________________.

E ytuj ,jkbn _________& Tve ye;yj ____________________.

E yt/ ,jkbn __________& Tq ye;yj ________________________&


E dfc ,jkbn _________& Dfv ye;yj _____________________.

Activity Fourteen -
Listening Listen to the tape again and write down in English what other actions have
been suggested for each person.
Vfhbyf
Cfif
Vb[fbk
Fyyf <jhbcjdyf
Yfnfif
G/nh Bdfyjdbx
Cthutq
K.lf
Ds

204

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

GRAMMAR
Chapter 11

THE DATIVE SINGULAR OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectival endings in the Dative singular are as follows:


Masculine/Neuter: - (hard) / - (soft)
Feminine: - (hard) / - (soft)

hard

yjdsq

Nominative
f

yjdfz yjdjt

m
cbybq

soft
f

cbyzz cbytt

hard
f

yjd yjd

Dative
n
yjd

m
cby

soft

cby

cby

End-stressed adjectives (ujke,q) in the Dative case decline like yjdsq&


Note: according to the spelling rule unstressed o is replaced by e after , , , ; e.g. masculine Dative
- r ,jkmi ljve^ but r [jhji ljve.

Activity Fifteen -
Writing Put the nouns, adjectives and pronouns in brackets into the Dative case.
1& E vtyz jxtym ,jkbn pe,^ (z) ye;yj pfgbcfnmcz r (pe,yjq dhfx)& 2& Ctujlyz
(vkflibq ,hfn) 10 ktn& 3& R (heccrbq xfq) j,sxyj gjlf.n dfhtymt^ v/l b
lheubt ckfljcnb [sweets]& 4& Vs t[fkb gj (,jkmifz [jhjifz ljhjuf)& 5& (Vs)
ye;yj dspdfnm Crjhe., (yfif ,f,eirf) jxtym gkj[j& 6& (Yjdsq cjctl) e;t
75 ktn^ yj jy to/ hf,jnftn b buhftn d ntyybc gj ce,,jnfv& 7& (Vkflifz ljxm)^
yfdthyjt^ jxtym crexyj yf rjywthnt^ dtlm jyf yt k.,bn rkfccbxtcre. vepsre&
8& Vjz cj,frf jxtym gkj[j tcn^ (vs) ye;yj pfgbcfnmcz r (dtnthbyfhysq dhfx)&
9& Dhfx cjdtnetn (,jkmyjq) yt rehbnm& 10& Ctujlyz (cnfhibq csy) ujhfplj
kexit^ e ytuj ytn ntvgthfnehs b rfikz& 11& Z ble d fgntre regbnm ktrfhcndj
(yfif vfvf)&
THE DATIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS

The Dative plural of nouns is very simple. Irrespective of gender, the endings are - (for
nouns with a hard stem-ending with a consonant, - or -j) and - (for nouns with a soft
stem-ending with -^ -^ - and -).
gender
Nom sing
Dat pl

hard
m
dhfx
dhfx

f
gznybwf
gznybw

n
jryj
jry

m
gjhnatkm
gjhnatk

soft

n/nz
n/n

n
gjkt
gjk

Note: those nouns which have - in the Nominative plural (,hfn ^ csyjd ^ cnek ) have - in the
Dative plural (,hfn^ csyjd ^ cnek).

A new ab initio Russian course

205

Activity Sixteen -
Reading/Writing Read the notice showing the opening times at the doctor s surgery
and write down the answers for the questions given below.
XFCS GHB?VF
gjytltkmybr
c 8&00 x& lj 19&00 x&
dnjhybr
c 9&00 x& lj 20&00 x&
chtlf
c 9&00 x& lj 21&00 x&
xtndthu
c 7&30 x& lj 18&30 x&
gznybwf
c 8&00 x& lj 19&00 x&
ce,,jnf
ytn ghb/vf
djcrhtctymt
ytn ghb/vf
1& Gj rfrbv lyzv dhfx ghbybvftn c 8&00 xfcjd lj 19&00 xfcjd$ (c djcmvb
lj ltdznyflwfnb xfcjd)*

2& Gj rfrbv lyzv dhfx ghbybvftn lj 21 xfcf$ (lj ldflwfnb jlyjuj xfcf)

3& Gj rfrbv lyzv dhfx ghbybvftn c 9 xfcjd$ (c ltdznb xfcjd)

4& Gj rfrbv lyzv dhfx ghbybvftn lj 18&30 xfcjd$ (lj djctvyflwfnb


nhblwfnb xfcjd)

5& Gj rfrbv lyzv dhfx yt ghbybvftn$

* The numbers are written out for you in the Genitive case. You will meet the oblique cases of numbers in Chapter
16.

THE DATIVE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectival endings in the Dative plural are as follows:


Masculine/Feminine/Neuter: - (hard) /- (soft)
hard
(yjdsq /-jt /-fz)
yjd
xfcs ghb/vf

206

surgery hours

(cbybq /-tt /-zz)


gj rfrbv lyzv &&&$

soft
cby
on which days ...?
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Ljrnjh Fq,jkbn (R& Xerjdcrbq)


F hzljv ,tutvjnbrb*
C[dfnbkbcm pf ;bdjnbrb*
E yb[^ e ,tutvjnbrjd^
:bdjnbrb ,jkzn&
B nen ;t cnhfeczn f**
Dbp;fn^ rfr gjhj cznf^
F[^ ;fkrj^ ;fkrj^ ;fkrj
<tlys[ cnhfeczn!
B rjhm^ b lbanthbn e yb[^
B jcgf^ b ,hjy[bn e yb[^
B ujkjdf ,jkbn e yb[^
B ujhksirj* ,jkbn&
F hzljv ghbrjhyekf
Pe,fcn fz frek f^
Pe,fcnfz frek f
Yf cjkysirt k t;bn&
F e t/ vfk.njr^
E ,tlys[ frekzn^
E;t ldtyflw fnm cenjr
Pe,rb* ,jkzn!
L t cznm yjxtq Fq,jkbn
Yt tcn^ yt gm/n b yt cgbn^
L t cznm yjxtq gjlhzl
Jy k txbn yt cxfcnys[ pdthzn&
B cnfdbn^ b cnfdbn bv uhflecybrb&
B r gjkjcfnsv ,t;bn jy nbuhznfv^
B r ,tlysv ujh,fnsv
<jkmysv dth,k.;fnfv^
B rf;ljuj ujujk tv-vjujk tv gjnxetn&

Chapter 11

Activity Seventeen
Ctvyflwfnjt pflfybt
Listening/Reading/Speaking Listen to and read the following extract from a poem
about a vet by the Russian childrens poet K. Chukovsky. Then listen again and repeat the
poem. When you have completed the first task see if you can spot any nouns and adjectives
which are used in the Dative plural in the last five lines.

The baby hippopotamuses sitting nearby


Are holding their tummies
They, the baby hippos,
Have tummy ache.
Next to them
Some baby ostriches are squealing like piglets,
How sad, sad, sad
For the poor ostriches!
They have measels and diphtheria,
Smallpox and bronchitis,
They have headaches
and sore throats.
And next to them
A sharp-toothed shark is dozing,
The sharp-toothed shark
Is dozing in the sun.
And her little ones,
Poor baby sharks,
Have, for twelve days,
Had toothache!
For ten days and nights Doctor Itsaching has not
been eating, drinking or sleeping,
For ten nights in a row
He has been treating poor baby animals.
And taking, taking their temperatures.
He also hurries to help some stripey baby tigers
And some poor, sick, humped
Baby camels.
He gives them all a drink made of eggs and sugar.

Diminutive nouns
There are five so-called diminutive nouns (marked with asterisks) in the poem above. They are mainly
used in colloquial speech to indicate various emotional nuances and can be formed by the addition of a
special suffix:
* i) The diminutive suffix - (never stressed) is usually affixed to the stems of masculine nouns to
indicate smallness; e.g. ,tutvjn - ,tutvjnbr (small/baby hippo), pe, - pe,br (little tooth), ljv ljvbr (small house); or to express emotional nuances such as affection, scorn or irony; e.g. ;bdjn ;bdjnbr (tummy), dpukzl (look) - dpukzlbr (withering look); ii) the diminutive suf fix -j is
affixed to the stems of neuter nouns and also indicates smallness or expresses emotional nuances; e.g.
ujhkj - ujhksirj (poor little throat), cjkywt (sun) - cjkysirj (as a term of endearment for the sun).
The other most commonly used diminutive suffixes are given in the table on the following page.
A new ab initio Russian course

207

masculine

-jr/-/r (always stressed) /-tr/-xbr


ujhjl - ujhjljr (small town)
cnfhbr - cnfhbxjr (little old man)
xfq - xf/r (nice cup of tea)
pfvjr (lock) - pfvjxtr (tiny lock)

feminine

neuter

-bxrf/-rf/-jymrf/-tymrf
ctcnhf - ctcnhbxrf (dear little sister)
kbcf (fox) - kbcbxrf (small fox)
gnbwf (bird) - gnbxrf (birdie)
ljxm - ljxtymrf (dear daughter)
ctcnhf - ctcnh/yrf (-//-) (dear little
sister)

-brj/-rj/-wj/-wt
kbwj (face) - kbxbrj
(dear little face)
zqwj - zbxrj (small egg)
gbcmvj - gbcmvtwj
(short letter)
pthrfkj - pthrfkmwt
(small mirror)

** The suffix -(a) (or -(a) after , , ) is usually used to indicate baby animals and birds; e.g.
rjnznf (kittens), otyznf (puppies), enznf (ducklings), rhjkmxfnf (baby rabbits), djkxfnf (wolf
cubs), vsifnf (baby mice).

Activity Eighteen -
Writing Put the nouns, pronouns and adjectives in brackets into the Dative plural.
1& Ctujlyz djcrhtctymt^ b (vjb hjlbntkb) yt ye;yj blnb yf hf,jne& 2& R
(heccrbt gtkmvtyb) dctulf gjlf.n cvtnfye bkb vfckj& 3& Gj (dnjhybrb b
djcrhtctymz) vs buhftv d ntyybc^ f gj (chtls b gznybws) [jlbv d ,fcctqy& 4&
(Vjb vkflibt c/cnhs b ,hfnmz) crexyj^ gjnjve xnj (jyb) ytkmpz ckeifnm
vepsre% ,f,eirf ,jkttn& 5& Ctujlyz r (yfib cjctlb) ghb[jlbk dhfx^ yfdthyjt^
Rjkz jgznm pf,jktk&
THE -/- VERBS
1.

All verbs of this type have the suffix - or - (after stems ending with -x and -w) replaced by
- in all personal forms:

z xedcnde.
ns xedcndetim
jy/jyf/jyj xedcndetn

vs xedcndetv
ds xedcndetnt
jyb xedcnde.n

2.

All verbs of this type have fixed stress, either on the suffix or the root of the infinitive. In either
case, the stress remains in the same position in all personal forms.

3.

All verbs of this type are first conjugation, but are referred to in this course as type III verbs.
You have to pay particular attention to the vowel preceding --, as there are a number of verbs in
Russian containing vowels other than -j/-t&

Note:
a) if this first vowel is -j/-t, the whole suffix is replaced by -e- (followed by personal endings); e.g.

/
z ;fke.cm / nfywe.
ns ;fketimcz / nfywetim
jy/jyf/jyj ;fketncz / nfywetn

208

vs ;fketvcz / nfywetv
ds ;fketntcm / nfywetnt
jyb ;fke.ncz / nfywe.n

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

b) if this first vowel is --, the suffix -- is dropped, and the personal endings are added to --; e.g.

z l.
ns l/im
jy/jyf/jyj l/n

vs l/v
ds l/nt
jyb l.n

c) if this first vowel is --/--, the whole suffix remains in all personal forms; e.g.

Chapter 11

/
z hfpujdfh. / pfgbc.
ns hfpujdfhtim / pfgbctim
jy/jyf/jyj hfpujdfhtn / pfgbctn

A new ab initio Russian course

vs hfpujdfhtv / pfgbctv
ds hfpujdfhtnt / pfgbctnt
jyb hfpujdfh.n / pfgbc.n

209

210

Advertisement for the sore throat remedy Sebedin

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 12

CHAPTER TWELVE -
EDUCATION -
In Chapter Twelve you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.

to understand school and university timetables


to fill in and interpret forms relating to education
to express precise time using dates and years

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.

the genitive case with dates


the prepositional plural of nouns and adjectives
the genitive plural of nouns and adjectives

Activity One -
Reading
Nina Gamelgaard is a Danish student who is studying Russian (as a foreign
language) and Linguistics at a Russian University. Look at her timetable below and answer
the questions on the following page.
1
2
3
4

G J Y T L T K M Y B R
bcnjhbz [I]
bcnjhbz [I]
cbynfrcbc
cbynfrcbc

1
2
3
4

X T N D T H U
hfpujdjhyfz htxm
hfpujdjhyfz htxm
felbhjdfybt
felbhjdfybt

5
6

gthtdjl
gthtdjl

5
6

cjdhtvtyysq heccrbq zpsr


cjdhtvtyysq heccrbq zpsr

1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6

D N J H Y B R
fyfkbp ntrcnf
fyfkbp ntrcnf
ctvfynbrf
ctvfynbrf
cnhfyjdtltybt
cnhfyjdtltybt
C H T L F
ghfuvfnbrf
ghfuvfnbrf
uhfvvfnbrf
uhfvvfnbrf
bcnjhbz [II]
bcnjhbz [II]

cbynfrcbc
gthtdjl
fyfkbp
ntrcnf
ctvfynbrf

212

syntax
translation
textual
analysis
semantics

cnhfyjdtltybt
hfpujdjhyfz htxm
ghfuvfnbrf
felbhjdfybt

1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6

G Z N Y B W F
kbnthfnehf [I]
kbnthfnehf [I]
bcnjhbz heccrjuj zpsrf
bcnjhbz heccrjuj zpsrf
cnbkbcnbrf
cnbkbcnbrf
C E < < J N F
kbnthfnehf [II]
kbnthfnehf [II]

background (country)
studies
spoken language
pragmatics
listening (comprehension)

cjdhtvtyysq
kbnthfnehf
bcnjhbz heccrjuj
zpsrf
cnbkbcnbrf

modern
literature
history of
Russian
stylistics

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Rjulf e yt/ ctvfynbrf$


E yt/ ctvfynbrf dj dnjhybr&
Rjulf e yt/ bcnjhbz$
Rjulf e yt/ uhfvvfnbrf$
Rjulf e yt/ kbnthfnehf$
Rjulf e yt/ cnbkbcnbrf$
Rfrbt ghtlvtns e yt/ d ce,,jne$ D ce,,jne e yt/
Rfrbt ghtlvtns e yt/ d chtle$
Rfrbt ghtlvtns e yt/ d gznybwe$
Rfrbt ghtlvtns e yt/ d xtndthu$
Rfrbt ghtlvtns e yt/ dj dnjhybr$

Chapter 12

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Activity Two -
Speaking Pairwork. One of you asks questions about Ninas timetable (such as
Rjulf e nt,z &&&$ or Rfrbt ghtlvtns e nt,z d &&&$) and the other replies as if you
were Nina Gamelgaard. When you have asked five questions, reverse the roles.
Activity Three -
Speaking/Writing Pairwork. First, you should run through the following questions
on student life with your partner, then you should write a brief description of student life.
Ult ns exbimcz$
Z execm d Dekmdth[tvgnjycrjv
eybdthcbntnt&
Yf rfrjv rehct ns exbimcz$
(Yf rfrjv ns rehct$)
Z yf gthdjv/dnjhjv/nhtnmtv rehct&

Where do you go to university? (literally:


Where do you study?)
I go to (i.e. study at) the University of
Wolverhampton.

Which year are you in? (literally: On which


course are you?)
I am in my first/second/third year.

Crjkmrj ktn #Rfr ljkuj ns pltcm


exbimcz$
Z pltcm execm &&& jlby vtczw^ ldf/nhb/
xtnsht vtczwf^ gznm > jlbyyflwfnm vtczwtd
&&& jlby ujl^ gjknjhf/ldf/nhb/xtnsht
ujlf^ gznm > jlbyyflwfnm ktn&

How many years / How long have you been


(studying) here?
Ive been here ... one month, two/three/
four months, five > eleven months
... one year, one and a half/two/three/four
years, five > eleven years.

Rfrbt ghtlvtns ns bpexftim$


Xnj ns exbim d eybdthcbntnt$
Z bpexf./exe &&& (+ acc)

Which subects do you study?


What do you study at university?
I study ...

Rfrbt e nt,z pfyznbz d gjytltkmybr#dj


dnjhybr/d chtle/xtndthu/gznybwe$
D gjytltkmybr/dj dnjhybr e vtyz &&&
Crjkmrj ktn ns ,eltim bpexfnm heccrbq
zpsr/ahfywepcrbq zpsr/ytvtwrbq zpsr$
Z ,ele bpexfnm heccrbq zpsr jlby ujl^
gjknjhf/ldf/nhb/xtnsht ujlf^ gznm ktn&
Rfrjq ndjq k.,bvsq ghtlvtn$
Vjq k.,bvsq ghtlvtn &&&
Rfrbt zpsrb (rhjvt heccrjuj) ns
bpexftim$
A new ab initio Russian course

What classes do you have on Monday/


Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday?
On Monday/on Tuesday I have ...

How many years will you study Russian/


French/German?
I will study Russian for one year, two/
three/four years, five years.
Which is your favourite subject?
My favourite subject is ...

Which languages (apart from Russian)


do you study?
213

Z nfr;t bpexf. bcgfycrbq zpsr/


ahfywepcrbq zpsr/ytvtwrbq zpsr/
bnfkmzycrbq zpsr&
Rfrjq zpsr nt,t ,jkmit dctuj yhfdbncz$
Vyt ,jkmit dctuj yhfdbncz &&&

I also study Spanish/French/German/


Italian.
Which language do you like most of all?
I like ... most of all.

Nt,t yhfdbncz cneltyxtcrfz ;bpym$


Do you like student life?
Ytn^ vyt (cjdctv) yt yhfdbncz
No, I do not like student life (at all) /
cneltyxtcrfz ;bpym / Lf^ vyt (jxtym) Yes, I (very much) like student life.
yhfdbncz cneltyxtcrfz ;bpym&

Activity Four -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays the role of B, then
reverse the roles. (You should use the informal mode of address in the first dialogue and the
ds form in the second dialogue.)
A
1. Ask your partner where he/she goes to
university.
Ask him/her which year he/she is in.
Find out what classes he/she has today.
Ask him/her what his/her favourite subject is.
Ask him/her if he/she likes Russian.
Enquire about the other languages he/she studies.

B
Reply appropriately.

2. Introduce yourself.

Say that you are pleased to meet him/her and find


out what he/she does (e.g. rtv ds hf,jnftnt$).
Ask where he/she studies.
Ask him/her which subjects he/she studies.
Find out if he/she likes student life.
Establish whether he/she has to do a lot of studying
in the library (e.g. ds vyjuj pfybvftntcm &&&$).

Say that you do not work - you are a student.


Reply appropriately.
Tell him/her which subjects you study.
Tell him/her what you think of student life.
Reply appropriately

Give your year of study.


Tell him/her what classes you have.
State your favourite subject.
Reply appropriately.
State which other languages you study, if any.

Activity Five -
Reading/Writing Complete Marinas school timetable on the following page based
on the information which she provides below. (Note that the word ehjr is used of lessons in
school, while pfyznbt or, of course, ktrwbz is preferred for classes in higher education.
The homework, ljvfiytt pflfybt, is already filled in for you.)
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Dnjhjq ehjr d gjytltkmybr - vepsrf&


Ctlmvjq b djcmvjq ehjrb d gjytltkmybr - utjuhfabz&
Dj dnjhybr e vtyz vfntvfnbrf^ heccrbq zpsr (xtnd/hnsq ehjr)^ htkbubz^
,bjkjubz b fyukbqcrbq zpsr&
Dnjhjq ehjr d chtle - vepsrf& Xtnd/hnsq ehjr d chtle - ljvjdjlcndj&
Gjnjv e vtyz ldf ehjrf hbcjdfybz^ kfnbycrbq zpsr b abpbrf&
D xtndthu nhtnbq b xtnd/hnsq ehjrb - bcnjhbz& Djcmvjq ehjr - ljvjdjlcndj&
D gznybwe gthdsq ehjr - htkbubz^ dnjhjq ehjr - [bvbz^ nhtnbq ehjr heccrbq zpsr b ehjr d jlbyyflwfnm xfcjd - abpbrf& Ldf gjcktlyb[ ehjrf d
gznybwe - bcnjhbz&
ehjr
htkbubz

214

lesson
religious studies

ljvjdjlcndj
hbcjdfybt

home economics
drawing, art

kfnbycrbq zpsr
gjcktlybq

Latin
last, final

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

IRJKMYJT HFCGBCFYBT VFHBYS ITDXTYRJ

i
ii
iii
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
i
ii
iii
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
i
ii
iii

L J V F I Y T T

P F L F Y B T

[bvbz
heccrbq zpsr
bcnjhbz
D N J H Y B R
vfntvfnbrf
vfntvfnbrf

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

,bjkjubz
,bjkjubz
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
L J V F I Y T T

P F L F Y B T

htkbubz
,bjkjubz
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
C H T L F
ahfywepcrbq zpsr

kfnbycrbq zpsr
P F L F Y B T

vfntvfnbrf
kfnbycrbq zpsr
utjuhfabz

i
ii
iii

ahfywepcrbq zpsr
ahfywepcrbq zpsr
abprekmnehf
L J V F I Y T T

P F L F Y B T

abpbrf
ahfywepcrbq zpsr
G Z N Y B W F

utjuhfabz
utjuhfabz

L J V F I Y T T

P F L F Y B T

vfntvfnbrf
ahfywepcrbq zpsr
C E < < J N F

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

bcnjhbz

L J V F I Y T T

i
ii
iii

X T N D T H U
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
ljvjdjlcndj

Chapter 12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

G J Y T L T K M Y B R
,bjkjubz
1
2
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
3
fyukbqcrbq zpsr
4
heccrbq zpsr
5
heccrbq zpsr
6
7
8

i
ii
iii

L J V F I Y T T

P F L F Y B T

Activity Six -
Speaking Pairwork. When you have filled in the timetable above, one of you should
pretend to be Marina and the other will ask a variety of questions about her timetable (such
as - Rjulf e nt,z &&&$, - Rfrjq e nt,z gthdsq ehjr d &&&$, - Rfrbt e nt,z ehjrb d
&&&$, and - Rfrjt e nt,z ljvfiytt pflfybt yf (+ acc) &&&$). When you have asked six
or seven questions, reverse the roles.
irjkmyjt hfcgbcfybt school timetable
A new ab initio Russian course

ljvfiytt pflfybt

homework

abprekmnehf

P. E.

215

Activity Seven -
Reading/Writing
Every four or five years an international Russian language
competition for schoolchildren (Vt;leyfhjlyfz jkbvgbflf) is held in Moscow. You
have been asked to attend as group leader. Fill in the form below as appropriate.

VT:LEYFHJLYFZ FCCJWBFWBZ
GHTGJLFDFNTKTQ HECCRJUJ
ZPSRF B KBNTHFNEHS

VT:LEYFHJLYFZ JKBVGBFLF IRJKMYBRJD GJ


HECCRJVE ZPSRE
F Y R T N F
H E R J D J L B N T K Z
U H E G G S
Jhurjvbntn vt;leyfhjlyjq jkbvgbfls irjkmybrjd ghbdtncndetn Dfit exfcnbt
d vt;leyfhjlyjq jkbvgbflt irjkmybrjd gj heccrjve zpsre&
Ghjcbv pfgjkybnm fyrtne yf heccrjv b fyukbqcrjv zpsrf[ gtxfnysvb ,erdfvb&

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&

Afvbkbz^ bvz __________________________________________________


Cnhfyf ________________________________________________________
Gjk ___________________________________________________________
Ujl hj;ltybz __________________________________________________
Pdfybt^ ex/yfz cntgtym ___________________________________________
Vtcnj hf,jns^ ljk;yjcnm _______________________________________
Gjkysq flhtc lkz rjhhtcgjyltywbb (yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt)^ ntktajy
f) cke;t,ysq __________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
,) ljvfiybq ___________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
GJLGBCM ___________________________LFNF ________________________
Fyrtne ytj,[jlbvj ghbckfnm lj 1 vfz 1999 u& gj flhtce%
Hjccbqcrfz Atlthfwbz^ u& Vjcrdf 117485^ ek& Djkubyf^ ljv 6^ Bycnbnen
heccrjuj zpsrf bv& F& C& Geirbyf^ Ctrhtnfhbfn VFGHZK&
:TKFTV DFV YJDS{ ECGT{JD D GHTGJLFDFYBB HECCRJUJ ZPSRF!

Jhurjvbntn Jkbvgbfls

vt;leyfhjlysq
fccjwbfwbz
jkbvgbflf
irjkmybr
fyrtnf
herjdjlbntkm (m)
jhurjvbntn
ghbdtncndjdfnm
exfcnbt
ghjcbnm (II)

216

international
association
olympiad
school pupil
questionnaire
leader
organizing
committee
to welcome
participation
to ask, request

pfgjkybnm (II)
gtxfnyfz ,erdf
gjk
ujl hj;ltybz
pdfybt
ex/yfz cntgtym
vtcnj hf,jns
ljk;yjcnm (f)
gjkysq
cke;t,ysq/ljvfiybq ntktajy

to fill in
printed letter
sex, gender
year of birth
title
academic degree
place of work
position
full
work/home
telephone

gjlgbcm (f)
signature
lfnf
date
ytj,[jlbvj (+ dat) must, it is
necessary
ghbckfnm
to send
lj (+ gen)
before
;tkfnm (I)
to wish
ecgt[(b)
success
bv(tyb) (+ gen)
named after
ctrhtnfhbfn
secretariat
ghtgjlfdfybt
teaching
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

- MARKS

The Russian school system uses five grades for assessing schoolchildren, which are recorded in the
pupils notebook/diary or lytdybr. The marks are as follows: (5) gzn/hrf - jnkbxyj
(excellent), (4) xtnd/hrf - [jhjij (good), (3) nhjqrf - eljdktndjhbntkmyj (satisfactory),
(2) ldjqrf - yteljdktndjhbntkmyj (unsatisfactory), (1) tlbybwf - jxtym gkj[j (very
poor). In practice any mark below 4 is considered disappointing and teachers are very reluctant to
give 1 or 2. In some institutes of higher education (deps) the fourth grade disappears, while
universities frequently apply just two grades, pfx/n (pass) and ytpfx/n (fail). The term pfx/n
means test and is used in the phrases clfnm pfx/n (to pass a test) and vyt gjcnfdbkb
pfx/n gj (+ dat) (I was awarded a pass in ...). Other phrases which you might need to know
include clfdfnm rpfvty (to take an exam), clfnm rpfvty (to pass an exam) and, purely
theoretically (we hope), yt clfnm rpfvty / ghjdfkbnmcz yf rpfvtyt (to fail an
exam). Note that the majority of the marks in Russia are based on oral assessments rather than on
written examinations.

Chapter 12

J W T Y R B (J N V T N R B)

Activity Eight -
Writing
Participants in the finals of the Russian language Olympiad are required to
provide a range of personal information (as listed below). Write a brief description of each of
the following pupils, using the vocabulary at the foot of the page, where necessary.
1.

Name: Margaret Stephenson


Country: Britain
Sex: Female
Born: 10th January, 1978*
Place of birth: Manchester
Year: 12
Time spent studying Russian: 4 yrs
Total no. of hours: 200 hrs
School: comprehensive
Russian teacher(s): Mr J. Bradbury
& Mrs N. Krylova

2.

Name: Frank Strassberger


Country: Germany
Sex: Male
Born: 24th October, 1980*
Place of birth: Bonn
Year: 10
Time spent studying Russian: 3 yrs
Total no. of hours: 250 hrs
School: grammar school
Russian teacher(s): Herr B. Schmidt

3.

Name: Jacqueline Dupont


Country: Belgium
Sex: Female
Born: 15th August, 1979*
Place of birth: Brussels
Year: 11
Time spent studying Russian: 5 yrs
Total no. of hours: 350 hours
School: lyce
Russian teacher(s): Madame D. Pinot
& Monsieur I. Antonov

4.

Name: Tadeusz Kolikovsky


Country: Poland
Sex: Male
Born: 30th April, 1981*
Place of birth: Gdansk
Year: 9
Time spent studying Russian: 2 yrs
Total no. of hours: 280 hrs
School: special school
Russian teacher(s): Pan K.
Mularczyk

* Dates are explained in detail Activity 9.


comprehensive

grammar school
A new ab initio Russian course

Herr
lyce

madam

monsieur

p a n (Mr)
special school

217

Activity Nine -
Writing
Using the table below, write down when you and various members of your
family were born.

Vjq
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Vjz
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Vjb
"
"

Z
ve;
,hfn
jntw
ltl(eirf)
lzlz
repty*
gktvzyybr
csy
"
"
"
"
"
Z
;tyf
ctcnhf
vfnm
,f,eirf
n/nz
repbyf*
gktvzyybwf
ljxm
"
"
"
"
"
,hfnmz
c/cnhs
ltnb

hjlkcz
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
hjlbkcm
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
hjlbkcm
"
"

gthdjuj
dnjhjuj
nhtnmtuj
xtnd/hnjuj
gznjuj
itcnjuj
ctlmvjuj
djcmvjuj
ltdznjuj
ltcznjuj
jlbyyflwfnjuj
ldtyflwfnjuj
nhbyflwfnjuj
xtnshyflwfnjuj
gznyflwfnjuj
itcnyflwfnjuj
ctvyflwfnjuj
djctvyflwfnjuj
ltdznyflwfnjuj
ldflwfnjuj
ldflwfnm gthdjuj
ldflwfnm dnjhjuj
ldflwfnm nhtnmtuj
ldflwfnm xtnd/hnjuj
ldflwfnm gznjuj
ldflwfnm itcnjuj
ldflwfnm ctlmvjuj
ldflwfnm djcmvjuj
ldflwfnm ltdznjuj
nhblwfnjuj
nhblwfnm gthdjuj

zydfhz
atdhfkz
vfhnf
fghtkz
vfz
b.yz
b.kz
fduecnf
ctynz,hz
jrnz,hz
yjz,hz
ltrf,hz

* More commonly, ldj.hjlysq ,hfn and ldj.hjlyfz ctcnhf.

Note that the date (e.g. gznjuj) and the month (e.g. vfz) are both in the Genitive case. If
a year is specified, that too takes the Genitive case (e.g. vjq jntw hjlbkcz 10 b.yz^ 1951 u&
= ltcznjuj b.yz nsczxf ltdznmcjn gznmltczn gthdjuj ujlf).

on 12th April, 1945 - ldtyflwfnjuj fghtkz nsczxf ltdznmcjn cjhjr gznjuj ujlf
on 22nd January, 1950 - ldflwfnm dnjhjuj zydfhz nsczxf ltdznmcjn gznbltcznjuj ujlf
on 18th March, 1705 - djctvyflwfnjuj vfhnf nsczxf ctvmcjn gznjuj ujlf
on 4th August, 1900 - xtnd/hnjuj fduecnf nsczxf ltdznbcjnjuj ujlf
on 30th October, 2000 - nhblwfnjuj jrnz,hz lde[nsczxyjuj ujlf

repty = ldj.hjlysq ,hfn


repbyf = ldj.hjlyfz ctcnhf

218

cousin
cousin

gktvzyybr
gktvzyybwf

nephew
niece
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Activity Eleven -
Listening/Speaking/Writing Listen twice to the following recording in which a young
Russian describes her university course abroad (in German and Spanish) and fill in the missing details in her timetable below.
G J Y T L T K M Y B R
1
2
3
4
5
6

Chapter 12

Activity Ten -
Speaking Interview other students in the group about their date of birth. In each case
you should ask the question Rjulf ns hjlbkcz#hjlbkfcm$ (Rfrjuj xbckf (gen)
ns hjlbkcz#hjlbkfcm$) (On what date were you born?) and you should jot down the
reply which will include the year as well as the date and month.

X T N D T H U
1
2
3
4
5
6

D N J H Y B R
1
2
3
4
5
6

G Z N Y B W F
1
2
3
4
5
6

C H T L F
1
2
3
4
5
6

C E < < J N F
1
2
3
4
5
6

HECCRFZ CBCNTVF J<HFPJDFYBZ - THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Formal education in Russia usually begins with the nursery school or kindergarten, ltncrbq cfl, at the
age of 3 or 4. Children then move on to basic eleven-year schooling, jlbyyflwfnbktnyzz irjkf or
chtlyzz j,otj,hfpjdfntkmyfz irjkf, consisting of three parts, yfxfkmyfz irjkf (6 - 10),
ytgjkyfz chtlyzz irjkf (11 - 15) and gjkyfz chtlyzz irjkf (16 - 17). At 15 they receive a
general certificate of (incomplete) secondary education, cdbltntkmcndj j ytgjkyjv chtlytv
j,hfpjdfybb, and at 17 they are awarded their school-leaving certificate, fnntcnfn phtkjcnb.
Nowadays they tend to go on to a rjkktl;, although they frequently have the choice of alternative
educational establishments, including technical and vocational schools, such as the GNE [pronounced
g-n-] (ghjatccbjyfkmyj-nt[ybxtcrjt exbkbot) or nt[ybrev. Young people usually take
their higher education entrance exams, dcnegbntkmyst rpfvtys, at the age of 17 and, on successful
completion of their degree course at a dep (H.E. institution), they receive their degree or lbgkjv j
dscitv j,hfpjdfybb. Graduates are called dsgecrybrb while postgraduates are known as
fcgbhfyns. The main higher education qualifications are the rfylblfncrfz cntgtym, roughly
equivalent to a Ph.D., and ljrnjhcrfz cntgtym, effectively a post-doctoral degree, which bestows on
scholars the highly prestigious title of ljrnjh yfer. The only academic title with even higher status is
frfltvbr.
A new ab initio Russian course

219

Activity Twelve -
Reading/Writing
Read the following secondary school-leaving certificate
(Cdbltntkmcndj j djcmvbktnytv j,hfpjdfybb) which was awarded to a Russian
pupil and answer the questions below.

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Rfr t/ pjden$ F afvbkbz b jnxtcndj$


Rfr gj-heccrb name(s) of the subjects$
Ult yf[jlbncz t/ irjkf$
Rfre. jwtyre jyf gjkexbkf gj kbnthfneht$
Gj rfrbv ghtlvtnfv jyf gjkexbkf gzn/hrb$
Rfrjq zpsr jyf bpexfkf$
Rjulf Vfit dslfkb cdbltntkmcndj$
Rfr gj-fyukbqcrb lbhtrnjh (irjks)$
Rfr gj-heccrb teachers$
Ghb gjvjob ntrcnf^ gthtdtlbnt yf heccrbq zpsr optional courses.

fnntcnfn
jcyjdyjq
j,obq
chtlyzz irjkf
gjkexbnm (II) (pf)
yfbvtyjdfybt
fkut,hf
utjvtnhbz
byjcnhfyysq zpsr
xthxtybt
bpj,hfpbntkmyjt
bcreccndj

220

leaving certificate
basic
general
secondary school
to receive
name, title
algebra
geometry
foreign language
sketching
fine arts

abpbxtcrfz
rekmnehf
(= abprekmnehf)
nheljdjt
j,extybt
ghfdj
ddtltybt d (+ acc)
rjyjvbrf
vbhjdjq
[elj;tcndtyysq
rekmnehf

P. E.
labour
instruction,
teaching
law, rights
introduction to
economics
world
art(istic)
culture

jwtyrf gj
(+ dat) &&&
gj rfrbv
ghtlvtnfv &&&$
dslfnm (pf)
cdbltntkmcndj
ghb gjvjob
(+ gen)
gthtdtlbnt
(imperative)
(+ acc) yf
heccrbq zpsr

a mark in ...
in which
subjects ...?
to issue
certificate
with the
help (of)
translate
s.th. into
Russian

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

irjkmybrb
cneltyns
extybrb
exfobtcz

exfncz d
"
"
"

exbkbof[
eybdthcbntnf[
yfxfkmys[ irjkf[
chtlyb[ irjkf[

Chapter 12

Activity Thirteen - Nhbyflwfnjt pflfybt


Reading
Match up the educational status of the people on the left with an
appropriate type of institution on the right. Two of the answers are interchangeable.

PREPOSITIONAL PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

As the above exercise illustrates, the Prepositional plural of nouns and adjectives in Russian is
very straightforward. The hard adjective ending is - for all genders (or - where there is a
soft adjective or the spelling rule applies). The normal noun ending is - for all genders (or -
where the nominative plural is - and where the singular noun ends in (i) a soft sign, (ii) the
vowels -, - or soft -, or (iii) the vowel -, except in the combinations - and -, which
have the ending -).
GENITIVE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES

The Genitive plural of adjectives is exactly the same as the Prepositional plural of adjectives,
i.e. - or - for all genders.
Activity Fourteen -
Listening Listen twice to the following dialogue between a young child and her teacher
about the various objects which she has in her bedroom and fill in the gaps in the partial
transcription below.
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf
Exbntkm
Extybwf

Crf;b^ gj;fkeqcnf^ Vfif^ xnj e nt,z tcnm d rjvyfnt$


E vtyz^ ____________^ tcnm rhjdfnm^ irfa b ufhlthj,&
F xnj to/$
E vtyz ____________ vyjuj buheitr&
Rfrbt e nt,z buheirb$
E vtyz ____________ ^ rerks b vfibys&
____________ e nt,z rerjk$
E vtyz gznm rerjk b itcnm vfiby&
F ____________ e nt,z tcnm$
Lf^ tcnm& E vtyz ctvm ____________ rjvgm.nthys[ buh&
Ctvm$
Lf^ b to/ e vtyz jxtym vyjuj rybu& ____________ bkb nhblwfnm&
Ns ____________ xbnfnm$
Lf^ k.,k.&
F nt,t yhfdbncz ____________ $
Lf^ yhfdbncz& E vtyz ____________ rfcctn b ctvm rjvgfrnys[
lbcrjd& Z ____________ gjg-vepsre b buhf. yf ____________&
- Ns [jhjij buhftim$
- Ytn^ yt jxtym& {jnbnt gjckeifnm$

irjkmybr#-ybwf
extybr#-ybwf
exfobqcz#
exfofzcz
yfxfkmyfz irjkf
exbkbot

schoolchild
school pupil
student (in trade/
vocational school)
junior school
vocational school

A new ab initio Russian course

irfa
buheirf
rerkf
rjvgm.nthyfz
buhf
rjvgfrnysq lbcr

cupboard
toy
doll
computer
game
CD

buhfnm yf (+ prep)

to play (an
instrument)
[jnnm ([jx^ [xtim^ to want,
[xtn^ [jnv^
wish
[jnnt^ [jnn)
gjckeifnm (II) (pf)
to listen (to)

221

GENITIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS


If you have been especially observant, you will have noticed in this chapter and earlier chapters a number of endings which
are unfamiliar to you. The principal grammatical form which we have not yet covered is the Genitive plural of nouns. The
Genitive plural is used (i) to express possession, (ii) after numbers (above 4), (iii) after expressions of quantity, (iv) after
negatives, and (v) after certain prepositions and verbs. There are five main endings: (masculine) -^ - (or -)^ -;
(neuter and feminine) zero ending, -^ -& Examples which you have already met are marked with an asterisk below.
M

(xfc)
(hsyjr)
(jnw)
(nhfvdfq)
(,hfn)
(byjcnhytw)
(nf;)
(he,km)
(vtcnj)
(jryj)
(gjkt)
(plfybt)
(rybuf)
(rerkf)
(buheirf)

(n/nz)
(felbnjhbz)
(ntnhflm)
PL (ec)
(k.lb)
(,h.rb)

gznm xfcd*
e yfc ytn hyrjd
vyjuj jnwd
ytn nhfvdtd
itcnm ,hnmtd
vfkj byjcnhywtd
ltcznm nf;q
nsczxf he,kq*
vyjuj vtcn
ctvm rjy
,tp gjkq
vfkj plybq
vyjuj rybu*
ctvm rrjk*
vyjuj buhitr*
e yb[ ytn n/ntq
gznm felbnhbq
ytn ntnhflq*
e ytuj ytn ecd
vyjuj k.lq
e vtyz ytn ,h.r

(add -jd)
(hsyjr > hsyrjd, fleeting vowel)
(jntw > jnwjd, [stressed -tw], fleeting vowel)
(remove -q, add -td)
(if plural is -mz, remove -z^ add -td)
(yyjcnhfytw > yyjcnhfywtd, [unstressed -tw], fleeting vowel)
(if ending is -;^ -x^ -i or -o, add -q)
(remove -m, add -tq)
(remove -j, zero ending)
(jryj > jrjy, zero ending, fill vowel -j)
(remove -t, add -tq)
(remove -t, add -q)
(remove -f, zero ending)
(rerkf > rerjk, zero ending, fill vowel -j)
(buheirf > buheitr, zero ending, fill vowel -t if ending is
-;rf^ -xrf^ -irf^ -orf)
(remove -z, add -tq* colloquially n/nm)
(remove -z, add -q)
(remove -m, add -tq)
(remove -s, add -jd)
(remove -b, add -tq)
(remove -b, zero ending)

Activity Fifteen - Gznyflwfnjt pflfybt


Reading/Speaking
Underline every use of the Genitive plural in the following
passage (about shopping for fruit in Russia) and then read the passage in pairs.
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
Gjregfntkm
Ghjlfdtw
hsyjr
byjcnhfytw
buheirf
ec
,tp (+ gen)
k.lb
,h.rb

222

- Lfqnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ rbkj uhei&


- E yfc ytn uhei&
- F fgtkmcbys e dfc tcnm$
- Fgtkmcbyjd nj;t ytn&
- F gthcbrb tcnm$
- B gthcbrjd ytn&
- F z,kjrb$
- Z,kjrb tcnm&
- Lfqnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ gjkrbkj z,kjr&
- Gj;fkeqcnf& Ldflwfnm gznm he,ktq& Xnj to/$
- Crjkmrj cnjzn ,fyfys$
- <fyfyjd e yfc ytn&
- F kbvjys$
- B kbvjyjd ytn&
- Vfufpby yfpsdftncz ^ f e dfc ghfrnbxtcrb ytn ahernjd&
- Xnj ds! E yfc yfvyjuj ,jkmit ahernjd^ xtv hfymit&

market
foreigner
toy
moustache
without
people
trousers

ghjlfdtw/ghjlfdobwf
gjregfntkm(-ybwf)
uheif
fgtkmcby
gthcbr
gjkrbkj
z,kjrj (pl z,kjrb)

shop assistant
shopper
pear
orange
peach
half a kilo
apple

,fyfy
kbvjy
ghfrnbxtcrb
xnj ds!
yfvyjuj (before
comparatives)
,jkmit

banana
lemon
practically
what are you saying!
much, far, many
more

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

d h t v z
GJYTLTKMYBR fel&
09&00 - 10&30 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
74
(uhfvvfnbrf)
10&30 - 12&00 heccrfz
59
kbnthfnehf
12&00 - 13&30 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
78
(hfpujdjh)
13&30 - 15&00 abkjcjabz
45
d h t v z
DNJHYBR
09&00 - 10&00 ytvtwrbq zpsr
(uhfvvfnbrf)
10&30 - 12&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
12&00 - 13&30 j,ott
zpsrjpyfybt
13&30 - 15&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(hfpujdjh)
d h t v z CHTLF
09&00 - 10&00 ytvtwrbq zpsr
(hfpujdjh)
10&30 - 12&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(uhfvvfnbrf)
12&00 - 13&30 pfhe,t;yfz
kbnthfnehf
13&30 - 15&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(cnhfyjdtltybt)
Byyf yf gthdjv rehct&
Jyf exbncz

Gjnjv jyf [jxtn


exbnmcz d fcgbhfyneht
hfpujdjh
abkjcjabz
ajytnbrf
j,ott zpsrjpyfybt

conversation
philosophy
phonetics
general
linguistics

A new ab initio Russian course

d h t v z
XTNDTHU
09&00 - 10&00 ytvtwrbq zpsr
(uhfvvfnbrf)
10&30 - 12&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(hfpujdjh)
12&00 - 13&30 bcnjhbz abkjkjubb

74

13&30 - 15&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr


(uhfvvfnbrf)
d h t v z
GZNYBWF
09&00 - 10&00 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(hfpujdjh)
10&30 - 12&00 heccrfz kbnthfnehf
(ajytnbrf)
12&00 - 13&30 fyukbqcrbq zpsr
(uhfvvfnbrf)
13&30 - 15&00 ytvtwrbq zpsr
(ajytnbrf)
d h t v z
CE<< JNF
09&00 - 10&00 bcnjhbz fyukbqcrjuj
zpsrf
10&30 - 12&00 j,ott zpsrjpyfybt

35

12&00 - 13&30

70

13&30 - 15&00

fel&
106
72
18
74
fel&
107

fel&
106

Chapter 12

Activity Sixteen - Itcnyflwfnjt pflfybt


Reading/Writing So far we have concentrated on school timetables and on the timetables
of students who are studying abroad. Higher educational courses for Russians studying in Russia,
however, differ significantly from those illustrated up to now, as shown by Inna Rostovtsevas
timetable below. Read her timetable carefully and answer the questions on the following page.

78
43
74
fel&
74
59
74
101
fel&
78
18

Further information about Inna


&&& d Nfv,jdcrjv ujcelfhcndtyyjv eybdthcbntnt&
(Tambov State University)
&&& yf abkjkjubxtcrjv afrekmntnt&
(Faculty of Languages and Literatures)
&&& yf jnltktybb fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf b
fyukbqcrjq kbnthfnehs&
(Department of English Language and Literature)
&&& yf rfatlht uthvfycrjq abkjkjubb&
(Sub-faculty of German Philology)
pfhe,t;yfz
kbnthfnehf
abkjkjubz
(adj. abkjkjubxtcrbq)

foreign
literature
philology (language
and literature)

ujcelfhcndtyysq state
afrekmntn
faculty, school
jnltktybt
department, section,
division
rfatlhf
sub-faculty

223

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&
13&
14&
15&
16&
17&
18&
19&
20&

Rjulf e Byys heccrfz kbnthfnehf$


Rjulf e yt/ bcnjhbz fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf$
Rjulf e yt/ bcnjhbz abkjkjubb$
Rjulf e yt/ j,ott zpsrjpyfybt$
Rjulf e yt/ abkjcjabz$
D rfrjq felbnjhbb* e yt/ uhfvvfnbrf fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf$
D rfrjq felbnjhbb* e yt/ ajytnbrf ytvtwrjuj zpsrf$
D rfrjq felbnjhbb* e yt/ bcnjhbz abkjkjubb$
D rfrjq felbnjhbb* e yt/ pfhe,t;yfz kbnthfnehf$
Crjkmrj hfp d ytltk. e yt/ pfhe,t;yfz kbnthfnehf$
Crjkmrj hfp d ytltk. e yt/ bcnjhbz fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf$
Crjkmrj hfp d ytltk. e yt/ uhfvvfnbrf fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf$
Crjkmrj hfp d ytltk. e yt/ heccrfz kbnthfnehf$
Rjulf yfxbyftncz gthdjt pfyznbt d gjytltkmybr$
Rjulf yfxbyftncz nhtnmt pfyznbt dj dnjhybr$
Rjulf rjyxftncz dnjhjt pfyznbt d ce,,jne$
Rjulf rjyxftncz xtnd/hnjt pfyznbt d gznybwe$
D rfrjv eybdthcbntnt jyf exbncz$
Yf rfrjv jnltktybb jyf exbncz$
Gj rfrjve zpsre jyf cgtwbfkbpbhetncz$

* Use the adjectival form in your reply (e.g. d cjhjr ltdznjq felbnjhbb).

GENITIVE SINGULAR OF NUMBERS

In order to express from ... to with numbers (e.g. she has Philosophy from 13.30 to 15.00 on
Monday), Russian uses the construction c (+ gen) &&& lj (+ gen). The Genitive case of numbers
(used in time expressions) is as follows:
c#lj xcf (colloquially lj xce)
c#lj lde[#nh/[#xtnsh/[
c#lj gzn#itcn#ctv#djcmv#ltdzn#ltczn#jlyyflwfnb#ldtylwfnb
If the minutes are included, the same pattern follows; e.g.

c ltczn gznylwfnb (from 10.15) lj nhbylwfnb nhblwfn (to 13.30)


c ldflwfn nhblwfn (from 20.30) lj ldflwfn lde[ cjhjr gzn (to 22.45)
More on higher education...

Each 1-hour session is known in Russian as a gfhf (i.e. a pair of 45-minute classes). Typically
linguists will major in one foreign language (English in the case of Inna) and study a second related
language for 3 or 4 years (German in Innas case). In their third year they specialize in either
literature or linguistics and they may take up a third language from the same sub-faculty (e.g. Dutch
or Norwegian). In January and June students have their main assessment period (known as ctccbz)
which consists of 3 or 4 exams (rpfvtys) and 5 or 6 formal tests (pfx/ns) on specialist
courses (such as pedagogics). In their fifth year they take their State Examination (in Innas case
Ujcelfhcndtyysq rpfvty gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre^ ytvtwrjve zpsre b j,otve
zpsrjpyfyb.) and they also have to complete and defend a dissertation (which is a process
known as pfobnf lbgkjvyjq hf,jns).
crjkmrj hfp d &&& (+ acc) ?
hfp
2#3#4 hfpf
5 > 20 hfp

224

how many times per ...?


time(s); once, one
2/3/4 times
5 > 20 times

cgtwbfkbpbhjdfnmcz
gj ... (+ dat)
gfhf
ctccbz

to specialize in ...
pair, couple; 1-hour class
examination period
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE PREPOSITIONAL PLURAL


ENDINGS OF NOUNS
There are just two endings for nouns in the Prepositional plural, as illustrated below by the use of the prepositions ,
and (). The normal ending is - for all genders. The ending - occurs where the Nominative plural is - and where
the singular noun ends in (i) a soft sign, (ii) the vowels -, - or soft - (i.e. - not resulting from the spelling rule), or (iii)
the vowel -, except in the combinations - and -, which have the ending -).

ujhjl
hsyjr
jntw
vtcnj
jryj
exbkbot
rybuf
rerkf
cbufhtns
,h.rb

d ujhjl
yf hsyr
j, jnw
d vtcn
d jry
d exbkbo
d rybu
j rerk
j cbufhtn
yf ,h.r

,hfn (pl ,hfnmz)


csy (pl csyjdmz)
gjhnatkm
lzlz
nhfvdfq
gjkt
plfybt
ljxm (pl ljxthb)
xfcnm
n/nz
felbnjhbz
ltnb

j ,hfnm
j csyjdm
d gjhnatk
j lzl
yf nhfvdf
d gjk
d plfyb
j ljxth
d xfcn
j n/n
d felbnjhb
j ltn

Chapter 12

GRAMMAR

(fleeting vowel)
(fleeting vowel)
(fleeting vowel)

ENDINGS OF ADJECTIVES
There are just two endings for adjectives in the Prepositional plural. The standard adjective ending is - for all
genders. The ending - occurs where there is a soft adjective or the spelling rule applies, as illustrated below.

yjdsq
cnfhsq
cjdhtvtyysq
ujke,jq
rfrjq$
,jkmijq
cbybq

d yjd ujhjlf[
d cnfh vtcnf[
d cjdhtvtyy exbkbof[
yf ujke, nhfvdfz[
d rfr jryf[$
(spelling rule)
d ,jkmi ljvf[
(spelling rule)
yf cby ,h.rf[
(soft adjective)

ENDINGS OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

vjq (pl vjb)


ndjq (pl ndjb)
tuj
t/
yfi (pl yfib)
dfi (pl dfib)
b[
cdjq (pl cdjb)
A new ab initio Russian course

vj
ndj
tuj
t/
yfi
dfi
b[
cdj
225

OTHER ADJECTIVAL FORMS

dtcm (pl dct)


njn (pl nb)
njn (pl nt)

dct[
n
nt [

pyfrjvsq#pyfrjvfz
heccrbq#heccrfz
;bdjnyjt

pyfrjv
heccr
;bdjny

(adjective used as noun)


(adjective used as noun)
(adjective used as noun)

Activity Seventeen -
Writing
Put the following phrases into the Prepositional plural, using the
preposition provided in brackets.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

(d) cnfhst irjks


(d) ,jkmibt vfufpbys
(yf) vjb yjdst ,h.rb
(d) heccrbt exbkbof
(j) yfibt fyukbqcrbt ,hfnmz
jy ujdjhbk (j) cdjb bynthtcyst ljxthb
(yf) cbybt he,firb
(j) vfktymrbt ltnb
(d) ,jkmibt cjdhtvtyyst felbnjhbb
(j) tuj crexyst n/nb
Activity Eighteen -
Writing
Translate the following phrases into Russian.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

in old English towns


in big Russian villages (lthtdyb)
in the new universities
in modern books
a play (gmtcf) about animals (;bdjnyjt)
on my dark blue (cbybt) shoes
in all our books
Turgenev wrote a story (yfgbcfk hfccrfp) about fathers and sons
about my new French dolls
you will find a pen (yfql/im hexre) in all these briefcases

USES

226

THE GENITIVE PLURAL

1.

To express possession
lhepmz vjb[ ,hfnmtd
gkfnmz vjb[ ctcn/h

2.

After numbers (over 4) and expressions of quantity


gznm cnjkjd
five tables
rbkj z,kjr
a kilogram of apples
crjkmrj cneltynjd$
how many students?

my brothers friends
my sisters dresses

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

so many foreigners
few people
many friends

3.

After negatives
pltcm ytn vfkmxbrjd
yt ,skj ltdeitr
z yt db;e vfiby (or vfibys)

there are no boys here


there were no girls
I cannot see the cars

4.

For comparison (instead of xtv + Nominative)


jyf cnfhit lheub[ cneltynjd
she is older than the other students
jy vjkj;t vjb[ ,hfnmtd
he is younger than my brothers

5.

For animate accusatives (see Chapter Thirteen)


z pyf. nb[ ;tyoby
I know these women

6.

After certain prepositions


,tp jib,jr
dvtcnj yt,jcrh/,jd
djrheu lfx
lkz vjb[ ltntq
lj rhf/d
(epyfnm) bp ufptn
bp-pf ldthtq
bp-pf ghj,ktv
rjhj,rf bp-gjl cbufhtn
rhjvt vjb[ ctcn/h
yfghjnbd cnfhs[ plfybq
jrjkj cgjhnbdys[ pfkjd
lfktrj jn ,jkmib[ ujhjljd
gjckt dct[ ljkub[ djqy
ghjnbd yfib[ j;blfybq
jy egfk c ktcjd
chtlb yfib[ pyfrjvs[
e ndjb[ hjlbntktq

without mistakes
instead of skyscrapers
around the dachas
for my children
up to the brim (literally: the edges)
(to learn) from the newspapers
from behind the doors
because of the problems
a cigarette packet
apart from my sisters
opposite the old buildings
near the sports halls
far away from the big cities
after all long wars
against our expectations
he fell off the scaffolding
amongst our acquaintances
at your parents; your parents have

7.

After certain verbs


(z) ;tkf. dfv ecgt[jd

I wish you success

Chapter 12

cnjkmrj byjcnhfywtd
vfkj k.ltq
vyjuj lheptq

ENDINGS
There are five main noun endings: (masculine) -^ - (or -)^ -; (neuter and feminine) zero ending, -^
-&
M xfc
hsyjr
jnw
nhfvdfq
rhfq
,hfn (pl ,hfnmz)
csy (pl csyjdmz)
byjcnhytw
vtczw
nf;
ghtgjlfdfntkm
fyukbxfyby
A new ab initio Russian course

xfcjd
hsyrjd
jnwjd
nhfvdftd
rhf/d
,hfnmtd
csyjdtq
byjcnhywtd
vtczwtd
nf;tq
ghtgjlfdfntktq
fyukbxfy

(final consonant)
(final consonant, fleeting vowel)
(final stressed -tw, fleeting vowel)
(final -q)
(final -q, irregular)
(nominative plural -mz)
(irregular nominative plural)
(final unstressed -tw, fleeting vowel)
(final unstressed -zw)
(final -;^ -x^ -i^ -o)
(final -m)
(masculines with final -fyby)
227

vtcnj
jryj
gbcmvj
lthtdj (pl lthtdmz)
gjkt
exbkbot
cthlwt
plfybt
dhtvz
rybuf
rerkf
;tyf (pl ;/ys)
ctcnhf (pl c/cnhs)
buheirf

n/nz
ctvmz
ytltkz
felbnjhbz
ntnhflm
ljxm (pl ljxthb)
PL ec
if[vfns
nhecbrb
,h.rb
ltymub
k.lb
ltnb

(final -j)
(final -j, fill vowel -j)
(final -j, fill vowel -t, irregular)
(nominative plural -mz, irregular)
(final -t)
(final -bot)
(final -t, fill vowel -t, irregular)
(final -bt)
(neuters with final -z)
(final -f)
(final -f, fill vowel -j)
(final -f, plural mutation -t > -/)
(final -f, plural mutation -t > -/, fill
vowel -/)
buheitr
(final -;rf^ -xrf^ -irf^ -orf^ fill
vowel -t)
n/ntq (colloquially n/nm) (final -z)
ctvq
(final stressed -mz)
ytltkm
(final -kz)
felbnjhbq
(final -bz)
ntnhflq
(final -m)
ljxthq
(irregular nominative plural)
ecd
(final -s)
if[vfn
(final -s)
nhecbrjd
(final -b)
,h.r
(final -b)
ltytu
(final -b, fill vowel -t, irregular)
k.lq
(final -b)
ltnq
(final -b)

vtcn
jrjy
gbctv
lthtdmtd
gjktq
exbkbo
cthltw
plfybq
dhtv/y
rybu
rerjk
;/y
ctcn/h

Other Genitive plurals


xtkjdtr
hfp
cjklfn
uhfvv
ukfp (pl ukfp)

xtkjdtr
hfp
cjklfn
uhfvv(jd)
ukfp

(after numbers above 4 and ytcrjkmrj)

The Genitive plural of adjectives is exactly the same as the prepositional plural of adjectives, i.e. - or - for
all genders.

Activity Nineteen -
Writing
Put the following phrases into the Genitive plural.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
228

(rjhj,rf) drecyst fyukbqcrbt rjyatns


(uheggf) vjkjlst heccrbt cneltyns
(crjkmrj) yfbdyst byjcnhfyws$
(e ytuj vyjuj) [jhjibt lhepmz
(pltcm ytn) yjdst vfibys
(jyf vjkj;t) vjb ,hfnmz
(lkz) dct bynthtcyst ghtgjlfdfntkb
(lfktrj jn) cnfhst plfybz
(rhjvt) vjb vkflibt c/cnhs
(chtlb) ,jufnst heccrbt

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

How many French dolls?


I do not have dark blue trousers.
Opposite the new shops.
Many American friends.
Six big red trams.
He has no children and no parents.
She has six thousand roubles.
We bought (vs regbkb) many toys for the children.
Seventy-five thousand people live (;bden) in Lincoln.
He wrote (jy yfgbcfk) the book for his (cdjb) sons and daughters.

Chapter 12

Activity Twenty - Ldflwfnjt pflfybt


Writing
Translate the following into Russian.

RULES FOR NUMBERS


(e vtyz) jlby (m), jlyj (n), jlyf (f) + Nominative singular
(e vtyz) ldf (m & n), ldt (f), nhb, xtnsht + Genitive singular
(e vtyz) gznm > ldflwfnm + Genitive plural
The system continues thereafter. Hence, 32 takes the Genitive singular, 35 takes the Genitive
plural, 101 takes the Nominative singular, 213 takes the Genitive plural etc.

(e vtyz) ytn + Genitive singular or Genitive plural

Activity Twenty-One - Ldflwfnm gthdjt pflfybt


Writing
Answer the following questions in Russian.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

Crjkmrj e dfc ,hfnmtd$


Crjkmrj e dfc ctcn/h$
Crjkmrj e dfc pfyznbq d gjytltkmybr$
Crjkmrj e dfc pfyznbq d gznybwe$
Crjkmrj e dfc rfcctn$
Crjkmrj e dfc rjvgfrnys[ lbcrjd$
Tcnm kb e dfc ghb ct,t ltymub$* Crjkmrj$
E dfc tcnm rhtlbnyst rfhnjxrb$ Crjkmrj$
Crjkmrj e dfc byjcnhfyys[ pyfrjvs[$ Rnj jyb gj yfwbjyfkmyjcnb$
Crjkmrj lytq d ytltkt$
Crjkmrj lytq d njv ujle$
Crjkmrj cneltynjd d njq uheggt$

* Do you have money on you?

Activity Twenty-Two
Speaking/Writing Write down six questions beginning with the phrase Crjkmrj e
nt,z &&& (+ gen) $ and then interview your partner using your own questions.
A new ab initio Russian course

229

230

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 13

CHAPTER THIRTEEN -
MY FAMILY AND (OTHER) ANIMALS -
In Chapter Thirteen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about your family
2. to talk about animals
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1.
2.
3.
4.

pronouns
the animate accusative
miscellaneous nouns
prepositions which take the accusative case

Activity One -
Writing Fill in the missing words to find out the Russian for relations. You have
already met most of the common words used to describe members of the family, but to
remind you, they are given again (in no logical order) below.

Parents
Father
Uncle
Son
Aunt
Grandson
Grandfather
Granddaughter
Wife
Nephew
Grandmother
Niece

_
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_ _ _ _ _
_
_
_
_

_ _ _

(), (), , , , , , (), ,


, , , , ,
Activity Two -
Writing Using the following information, work out the Russian for the phrases below:

= (first male) cousin


= great granddaughter
232

= great grandfather
= great great grandson

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

(first female) cousin


great grandmother
great grandson
great great granddaughter
great great grandfather

Chapter 13

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Activity Three -
Writing
Establish the identity of the following in Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Activity Four -
Reading Read the following description of the family below and identify the relations
to whom the young speaker, Klara, is referring. Then answer the questions on the next page
in Russian.
, . , , ,
. , . ,
. , ,
. , , .
, , , . ,
. .
, . , ,
. - , - .
. , . , ,
, , . , , ,
- . . . ,
: , .

(past /)

()
A new ab initio Russian course

former
member
Communist Party
theme
Great October Socialist
Revolution (1917)
weak, poor
vision
to die
older, oldest
alive

(I)

(+ gen)


() (+ acc)

()
(pf)

to talk, chat
ones own
to the left of
childrens theatre
on a business trip
dressed in
to bear, endure
sunglasses
incidentally
almost
to forget
233

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

?
?
?
?
?
?
?

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Activity Five -
Listening Listen twice to the following descriptions of Ivans family and fill in the
missing details below. Relevant vocabulary is given on the following page.
Name

Age
Relationship
to Ivan
Place of
residence
Job
Interests
Married/
single
Spouses
name & age
Children and
relevant
information
234

S azov (Russian from Scratch )


26


25


4, 5


21


22


2


32


34


3, 5, 8


38


43

(-, -) (+ acc)
(+ instr)
(+ prep)
(+ acc)

//
(+ acc)

,
(+ instr)

(colloquial)

theme, subject
dressed in
married (of a woman)
married (of a man)
older than me by
sailor
two/three/four children
I moved to
surgeon
to take part in track
and field athletics
sprinter
100 metres hurdles
five-year old child
who, which
I hope that
he will become
well known
athlete
St Petersburg

A new ab initio Russian course

(+ instr)
(+ acc)

(, ,
, , )

(III)

(I)
/

Chapter 13

Activity Six -
Speaking Pairwork. Devise conversations based on the following information. First
you play the role of A, then reverse roles.

large housing estate


(administrative unit)
together with
younger than me by
Sonya and I
eight and a half
hobby
skiing
porter
trombone
detective (story)
electrician
to sing
folk song
to collect
psychologist
to garden
divorced
former

235


27

-


34


28


24
(
)

1, 4

Activity Seven -
Reading
Look at the photograph below and say whether the following statements
are True () or False ().
1. . .
2. .
3. .
4. .

5. .

6. .

Activity Eight -
Writing The above examples illustrate the personal pronoun in all six cases (1.
Nominative, 2. Accusative, 3. Genitive, 4. Dative, 5. Instrumental, 6. Prepositional).
Make up six sentences about each of the following, using the personal pronouns listed below:
(i) your friend (), (ii) your teacher (), (iii) George Bush (), (iv) the British queen
(), (v) you and your family (), and (vi) your neighbours (). Note that you do not
need to stick rigidly to the model above.
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

()

()

()*
()*
()*
()*
()

()*
()*
()*
()*
()

()

()

()*
()*
()*
()*
()

* The sound precedes all forms of the prepositions , and , whenever they follow a preposition; e.g.
(for him), (with her), (towards them). Compare: - I love him;
- I am interested in them; - we help her.
-
CD
(f)
model airplane
(II) (, ) to breed

236

(II) (, )
to translate
c (+ gen) (+ acc)
from ... into ...
(, , , , , ) to drink
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. Say hello to your partner.


Find out his/her name and age.
Ask him/her if he/she is married.
If so, find out more about his/her
husband or wife.
Ask who (else) lives with him/her.
Ask him/her where they live.

Reply appropriately in each case.

2.

Say hello to your partner.


Ask him/her about his/her family
(brothers, sisters, parents, husband/wife,
children).
Find out where he/she works.
Ask him/her if he enjoys his/her work.
Find out about his/her hobbies.

Reply appropriately in each case.

Chapter 13

Activity Nine -
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and you partner plays B. Then reverse
roles.

Activity Ten - c
Reading/Listening Read the following biography carefully and then listen to the
description by Ivans elderly and forgetful mother of her sons life. Make a list of any
inaccuracies which you note in her description.
, ,


, , .5, .322
39


( : )
(
)
(78), ,
(81), ,
(17), (14), (12)
- (40), -
,

() ()



() (+ gen)
A new ab initio Russian course

he graduated (from
university)
faculty of languages
and literature
Moscow State
University
foreign language
the Embassy of the
Russian Federation
technician
shop assistant

secretary

numismatics (collection
or study of coins etc.)
he called him after

() ,


(f)

writer
amabassador
United Nations
Organisation
technocrat
(he) wanted him to
become a pilot
as fas as I can remember
however
it must be admitted
memory
you know, you see
a little
in ones youth
excellently

237

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Role-play. One of you thinks of a mutual acquaintance or friend. The other
has to guess who it is, with the help of the questions and answers below. Stick initially to the
full phrase, using the pronouns (etc.) or (etc.) and each time, as appropriate. Then repeat the exercise, based on a different friend, using the more natural sounding
(etc.) or (etc.), which are listed on the following page. (Once again the questions are
grouped in accordance with grammatical case.)
Nominative

/ ?
Or: /
/ ?
Or: /
/ ?
Or: /
/ ?
Or: /
/
?
Or: /
Accusative
/
?
Or: /
/ /
?
Or: /
Genitive
/
/ ?
/
?
Or: /

, / ,
/ ?
Or: /
Dative
/
?
Or: /
/
(, , )?
Or: /
238

/
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
/, /
() / .
/

/

/ /

, /

, /
/ ,
, /
/ ,
, / ,
,
, /
() , ()

, / ,
/

/

/, /
()
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

/


/

Prepositional

Chapter 13

Instrumental
/ ?
Or: /
/
?
Or: /

() /


Or: /

Possessive pronouns

SINGULAR
Masculine
Nom
Acc
/*
Gen
Dat

Instr
Prep ()

/*

()

()

()

/*

()

/*

()

()

Neuter
Nom
Acc

Gen
Dat

Instr
Prep ()

()

()

()

()

()

()

Feminine
Nom
Acc

Gen
Dat

Instr
Prep ()

()

()

()

()

()

()

PLURAL
All genders
Nom
Acc
/*
Gen
Dat

Instr
Prep ()

/*

()

()

()

/*

()

/*

()

()

* Genitive = Accusative for all animate nouns (except for feminine singular). See Activity Thirteen.

A new ab initio Russian course

239

Activity Twelve -
Speaking/Writing As stated above, the Accusative form of all animate nouns (as
well as pronouns and adjectives), except the feminine singular, is the same as the Genitive.
Answer the following questions, paying particular attention to this grammatical rule, where
appropriate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
- ?
?
?
?
()?

Activity Thirteen -
Writing
Imagine that you have just made a new penfriend in Russia and that you are
sending him/her your first letter. You should write in particular about yourself, your hobbies,
your family and your friends, but also ask him/her appropriate questions. T ry to stick to
vocabulary which you know and do not be too ambitious. Your letter should begin
/ and finish with a phrase such as ! (All the best).
Note that Russian also has a reflexive pronoun (with the same declension as or )
which is used to refer back to noun and pronoun subjects; e.g.
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

- I have my own car


() - I have lost my wallet*
- she bought roses for her sister*
- he used to help his brother**
() - you used to play with your own friends
() - I was talking about my own daughter

* Although (etc.) is preferred in sentences of this type, , , and (etc.) may be used as
an alternative. Sometimes the pronoun may be omitted altogether, especially when speaking about people; e.g.
- I love my brother; - he was talking to his sister.
** (etc.) cannot, however, be replaced by , or when it refers back to noun or pronoun subjects;
cf. () - he used to help his (own) brother and - he used to help
his (i.e. someone elses) brother, or - she can see her (own) house and
- she can see her (i.e. someone elses) house.

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Writing The relative pronoun (which, who) has the same endings
as any normal hard adjective and agrees with its antecedent in gender and number (although
its case depends on the grammar of the relative clause); e.g. ,
- - I know a person who speaks Danish or ,
- heres the person (whom) I know. Read the following sentences and identify (i) the
appropriate missing noun from the box below, and (ii) the gender, case and number of the
relative pronoun.
240

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

, -
, -
, -
, -
, -
, -
, -
, -

Chapter 13

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

, , , , -, -,
,
Activity Fifteen -
Writing One of the most difficult concepts to translate into Russian is also, too or
as well (as). Complete the following grid, using the expressions in bold below. (Note that,
in accordance with crossword tradition, gaps do not appear between phrases consisting of
two or more words.)

(also, too)

e.g. - ? - . (Are you English? Me too.)


. . (I am going to the park. She is also going there.)
(More colloquial than ; used most commonly where the subjects in the two sentences or two
parts of the sentence are different)

() (also, too, likewise)

e.g. , . (She studies French as well as German.)


. (She studies Japanese in addition to Russian.)
(More formal than , but more versatile in its usage)

(also, as well, and)

e.g. . . (I am going to the park. She is also going there.)


-. (He also speaks English.)

() (also, too, as well (as))

e.g. (), (). (He is stupid, and lazy too.) (Colloquial)

, , , (furthermore, moreover, besides, also)

e.g. , . ( Furthermore, he loved his country.)


(More or less interchangeable phrases; frequently used at the start of a sentence)

(furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, also)

e.g. , . (He is rude and he also lies.) (Colloquial)


(I)

(I)

to perform roles
pupil
to receive money

A new ab initio Russian course

foreigner
classmate
- single father

- heroine of
motherhood
() Muscovite
241

Activity Sixteen -
Reading Read the following passage with the help of the vocabulary at the foot of the
page. Then answer the questions in English.

, . .
, ,
. .
. , , ,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
. . ,
, .
- , , , .
, .
.
, . ,
.
, , .
. . , -,
, , .
, , , , ,
.
, , ,
. , , , .
, . ,
. , - .

(II)


(f)
(I)
(I)
(,
, )

(III)

(I)
(II)
(III)
(+ acc)
,

(pl )

242

far away
to look out of
the window
the journey takes
folk song
dear, darling
word
trite, banal
real
love
to arrive
to meet
to cook, bake
pancake
to spend the
night
the next day
to set off
to spend (time)
to complain about
the fact that
child (children;
lads)

(I)
(I)

(I)

(,
)
(pf)
()
(+ gen)

()


(+ acc)

(pl )
/
(I)

(pl )

to go bathing
to go cycling
to gather, pick
berry, soft fruit
mushroom
bonfire
to weep, cry
to die
they died
during, at the
time of
was wounded
everyone has
animal, pet
especially
including
chicken
goat
to be born
kid
dear

(pl )

(pl )
(indeclinable)

(m)
(m)
(m)
()

(pl )

(I) (+ acc)

(+ gen)
(, )
(II)

friendly
early
foal
foal (of ass)
pony
too (many)
cramped
wild
animal
deer
bear
I saw
once
she-bear
bear cub
probably
to assure
wolf
to be afraid of
to inhabit
as the saying
goes

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

How long does the journey take?


Name three of the activities which occupy the childrens time on the train.
Why does Kolya not like the song Milenkii ty moi?
How long do the children spend at the dacha?
Why does Kolya not like living at the dacha?
Name three activities that the children undertake during the day.
Why does the grandmother sometimes cry in the evening?
Which are the most popular animals in the village?
What are the narrators favourite animals?
Why do the children not have pets in Moscow?
Why does Kolya not play in the forest?
What do you think the Russian proverb - means?

Chapter 13

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Activity Seventeen -
Reading
Read the following traditional folk song. If you are musically inclined, you
may also wish to sing it in pairs.

MY DEAREST

- ,
!
, ,
.

My dearest,
Take me with you!
In that far-away land
I will be your wife.

- ,
.
, ,
.

My dear,
I would take you.
But in that far-away land
I have a wife.

- ,
!
, ,
.

My dearest,
Take me with you!
In that far-away land
I will be your sister.

- ,
.
, ,
.

My dear,
I would take you.
But in that far-away land
I have a sister.

- ,
!
, ,
.

My dearest,
Take me with you!
In that far-away land
Ill be a stranger to you.

- ,
.
, ,
.

My dear,
I would take you.
But in that far-away land
A stranger is not what I need.

A new ab initio Russian course

243

GRAMMAR
1. Pronouns
THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (I, YOU, HE, SHE, WE, YOU, THEY)

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

()
()

()

()*
()*
()*
()*
()

()*
()*
()*
() ()*
()

()

()

()*
()*
()*
()*
()

* The sound precedes all forms of the prepositions , and , whenever they follow a
preposition; compare:
(acc)
(gen)
(dat)
(instr)

- I believe in him; - I love him


- this is from her; - I am afraid of her
- shes going to his place; - she helps him
- he speaks to her; - hes interested in her

Note that prepositions are not followed by the Nominative and that the Prepositional case by
definition always requires the sound ; e.g.
(prep.) - we often think about them

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (MY/MINE, YOUR/YOURS, HIS, HER/HERS, OUR/OURS, YOUR/


YOURS, THEIR/THEIRS)
SINGULAR

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

/*

()

/*

()

Masculine

() ()

/*

()

/*

()

()

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

()

()

Neuter

() ()

()

()

()

()

Feminine

() ()

()

()

()

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep
244

()

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

/*

()

/*

()

All genders

/*

() () ()

/*

()

()

Chapter 13

PLURAL

THE REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN (ONES OWN)

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

Masculine

/*

()

Neuter

()

Feminine

()

Plural

/*

()

* The Genitive case is used whenever animate nouns are in the Accusative (except where the
nouns are feminine singular). This form is known as the Animate Accusative:

- she knows my brother well


- we dont understand our teacher
? - whats your son called?
? - can you see my child?
but - he respects his aunt
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN (WHO, WHICH)

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

Masculine

()

Neuter

()

Feminine

()

Plural

()

THE INTERROGATIVE/RELATIVE PRONOUNS


(WHO), (WHAT) AND (WHOSE)

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

()

()

A new ab initio Russian course

Masculine

()

Neuter

()

Feminine

()

Plural

()

245

THE DETERMINATIVE PRONOUN (ALL)

Masculine
Nom
Acc /
Gen
Dat
Instr ()
Prep ()

Neuter
c*

()
()

Feminine

()
()

Plural
**
/

()
()

* c also means everything and is followed by a (neuter) singular verb; e.g () - everything
is (was) OK
** also means everyone/everybody and is followed by a plural verb; e.g. () - they
are (were) all at the university

Activity Eighteen -
Writing
Fill in the appropriate form of the personal pronoun.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

246

.
?

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

Activity Nineteen -
Writing
Fill in the appropriate form of the possessive pronoun.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

.
?
?
?
.
.
.
.
.
.

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

,
5, .
,
.
,
.
,
, -.
,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
, .

Activity Twenty -
Writing Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of .

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Whose is this computer?


Whose are these pencils?
Whose is this book?
About whose wife is he speaking?
With whose sister does she live?
In whose house does he live?
Who are you speaking about?
What are you speaking about?
Who were you with yesterday?
I dont know what you are afraid of.

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________

Chapter 13

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing
Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

.
.


.

.

.

.

.

.
.

.

2.

Miscellaneous noun types


MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -, -

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

Singular
*

()

Plural

()

Singular

()

Plural

()

* The form frequently means lads. The normal plural of (child) is (children). Note the
special forms // .

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

()

A new ab initio Russian course

247

MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -, - (E.G. - ARMENIAN)

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

Singular

()

Plural

()

Singular

()

Plural

()

NEUTER NOUNS ENDING IN - (E.G. , , [FLAME])

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

Singular

()

Plural

()

3. Summary of prepositions taking the Accusative


()/

(motion towards)
(to)
(expressions of time etc.)
(in, on, for, at)

( before)
(during)
(behind - motion)
(for)

(in [s time])
(over, across)
(through, by means of)
(ago)
(each)
(under - motion)
(through)

248



/
/








/


/
/

Im going to the park


hes going to a concert
on Friday / on that day
in a month / at three oclock
he came for a month
at Christmas
to answer (literally: reply to) a question
a week before the end
in the space of twenty-four hours
to sit at the table
thanks for the help
to pay for the goods
in a week(s time) / in a month
across the ocean
through the friends
a week / year ago
in pairs / twos
to put under the table
laughter through tears

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 13
A new ab initio Russian course

249

CHAPTER 14

CHAPTER FOURTEEN -
THE WEATHER

In Chapter Fourteen you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

to understand a Russian weather forecast


to enquire about the weather
to compare the weather in different seasons and countries
to express ideas relating to frequency

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

adverbs derived from adjectives


the verb and frequency adverbs
negative adverbs
the future tense of the verb
the comparative of adjectives and adverbs
the superlative of adjectives and adverbs

Activity One - Gthdjt


Reading
Read the texts A and <, then answer the questions following the texts. Use
the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.

F& Pbvf - cfvjt [jkjlyjt dhtvz ujlf d Hjccbb& Jyf ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf
- ltrf,hm^ zydfhm b atdhfkm& Heccrbt k.,zn pbve% t/ vjhjpyst^ cjkytxyst b
cyt;yst lyb& Vyjubt ,then jngecr pbvjq*^ xnj,s rfnfnmcz yf rjymrf[ bkb yf
ks;f[& D vfhnt yfxbyftncz dtcyf& D fghtkt gjzdkz.ncz gthdst ptk/yst kbcnmz
b nhfdf& D vft xfcnj ,sdf.n uhjps^ yj gjujlf dc/ hfdyj n/gkfz& Dtplt wdtnen
yfhwbccs^ n.kmgfys b kfylsib& J,sxyj d Hjccbb n/gkjt^ f byjulf lf;t ;fhrjt
ktnj& Ctynz,hm - yfxfkj jctyb& Gjujlf to/ yt [jkjlyfz^ yj e;t b yt n/gkfz ghj[kflyfz& Jrnz,hm b yjz,hm e;t [jkjlyst vtczws& Xfcnj blen lj;lb b
letn dtnth& Cnjbn [jkjlyfz b cshfz gjujlf&
<& D Hjccbb pbvjq* jxtym [jkjlyj& Pbvf ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf - ltrf,hm^ zydfhm
b atdhfkm& Heccrbt jxtym k.,zn pbve^ rjulf yf ekbwt vjhjpyj^ cjkytxyj b cyt;yj&
Vyjubt ,then jngecr pbvjq^ xnj,s rfnfnmcz yf rjymrf[ bkb yf ks;f[& Dtcyf
ghb[jlbn d vfhnt^ rjulf yfxbyftn nfznm cytu& D fghtkt yf ekbwt e;t ptktyj& D vft
xfcnj ,sdf.n uhjps^ yj dc/ hfdyj ntgkj& Dtplt wdtnen yfhwbccs^ n.kmgfys b
kfylsib& J,sxyj d Hjccbb ktnjv* ntgkj^ f byjulf lf;t ;fhrj& Ctynz,hm - yfxfkj
jctyb& Yf ekbwt to/ yt [jkjlyj^ yj e;t b yt ntgkj - ghj[kflyj& D jrnz,ht b
yjz,ht e;t [jkjlyj& Xfcnj blen lj;lb b letn dtnth& Yf ekbwt [jkjlyj b cshj&
* The Instrumental case is used to denote seasons of the year and parts of the day; e.g. pbvjq^ dtcyjq^ ktnjv^
jctym. (in the winter, spring, summer, autumn); enhjv^ ly/v^ dtxthjv^ yjxm. (in the morning, afternoon,
evening, at night).
250

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Rfrfz* gjujlf d Hjccbb pbvjq$


Rfr yf ekbwt pbvjq$
Rfr yf ekbwt d fghtkt$
Rfrfz gjujlf cnjbn d vft$
Rfr yf ekbwt d vft$
Rfrjt j,sxyj d Hjccbb ktnj$
Rfr j,sxyj d Hjccbb ktnjv$
Rfrfz gjujlf j,sxyj cnjbn d ctynz,ht$
Rfr yf ekbwt d ctynz,ht$
Rfrfz gjujlf cnjbn d jrnz,ht b yjz,ht$
Rfr yf ekbwt d jrnz,ht b yjz,ht$

Chapter 14

1.
2.
3.
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&

* In your answer you have to choose either an adjective or an adverb from texts A or < depending on the
question, i.e. (-^ -^ -)$ requires an adjective in the answer whereas $ requires an adverb.

Activity Two -
Listening/Writing
Read the text below and fill in the gaps forming the appropriate
adverb from the adjectives given in the box. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
lj;lkbdsq (rainy)
cjkytxysq (sunny)
htlrbq (rare)

[jkjlysq
gfcvehysq

nevfyysq (foggy)
dtnhtysq (windy)
n/gksq

j,kfxysq (cloudy)
yt [jkjlysq

Heccrbt ujdjhzn% Ctynz,hm - pjkjnfz jctym, gjnjve xnj nhfdf b kbcnmz e;t yt
ptk/yst^ f ;/knst& D ctynz,ht to/ ___ ____________ b xfcnj ,sdf.n cjkytxyst
lyb&
Jrnz,hm e;t ghj[kflysq vtczw& Cjkywt cdtnbn ____________ b gjnjve yf ekbwt
____________ b ____________& Enhjv xfcnj ,sdftn nevfy^ f ly/v j,kfrf& Njulf
gj hflbj ujdjhzn% Ctujlyz enhjv ____________^ f ly/v ____________.
D yjz,ht xfcnj blen lj;lb b letn dtnth& K.lb yt [jnzn ,hfnm jngecr^ rjulf yf
ekbwt ____________ b ____________& Cfvjt gjgekzhyjt dhtvz lkz jngecrjd - ktnj^
rjulf yf ekbwt ____________ b ____________&

cfvsq [jkjlysq
dhtvz ujlf
ghjljk;fnmcz (I)
vjhjpysq/vjhjpyj
cjkytxysq/cjkytxyj
cyt;ysq/cyt;yj
vyjubt ,then
jngecr
bl/n lj;lm (m)
gjzdkznmcz (I)
ptk/ysq/ptktyj
kbcn (kbcnmz)
nhfdf
,sdf.n uhjps

winter
the coldest
season
to last
frosty
sunny
snowy
many people
take (a/their)
holiday
it is raining
to appear
green
leaf (leaves)
grass
there are storms

A new ab initio Russian course

dc/ hfdyj
n/gksq/ntgkj
dtplt
wdtcnb (wdtne^
wdtn/n^ wdtnen)
wdtnjr (wdtns)
yfhwbcc
n.kmgfy
kfylsi
gfcvehysq
n/gksq/ntgkj
byjulf
;fhrbq/;fhrj
ktnj
yfxfkj
jctym

still, nevertheless
warm
everywhere
to flower
flower(s)
daffodil
tulip
lily of the valley
overcast
warm
sometimes
hot
summer
beginning
autumn

[jkjlysq/[jkjlyj
ghj[kflysq/
ghj[kflyj
blen lj;lb
letn dtnth
gjujlf cnjbn
cshjq/cshj
yf ekbwt
htlrbq
dtcyf ghb[jlbn
nfznm
cytu
pjkjnjq
cjkywt cdtnbn
j,kfrj
njulf

cold
cool
it rains
its windy
the weather is
damp
outside
rare
spring comes
to melt
snow
golden
the sun shines
cloud
then

251

Activity Three -
Writing/Listening
Translate the following phrases into Russian, then listen to the texts
from Activities One and Two. Can you find these phrases in the texts? Number them in order of
their appearance.
@ &&&
@ &&&
@ &&&
@ &&&

It is cold and damp outside.


It is very cold in Russia in winter.
It is cold and overcast outside.
Usually it is warm in Russia in summer.

Note: whereas in English we say it is when talking about the weather (e.g. it is cold), the Russian equivalent
is simply [jkjlyj. In Russian, the word it is always omitted and the verb to be is only used in the past and
future tenses. Usually, the order of the remaining words is reversed (i.e. the Russian adverb comes at the end
of the sentence); e.g. ctujlyz [jkjlyj - it is cold today; dxthf ,skj [jkjlyj - it was cold yesterday&

Activity Four -
Writing
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences by each one. Use the
appropriate adverb and tense of the verb to be - ,snm. The first one is done for you.
Dxthf ,skj* lj;lkbdj&

Ctujlyz ______________&
Pfdnhf* _______________&

Dxthf_________________&

Ctujlyz_______________&

Pfdnhf________________&

Dxthf_________________&

Ctujlyz_______________&

Pfdnhf________________&
* Use the neuter singular ,skj for the past tense and ,eltn for the future tense.

252

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

z
ns
jy/jyf/jyj
vs
ds
jyb

,eltim
,eltn
,elen
,ele
,eltv
,eltnt

we will be
he/she/it will be
they will be
you will be (informal)
I will be
you will be (formal plural)

Chapter 14

Activity Five -
Reading Sort out the correct forms of the future tense for the verb to be by drawing
arrows linking the appropriate parts. In order to help you, one of the forms which you have just
met has been done for you. (You can check your solution by referring to the Grammar section.)

Activity Six -
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner plays the role of B, then
reverse the roles. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
A
1. Say good morning.
Say that the weather is very cold today.
Ask whether he/she knows what the
temperature is.
Say that you read in the paper that it will be rainy
in the afternoon.
Say that the weather is very changeable in the
autumn and that you always have your umbrella
with you (c cj,jq)&

B
Reply appropriately.
Say: Yes, it is very cold and windy.
Say that you heard on the radio that it will be
+3 C* today.
Say that you do not have an umbrella because
it was dry yesterday.

2. Your partner (A) who normally lives in the Crimea is visiting you (B) in Moscow in December:
A
Say that it is very frosty weather in Moscow.
Say that the weather in the Crimea is dry and
sunny now.
Reply that it is usually +12 C in December.
Say that you rarely have frost and snow in the
Crimea.

B
Say that it is always cold in Moscow in
December.
Ask about the temperature.
Express your surprise (e.g. yte;tkb$!). Add
that it is often 20C in Moscow in December.
Say that in Moscow it can be frosty even in
March.

* There are two constructions for expressing temperature, i.e. +3C - nhb uhflecf ntgkf (literally: three degrees of
warmth) or gk.c nhb (plus three) and 20C - ldflwfnm uhflecjd vjhjpf (twenty degrees of frost) or vbyec
ldflwfnm (minus twenty).

The verb and the frequency adverbs


In Russian, as you already know, the verb to be is usually ,snm. There is another verb, ,sdfnm (I), which
also means to be (you met it in the texts in Activity One). This verb is used to denote frequency or repetition
and is usually preceded by an adverb such as often, rarely, sometimes etc.
z htlrj ,sdf. d Vjcrdt
dtcyjq xfcnj ,sdf.n uhjps
pjyn
ce[jq/ce[j
bpvtyxbdsq

umbrella
dry
changeable

A new ab initio Russian course

- I am rarely in Moscow
- there are often thunderstorms in spring
c cj,jq
vjhjp
d Rhsve

with oneself
frost
in the Crimea

yte;tkb
lf;t

really
even

253

Activity Seven -
Reading/Writing/Speaking Read the expressions in the table below and work out
the meanings of the ones that you do not know. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the
page, if necessary. Rank them in order of frequency in the boxes provided (the words
denoting greater frequency are towards the top of the list). Some are already done for you.
Then answer the questions below in Russian.
bphtlrf
dctulf

dhtvz jn dhtvtyb = ljdjkmyj gjxnb dc/


byjulf
(dhtvtyfvb)
xfcnj
dhtvz
dc/ dhtvz
ybrjulf
jxtym xfcnj htuekzhyj

htlrj
xfcnj

1. dctulf/dc/ dhtvz
2.
3.
4.
5. xfcnj
6.
7.
8.
9. dhtvz jn dhtvtyb
10.
11. ybrjulf (yt)*

* The particle yt is always used when the negative adverb is followed by a verb, but is omitted when there
is no verb:
d Fahbrt ybrjulf yt bl/n cytu - it never snows in Africa
d Fahbrt byjulf ,sdftn cytu$ - ytn^ ybrjulf - does it sometime Snow in Africa? - no, never

There are a number of negative adverbs which are also followed by particles yt/ytn& (For more details see
the Grammar section.)

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&

Rfr xfcnj ns ,sdftim d rbyj$


Ns dctulf ,sdftim ljvf dtxthjv$
Ns htlrj ,sdftim d ntfnht jgths b ,fktnf$
Ns byjulf ,sdftim d Gfhb;t$
Ns htuekzhyj pfybvftimcz cgjhnjv$
Ns byjulf ckeiftim hflbj$
Ns xfcnj buhftim d ujkma$
Rfr xfcnj ns cvjnhbim ntktdbpjh$

bphtlrf
dhtvz jn dhtvtyb = dhtvtyfvb
ljdjkmyj
gjxnb

254

occasionally
from time to time
quite
almost

dc/ dhtvz
htlrj
ybrjulf
htuekzhyj

all the time


rarely
never
regularly
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

cjkywt
lj;lm
cytu
vjhjp
nevfy
dtnth
ehfufy
pfce[f
ntvgthfnehf dsit 30C

ljdjkmyj xfcnj

gjxnb dctulf

Chapter 14

Activity Eight -
Listening Listen to the recordings about typical weather conditions in Great Britain
and Indonesia, and fill in the missing information in the table below. Use the vocabulary list at
the foot of the page to help you, but do not expect to understand every word .

GJUJLF
DTKBRJ<HBNFYBZ
BYLJYTPBZ

Activity Nine -
Reading/Writing
Look at the pictures of the newspaper cuttings below which
explain the symbols that are used on Russian and British weather maps. Work out an English
or Russian equivalent in the case of each duplicated symbol, completing the table provided.

Ntvgthfnehf djple[f ly/v (b yjxm.)


Rhfnrjdhtvtyyst lj;lb

Gthtvtyyfz j,kfxyjcnm
Ntvgthfnehf djls

Sunny

Rain
Overcast

Now try to link with arrows the remaining English phrases with their Russian equivalents in the
columns below. Check your answers in the vocabulary list at the foot of the following page.
cloudy
drizzle
hail
sleet & sunny showers
snow
lightning
wind speed & direction
Dtkbrj,hbnfybz
Byljytpbz
[jnz
gjlybvfnmcz (I)
dsit (+ gen)
chtlybq

Great Britain
Indonisia
although
to rise
above
average

A new ab initio Russian course

rhfnrjdhtvtyysq lj;lm cj cytujv


cytu
uhfl
j,kfxyj
vjkybz
vjhjczobq lj;lm
yfghfdktybt b cbkf dtnhf

pfce[f
nevfy
byjcnhfytw (byjcnhfyrf)
cbkmysq
ehfufy
hfcgjkj;ty(-f^ -j)

drought
fog
foreigner
strong
hurricane
is situated

dljkm (+ gen)
rdfnjh
vt;le (+ instr)
Cbyufgeh
rjhjnrbq
k/urbq

along
equator
between
Singapore
short
light

255

Activity Ten -
Listening Listen to the weather forecast for the various regions of the CIS and
complete the table below, using the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you. The
first one is partially done for you.
Weather

Moscow

drizzle

St. Petersburg

Crimea

Central
Asia

Siberia

Urals

sunny

sunny intervals

cloudy

water temperature
windy

showers
dry

showers with sleet


lightning
hail

air temperature

afternoon air temp.


night air temp.

+18C +20C

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Pairwork. Using the information from the table in Activity Ten, ask your
partner about the weather conditions in the various regions of the CIS. Swap roles after each
question. Use the following as a guide.
A.
.
A.
.
A.
.

- Rfrfz ctujlyz gjujlf d Vjcrdt$


- Ctujlyz d Vjcrdt rhfnrjdhtvtyyst lj;lb&
- Rfrfz gjujlf ,eltn* d Vjcrdt pfdnhf$
- Pfdnhf d Vjcrdt ,elen* rhfnrjdhtvtyyst lj;lb&
- Rfrfz gjujlf ,skf* d Vjcrdt dxthf$
- Dxthf d Vjcrdt ,skb* rhfnrjdhtvtyyst lj;lb&

* Remember that the form of the verb ,snm in the future tense depends on the number of the noun which it
precedes; in the past tense it depends on both the gender and number. If the verb ,snm is followed by an
adverb, remember to use the neuter singular form (past or future); e.g. dxthf d Vjcrdt ,skj lj;lkbdj /
pfdnhf d Vjcrdt ,eltn lj;lkbdj - it was rainy in Moscow yesterday / it will be rainy in Moscow
tomorrow&

ghjuyjp gjujls
j,kfcnm (f)
j;blfnmcz (I)
rhfnrjdhtvtyysq
lj;lm
djple[
gthtvtyyfz
j,kfxyjcnm (f)

256

weather forecast
region
to be expected
shower
air
sunny interval(s)

gjkjdbyf
djpvj;ty (djpvj;yf^ -j^ -s)
djlf
Abycrbq pfkbd
Chtlyzz Fpbz
uhfl
yf Ehfkt

half
is/are possible
water
Gulf of Finland
Central Asia
hail
in the Urals

vjhjczobq lj;lm
j,kfxysq/j,kfxyj
rhfnrjdhtvtyysq
lj;lm cj cytujv
vjkybz
yfghfdktybt b
cbkf dtnhf

drizzle
cloudy
showers with
sleet
lightning
wind direction
and speed

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You will need to know how to form the comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs. There are
two ways of expressing the comparative in Russian:

Chapter 14

Activity Twelve -
Writing Look at the weather maps of Russia and Britain which were published on
the same day in the summer. First identify whether the statements comparing the weather in
Britain and Russia are True () or False (). Then translate the descriptions below into
Russian.

a) by using the words ,jktt (more) / vtytt (less) before the adjective or adverb; e.g. rhfcbdsq
- ,jktt/vtytt rhfcbdsq (more/less beautiful); cjkytxyj - ,jktt/vtytt cjkytxyj (more/
less sunny)
b) by adding the ending - to the stem of the adjective or adverb; e.g. rhfcbdsq - rhfcbdtt
(more beautiful); cjkytxyj - cjkytxytt (more sunny/sunnier).
Comparative adjectives and adverbs are used in various types of constructions. One of the most
common of these contains the word xtv (than) always preceded by a comma; e.g. ctujlyz d
Vjcrdt ,jktt cjkytxyfz gjujlf^ xtv d Kjyljyt / ctujlyz d Vjcrdt cjkytxytt^ xtv d
Kjyljyt - the weather is sunnier in Moscow today than in London; d Vjcrdt ctujlyz ,jktt
cjkytxyj^ xtv d Kjyljyt - it is sunnier in Moscow today than in London.

GJUJLF D DTKBRJ<HBNFYBB

+15

GJUJLF D HJCCBB

+13

+ 17

+14

+15
++18
17
+19

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

+18

Today the weather in Russia is colder than in Britain.


It is more overcast and rainy in Britain than in Russia.
The weather in Britain is sunnier than in Russia.
It is less windy in Russia than in England.
It is warmer in Russia today than in England.

Now write down some more comparisons of your own, based either on the weather maps above
or on information taken from a recent newspaper.
A new ab initio Russian course

257

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking/Writing Groupwork. Look at the weather maps below and discuss the
variations in the weather in the different parts of Britain over the three days. Use the model
below and the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

DXTHF

CTUJLYZ

PFDNHF

Yf pfgflt* Fyukbb dxthf ,skf vtytt lj;lkbdfz gjujlf^ xtv ctujlyz (or: Yf
pfgflt Fyukbb dxthf ,skj vtytt lj;lkbdj^ xtv ctujlyz). Pfdnhf nfv ,eltn
,jktt cjkytxyfz gjujlf^ xtv ctujlyz (or: Pfdnhf nfv ,eltn ,jktt cjkytxyj^ xtv
ctujlyz)&

* Always use the preposition yf with points of the compass; e.g. yf .ut (Prepositional) dctulf ntgkj - it
is always warm in the south; yf .uj-pfgflt (Prepositional) - in the south-west; z tle yf .u (Accusative)
- I am going to the south.

When you have completed the groupwork, you should write a brief description of the weather
in Great Britain (or any other country of your choice) over the past two days, and attempt to
predict the weather for the following day.

The superlative of adjectives


The superlative is formed by using cfvsq (the most) before another adjective. Cfvsq agrees in gender and
number with the adjective which it precedes; e.g. cfvsq ,tpjgfcysq nhfycgjhn - the safest (form of)
transport; cfvfz cthm/pyfz ghj,ktvf - the most serious problem.

ctdth
.u
pfgfl
djcnjr

258

north
south
west
east

ctdthysq
.;ysq
pfgflysq
djcnjxysq

northern
southern
western
eastern

ctdthj-pfgfl
ctdthj-djcnjr
.uj-pfgfl
.uj-djcnjr

north-west
north-east
south-west
south-east

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

$
Vfhbz
<jhbc
Vfhbz
<jhbc
Vfhbz
Jkmuf
Vfhbz
<jhbc
Jkmuf

Chapter 14

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Writing Read the following conversation in which three people discuss
their preferred means of travel and write answers in Russian about yourself based on the
questions after the text.

- Crf;bnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ <jhbc^ yf x/v ds j,sxyj tplbnt d jngecr$


- Z gjxnb dctulf tp;e vfibyjq*.
- F gjxtve$
- Z levf.^ xnj nj cfvsq lti/dsq b cfvsq ,tpjgfcysq dbl
nhfycgjhnf&
- F ds^ Jkmuf^ nj;t tplbnt d jngecr yf vfibyt$
- Ytn^ z j,sxyj ktnf. cfvjk/njv^ gjnjve xnj nj cfvsq
,scnhsq dbl nhfycgjhnf&
- Z nj;t ktnf. yf cfvjk/nt& Jy ,scnhtt^ xtv lheubt dbls
nhfycgjhnf& F ds^ <jhbc^ ktnftnt cfvjk/njv$
- Ytn^ ybrjulf& Gj-vjtve^ cfvjk/n jxtym jgfcysq b ljhjujq
nhfycgjhn&
- Z yt cjukfcyf c <jhbcjv^ xnj vfibyf - cfvsq ,tpjgfcysq dbl
nhfycgjhnf& Cfvjt ,jkmijt rjkbxtcndj fdfhbq ckexftncz yf
ljhjut^ f yt d djple[t&

* The Instrumental case can be used to denote the means of transport as well as yf + the Prepositional case;
e.g. by car can be expressed as yf vfibyt (Prepositional case) or vfibyjq (Instrumental case).

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&

Yf x/v ns j,sxyj tplbim d jngecr$


Gjxtve ns tplbim yf njv dblt nhfycgjhnf$
Ns rjulf-yb,elm ktnftim cfvjk/njv$
Gjxtve ns k.,bim / yt k.,bim ktnfnm cfvjk/njv$
Yf x/v ns j,sxyj tplbim d eybdthcbntn / yf hf,jne$
Gjxtve ns ds,hfk(f) bvtyyj njn dbl nhfycgjhnf$
Yf x/v j,sxyj tplzn ndjb hjlbntkb$ Gjxtve$
Rfrjq^ gj-ndjtve^ cfvsq ,tpjgfcysq dbl nhfycgjhnf$ Gjxtve$
Rfrjq^ gj-ndjtve^ cfvsq jgfcysq dbl nhfycgjhnf$ Gjxtve$

Activity Fifteen -
Writing/Speaking
Groupwork. Discuss the types of transport that you prefer when
travelling on holiday, using as many superlative forms of the adjectives below as possible.You
should work in groups of three or four and use the text from Activity Fourteen as your
model.
elj,ysq
crjhjcnyjq

(convenient)
(high-speed)

,tpjgfcysq
safe
dbl nhfycgjhnf form of transport
A new ab initio Russian course

ytelj,ysq (incovenient)
yfl/;ysq (reliable)

ktnfnm (I) to fly


,scnhsq fast

vtlktyysq (slow)
ytyfl/;ysq (unreliable)

jgfcysq
dangerous
cjukfcty (cjukfcyf) agree(d)

rjkbxtcndj number
fdfhbz
accident

259

Activity Sixteen -
Speaking/Writing Pick any one of the groups given below. You now have five
minutes to ask as many people as possible which one of the items in this group they would
most like to have, and why. Write down the answers and report your preferences in Russian
to the other students in the group. Then repeat the activity based on the picture below.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

cj,frf^ rjn^ [jvzr^ kjiflm


rdfhnbhf^ ljv^ lfxf
vfibyf^ vjnjwbrk^ dtkjcbgtl
ltymub^ pljhjdmt^ elfxf
rhfcjnf^ ev^ nfkfyn
ntktdbpjh^ hflbj^ vfuybnjajy

You will need to know how to say in Russian I would like to ... This is very simple: you use the verb [jntnm
in the past tense + particle ,s + the infinitive; e.g. z [jntk(f) ,s bvtnm cj,fre - I would like to have a dog;
jyf [jntkf ,s exbnmcz d eybdthcbntnt - she would like to study at university; vs [jntkb ,s
gentitcndjdfnm - we would like to travel. Note: when asking questions the particle ,s usually follows the
pronoun: xnj ,s ns [jntk(f) bvtnm$ - what would you like to have? When asking about pets you have to
use the pronoun rnj (remember that the verb bvtnm requires the Accusative case and therefore rnj changes
to rjuj); e.g. rjuj ,s ns [jntk(f) bvtnm% rjnf bkb cj,fre$ - what would you like to have: a cat or a dog?.
You will also need to know how to say most of all in Russian. This is a superlative adverb which is formed by
a comparative adverb ,jkmit + dctuj; e.g. xnj ,s [jntk(f) bvtnm ,jkmit dctuj$ - what would you
like to have most of all? For more details on superlative adverbs see the Grammar section.

elj,ysq
vtlktyysq
crjhjcnyjq

260

comfortable
slow
high-speed

yfl/;ysq
[jvzr
elfxf

reliable
hamster
luck

rhfcjnf
ev
nfkfyn

beauty
intelligence
talent

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

GRAMMAR
Adverbs are indeclinable words which qualify verbs (jy gj/n - he sings well), adjectives
( dt;kbdsq - always polite), nouns (xntybt - reading aloud) or other adverbs
( lj;lkbdj - it is sometimes rainy).

Chapter 14

ADVERBS

They answer questions such as rfr$ (how?), rfr xfcnj$ (how often?), rfr ljkuj$ (how
long?), ult$ (where?), rjulf$ (when?) etc.

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by removing the adjectival ending and replacing it with
-j (if the adjective is hard) or - (if the adjective is soft):

hard adjective
rhfcbdsq
[jkjlysq

adverb
rhfcbdj
[jkjlyj

soft adjective
adverb
bcrhtyybq (sincere) bcrhtyyt (sincerely)
rhfqybq (extreme) rhfqyt (extremely)

Note: there are three exceptions to the above rule. The following soft adjectives form the adverbs
with -%
hfyybq (early)
hfyj (early)
gjplybq (late)
gjplyj (late)
lfdybq (long-standing)
lfdyj (long ago)

Adverbs derived from adjectives ending in #- are formed with -; e.g. kjubxtcrbq
(logical) - kjubxtcrb (logically). Some adverbs of this group have the hyphenated prefix gj(these usually denote an action in the manner or style of something): vzcj gj-ahfywepcrb
(meat cooked in a Franch style).
cvjnhtnm rhbnbxtcrb
ujdjhbnm gj-heccrb
xbnfnm gj-fyukbqcrb
rjat gj-nehtwrb

(to look critically)


(to speak in Russian)
(to read in English)
(coffee Turkish style)

The Russian language is very rich in adverbs and the following list of the most common may prove
useful as a guide:
1.

2.

Adverbs of manner
dvtcnt
yfhjxyj
yfghfcyj
gj-yfcnjzotve
gjytdjkt
gj-cdjtve
gjxnb
xenm yt
tldf
nfr
yt nfr
cujhzxf
cj cyf

together
on purpose
in vain
properly
against ones will
in ones own way
almost, nearly
almost, all but (relates to avoidance of negative events; e.g. z xenm yt
egfk - I almost fell)
scarcely, hardly
thus, so (in reply to rfr)
wrong(ly) (literally: not so)
in the heat of the moment
half awake

Adverbs of place
ult
ult-nj

where
somewhere

A new ab initio Russian course

261

ybult
dtplt
pltcm^ nen
nfv
ljvf
ljvjq
pf uhfybwtq
pf uhfybwe
c.lf
nelf
dybp
dybpe
yfdth[
yfdth[e
cktdf
cghfdf
yfktdj
yfghfdj

262

nowhere
everywhere
here
there
at home
home (homewards)
abroad (location)
abroad (movement)
here (movement)
there (movement)
downwards (movement)
below (no movement)
upwards (movement)
upstairs (no movement), on the top
on the left
on the right
to the left
to the right

3.

Adverbs of time (including frequency adverbs)


njulf
then (in reply to rjulf$)
rjulf-nj
some time (ago)
ctujlyz
today
pfdnhf
tomorrow
gjcktpfdnhf
the day after tomorrow
dxthf
yesterday
gjpfdxthf
the day before yesterday
lfdyj
a long time ago
hfyj
early
gjplyj
late
ljgjplyf
until late
dj dhtvz
on time, punctually
njnxfc (;t)^ ctqxfc (;t)
immediately
chfpe (;t)
immediately
yf lyz[
during the next few days; a few days ago
yfrfyeyt
the day before
crjhj
soon
c vbyens yf vbyene
every minute
bphtlrf
occasionally
dhtvz jn dhtvtyb
from time to time
dhtvtyfvb
from time to time
htuekzhyj
regularly
dc/ dhtvz
all the time
dctulf
always
xfcnj
often
htlrj
seldom, rarely
ljdjkmyj
quite

4.

Adverbs of quantity
jxtym
ckbirjv (vyjuj)
ckbirjv (vfkj)
vfkj
ytvyjuj
ytvyj;rj
vyjuj
,jkmit
ljdjkyj

very
too (much)
too (little)
little, few (not a little, a few)
little
a little
much
more
quite
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

enough
how much
so much

5.

Adverbs of expressing doubt and possibility


dhzl kb#tldf kb
it is unlikely
yfdthyj(t)
probably
ljk;yj ,snm
perhaps
vj;tn ,snm
perhaps
gj;fkeq
may be, perhaps

6.

Interrogative adverbs
ult$
relf$
rfr$
rjulf$
hfpdt$
yte;tkb$

where? (location)
where? (direction)
how?
when?
can it be that ...?
really?, can it be that ...?

7.

Affirmative adverbs
lf
nfr
gjyznyj
hfpevttncz
rjytxyj
dtlm
d cfvjv ltkt

yes
so, it is so
of course, naturally
of course, evidently
of course
surely
indeed

8.

Negative adverbs
ybult (yt)
ybrelf (yt)
ybjnrelf (yt)
ybrjulf (yt)
ybcrjkmrj (yt)
ybrfr (yt)
yb hfpe (yt)

nowhere (location)
nowhere (direction)
from nowhere
never
not at all
in no way
not once

Chapter 14

ljcnfnjxyj
crjkmrj
cnjkmrj

* There are two adverbs which sound almost the same, but have different spelling and meaning - yb hfpe (not
once) and yt hfp (more than once); e.g. jyf yb hfpe yt ghbujnjdbkf j,tl - not once did she cook dinner;
z yt hfp ghjcbk nt,z e,hfnm rdfhnbhe - I asked you more than once to clean the flat.
Remember: the negative adverbs from the list above are always followed by yt when used with a verb; e.g. jyf
ybrelf yt bl/n ctujlyz dtxthjv - she is not going anywhere tonight.
It is possible to use more than two negatives in one sentence; e.g. ctujlyz ybrnj ybrelf yt bl/n - today
no one is going anywhere.
9.

Potential negative adverbs


yult
yrelf
yrjulf
ypfxtv

there is nowhere to (location)


there is nowhere to (direction)
there is no time to
there is no point

* Yrjulf can also mean once, at one time.


These negative adverbs have the prefix yt- and are used in the two following types of sentences:

1) in personal constructions with a subject in the Dative case. In such sentences they are always followed by
an infinitive; e.g. yfv ytrjulf cvjnhtnm ntktdbpjh - we have no time to watch television.
2) in impersonal constructions; e.g. cvjnhtnm ntktdbpjh ,skj ytrjulf - there was no time to watch
television.
A new ab initio Russian course

263

10. Indefinite adverbs


ult-nj*
relf-nj
rfr-nj
rjulf-nj
gjxtve-nj
ult-yb,elm
relf-yb,elm
rfr-yb,elm
rjulf-yb,elm
gjxtve-yb,elm

somewhere (location)
somewhere (direction)
somehow
at one time, once
for some reason
somewhere, anywhere (location)
somewhere, anywhere (direction)
somehow, anyhow
at any time, ever
for some reason or other

* All these adverbs can also combine with -kb,j& This is more bookish and expresses an even greater degree
of indefiniteness than the above adverbs; e.g. jy ,sk cfvsv bynthtcysv xtkjdtrjv bp dct[ k.ltq^
rjnjhs[ z rjulf-kb,j dcnhtxfk - he was the most interesting person I have ever met.
rjt-rnj
rjt-xnj
rjt-ult
rjt-rfr
rjt-rjulf
rjt-relf

someone
something, one or two things
in various places
somehow (with great difficulty); carelessly
occasionally
to a particular place

Activity Seventeen -
Writing Fill in the gaps choosing an adjective or adverb as appropriate from the
brackets. Make sure that any adjectives used are in their correct form.
1& Ctujlyz ,sk jxtym ___________j,tl& Vfvf dctulf jxtym ___________ ujnjdbn (drecysq
- drecyj) & 2& Jy jxtym ___________ xtkjdtr& Rfr ___________^ xnj z tuj dcnhtnbkf! ([jhjibq
- [jhjij) 3& Ctujlyz yf ekbwt ___________ & Pfdnhf nj;t ,eltn ___________ gjujlf&
(lj;lkbdsq - lj;lkbdj)& 4& ___________ bynthtcysq xtkjdtr! ___________ bynthtcyj jy
ujdjhbn! (rfrjq - rfr)& 5& Dxthf ,skj jxtym ___________ & D njv ujle jxtym ___________
ktnj& (;fhrbq - ;fhrj)& 6& Jctym. __________ blen lj;lb& Z yt k.,k. ___________
jctyybt lj;lb& (xfcnsq - xfcnj)&

Activity Eighteen -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1. She sings well. 2. It is cold today. 3. He speaks Russian well. 4. In England it is often cloudy
and rainy in the autumn. 5. It is cold and frosty in Russia in the winter. It often snows. 6. The
weather is very changeable in Britain, and people never know what the weather will be like
tomorrow. 7. I do not want to go anywhere tonight. 8. We have been nowhere since summer.
9. We have nowhere to live. 10. Last night they watched television until late. 11. I like Turkish
coffee. 12. It never snows in Central Asia. 13. Sometimes it is very hot in the south of Russia.
14. It was very windy yesterday. 15. Today the weather is warm and sunny.
THE VERB <SDFNM ( I ) - TO BE
This verb is used to denote frequency or repetition and is usually preceded by a frequency adverb (e.g. often,
rarely, sometimes etc.); e.g. jyb xfcnj ,sdf.n f Vjcrdt - they are often in Moscow
Sometimes ,sdfnm can be translated into English as to visit:

264

vs xfcnj ,sdfkb d njq ctvmt


jy htlrj ,sdftn e yfc
jyf ,sdfkf e yfc xfcnj

- we often visited this family


- he seldom visits us
- she used to visit us often
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. It is rarely cold in May. 2. Sometimes in the summer the temperature is above 30C in Britain.
3. Usually it is not very windy in Indonesia, but occasionally there are hurricanes. 4. He seldom
visits his parents. 5. Occasionally there are droughts in the south of Spain. 6. We are often in
London. 7. They used to visit us from time to time.

Chapter 14

Activity Nineteen -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.

THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB - TO BE


The future tense of the verb ,snm is as follows:
z ,ele (I will be)
ns ,eltim (you will be) informal
jy#jyf#jyj ,eltn (they will be)

vs ,eltv (we will be)


ds ,eltnt (you will be) formal plural
jyb ,elen (they will be)

Note: the future tense is generally used in Russian after the conjunctions rjulf and tckb, while the present
tense is used in English after the corresponding conjunctions when and if; e.g. rjulf z ,ele d Vjcrdt^ z
,ele ujdjhbnm gj-heccrb - when I am in Moscow I will speak Russian; tckb gjujlf ,eltn [jhjifz^ vs
,eltv uekznm d gfhrt - if the weather is nice we will walk in the park&

Activity Twenty -
Writing Translate the following into English.
1& Pfdnhf ,eltn [jhjifz gjujlf& 2& Dxthf ,skj [jkjlyj^ f pfdnhf ,eltn ntgkj& 3&
Rjulf z ,ele d Kjyljyt^ z ,ele ujdjhbnm gj-fyukbqcrb& 4& Tckb gjujlf ,eltn
lj;lkbdfz b [jkjlyfz^ vs ,eltv ljvf^ f tckb ,eltn cjkytxyj^ vs ,eltv d lthtdyt
yf lfxt& 5& Rjulf ds ,eltnt d Vjcrdt^ regbnt vyt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ heccrbt ufptns b
;ehyfks&
THE COMPARATIVE OF ADJECTIVES
Most Russian adjectives have two comparatives:
1)

those formed with ,jktt#vtytt + long adjective; e.g. ,jktt bynthtcysq ;ehyfk (a more interesting
magazine), vtytt rhfcbdfz vfibyf (the less beautiful car). These are generally used attributively
(i.e. before the noun). The words ,jktt#vtytt are invariable, while the long adjective agrees with the
noun it qualifies in gender, number and case:

m
,jktt rhfcbdsq
cfl
2)

f
,jktt rhfcbdfz
vfibyf

n
,jktt rhfcbdjt
gkfnmt

pl
,jktt rhfcbdst
ljvf

case
ytn ,jktt rhfcbds[
ljvjd

those formed by removing the ending of a long adjective and adding the ending - or - to the stem of the
adjective. These are used predicatively (i.e. after the verb to be):

a) the ending - (which is often shortened to - in conversational Russian) is the regular ending
of the comparative of most adjectives; e.g. rhfcbdsq (beautiful) - rhfcbdtt (more beautiful).
Adjectives which have a stressed - in the feminine short form have a stressed - in the
comparative; e.g. yjdsq (yjd) - yjdt& Elsewhere, occasionally the stress is on the ending;
e.g. pljhjdsq (pljhdf) - pljhjdt)&

b) the ending - is added when the stem of an adjective ends in ^ or & In the comparative the
consonants ^ ^ change to ^ ^ respectively; e.g. ljhju (expensive) - ljh (more
expensive), ;fhrbq (hot) - ;fhxt (hotter), vzurbq (soft) - vuxt (softer), ce[ (dry) - cit (drier).

A new ab initio Russian course

265

Comparatives in - or - are invariable, i.e. they are used with nouns of any gender, case or number; e.g.
ljv rhfcbdtt
the house is more beautiful
vfibyf rhfcbdtt
the car is more beautiful
gkfnmt rhfcbdtt
the dress is more beautiful
ljvf rhfcbdtt
the houses are more beautiful
There are a number of adjectives with irregular comparatives. Here is a list of the most common ones:
i) those which end in -%
,jkmijq
big
,kmit
bigger
vfktymrbq
small
vymit
smaller
[jhjibq
good
kxit
better
cnfhsq
old
cnhit
older
njyrbq
thin
nymit
thinner
ljkubq
long
lkmit
longer
ii) those which end in -;t^ -ot^ -t%
vjkjljq
young
gkj[jq
bad
nd/hlsq
hard
uke,jrbq
deep
gjplybq
late
xfcnsq
frequent
ckflrbq
sweet
ghjcnjq
simple
ibhjrbq
wide
dscjrbq
tall

vjk;t
[;t
nd/h;t
uk,;t
gp;t
xot
ckot
ghot
iht
dit

younger
worse
harder
deeper
later (also gjplyt)
more frequent
sweeter
simpler
wider
taller

Constructions with the comparative


1. when a comparison is made, the second part is introduced by the conjunction xtv (than), preceded
by a comma. Both parts of the comparison must be in the same case:
vjz ctcnhf cnfhit^ xtv z - my sister is older than me
e yt/ ,jktt lkbyyst djkjcs^ xtv e vtyz - she has longer hair than me
2. comparisons can also be expressed by the Genitive case without the conjunction xtv%
vjz ctcnhf cnfhit vtyz - my sister is older than me
t/ djkjcs lkbyytt vjb[ - her hair is longer than mine
3. in order to express a difference in age, price etc. the preposition yf + Accusative is used after the
comparison:
jyf cnfhit vtyz yf gznm ktn - she is five years older than me
nb uheib ljhj;t nt[ yf ldf he,kz - these pears are two roubles more expensive than those
4. much in combination with a comparative is expressed by yfvyjuj#ujhfplj%
jyf yfvyjuj#ujhfplj cnfhit vtyz - she is much older than me
5. constructions of the type the bigger the better are expressed by xtv &&&^ ntv &&&%
xtv ,jkmit^ ntv kexit - the bigger the better
xtv hfymit^ ntv kexit - the earlier the better
6. constructions of the type as ... as possible are expressed by rfr vj;yj + comparative
rfr vj;yj crjhtt - as soon as possible
rfr vj;yj hfymit - as early as possible

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Form the comparatives from the following adjectives. The first one is done
for you.
yjdsq
[jkjlysq
cdt;bq
vjkjljq
;fhrbq
266

,jktt yjdsq_____
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________

yjdtt________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

Activity Twenty-Two -
Writing Compare the objects and people in the pictures below and write down your
comparisons. The first one is done for you.
Gkfnmt ljhj;t^ xtv ,h.rb

A new ab initio Russian course

Chapter 14

nb[bq
ckflrbq
rhfcysq
n/gksq

<h.rb ltitdkt gkfnmz

267

THE COMPARATIVE OF ADVERBS


The comparatives of adverbs in -#- are identical to the comparatives of the corresponding adjectives. Thus
the comparatives of rhfcbdj^ [jhjij^ ntgkj are rhfcbdtt^ kexit^ ntgktt (exactly the same as the
comparatives of the adjectives rhfcbdsq^ [jhjibq^ n/gksq)&
Adverbs with more than two syllables normally form the comparative with ,jktt#vtytt; e.g. lj;lkbdj ,jktt#vtytt lj;lkbdj (but lj;lkbdtt is possible).
The comparative with ,jktt#vtytt is the norm for adverbs other than those in -#-; e.g. lhe;tcrb ,jktt#vtytt lhe;tcrb (more/less friendly).
Comparative adverbs are used in these types of construction as comparative adjectives.
Some comparative adverbs have alternative forms:
,jkmit#,jktt
more
vtymit/vtytt
less
gjp;t/gjplytt
later
hfymit/hfytt
earlier

These alternative forms differ stylistically. The comparatives in -^ - are more neutral sounding, whereas
and those in - are more bookish.

Activity Twenty-Three -
Writing Form the comparatives from the following adverbs.

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&

cjkytxyj
[jkjlyj
lj;lkbdj
;fhrj
uke,jrj
kjubxtcrb
vyjuj
[jhjij

________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
THE SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES

Superlative adjectives are formed by putting cfvsq before the long adjective; e.g. cfvsq rhfcbdsq ljv
(the most beautiful house).
The word cfvsq agrees with the adjective and noun in gender, number and case:
m
cfvsq rhfcbdsq
ljv

f
cfvfz rhfcbdfz
ltdeirf

n
cfvjt rhfcbdjt
gkfnmt

pl
Genitive pl
cfvst rhfcbdst ytn cfvs[ rhfcbds[
ljvf
ljvjd

Note: cfvsq can also combine with the comparatives kexibq and [elibq%
cfvst kexibt gj;tkfybz (the very best wishes), cfvjt [elitt^ xnj vjukj ckexbnmcz (the worst
thing that could happen).
Kexibq and [elibq^ cnfhibq and vkflibq can function as comparatives or as superlatives
depending on the context.
The superlative in - and -
1. certain adjectives can also form the superlative by adding the suffix - (plus the appropriate ending) to
the stem; e.g. rhfcbdsq - rhfcbdtqibq (rhfcbdtqifz^ rhfcbdtqitt^ rhfcbdtqibt)&
2. the suffix - is added to stems ending in ^ ^ which change to ^ ^ respectively; e.g.
cnhjbq
vtkmbq
nbbq
268

strict
small
quiet

cnhjfqibq
vtkmxfqibq
nbfqibq

the strictest
the smallest
the quietest

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Superlatives with yfb,jktt#yfbvtytt


The superlatives which are formed with the indeclinable words yfb,jktt and yfbvtytt + a long adjective
are characteristic of a bookish style; e.g. yfb,jktt njxysq vtnjl (the most accurate method), yfbvtytt
;tkfntkmysq htpekmnfn (the least desirable result).

Chapter 14

All these forms are characteristic of high style, although some of them are used in conversational Russian too;
e.g. ,kb;fqibq vfufpby (the nearest shop), rhfnxfqifz ljhjuf (the shortest road).

Activity Twenty-Four -
Writing First fill in the gaps using the word cfvsq in the appropriate form, then
translate the sentences into English.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&

B.km ____________ ;fhrbq vtczw d ujle&


Yfif exbntkmybwf dctulf jndtxftn yf ____________ nhelyst djghjcs&
Vjz ctcnhf hf,jnftn d ____________ cnfhjq ,b,kbjntrt ujhjlf&
Jy ghbukfcbk nfywtdfnm ____________ rhfcbde. ltdeire&
<fqrfk ____________ uke,jrjt jpthj Hjccbb&
Activity Twenty-Five -
Writing Translate the following phrases into Russian.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

the coldest day


the most interesting article
the nearest bus-stop
the eldest brother
the sharpest knife
the longest day
the deepest lake
the shortest distance
the most beautiful bird
the most expensive cars

____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
THE SUPERLATIVE OF ADVERBS

The superlative degree of an adverb is formed by:


1. adding dctuj (when compared with other actions, times, conditions and qualities) or dct[ (when compared
with other people) after a comparative adverb in - or -; e.g. ,jkmit dctuj jy k.,bn ktnj (he likes
summer best); jyf dsukzltkf kexit dct[ (she looked better than anyone else). This type of superlative
adverb is characteristic of conversational Russian.

2. adding the words yfb,jktt or yfbvtytt before an adverb; e.g. yfb,jktt zhrj (most vividly),
yfbvtytt nhelyj (least difficult). This type of superlative adverb is characteristic of bookish style.

Note that adverbs which end in -#- can form the superlative of both types; e.g. bynthtcyj - bynthtcytt
dctuj#dct[ or yfb,jktt#yfbvtytt bynthtcyj&

The adverbs which do not end in -#- can only form the superlative with yfb,jktt#yfbvtytt; e.g.
lhe;tcrb - yfb,jktt#yfbvtytt lhe;tcrb&
cnfnmz
jcnhsq

article
sharp

A new ab initio Russian course

hfccnjzybt

distance

269

Activity Twenty-Six -
Writing Form the superlatives from the following adverbs. The first one is done for you.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

ntgkj
[jkjlyj
jgfcyj
uke,jrj
kjubxtcrb
[jhjij
gkj[j
ntjhtnbxtcrb
ljhjuj
bcrhtyyt

ntgktt dctuj#dct[
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________

yfb,jktt#yfbvtytt ntgkj
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Writing Translate the following phrases into Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

270

best of all
to sing loudest (most loudly)
younger than anyone else
most dangerously
worst of all
to speak most quietly
the deepest of all
the most friendly

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 15

CHAPTER FIFTEEN -
A HORRIBLE SIGHT (OR ASPECT?) -
In Chapter Fifteen you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.

to distinguish between the imperfective and perfective aspects


to use the appropriate aspectual form in the past
to use the appropriate aspectual form in the future

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

perfective verbs formed by adding a prefix


perfective verbs formed by the process of shortening
perfective verbs formed by other internal adjustments
perfective verbs formed in other ways

IMPERFECTIVE AND PERFECTIVE ASPECTS


Because aspects are somewhat tricky, this entire chapter is devoted to them. The chapter is
therefore more grammar-based than the others and does not have a theme as such, although
most of the material relates to everyday activities.
So far we have looked at verbs mainly in the present tense. For example: etc.
(I build, I am building, etc.). These are all formed from an infinitive which is known as the
imperfective infinitive. Verbs in the present tense can only be formed from this infinitive.
Most verbs in Russian also have a second infinitive, which is known as the perfective
infinitive. For example, the perfective infinitive of is . These two forms
of the verb are known as aspects. Some verbs have more than one form of the perfective
aspect in order to convey different shades of meaning, but here we will concentrate on the
most common perfective forms. All tenses in Russian are formed either from the imperfective or perfective infinitive. You should note that the conjugation of the verb does not depend
on the aspect, and you must learn the conjugation of each new verb individually. (For a table
giving all the different forms of the verb (-), see the Grammar section.)
Imperfective
Infinitive:
Present: , , () , , ,
(I, you, he/she, we, you, they build / I am, you are, (s)he is, we are, you are, they are
building)
Past: () (I was building, I used to build, I built, etc.)
Future: * (I will build, I will be building, etc.)
* The imperfective future is formed by using the appropriate form of the future tense of the verb to
be () - , , () , , , followed by the imperfective
infinitive.
272

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Infinitive:
Past: () (I built, I have built, I had built, etc.)
Future: * (I will build, etc.)
* The perfective future is formed by following the appropriate conjugation pattern of the verb. In this
case, the verb is second conjugation: , , () , ,
, .

Chapter 15

Perfective

In summary we have three tenses in Russian: present, past (with imperfective and perfective
forms) and future (with imperfective and perfective forms). You will notice that the various
forms of the past and future tenses correspond to a number of English tenses, and that the
approximate English translation cannot alone tell you which aspect to use. We will look at
how aspectual usage works after we have considered the classification of various imperfective and perfective pairs.
Classification of imperfective and perfective pairs*
(i)

perfectives formed by adding a prefix (such as -, -, -, -, -, - etc.) to


the imperfective infinitive:
e.g. > (to build), > (to walk), >
(to hear), > (to do, make), > (to
read), > (to want), > (to drink), >
(to listen)

(ii)

perfectives formed by shortening the imperfective infinitive:


e.g. > (to relate, tell), > (to forget),
> (to win), > (to give), >
(to get up), > (to collect, gather)

(iii) perfectives formed by other internal adjustments:


e.g. > (to understand), > (to engage
in), > (to enjoy), > (to reply, answer),
> (to notice), > (to invite),
> (to decide)
(iv) other perfectives:
e.g. > (to buy), > (to say, tell)**, >
(to take), > (to sit down), > (to lie down),
> (to catch), > (to return), >
(to [be] go[ing])
* The imperfective aspect is normally stated first. The majority of the perfective aspects are formed by adding
a prefix to the imperfective infinitive. The most common prefix is -. Note that every imperfective and
perfective pair will have to be learned separately.
** The verb (to speak, say, tell) is an example of an imperfective aspect with alternative perfective forms:
(to say, tell), (to have a chat).

A new ab initio Russian course

273

Aspectual usage
PAST
The imperfective aspect describes generalized or habitual actions in which the result is
incomplete or not established, or is otherwise of secondary importance to the process:
(i) continuous action
e.g. (I built the dacha for a whole year = I spent a
whole year building the dacha)
(ii) repeated action
e.g. (I often built / used to build dachas)
(iii) process
e.g. , (I was [in the process of] building the
dacha when my mother fell ill)
(iv) incomplete action (generalised description)
e.g. (yesterday I painted the fence and built
the dacha)
(v) result undetermined or in doubt
e.g. - ? (have you ever built a dacha?)
(vi) most negatives
e.g. (I have never built dachas)
The perfective aspect places strong emphasis on the completion of actions:
(i) definite result
e.g. () (I have/had [already] built / finished building the
dacha)
(ii) single event (on one occasion)
e.g. (I only once built a dacha)
FUTURE
The imperfective aspect again emphasizes generalized, incomplete and habitual actions:
(i) continuous action
e.g. (I will build the dacha over a whole year = I
will spend a whole year building the dacha)
(ii) repeated action
e.g. (I will always build dachas)
(iii) process
e.g. (I will [be in the process
of] build[ing] the dacha during the football match)
(iv) incomplete action (generalised description)
e.g. (I will build dachas all my life)
(v) result undetermined or in doubt
e.g. - ? (will you [ever] [be] build[ing]
dachas?)
(vi) negatives denoting a general state of affairs
e.g. (I will never [be] build[ing] dachas)

274

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 15

The future perfective is used very commonly in statements and questions and does not
always place such strong emphasis on the completion of an action as the past perfective:
(i) definite result
e.g. (I will [finish] build[ing] the dacha)
(ii) single event (on one occasion)
e.g.
(this evening I will build a model aeroplane for my son)
(iii) negatives emphasising incompletion (of a specific task)
e.g. (I will never [finish] build[ing] the dacha)
Activity One -
Reading
Translate the following sentences into English and explain the use of
aspects, with the help of the vocabulary at the foot of the page.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1855 .
.
2000 .
.
.
.
7. .
8. .
9. : .
10. 1932 .

(coll.)

block of flats (from the


Khrushchev era)
Millennium Dome

A new ab initio Russian course

villa
railway
metro, underground

275

Activity Two -
Reading/Writing Answer the following questions in Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, ?*
?
( ), ?
?
, ?

* The third personal plural (without the pronoun ) is often used in colloquial Russian where English
might prefer a passive construction; e.g. , ? - when was the
house in which you live built?

Activity Three -
Reading/Writing Read the following passage, paying particular attention to the use
of verbal aspects. Then answer the questions below in English.
Points to consider:
1. Imperfective verbs are sometimes accompanied by adverbs such as (always), (some
times), (often), (rarely), (usually), (for a long time), / /
/ (every day / year / month / week).
2. The verbs - (to begin), - (to continue), -
(to finish) are always followed by imperfective infinitives.
3. The adverbs (suddenly), (unexpectedly), (immediately),
(all of a sudden) tend to be used with perfective verbs.

.
.
. - .
. ,
.
. , - .

. . ,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

On which day did Kolya usually go to the cinema?


With whom did Kolya watch the film Heart of a Dog?
When did he begin to take an interest in theatre?
What was the reaction of other people to his decision to give up drama school?


(I) / (II)
()

(I) / (II)
(+ acc)

-

276

once
Heart of a Dog
to discuss
he began to enjoy theatre
after finishing school
to go to (college etc.)
drama school
theatre is life itself
unexpectedly

(I) / (II) to give up (lit. to throw)

studies

Philological Faculty

(Faculty of Language and


Literature)
(I) /
to be surprised (at)
(II) (+ dat)
(,
to remain, stay
) /
(, )
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. ?
_________________________________
( )
2. ?
_________________________________
( )
3. ?
_________________________________
( )
4. ?
_________________________________
( )
5. ?
_________________________________
( )
6. ?
_________________________________
( )

Chapter 15

Activity Four -
Reading/Speaking
Answer the questions below using the past tense of the
imperfective verbs given in brackets.

Activity Five -
Reading/Writing Put the verbs in brackets into the imperfective past and explain the
precise meaning of the forms used.
1.

, () .

2.

, () .

3.

() .

4.

() .

5.

() .

6.

() .

7.

() .

8.

(), ( ) .

9.

() , ()
.

10. () .

(I) / (II)


A new ab initio Russian course

to check, mark
test
on (ones) days off
to visit a friend
annually, every year

(I) /
(, )

collective farm
to visit
before sleeping
housewife

277

Activity Six -
Speaking
Look at the pictures below and say what the people are doing now and
what they were doing yesterday, using the imperfective form of the verbs given in brackets.

()

()

()

( )

()

()

( )

()

()

(-) (, )
(I)

278

to cry
to cycle

(-) (, )

to laugh

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. - 9 .
- 9.30, .

Chapter 15

Activity Seven -
Writing/Speaking Complete the following dialogues, putting the second part of each
sentence into the perfective past. The verb forms are stated in the box below. The first one is
done for you.

2. - 11 .
- 11.30,
3. - 10 .
- 10.10,
4. - 5.30.
- 5.45,
5. - 12 .
- 17 ,
6. - 6 .
- 6.15,
7. - 2.20.
- 2.25,
8. - 10.15.
- 10.35,
9. - 5 .
- 5.05,
10. - 8 .
- 8.10,
11. - 10 .
- 10.40,
12. - 3 .
- 3.50,
Imperfective

A new ab initio Russian course

Perfective

(past , )

English

to begin
to open
to close
to return
to set off
to end
to finish
to wake up
to go to bed
to meet (up)
279

The verb (TO BE)


()
(m)
"
" "
(n)
"
" "
(f)
"
" "
(pl)

(pl)

Activity Eight -
Writing
Put the following sentences into the past tense, using appropriate phrases
such as , (the day before yesterday) and (last
Thursday).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
. .
.
.

Activity Nine -
Writing
Describe how you spent yesterday, using at least ten different verbs in the
past tense. The following list of verbs may help you.
/ (to wake up), / (to get up), (-) (to have
breakfast), / (to go), / (to go by transport), /
(to return), (-) (to watch, look at), (-) (to listen to), (-) (to
read), (-) (to have dinner/lunch), / (to rest), (-) (to have
supper), / (to go to bed), / (to fall asleep)

Activity Ten -
Speaking
Describe your daily routine using the present tense. The following
questions may help you.
?
(, )?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

280

meeting
morphology
the day after tomorrow

competition
academic day

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The verbs to put, to lie, to sit, to hang etc.


English
to put (stand)
to put (lay)
to lie down
to hang
to sit down

Imp

Pf

Cases
(acc, / + acc)*
(acc, / + acc)
(acc, / + acc)

English
to stand, be standing
to lie, be lying
to lie, be lying
to hang, be hanging
to sit, be sitting

Imp

Chapter 15

(For full conjugations, see the Grammar section)

* e.g. (acc) (acc) - she put/stood the flowers in the vase

Activity Eleven -
Writing
Look at the pictures below and describe Marinas morning routine using
the questions provided.
,
?

?
?
?
,
?

?
?
?

?
?
?

?
?

?
,
?

alarm clock
(-) (+ acc) to dream about
(+ dat) ...?
is it time for ?
A new ab initio Russian course

picture

pillow
(I) / (I) (+ acc) to be late for

281

Activity Twelve -
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the following text and put the appropriate verb in
brackets in its correct form. The basic conjugation patterns are given below as a reminder .
(Remember: there are two forms of the future - the perfective future and the imperfective
future, which emphasizes generalized, incomplete and habitual action, and is formed by
taking the appropriate person of the verb and adding the imperfective infinitive.) When
you have finished, listen to the answers on the tape.
( - ) . , (
- ) . ( - )
. , ( - )
. ( - ) , ( - )
( - ) .
, ( - ) .
, ( - ) .
( - ) , ( ) .
IMPERFECTIVE (PRESENT)
(, , , , , )
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -,
-)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, , , , , )

PERFECTIVE (FUTURE)
(, , , , ,
)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -,
-)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, -, -, -, -, -)
(, , , , , )

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking Answer the questions below, using words such as ,
, , , , , etc. The first
one is done for you.
1. - ?
- , .
2. - ?
3. - ?
4. - ?
5. - ?
6. - ?
7. - ?
8. - ?
9. - ?
10. - ?


(I) / (II)
(I) / (II)

282

rule
furthermore
to let (s.one) know in
advance
to fulfil, carry out

definitely
possibly
most likely
probably
it is unlikely

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 15

Activity Fourteen -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner about his/her plans for tomorrow, using the
questions given below. Then reverse roles.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
Activity Fifteen -
Reading/Writing Read the following account of how Yuri spent the previous day,
then imagine that he is predicting how he will spend the following day. Rewrite the passage in
the future tense, replacing the italicised verbs currently in the past tense. You should consult
the vocabulary list at the foot of the page. Begin with the adverb .
. , :
.
. 8.30 9.00 .
, .
. .
. ,
-.
: ,
. - 12 ,
.

(, ) /
(, )
() (I) / ()
(, )
(I) /
(, )
(II) / (,
)
(-) (II)
(-) (II)
(+ gen)
A new ab initio Russian course

to get up
to begin
to return
to go to bed
to cook, prepare
to boil, cook
during

(-) (III) (,
)
(I) /
(, )

(-) (II)
(I) /
(, )
(I) / (II)
(II) /
(, )

to talk, converse
(here:) to study
student canteen
to ring, telephone
to invite
to meet (up)
to spend (time)

283

Activity Sixteen -
Reading
Read the following childrens story by Tolstoy, paying particular
attention to the use of imperfective and perfective verbs. Then answer the questions
below, putting the verbs in their appropriate forms and indicating the aspect in brackets.
The first one is done for you.

(. )

. .
. .
. . *,
, . ** :
. . :
- , , - ?
:
- .
:
- , .
:
- - , . ,
, ,
. .
:
- , .
, .
* = (sitting room)
** = (she counted). Both words are now considered old-fashioned.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?

(-) (I)
()

c (I) / (II)

,
(-) (,
)

284

(pf) .

stone (in fruit)


plum
(here:) all the time
to smell
(he) wanted (to)
he couldnt stop himself
to grab
at dinner
the trouble is that
to turn red


(I) / (II)
(-) (, -)
(I) /
(, )
(I) / (II)

(pf) (,
)
(pf) (,
)

just, at once
to swallow
to go pale
to die
to throw (away)
window
to begin to laugh
to begin to cry

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

GRAMMAR

Present
I am
you are
he is
she is
it is
we are
you are
they are

Past
()
()

I was, used to be, have/had been


you were, used to be, have/had been
he was, used to be, has/had been
she was, used to be, has/had been
it was, used to be, has/had been
we were, used to be, have/had been
you were, used to be, have/had been
they were, used to be, have/had been

Future

I will be
you will be
he will be
she will be
it will be
we will be
you will be
they will be

Chapter 15

THE VERB (TO BE)

Activity Seventeen - C
Writing Put the following sentences into the past tense. Remember that the
Instrumental is generally used after the past tense of the verb to be.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
, .
, - .
- .

IMPERFECTIVE AND PERFECTIVE ASPECTS


(For detailed notes on usage, see the start of the chapter)

IMPERFECTIVE
Present







Past
()
()





Future






I build, am building
you build, are building
he builds, is building
she builds, is building
we build, are building
you build, are building
they build, are building
I built, was building, used to build
you built, were building, used to build
he built, was building, used to build
she built, was building, used to build
we built, were building, used to build
you built, were building, used to build
they built, were building, used to build
I will build, will be building
you will build, will be building
he will build, will be building
she will build, will be building
we will build, will be building
you will build, will be building
they will build, will be building

A new ab initio Russian course

PERFECTIVE
No present

Past
()
()





Future






I built, have built, had built


you built, have built, had built
he built, has built, had built
she built, has built, had built
we built, has built, had built
you built, have built, had built
they built, have built, had built
I will build, will have built
you will build, will have built
he will build, will have built
she will build, will have built
we will build, will have built
you will build, will have built
they will build, will have built

285

Activity Eighteen -
Writing
Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the verb
or .
1.
2.
3.
4.

_____________ , .
_____________ .
_____________ .
_____________ ,
.
5. _____________,
.
6. _____________ , ,
.
7. _____________ .
8. _____________ .
9. _____________ .
10. - _____________ (future) ?
Activity Nineteen -
Writing/Speaking
Put the following sentences into () the past and () the future.
The first one is done for you.
1. .
() () .
() .
2. .
() ________________________________________________.
() ________________________________________________.
3. .
() ________________________________________________.
() ________________________________________________.
4. .
() ________________________________________________.
() ________________________________________________.
5. .
() ________________________________________________.
() ________________________________________________.
6. .
() ________________________________________________.
() ________________________________________________.

(pl)

286

(it is) difficult


building materials
building
relations
trust

/
(, )

(, )
(+ instr)

to wash (oneself)
policeman
to look after

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. ? - . -
.
2. ? - . - ___________ .
3. ? - . - ____________
.
4. ? - . - ____________ .
.
5. ? - . -
____________.
6. ? - . -
____________ .
7. ? - . - ____________
.
8. ? - . -
____________ .
9. ? - . - ____________ .
10. ? - .
____________ .

Chapter 15

Activity Twenty -
Writing/Speaking
Complete the following sentences, putting the verbs printed in
bold into an appropriate form. The first one is done for you.

Activity Twenty-One -
Speaking
Answer the questions below, using first the past tense and then the future
tense. The first one, which is done for you, provides the model.
1. - ?
- , .
- , .
2. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
3. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
4. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
5. - ?
- , ________________________ _____________________.
- , ____________________________________________.

(-) (II)
(-) (I)
(-) (II)
(-) (II)
(+ dat)

dictation
to repair
to play, walk
to learn
to prepare (oneself)
for

A new ab initio Russian course

(I) / (II)
(, )
() (I) / ()
(, )
(I) / (II)
(, )

to buy
to open
to finish

287

6. - ?
- , ____________________________________ ________.
- , _____________________________________________.
7. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
8. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
9. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ________________________________________ ____.
10. - ?
- , _____________________________________________.
- , ____________________________________________.
Activity Twenty-Two -
Speaking/Writing Make up meaningful sentences by matching a phrase in column
with a phrase in column .

1. ,
...
2. , ...
3. ...
4. - ...
5.
, ...
6. ...
7. ...
8. ...
9.
...
10. - ...
11. ...
12. ,
...
13. ...
(I) / (I)

(-) (,
)
(+ dat)
(-) (II)

(I) /
(, )

288

to win
championship
to learn (how to)
to visit (s.one)
to call
entrance exam
(i) to meet, (ii) be
about (to), intend (to)

?

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
2 .
?
.
.

(I) /
(,
)
-
wtksq

(I) / (,
)

hall, foyer
to get better
once
whole
basket
to forget

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

( - ) . ( ) . ( - ) ,
. () , ( ) ( - ) . ( - )
- ( - ). (
- ) . ( - ) .

Chapter 15

Activity Twenty-Three -
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the following text and put the appropriate verb in
brackets in its correct form. When you have finished, listen to the answers on the tape.

ASPECTUAL USAGE WITH INFINITIVES

The following verbs are always followed by an imperfective infinitive:


-
to begin
-
to continue
-
to stop
-
to end, finish
e.g. - she began to write the novel when she was still young
- he has continued to study Chinese all his life
() - I stopped playing sport after the illness
- the writer will finish his story at the end of May

The perfective infinitive is generally used after the following verbs:

to manage

to succeed in

to forget
e.g. - I managed to solve the difficult problem
- I will not succed in learning all the words
, , - he will probably forget to buy the salt
but - he forgets to turn off the light

The perfective infinitive is normally used after the following modal words:
, , , , , .
e.g. - I have to return to the dacha on Saturday
- we have to do the homework
- he ought to pay for the watch repair
- every student should buy a dictionary
- you must take the medicine
but - we have to eat

(I) / (,
)
(, ) / (,
)
(, )

(, ) /
(, )

A new ab initio Russian course

to gather,
collect
to take
to look for
suitable
to make a camp
fire

(I) / (II)
(, ) /
(, )
/
(, )

(I) / (II)

to arrange
to sit down
to rest, relax
by evening
to recall
walk

289

Note that only the imperfective infinitive is possible when these modal words are used in the
negative:
- - I dont have to get angry over trifles
- he should not go so fast in the car
- she should not forget her parents
- - its not worth getting upset about failures
- theres no need to cry

Activity Twenty-Four -
Reading/Writing Fill in the gaps with the appropriate infinitive in brackets.
1. ___________ ( - ) .
2. __________ ( - ) .
3. ____________ ( - )
____________ ( - ) .
4. , ____________ ( - )
.
5. ___________ ( - ) .
6. ___________ ( - )
.
7. ___________ ( - ) ,
.
8. ____________ ( - )
.
9. ____________ ( - ) .
10. , ___________ ( ) .
The verbs to put, to lie, to sit, to hang etc.
To stand/put (something somewhere) - (-) (+ acc) / (+ acc)
(, , , , , )
(, , , , , )
To stand (= to be standing) - z
(, , , , , )

To lay/put (something somewhere) - / (+ acc) / (+ acc)


(, , , , , )
(Past , , , )
(, , , , , )
To lie (= to be lying) -
(, , , , , )

(II) /
(, )


(I) /
(, )

290

to go through,
(here:) to take
its not worth it for him
yoga
till now
to visit, to attend (classes)

(I) /
(, )

(-) (,
) (+ acc)

an ill person
to take, accept
on time
to be angry at
about trivia

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

To sit (down) (somewhere) - / / (+ acc)


(, , , , , )
(, , , , , )
(Past , , , )
To sit (= to be sitting) -
(, , , , , )

Chapter 15

To lie (down) (somewhere) - / / (+ acc)


(, , , , , )
(, , , , , )
(Past , , , )
To lie (= to be lying) -
(, , , , , )

To hang (something somewhere) - / / (+ acc)


(, , , , , )
(, , , , , )
To hang (= to be hanging) -
(, , , , , )

Activity Twenty-Five -
Reading/Writing Answer the questions below, denoting first placement (i.e. or
followed by the Accusative case) and then location (i.e. or followed by the
Prepositional case). The first one is done for you.
1. - () ?
- () .
- ?
- .
2. - ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
3. - ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
4. - () ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
5. - () ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
6. - ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________

shelf

A new ab initio Russian course

(mans) jacket

291

Chapter15

7. - ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
8. - ? ()
- __________________________________________________
- ?
- __________________________________________________
Activity Twenty-Six -
Reading/Writing Insert the correct form of the verbs - ,
- , - or , , , as appropriate.
1. - ____________ ?
- .. ____________
.
2. - ____________ ?
3. - ____________ .
- ___________ .
4. - ____________ .
- ____________ .
5. - ___________ .
- _________ .
6. - ____________ , ____________ .
7. - ____________ . ____________
.
8. - ____________ .
9. - ____________ ?
11. - ____________ .

(+ dat)

292

statue (of)
public garden
hanger
(entrance) hall
bread basket

housewife
kettle
stove
winter things
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 16

CHAPTER SIXTEEN -
IN THE TOWN -

In Chapter Sixteen you will learn how to do the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

to ask for and give directions


to ask for and give information
to ask for and give instructions
to make and carry out requests

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

the formation of the imperative


the prepositions which take the instrumental case
the formation of the conditional mood
the formation of the subjunctive mood

Activity One -
Listening Listen to the recording of a guided coach tour around central St. Petersburg.
Indicate with a tick in the table below whether the various places mentioned are on the right
or the left of Nevsky Prospekt. The first one is done for you. Use the vocabulary list at the
foot of the page to help you.
Place
Nevsky Restaurant
Nevsky Palace Hotel
Souvenir shop
Grand Hotel Europe
Gostiny Dvor
Kazan Cathedral
The Admiralty
The Hermitage

On the right

On the left

Note: the adverbs yfktdj/yfghfdj are always used to indicate direction when they follow a verb. The
adverbs cktdf/cghfdf usually indicate location. However, they can also indicate movement from a
location or position:
jy bl/n yfktdj/yfghfdj
- he is going left/right
gjxnf yf[jlbncz cktdf/cghfdf - the post-office is on the left/right
vfibyf tltn cktdf/cghfdf
- the car is coming from the left/right

Note also the spelling of these adverbs: those beginning with - end in - (yfghfdj/yfktdj) and
those beginning with c- end in -f (cghfdf/cktdf).
Ytdcrbq ghjcgtrn
ukfdysq
yfktdj
yfghfdj
ghjtp;fnm (I) (imp) (+ acc)
htcnjhfy Ytdcrbq
lfkmit gj (+ dat)
cktdf (jn + gen)
cghfdf (jn + gen)

294

Nevsky Prospekt
main
to the left
to the right
to pass
Nevsky restaurant
further along
on/from/to the left (of)
on/from/to the right (of)

Ytdcrbq Gfkfc
pyfvtybnsq
eybdthcfkmysq vfufpby
Ujcnbysq ldjh
Rfpfycrbq cj,jh
ghzvj
Ldjhwjdfz gkjoflm
Flvbhfkntqcndj
hvbnf;

Nevsky Palace
famous
department store
Gostiny Dvor
Kazan Cathedral
straight on
Palace Square
The Admiralty
the Hermitage

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1. The Nevsky Restaurant is situated on the right of the Nevsky Prospect.


(Ytn^ htcnjhfy Ytdcrbq yf[jlbncz cktdf)
2. We are travelling along Gorky Street
(____________________________________________________)
3. There are many hotels, shops, restaurants and museums along the
main street of St. Petersburg.
(____________________________________________________)
4. The hotel Nevsky Palace is on the left of Nevsky Prospekt.
(____________________________________________________)
5. The souvenir shop is next on the left after the hotel Nevsky Palace.
(____________________________________________________)
6. The Grand Hotel Europe is on the right of Nevsky Prospekt.
(____________________________________________________)
7. The Grand Hotel Europe is one of the cheapest hotels in the city.
(____________________________________________________)
8. Gostiny Dvor is one of the oldest department stores in the city.
(____________________________________________________)
9. Gostiny Dvor is situated on the left of Nevsky Prospekt.
(____________________________________________________)
10. Kazan Cathedral is one of the most beautiful buildings in the city.
(____________________________________________________)
11. It is situated on the right of Nevsky Prospekt.
(____________________________________________________)
12. The Admiralty is on the left of Palace Square.
(____________________________________________________)
13. The Hermitage is also on the left of Palace Square.
(____________________________________________________)

Chapter 16

Activity Two -
Listening/Writing
Listen to the text from Activity One again and indicate whether
the following statements are True (G) or False (Y). Where you have put (Y) write out the
correct version in Russian. The first one is done for you.

Activity Three -
Writing/Speaking
Moving from Alexander Nevsky Square to Palace Square,
complete in Russian the partial map of Nevsky Prospekt below. Refer to Activities One and
Two for the necessary information, then play the role of a tourist guide and describe the
location of the places on the map during the return journey from Palace Square to Alexander
Nevsky Square.

A new ab initio Russian course

295

FORMATION OF THE IMPERATIVE


You have already met several imperatives in previous chapters; e.g. crf;b(nt)^ bpdbyb(nt)^ plhfdcndeq(nt)^
gjcvjnhb(nt)& The informal imperative (crf;b^ bpdbyb etc.) is used when giving commands and
making requests to people addressed as ns. The formal imperative (crf;bnt^ bpdbybnt^ etc.) is formed
by adding - to the informal imperative and is used when addressing people as ds&
Both the informal and the formal imperative can be formed from either aspect. Take the jyb form of the
present tense or the perfective future tense and remove the last two letters. If the stem of a verb ends
with a vowel add -(); if the stem ends with a consonant add -()& To form a negative imperative
simply place the negative particle yt before the verb. For more details on the formation of the imperative
see the Grammar section.
Infinitive
hf,jnfnm (imp)
uekznm (imp)
gjcnhjbnm (pf)
ujdjhbnm (imp)
gjcvjnhtnm (pf)
yt djkyjdfnmcz (imp)

Third-person plural
(jyb) hf,jnf-.n
(jyb) uekz-.n
(jyb) gjcnhj-zn
(jyb) ujdjh-zn
(jyb) gjcvjnh-zn
(jyb) yt djkye-.ncz

Stem
hf,jnfuekzgjcnhjujdjhgjcvjnhyt djkye-

Imperative
hf,jnfq(nt)
uekzq(nt)
gjcnhjq(nt)
ujdjhb(nt)
gjcvjnhb(nt)
yt djkyeq(cz/ntcm)

Activity Four -
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner to carry out the necessary action in the
following situations, choosing the appropriate imperative (formal or informal) in each case.
Use the model below as your guide, and reverse roles after each command.
nj jxtym bynthtcyfz rybuf^ nt,t ye;yj ghjxbnfnm t/&
nj jxtym bynthtcyfz rybuf^ ghjxbnfq t/&
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

D rjvyfnt ntvyj^ nt,t ye;yj drk.xbnm cdtn&


Abkmv e;t rjyxbkcz^ dfv ye;yj dsrk.xbnm ntktdbpjh&
D rjvyfnt leiyj^ nt,t ye;yj jnrhsnm* jryj&
Pltcm jxtym [jkjlyj^ dfv ye;yj pfrhsnm* ldthm&
E nt,z ytn rjat^ nt,t ye;yj regbnm rjat&
Vs jgfplsdftv yf gjtpl^ nt,t ye;yj gjcgtibnm&
Vfvt e;t kexit^ dfv yt ye;yj djkyjdfnmcz&
E;t jxtym gjplyj^ nt,t ye;yj cgfnm&
E nt,z ,jkbn pe,^ nt,t ye;yj blnb r pe,yjve dhfxe&
Pbvjq d Vjcrdt jxtym [jkjlyj^ dfv ye;yj jltdfnmcz ntgkj&

* With the verbs jnrhsnm/pfrhsnm the vowel -- changes to -- in all personal forms; e.g. z jnrhj./
pfrhj.^ ns jnrhjtim/pfrhjtim^ jy/jyf jnrhjtn/pfrhjtn^ vs jnrhjtv/pfrhjtv^ ds jnrhjtnt/
pfrhjtnt^ jyb jnrhj.n/pfrhj.n& Hence the imperatives: jnrhjq(nt) / pfrhjq(nt)&

ntvyj
drk.xfnm (I) / drk.xbnm (II)
dsrk.xfnm (I) / dsrk.xbnm (II)
cdtn
leiyj
(gj-)cgtibnm (II)

296

it is dark
to switch on
to switch off
light
it is stuffy, close
to hurry up

(dp-)djkyjdfnmcz (III)
(djkye.cm^ djkyetimcz)
gjplyj
jltdfnmcz (I) / jltnmcz
(jltyecm^ jltytimcz) ntgkj

to worry
it is late
to put on warm
clothing

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

xbcnbnm

[hfybnm

yfrhsnm

gjkj;bnm

dfhbnm

- Useful tips

Chapter 16

Activity Five -
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the following text and fill in the gaps, forming the
appropriate imperative from the verbs given in the box below. Listen to the tape to check
your answers.

1& Xnj,s csh ,sk cdt;bv ljkuj^ ____________________ yf nfhtkre hzljv


c cshjv recjxtr cf[fhf b ____________________ tuj lheujq nfhtkrjq&
2& ____________________ vfckj b vfhufhby d ytghjphfxyjq vfck/yrt&
Cdtn hfpheiftn dbnfvbys&
3& Xnj,s cj[hfybnm dbnfvbys b drec jdjotq^ ____________________ b[ d
gjlcjk/yjq djlt&
4& Xnj,s herb yt xthytkb^ ____________________ rfhnjatkm b dct jdjob
yj;jv bp yth;fdt.otq cnfkb&
5& Xnj,s jdjob cj[hfybkb cdjq wdtn^ ____________________ d djle^ d
rjnjhjq jyb dfhzncz ytvyjuj gbnmtdjq cjls&
Activity Six -
Writing/Speaking Groupwork. Choose any two from the following list of household
tips. Write them down in Russian and then tell the class about them.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

To improve* the taste and smell of coffee warm the coffee beans first .
To freshen up parsley put it into cold salty water for an hour.
To cut fresh bread easily warm the knife first.
To remove fruit stains use lemon juice.
To remove red wine stains use salt.
Always cool white wine in ice (yf kmle)&

* To express these instructions in Russian begin with xnj,s + infinitive (see Activity Five).

recjxtr
yfrhsdfnm (I) / yfrhsnm
(yfrhj.^ yfrhjtim) (+ acc,
+ instr)
[hfybnm (II) (imp)
ytghjphfxysq
vfck/yrf
hfpheifnm (I) / hfpheibnm (II)
(c-)dfhbnm (II) (+ acc)
gjlcjk/yfz djlf
(gj-)xthytnm (xthyt.^ xthyttim)
(gj-)xbcnbnm (xboe^ xbcnbim)
yth;fdt.ofz cnfkm (f)
gbnmtdfz cjlf

A new ab initio Russian course

small lump, piece


to cover (s.th.
with s.th.)
to keep
opaque
butter dish
to destroy
to cook
salted water
to turn black
(here:) to peel
stainless steel
bicarbonate of soda

cj[hfyznm (I) / cj[hfybnm (II)


ekexifnm (I) / ekexibnm (II)
pfgf[
(yf-)uhtnm (I) (uht.^ uhttim)
p/hyf rjat
jcdt;fnm (I) / jcdt;bnm (II)
gtnheirf
(yf-)hpfnm (ht;e^ ht;tim)
elfkznm (I) / elfkbnm (II)
gznyj jn ahernjd/dbyf
bcgjkmpjdfnm (III) (bcgjkmpe.^
bcgjkmpetim) (imp & pf)
j[kf;lfnm (I) / j[kflbnm
(j[kf;e^ j[kflbim)

to preserve
to improve
smell
to warm, heat
coffee beans
to freshen up
parsley
to cut
to remove
fruit/wine stain
to use
to cool (down)

297

Activity Seven -
Reading/Writing Underline the imperatives in the following dialogues and write
down the infinitives from which they are formed. Read the dialogues in pairs.
1.

2.

3.

Bpdbybnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ ds yt* pyftnt^ ult yf[jlbncz gjxnf$


Cjdctv ytlfktrj& Blbnt ghzvj^ gjnjv gjdthybnt yfktdj e
cdtnjajhf b gthtqlbnt ekbwe& Cghfdf jn dfc ds edblbnt gjxne&
<jkmijt cgfcb,j&
Ghjcnbnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ ds yt crf;tnt^ rfr ghjqnb r Heccrjve
vept.$
Blbnt ghzvj^ e cnfywbb vtnhj Ytdcrbq ghjcgtrn gjdthybnt
yfghfdj^ yf yf,tht;ye.rfyfkf Uhb,jtljdf^ gjnjv ghjqlbnt
vtnhjd ldtcnb b jgznm gjdthybnt yfghfdj^ yf By;tythye. ekbwe^
nfv ds edblbnt Heccrbq veptq&
Cgfcb,j ,jkmijt& Pyfxbn^ vyt ye;yj blnb ghzvj^ gjnjv yfghfdj
e vtnhj b jgznm yfghfdj^ yf By;tythye. ekbwe& Ghfdbkmyj$
Lf^ dc/ ghfdbkmyj& Lj cdblfybz&
Ghjcnbnt^ ds yt gjlcrf;tnt^ rfr ljt[fnm lj rbyjntfnhf Rjcvjc?
Cflbntcm yf nhjkktq,ec yjvth 36^ cjqlbnt xthtp nhb jcnfyjdrb b
yf njq ;t cnjhjyt ekbws cktdf ,eltn rbyjntfnh Rjcvjc.

* In phrases like ds yt pyftnt&&&^ ds yt crf;tnt&&&^ ds yt gjlcrf;tnt the particle yt is used


to make a polite request for information and not for the purpose of negation. These phrases could be
roughly translated as you dont (happen to) know / you couldnt (happen to) tell me .

Activity Eight -
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and your partner plays B, then reverse
the roles. Use the ds form in the first dialogue and ns in the second dialogue.
A
1. Ask your partner how to get (on foot) to
Kazan Cathedral.

B
Give the following directions:
- walk straight on, then turn left at the traffic
lights, and walk up Nevsky Prospekt for about
500 meteres
- say that your partner will see the Cathedral on
the left.

2. Ask your partner how to get (by transport)


to the Hermitage.

Give the following directions:


- take No. 5 bus and get off after 2 stops
- take the metro, get off at the Nevsky Prospekt
metro station
- turn right and walk along Nevsky Prospekt
- say that your partner will see the Hermitage
straight ahead of him/her (gthtl cj,jq).

ghj[j;bq
gjdjhfxbdfnm (I) / gjdthyenm
(gjdthye^ gjdthy/im)
cdtnjajh
gtht[jlbnm (II) / gthtqnb
(gthtqle^ gthtql/im) (+ acc)
cghfdf jn dfc
ds yt (gjl)crf;tnt (vyt) &&&
rfr ghjqnb (pf) r (+ dat) &&&$
vbkbwbjyth

298

passer-by
to turn
traffic lights
to cross
on your right
could you tell me ...
how do I get to &&&$
policeman

cnfywbz vtnhj
yf,tht;yfz rfyfkf
ghj[jlbnm (II) / ghjqnb
(ghjqle^ ghjql/im) gj (+ dat)
pyfxbn
rfr ljt[fnm (pf) lj (+ gen)
cjqnb (pf) c (+ gen)
xthtp nhb jcnfyjdrb
yf njq ;t cnjhjyt
gthtl cj,jq

metro station
bank of the canal
to walk along
so, then
how do I get to &&&$
to get off
after three stops
on the same side
ahead of oneself

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE PREPOSITIONS WHICH REQUIRE THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE

gjl (under)
yfl (over/above)
vt;le (between/among)
gthtl (in front of)
hzljv c (next/near to)
pf (behind/at)

gjl cnjkjv
yfl rhjdfnm.
vt;le ljvfvb
gthtl ljvjv
hzljv c ybv
pf cfljv / pf cnjkjv

under the table


over the bed
between the houses
in front of the house
near him, next to him
behind the garden / at the table

Chapter 16

The following prepositions require the Instrumental case of the noun and indicate location or place:

Activity Nine -
Writing
Look at the pictures below and fill in the gaps with the appropriate
preposition. The first one is done for you.

Cj,frf cblbn gjl irfajv&

Ltdjxrf cnjn ______ ldthm.&

Cnjk cnjn _____ rhtckjv&

Rybuf kt;bn ______ ntktajyjv&

Jntw cblbn _____ ltnmvb&

Rfhnbyf dbcbn ______ cnjkjv&

Nfyz cblbn ______ Vfitq&

Vfibyf cnjn _____ ljvjv&

A new ab initio Russian course

299

Activity Ten -
Listening/Writing Listen to the tape and fill in the missing details in Russian on the
map given below. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Look at the picture and describe it in Russian. Use Activity Ten as a
model.

gfhbrvf[thcrfz
ntktajy-fdnjvfn
crdth
gjcthtlbyt (+ gen)
ajynfy

300

hairdressers
public telephone
small public garden
in the middle
fountain

gfvznybr (+ dat)
cfljdfz crfvtqrf
gjlptvysq gtht[jl
ufptnysq rbjcr
fgntrf

monument to
garden bench
pedestrian subway
newspaper stall
chemist
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

HOW TO FORM THE CONDITIONAL MOOD


a) a conditional clause ( + the past tense of the verb)
b) a main clause (the past tense of the verb + the particle , which may follow or precede the verb)
e.g. e vtyz ,jkmit dhtvtyb^ z fyukbqcrbq zpsr (or ..., z
fyukbqcrbq zpsr) - if I had more time I would study English

Chapter 16

A construction in the conditional mood comprises the following elements:

e vtyz ,bktn^ z yf rjywthn (or ..., z yf rjywthn) - if I had a


ticket I would have gone to the concert

Both the above examples are hypothetical, i.e. they suggest that the necessary circumstances do not or did not
pertain. There is another type of conditional construction which describes a real situation which may occur:

e.g. tckb gjujlf [jhjifz^ jy uekznm - if the weather is fine he will go for a walk

Note: in English the verb in this type of conditional clause is normally used in the present tense (even when
referring to the future), whereas in Russian it is always in the future tense.

Activity Twelve -
Reading Read the following extract from a childrens poem (Superstitions). Note
the use of the word tckb and decide which of the two conditional constructions (real or
hypothetical) it indicates.
(. )
Cj,bhfzcm yf rpfvty^
Dfkz ujdjhbkf%
- Tckb njkmrj gfktw vfvby
Jreyenm d xthybkf^

Getting ready for her exam


Valya was saying:
If my mothers finger
Is dipped in ink,

Tckb z gthtl ljcrj.


Rfr-yb,elm erhflrjq
E[bnh.cm jlyjq herj.
Dpznm ct,z pf gznre^

If, standing by the blackboard,


I manage
To touch my heel
With my hand,

Tckb^ cyzd ,jnbyjr d irjkt^


Gjdnjh. pfrkznmt^
F gjnjv vtijxtr cjkb
Ghbrjk. yf gkfnmt^

If, having taken off my shoe at school,


I say an incantation
And then pin a small bag of salt
To my dress,

Tckb z d nhjkktq,ec yjdsq


If the trolleybus
Czle yf Cfljdjq^
That I take on Sadovaya Street is brand new,
F d nhjkktq,ect dj;fnsq ,eltn ,jhjlfnsq^ And the trolleybus conductor has a beard,
Tckb z d genb yt dcnhtxe
Yb tlbyjq rjirb
Bkb djdhtvz pfvtxe
B cdthye c ljhj;rb^

If on my way to school
I dont see a single cat
Or notice it in time
And turn from its path,

Tckb z pfim. vjytns


D afhner gjl j,jhrb^Nj^ gj dctv vjbv ghbvtnfv^
Gjkexe gj dctv ghtlvtnfv
Rheukst gzn/hrb!

If I sew a few coins


Under the frills of my pinafore, Then, according to all these superstitions,
I will pass my exam
With the highest possible marks!

A new ab initio Russian course

301

Activity Thirteen -
Writing The following sentences describe some common Russian superstitions which
portend either good or bad luck. Complete each one using the verb in brackets in the future
tense and suggest an English translation below.
1.

Tckb ds &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (pfibnm) ytcrjkmrj vjytn d gjljk gkfnmz bkb


gjlrkflre gbl;frf^ dfv gjdtp/n&

2&

Tckb ds &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&(edbltnm) x/hyjuj rjnf^ dfv yt gjdtp/n&

3&

Tckb ds &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (hfp,bnm) pthrfkj^ dfv yt gjdtp/n&

4.

Tckb ds nhb hfpf &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (gk.yenm) xthtp gktxj^ dfv gjdtp/n&

5.

Tckb ds &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (hfccsgfnm) cjkm^ dfv yt gjdtp/n&

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Speaking Which of the following Russian superstitions do you think bring
good or bad luck? (Your teacher will tell you whether you are right or wrong.)
1.
2.
3.
4.

To shake hands over the threshold (pljhjdfnmcz xthtp gjhju)


To trip on your left leg (cgjnryenmcz yf ktde. yjue)
To sit at the corner of a table (of a young lady) (cbltnm yf euke)
To meet a woman with empty buckets (dcnhtnbnm ;tyobye c gecnsvb d/lhfvb)

Activity Fifteen -
Listening Listen to the following six conditional instructions and fill in the table below,
using the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you. The first one is done for you.
1
2
3
4
5
6
pfibdfnm (I) / pfibnm
(pfim.^ pfim/im)
ytcrjkmrj (+ gen)
vjytnf
gjljk
gjlrkflrf
(+ dat) (gj-)dtp/n
hfp,bdfnm (I) /hfp,bnm
(hfpj,m.^ hfpj,m/im)
pthrfkj

302

Lf

to sew in
some, a few
coin
hem
lining
(to be) lucky
to break
mirror

gktdfnm (gk..^ gk./im) /


gk.yenm (gk.ye^ gk.ytim)
hfccsgnm (I) / hfccgfnm
(hfccsgk.^ hfccsgktim)
ghtlkj;tybt
gktxj
gjcnfdmnt pyfr
yfhbceqnt rhe;jr
rhe;jr
ufkjxrf

to spit
to spill (dry
substances)
sentence
shoulder
put a sign
draw a circle
circle
tick ()

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Tckb e vtyz vyjuj ^ z


regbk ,s &
_______ ,s z ctqxfc _______ ljvf^
z dsgbkf ,s _______ xfz c _______&
_______ _______ z dsbuhfk kjntht.^ z
_______ _______ yjdsq _______&

_______ _______ e vtyz ctujlyz _______


ltym hj;ltybz^ z _______ regbkf _______&
Tckb ,s z yt_______^ z gjikf _______ d
_______&
_______ _______ e vtyz _______ vyjuj
cdj,jlyjuj _______^ z ,s bpexfk _______
zpsr&

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

Chapter 16

Activity Sixteen -
Listening/Writing Listen twice to the recording and fill in the missing words in the
captions below. Then identify which caption goes with which picture. The first one is done
for you.

Activity Seventeen - Ctvyflwfnjt pflfybt


Reading Read the following parts of various sentences. Match the phrases on the
left with the phrases on the right.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&

Tckb
Tckb
Tckb
Tckb
Tckb
Tckb
Tckb

,s ns ghbi/k hfymit^
,s z evtk ujdjhbnm gj-ytvtwrb^
,s ns gjpdjybk^
,s Fynjy yt tk ptk/yst z,kjrb^
,s jctym. xfcnj ikb lj;lb^
,s d b.kt yt ,skj pfce[b^
,s vfibyf ,skf yjdjq^

dscj[yenm (dscj[ye^ dscj[ytim) (pf)


A new ab initio Russian course

to wither

d ktce ,skj ,s vyjuj uhb,jd&


wdtns d cfle yt dscj[kb ,s&
jyf yt ckjvfkfcm ,s&
vs ,s yt jgjplfkb d rbyj&
z ,s yt pf,kelbkcz d <thkbyt&
e ytuj ,s yt ,jktk ;bdjn&
z ,s yt djkyjdfkfcm&
pf,kelbnmcz (II) (pf)

to get lost

303

Activity Eighteen -
Writing/Speaking Look at the following pictures and write a short story describing
what happens. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you. Then retell the
story using the conditional mood, as in the model below the pictures.

1. Ivan cant sleep. He is very


nervous before his exam.

2. He takes a sleeping pill and


finally falls asleep.

3. The next morning


he oversleeps.

4. He picks up his briefcase


5. The bus to the university has 6. He takes a taxi.
and hurries to the bus station. already gone.

7. He discovers that he has


left his wallet at home.

8. The taxi driver throws him


out of the taxi.

10. He arrives 40 minutes late and


is not allowed to take the examination.
ythdybxfnm (I) (imp)
pfcsgfnm (I) / pfcyenm
(pfcye^ pfcy/im)
(ds-)gbnm (gm.^ gm/im)
cyjndjhyjt
ghjcsgnm (I) / ghjcgfnm
(ghjcgk.^ ghjcgbim)

304

Tckb ,s Bdfy yt ythdybxfk gthtl


rpfvtyjv^ jy ,s ,scnhj pfcyek&
Tckb ,s jy ,scnhj pfcyek^ jy yt dsgbk
,s cyjndjhyjt &&&

to be nervous
to fall asleep
to take sleeping pills
to oversleep

9. He decides to run to the


university.

ecgtdfnm (I) / ecgtnm (ecgt.^


ecgttim) yf (+ acc)
rjitk/r
dscf;bdfnm (I) / dscflbnm
(dscf;e^ dscflbim) (+ acc)
bp nfrcb

to make it in time
for
wallet
to throw (s.one)
out of the taxi

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

The subjunctive is used to indicate a wish or desire for someone else to do something; e.g. I want you
to phone me. In Russian it is expressed by a construction consisting of a main clause and a subordinate
clause with + the past tense of the verb: z [jxe^ xnj,s ns gjpdjybk vyt& Remember: xnj,s is
never used with the present or future tense.
The construction + past tense is also used to express the purpose of an action if the two clauses
of the sentence have different subjects; e.g. z gjpdjy. vfvt^ xnj,s jyf ghbikf d gznm xfcjd - I
will phone my mother, so that she comes at five oclock.

Chapter 16

HOW TO FORM THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

If the two clauses have the same subject, is followed by an infinitive (you have already met this
construction in Activities Five and Six); e.g. jyf gjikf yf gjxne^ xnj,s regbnm vfhrb - she went to
the post office to buy some stamps.

Activity Nineteen -
Listening/Writing Listen to the recording in which you will hear requests for people
to carry out various actions. Rephrase these requests using the construction with xnj,s +
past tense. The first one is done for you.
1. Jyf [jxtn^ xnj,s Vfhbyf pfrhskf jryj&
2. Jy [jxtn^ xnj,s
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Activity Twenty -
Writing Imagine that you are writing a plan for the day ahead, based on visiting any
ten of the places and people listed in the box below. You should specify in each case where
you have to go and provide a reason why, but you do not have to stick to the order in which
they are listed.
Ctujlyz vyt ye;yj c[jlbnm d vfufpby^ xnj,s regbnm [kt, b hs,e&
Note: other common verb constructions which you might use include gjqnb / gjt[fnm d (+ acc), (to go
to), pfqnb d (+ acc) (to call in to), pfqnb r (+ dat) (to call in on [s.one]), pfqnb pf (+ instr) (to call in for,
to collect), dthyenmcz d (+ acc) (to return to), gjujdjhbnm c (+ instr) (to have a word with), gjvjxm
(+ dat) (to help [s.one]), pf,hfnm ltntq bp irjks (to pick up the children from school), dcnhtnbnmcz
c (to meet [s.one]) and gjuekznm (to go for a stroll).

VFUFPBY
EYBDTHCBNTN
GJKBRKBYBRF CNFLBJY
<FCCTQY
LHEPMZ
IRJKF
<B<KBJNTRF FGNTRF
RFAT
GJXNF HTCNJHFY CJCTLB GFHR WTHRJDM

c[jlbnm (II) d vfufpby

A new ab initio Russian course

to pop to the shop

(gj-)vjkbnmcz (II)

to pray

305

Activity Twenty-One -
Speaking Refer to your plan from Activity Twenty and imagine that you are too busy
to do any of the things listed. Leave an ansaphone message to your friend, asking him/her to
carry out any five of the tasks for you. Use the model below as a guide.
Z ,s [jntk(f)^ xnj,s ns c[jlbk(f) d vfufpby b regbk(f) [kt, b hs,e&

GRAMMAR
HOW TO FORM THE IMPERATIVE
The imperative mood in Russian has special forms only for the second person singular - the familiar
imperative (the ns form) and for the second person plural - the formal imperative (the ds form). The first
person plural imperative (the vs form, ns + z) is expressed by the corresponding forms of the present
tense or the perfective future (always without the pronoun); e.g. bl/v! (lets go!). The ending - is
added to such forms when the first person implies ds (ds + z); e.g. bl/vnt! The first person plural
imperative may also be formed by adding lfdfq/lfdfqnt to the corresponding forms of the present
tense or the perfective future; e.g. lfdfq/nt (,eltv) xbnfnm or lfdfq/nt gjxbnftv! (lets read!). The
third person imperative is expressed by the particle gecnm (colloquially also gecrfq) and the third
person singular or plural of the present tense or the perfective future; e.g. gecnm (jy/jyf) cgbn (let him/
her sleep), gecnm (jyb) cgzn (let them sleep).
The formal imperative is formed by adding - to the ns form of the imperative.
The ns imperative is formed from imperfective and perfective verbs in the following ways:
1. by adding - to the present/future stem of verbs ending in a vowel
Infinitive
xbnfnm
cnhjbnm

Third person
plural
xbnf-.n
cnhj-zn

Stem
xbnfcnhj-

Informal
imperative
xbnfq
cnhjq

Formal
imperative
xbnfqnt
cnhjqnt

Note:
a) the imperatives of the verbs with the suffix -fdf are formed by adding -q to the stem of the
infinitive; e.g. lfdfnm > lfdf- > lfdfq(nt)^ dcnfdfnm > dcnfdf- > dcnfdfq(nt)*
b) the verb gbnm has the imperative gtq(nt). Other monosyllabic verbs with -- form their imperatives
in the same way: ibnm (to sew) > itq(nt)^ kbnm (to pour) > ktq(nt)^ ,bnm (to beat) > ,tq(nt) etc.
2.

by adding - to the present/future stem of verbs which end in a consonant and have mobile or final
syllable stress.

Mobile stress in personal forms


Infinitive
gbcnm
cghjcnm

Third person
plural
gi-en
cghc-zn

Stem
gicghc-

Informal
imperative
gbi
cghjc

Formal
imperative
gbint
cghjcnt

Stem
imperative
ujdjh-

Informal
imperative
ujdjh

Formal

Final syllable stress in personal forms


Infinitive
ujdjhnm

306

Third person
plural
ujdjh-n

ujdjhnt

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Infinitive
hpfnm
,snm

Third person
plural
h;-en
,l-en

Stem
h;,l-

Informal
imperative
h;m
,lm

Formal
imperative
h;mnt
,lmnt

Note: I. some verbs have irregular imperatives:


a) the imperative of ktxm (to lie down) is formed without a soft sign: ktxm > kzu-en >
kzu(nt)
b) the imperative of tcnm (to eat) is tim(nt)
c) the imperative of (gj-)t[fnm (to go) is gjtp;fq(nt)

Chapter 16

3. by adding - to the present/future stem of verbs which end in a single consonant and have fixed
stress on the stem

II. the following verbs do not form imperatives:


dbltnm (to see)
cksifnm (to hear)
pfdbctnm (to depend)
,htlbnm (to be delirious)

SOME USES OF THE IMPERFECTIVE IMPERATIVE


The imperfective imperative is used to express:
1. requests and instructions
vjqnt herb gthtl tljq - wash your hands before meals
dsnbhfqnt yjub - wipe your feet, please
2. a re-enforcement of a request or command (given in the perfective imperative) which has not been
acted upon
Someone knocks on the door ... - djqlbnt! (pf) - come in!
No one enters ... - d[jlbnt^ d[jlbnt! (imp) - come in, come in!
3. advice
gj enhfv ghbybvfqnt [jkjlysq lei b ltkfqnt pfhzlre - take cold showers and do
physical exercise in the mornings
4. negative requests or commands
yt ;lb vtyz - dont wait for me
yt rehbnt pltcm - dont smoke here
5. an invitation in social situations
ghj[jlbnt^ gj;fkeqcnf - come through, please
hfpltdfqntcm^ gj;fkeqcnf - take off your hat and coat, please
cybvfqnt gfkmnj - take off your coat
cflbntcm^ gj;fkeqcnf - sit down, please
,thbnt [kt,^ gj;fkeqcnf - have some bread
yfkbdfqnt dbyj - have some wine
rkflbnt cf[fh - have some sugar
eujofqntcm - help yourself /yourselves
A new ab initio Russian course

307

SOME USES OF THE PERFECTIVE IMPERATIVE


The perfective imperative is used to express:
1. a single request or command
drk.xb ntktdbpjh - switch on the television
dsrk.xb cdtn - switch off the light
Note: the addition of the particle -rf to the imperative softens or reduces the formality of the
command: lfq-rf vyt rfhfylfi - give me a pencil, please
Remember to use the imperfective imperative in negative single requests or commands forbidding an
action:
yt
yt
yt
yt

drk.xfq ntktdbpjh - dont switch on the television


dsrk.xfq cdtn - dont switch off the light
jnrhsdfnt jryj - dont open the window
pfrhsdfqnt ldthm - dont close the door

2. a warning in the negative (rather than a command)


yt
yt
yt
yt
yt
yt

egflb! - mind you dont fall!


gjlcrjkmpybcm! - mind you dont slip!
j,j;ubcm! - mind you dont burn yourself!
ghjcnelbcm! - mind you dont catch a cold!
gjht;mcz! - mind you dont cut yourself!
bcgfxrfqntcm! - mind you dont get dirty!

Sometimes this negative perfective imperative is used with cvjnhb/nt! (mind ...); e.g. cvjnhb^
yt egflb! - mind you dont fall!.
USE OF OTHER FORMS OF VERBS AS IMPERATIVES
1. The infinitive is commonly used to express strict instructions or abrupt commands
dcnfnm! - get up!
cbltnm nb[j! - sit quietly!
cktljdfnm pf vyjq! - follow me!
cnjznm cvbhyj! - stand still!
yt rehbnm! - do not smoke!
gj ufpjyfv yt [jlbnm! - do not walk on the grass!
herfvb yt nhjufnm! - do not touch!
yt ghbckjyznmcz r ldthzv! - do not lean against the doors!
yt cjhbnm! - no litter!
yt ievtnm! - quiet please!
2. The future perfective forms may be used to express categorical commands
ns gjql/im b hfccrf;tim bv dc/^ rfr ,skj! - you will go and tell them everything that
happened!
ns cltkftim nj dj xnj ,s nj yb cnfkj! - you will do it whatever happens!
ds ybrelf yt gjql/nt! - you are not going anywhere!
jyb yt gjtlen r dfv! - they are not going to visit you!
3. Subjunctive constructions may be used to express a suggestion or a mild command
gjt[fk ,s ns r ytq - you really ought to go and see her
gjvbhbkbcm ,s ds! - you two ought to make it up
yfgbcfkf ,s ns tve - you should write to him
yt rehbk ,s ns - you should give up smoking

308

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

yfcnjzobq
wtqkjycrbq
(gj-)ghj,jdfnm (III)
yfcnhfbdfnmcz (I) /
yfcnhjbnmcz (II) yf (+ acc)

A new ab initio Russian course

real
Ceylon
to taste, try
to be tuned into

kexitt
gtyyjt gbdj
yf cdtnt
cxfcnmt
nfhfym (f)

Chapter 16

Activity Twenty-Two -
Reading/Writing Read the following advertisements from a Russian magazine and
identify all the imperative forms included in them. Then write down the infinitives from which
the imperatives were formed and list any other possible imperatives. Use the vocabulary list
at the foot of the page to help you.

the best (thing)


beer with a (good) head
in the world
happiness
sea-roach

309

Activity Twenty-Three -
Reading/Writing Read the following advertisement for spring water. Underline all
the imperative forms that you can find. Complete the table after the advertisement.
BYCNHERWBZ GJ GJKMPJDFYB> RK>XTDJQ DJLJQ
CDZNJQ BCNJXYBR

1& Gjcnfdmnt ,enskre


d dthnbrfkmyjt
gjkj;tybt&
2& Gkjnyj pf;vbnt
ghj,re b gjdthybnt
t/ ghjnbd xfcjdjq
cnhtkrb&
3& Djpmvbnt d ghfde.
here k.,e.
gjl[jlzoe.
/vrjcnm^
ghtldfhbntkmyj
jgjkjcybnt t/&
4& Frrehfnyj yfktqnt
rk.xtde. djle d
/vrjcnm&
5& Yfckf;lfqntcm&
6& Ghb ytj,[jlbvjcnb
gjdnjhbnt
ghjwtlehe&
7& Gjregfqnt
rk.xtde. djle
Cdznjq Bcnjxybr
gj vtht
ytj,[jlbvjcnb&

the imperative from the


above text
gjcnfdmnt

dthnbrfkmyjt gjkj;tybt
gkjnyj
ghj,rf
ghjnbd xfcjdjq cnhtkrb
k.,fz gjl[jlzofz
/vrjcnm (f)

310

the infinitive from which it is


formed
gjcnfdbnm (to put)

upright position
tightly
top
anti-clockwise
any suitable
container

other possible imperatives


gjcnfdm/gjcnfdmnt

ghtldfhbntkmyj
rk.xtdfz djlf
ghjwtlehf
ghb ytj,[jlbvjcnb
Cdznjq Bcnjxybr
gj vtht ytj,[jlbvjcnb

beforehand
spring water
procedure
if necessary
Holy Spring
as necessary

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

THE PREPOSITIONS WHICH REQUIRE THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE

gjl (under)
yfl (over/above)
vt;le (between/among)
gthtl (in front of)
hzljv c (next/near to)
pf (behind/at, on the other side, beyond)

gjl cnjkjv
yfl rhjdfnm.
vt;le ljvfvb
gthtl ljvjv
hzljv c ybv
pf cfljv / pf cnjkjv
pf vjcnjv
pf htrjq

under the table


over the bed
between the houses
in front of the house
near him/next to him
behind the garden / at the
table
- on the other side of the
bridge
- beyond the river

Chapter 16

The following prepositions require the Instrumental case of the noun and indicate location or place:

Remember: the above prepositions (except yfl and gthtl) require the Accusative case when used after
verbs of motion to indicate movement somewhere; e.g. t[fnm p ujhjl - to go to the country (literally:
out of town); ctcnm pf cnjk - to sit down at the table; t[fnm pf uhfybwe - to go abroad.
Note: the preposition vt;le very occasionally requires the Genitive case (in idiomatic phrases and
poetic speech); e.g. xbnfnm vt;le cnhjr - to read between the lines; vt;le lde[ juytq - between
the devil and the deep blue sea (literally: between two fires) .
The following common prepositional phrases with the Instrumental case may prove useful:

gjl herjq
gjl yjcjv
gjl lj;l/v
gjl ujhjq
gjl eukjv
gjl Vjcrdjq

yfl ujkjdjq
yfl ehjdytv vjhz
hf,jnfnm yfl xtv-nj
cvtznmcz yfl rtv-nj/xtv-nj

gthtl yfvb cnjn ,jkmifz ghj,ktvf

p ujhjljv
pf uhfybwtq
pf hek/v
pf pfdnhfrjv
pf eukjv

close at hand
near by, right in front (of)
in the rain
at the bottom of the hill
at an angle
near Moscow
overhead
above sea level
to work on something
to laugh at someone/something
a major problem faces us
in the country
abroad
at the wheel (of a vehicle)
at breakfast
round the corner

Note: the preposition pf (+ instr) can indicate the following:

sequence
jyb eikb jlby pf lheubv - they left one after another
involvement in an activity
ghjdjlbnm dtxth pf buhjq d rfhns - to spend an evening playing cards
the pursuit of an object
uyfnmcz pf djhjv - to chase a thief
A new ab initio Russian course

311

Activity Twenty-Four -
Reading Read the following childrens poem and identify all the phrases which use a
preposition taking the Instrumental case.
ULT JXRB$ (C& Vb[fkrjd)
- Xnj cnhzckjcm e n/nb Dfkb$
- E yt/ jxrb ghjgfkb!

What happend to Aunt Valya?


Her spectacles have disappeared!

Botn ,tlyfz cnfheirf


Pf gjleirjq^ gjl gjleirjq^
C ujkjdj. pfktpfkf
Gjl vfnhfw^ gjl jltzkj^
Pfukzyekf d d/lhf^ d rhsyrb^
D ,jns^ d dfktyrb^ d ,jnbyrb^
Dc/ ddth[ lyjv gthtdthyekf^
Gjcbltkf^ jnlj[yekf^
Gjdpls[fkf^ gjdjhxfkf
B gjikf bcrfnm cyfxfkf&

The poor little old lady is looking for them


Behind the pillow, under the pillow,
She went head first
Under the mattress, under the blanket,
She looked in buckets, in jugs,
In overshoes, in felt boots, in leather boots,
She turned everything upside down,
Then sat down to rest,
Sighing and grumbling,
And then started looking again.

Cyjdf ifhbn gjl gjleirjq^


Cyjdf botn pf rfleirjq&
Pfcdtnbkf d re[yt cdtxre^
Cj cdtxjq gjktpkf d gtxre^
J,scrfkf rkfljde. Dc/ yfghfcyj! Dc/ dgecne.!

Again she is feeling under the pillow,


Again looking behind the barrel.
She lit a candle in the kitchen,
With the candle she looked in the stove,
Looked around the store-room But all in vain! All to no avail!

Ytn jxrjd e n/nb Dfkb Jxtdblyj^ b[ erhfkb!

Aunt Valya has no glasses Apparently, they have been stolen!

Xnj jyb yf cfvjv ltkt


E yt/ yf k,e cbltkb&

The little old lady sat on the chest.


There was a mirror hanging nearby.
And the old lady saw
That she was looking for her spectacles
in the wrong place,
They were actually
Sitting on her forehead.

Nfr djkit,yjt cntrkj


N/nt Dfkt gjvjukj&

This was how the magic glass


Helped Aunt Valya.

Yf ceyler cnfheirf ctkf&


Hzljv pthrfkj dbctkj&
B cnfheirf edblfkf^
Xnj yt nfv jxrb bcrfkf^

Activity Twenty-Five -
Speaking Group work. Split into two groups. Group A hides an object somewhere
in the room (e.g. a pen under the book, behind the television set, under the desk etc.). Group
B then tries to locate the object by asking questions using the appropriate preposition plus
the Instrumental case. The groups then reverse roles. Each group may ask a maximum of
six questions. The group which finds the hidden object with the least number of questions is
the winner.
312

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

In English and Russian there are two types of conditional constructions. The first type describes a situation which
may occur; e.g. tckb gjujlf [jhjifz^ jy uekznm - if the weather is fine he will go for a walk.
Note that in English the verb in a conditional clause is normally used in the present tense (even when referring to
the future), whereas in Russian it is always in the future tense. The second type describes a situation which is
hypothetical; e.g. tckb ,s gjujlf [jhjifz^ jy uekznm - if the weather had been fine he would
have gone for a walk. Statements of this type are in the conditional mood. They suggest that the opposite situation
has occurred (i.e. the weather is not fine).

Chapter 16

THE FORMATION OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

A construction in the conditional mood comprises the following elements:

a) a conditional clause ( + the past tense of the verb)


b) a main clause (the past tense of the verb + the particle , which may follow or precede the verb.)

e vtyz ,sk ,bktn^ z yf rjywthn (or ..., z yf rjywthn) - if I had a ticket


I would have gone to the concert.
Note: the English phrase if I were you ... is expressed in Russian by yf ndj/v/dfitv vtcnt &&&
(literally: in your place):
yf ndj/v/dfitv vtcnt z regbk ,s 'ne rybue - if I were you, I would buy this book

Activity Twenty-Six -
Reading Read the following childrens poem and underline all the constructions used
in the conditional mood.
(. )
Rf,s htrb b jp/hf
Ckbnm ,s d jpthj jlyj^
F [tckb ,s] bp dct[ lthtdmtd ,jhf
Cltkfnm [,s] lthtdj jlyj^

If all the rivers and lakes


Were made into one big lake,
And all the trees of the forest
Were made into one big tree,

Njgjhs ,s dct hfcgkfdbnm


B jnkbnm jlby njgjh^
F bp dct[ k.ltq cjcnfdbnm
Xtkjdtrf dsit ujh^

If all the woodmens axes were melted down


Into one huge axe,
And all the people were made into
One person bigger than a mountain,

Rf,s^ dpzd njgjh vjuexbq^


njn uhjpysq dtkbrfy
njn cndjk j,heibk c rhexb
D nj vjht-jrtfy^

If the great axe were taken up


By the giant person
And the enormous tree were felled
Into the ocean-like lake,

Nj-nj uhjvrbq ,sk ,s nhtcr^


Nj-nj ievysq ,sk ,s gktcr&

There would be a mighty crash,


There would be a mighty splash.

Note: the words are sometimes omitted when more than one conditional construction is implied, as in
lines 3 and 4, above& The particle is often reduced to in colloquial Russian; e.g. z gjt[fk d jngecr^ tckb
e vtyz ,skb ltymub - I would go on holiday, if I had the money. is a colloquial equivalent of and
is also used in folk poetry and sayings; e.g. tckb ,s lf rf,s - if ifs and ans were pots and pans.

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Writing Translate the following into English.
1.
2.
3.

Tckb ,s ns ghbt[fk hfymit^ vs yt jgjplfkb ,s yf rjywthn&


Tckb ,s e vtyz ,skj vyjuj ltytu^ z regbkf ,s lfxe e vjhz&
Tckb ,s vs pyfkb^ xnj ns ,eltim d Vjcrdt d fghtkt^ vs ,s yt
pfrfpfkb ,bktns d jngecr yf nj dhtvz&

A new ab initio Russian course

313

4.
5.
6.
7.

Z ,s jxtym [jntk gjt[fnm d Cfyrn-Gtnth,ehu&


<skj ,s [jhjij gjt[fnm d Kjyljy d ltrf,ht&
Tckb ,s z pyfkf b[ flhtc!
Tckb ,s z pyfkf^ xnj ns dtutnfhbfytw^ z ,s yt ghbujnjdbkf vzcj yf
e;by&
THE FORMATION OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

The subjunctive in Russian is expressed by a construction consisting of a main clause and a subordinate clause with + past tense of the verb: z [jxe^ - I want you to leave&
Remember: is never used with the present or future tense.
It frequently indicates a wish or desire for someone else to do (or not to do) something. Desirability or
undesirability in a main clause can be expressed in various ways:
a) by using verbs such as (-), (to insist), , / (to insist),
/ (to warn), (-) (to demand), etc.
jyf ^ xnj,s z regbk [kt, - she told me to buy bread
jy (yf njv)^ xnj,s z yt gkfnbk - he insisted that I did not pay
z tuj^ xnj,s jy yt jgfplsdfk - I warned him not to be late
jy ^ xnj,s ghbytckb cx/n - he demanded that they bring the bill

b) by using other words such as (it is better), (the main thing is), (it
is important), (it is desirable), (in favour of), (against), etc.
^ xnj,s jy ghbi/k d ldf xfcf - it would be better if he came at two oclock
^ xnj,s ns ,sk pljhjd - the main thing is that you are healthy
^ xnj,s jyf ghbybvfkf ktrfhcndj - it is important that she take her medicine
^ xnj,s ds rehbkb - it is not desirable for you to smoke
z ^ xnj,s vs gjt[fkb yf vjht - I am in favour of our going to the sea
jy njuj^ xnj,s ns gbcfk 'nj gbcmvj - he is against your writing this letter
The construction + past tense is also used to express the purpose of an action if the two clauses
of the sentence have different subjects:
z gjpdjy. vfvt^ xnj,s jyf ghbikf d gznm xfcjd - I will phone my mother, so that she
comes at five oclock

If the two clauses have the same subject, is followed by an infinitive:

jyf gjikf yf gjxne^ xnj,s regbnm vfhrb - she went to the post office to buy stamps

Activity Twenty-Eight -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
314

I want you to help me to write this letter.


She asked him to buy her a new car.
He warned them not to smoke in the dining room.
I told her to come at six oclock.
The doctor insisted that I take regular exercise and stop smoking.
It is better that you go to Moscow now and not in three months.
The main thing is that you do not worry about us.
It is important that we arrive at the airport on time.
My wife is in favour of our buying this house.
The director is against his going to St. Petersburg.
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 17

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN -
BON VOYAGE! - !
In Chapter Seventeen you will learn how to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

to express the time of the day (a.m. / p.m.)


to tell the time more precisely
to understand train and plane timetables
to request and give information about travel

You will learn the following points of grammar:


1.
2.
3.
4.

reflexive verbs
numerals in oblique cases
unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion
compound verbs of motion

Activity One -
Listening Listen to the dialogues and tick in the table below if the time of day
mentioned in each case is a.m. or p.m.
1
2
3
4
5
6

a.m.

p.m.

Note: the 24-hour clock is often used in contexts such as rail and flight times, the radio, television, films
etc.; e.g. 20 xfcjd = 8 p.m. If a specific time is mentioned, use the Genitive case of the day; e.g. 8 xfcjd
enhf - 8 a.m., 8 xfcjd dtxthf - 8 p.m. In Russian the day is broken down as follows:
1, 2, 3 xfcf yxb

1, 2, 3 oclock at night

4 xfcf > 11xfcjd enh

4 to 11 oclock in the morning

12 xfcjd > 4 xfcf lyz

12 to 4 oclock in the afternoon

5 xfcjd > 12 xfcjd dxthf

5 to 12 oclock in the evening

Remember to use the forms enhjv^ ly/v^ dtxthjv^ yjxm. if a specific time is not mentioned.
jnghfdkznmcz (I) /
jnghfdbnmcz (jnghfdk.cm^
jnghfdbimcz) yf (+ acc)

316

to depart, leave, set off


(for / to)

'ktrnhbxrf

local train

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

HFCGBCFYBT LDB:TYBZ GJTPLJD


GJTPL

Vjcrdf C&-Gtnth,ehu
Vjcrdf Rbtd
Vjcrdf Hbuf
Vjcrdf <thkby

gjy&

dn&

23. 00

ch&

xn&

12. 00

6. 00

ce,&

djcrh&

gkfnajhvf

5. 00

5. 00

9. 00

9. 00

24. 00

01. 00

15. 00

6. 00

gzny&

6. 00

Chapter 17

Activity Two -
Reading/Writing Read the train timetable given below and indicate whether the
following statements are True (G) or False (Y). Where you have put Y write out the correct
version in Russian. The first one is done for you.

Note: in Russian a full stop is used in the 24-hour clock.

1. On Mondays, Saturdays and Sundays the train to Petersburg departs at 6 p.m.


(Ytn^ gj gjytltkmybrfv^ ce,,jnfv b djcrhtctymzv gjtpl yf
Gtnth,ehu jnghfdkztncz d 6 xfcjd enhf&)

2. On Wednesdays the train to Petersburg departs at 11 p.m.


(__________________________________________________________)
3. On Tuesdays and Thursdays the train to Kiev departs at 5 a.m.
(__________________________________________________________)
4. On Saturdays the train to Kiev departs at 9 p.m.
(__________________________________________________________)
5. On Mondays the train to Riga departs at 9 a.m.
(__________________________________________________________)
6. On Mondays the train to Berlin departs at 1 p.m.
(__________________________________________________________)
Activity Three -
Speaking Pairwork. Take it in turns with your partner to make enquiries about train
departure times and platforms on various days of the week. Refer to Activity Two for the
necessary information, and use the model below as a guide.
A - Crf;bnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ rjulf jnghfdkztncz gjtpl yf Gtnth,ehu
gj gjytltkmybrfv$
< - Jy jnghfdkztncz d 6 xfcjd enhf&
A - F c rfrjq gkfnajhvs$
< - C gthdjq gkfnajhvs&
gkfnajhvf

platform

A new ab initio Russian course

gjkyjxm (f)

midnight

gjkltym (m)

afternoon

317

REFLEXIVE VERBS
You have already met reflexive verbs in Chapter Nine and Chapter Fifteen, in particular . You learned how
to conjugate them and how to form the past tense. Some common verbs only have a reflexive form; e.g.
yhfdbnmcz^ pljhjdfnmcz^ cvtznmcz^ eks,fnmcz&
Many other verbs have reflexive and non-reflexive forms; e.g. jnghfdkznm/jnghfdkznmcz^ pfrhsdfnm/
pfrhsdfnmcz^ jnrhsdfnm/jnrhsdfnmcz^ etc. The particle - changes a transitive verb (one which
takes a direct object) into an intransitive verb (which does not take a direct object).
Compare:

I opened the door (transitive)


the door opened (intransitive)

z jnrhsk(f) ldthm
ldthm jnrhskfcm

For more details on the uses of reflexive verbs see the Grammar section.

Activity Four -
Reading/Speaking
Read the following text and fill in the gaps, choosing the
appropriate form of a reflexive or non-reflexive verb from the box below.
jnrhsdfnm/jnrhsdfnmcz
pfrhsdfnm/pfrhsdfnmcz

yfxbyfnm/yfxbyfnmcz
pfrfyxbdfnm/pfrfyxbdfnmcz


<jkmibycndj* vfufpbyjd d Vjcrdt
d 8 bkb 9 xfcjd enhf b
d 8 bkb 9 xfcjd d txthf& Ytrjnjhst vfufpbys
yf j,tl c xfce lj lde[ xfcjd lyz&
Rhegyst htcnjhfys j,sxyj
yf j,tl c ldtyflwfnb lj
xtnsh/[ xfcjd lyz b gjnjv
lj ctvb xfcjd dtxthf& Jyb cyjdf
cdjb ldthb d 7 xfcjd dtxthf b
b[ d gjkyjxm&
Gjxnf j,sxyj
xfcjd dtxthf&

d 9 xfcjd enhf b

d 6 bkb 7

D rbyjntfnhf[ abkmvs gjrfpsdf.n d t cm l tym& Gthdsq c tfyc


d 9 xfcjd enhf b
d 12 xfcjd yjxb&
Dtxthybt cgtrnfrkb d ntfnhf[ j,sxyj
Vtnhj

d 19&30&

d 6 xfcjd enhf b

Djlbntkb fdnj,ecjd b nhjkktq,ecjd


b
hf,jxbq ltym d gjkyjxm&

d xfc yjxb&
hf,jne d 6 xfcjd enhf

* The noun ,jkmibycndj is followed by a singular verb; e.g. ,jkmibycndj ,fyrjd jnrhsdftncz
d 9&30 enhf - the majority of banks open at 9.30 a.m.

rhegysq
ctfyc

318

large
showing (of a film)

cgtrnfrkm (m)
djlbntkm (m)

performance (in the theatre)


driver
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

To read the opening times in each advertisement you will need to know the Genitive case of numerals
after the prepositions c (from) and lj (until). For all numerals ending in - simply remove the soft sign
and replace it with -b; e.g. gznm xfcjd - c gznb xfcjd (from five oclock), ldtyflwfnm xfcjd - lj
ldtyflwfnb xfcjd (until twelve oclock). The Genitive forms of jlby^ ldf^ nhb and xtnsht are as
follows: jlyjuj^ lde[^ nh/[ and xtnsh/[. In the phrase from one oclock the numeral is usually
omitted in colloquial Russian; e.g. c xce& For more details on numerals in oblique cases see the Grammar section.

I.

WTYNH UJVTJGFNBXTCRJQ
VTLBWBYS

II. "KTRNHJYBRF ABHVS SONY

Chapter 17

Activity Five -
Reading/Speaking Read the following newspaper cuttings which advertise various
services and then answer in Russian the questions which accompany each advertisement.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

1& Xnj htrkfvbhetncz d njv


j,]zdktybb$
2& D rfrjv ujhjlt yf[jlbncz
wtynh$
3& Rjulf jy jnrhsdftncz b
pfrhsdftncz gj hf,jxbv lyzv$
4& Rjulf jy jnrhsdftncz b
pfrhsdftncz gj ce,,jnfv$

1& Rfrbt njdfhs htrkfvbhetn


'njn vfufpby$
2& Ult jy hfcgjkj;ty$
3& Rjulf jy jnrhsdftncz b
pfrhsdftncz$
4& Rjulf vfufpby pfrhsdftncz yf
j,tl$
5& Gj rfrbv lyzv jy hf,jnftn$

III. WTYNH FYUKBQCRJUJ ZPSRF 1& Xnj htrkfvbhetncz d 'njv

j,]zdktybb$
2& Rfr vj;yj gjkexbnm
byajhvfwb.$
3& Gj rfrbv lyzv hf,jnftn
'njn wtynh$
4& Rjulf jy jnrhsdftncz b
pfrhsdftncz$
5& Rjulf yfxbyftncz b
pfrfyxbdftncz gththsd yf j,tl$

ujvtjgfnbxtcrbt
ghtgfhfgns
htrkfvbhjdfnm(cz) (III)
(htrkfvbhe.(cm)^
htrkfvbhetim(cz))
j,]zdktybt
njdfhs
A new ab initio Russian course

homeopathic cures
to (be) advertize(d)
advertisement
goods

'ktrnhjybrf
abhvtyysq vfufpby
ds[jlyjq; ds[jlyst
gj rfrbv lyzv &&&$
gththsd yf j,tl
c &&& gj (gznybwe)

electrical appliances
shop (selling only one brand
of goods)
day off; weekend
on which days ?
lunch break
from ... (through) to (Friday)

319

How to tell the time more precisely


1. In the first half-hour after the full hour, the time is expressed in Russian as five, ten, fifteen minutes
etc. of the next hour; e.g. gznm vbyen dnjhjuj - five past one (literally: five minutes of the second).
Note that the ordinal numeral in the Genitive case is used for the hour:
jlyf vbyenf
ldt vbyens
gznm vbyen
ltcznm vbyen
gznyflwfnm vbyen/xtndthnm
ldflwfnm vbyen
ldflwfnm gznm (vbyen)
gjkjdbyf

dnjhjuj

one
two
five
ten
fifteen/quarter past
twenty
twenty-five
half

one

2. In the second half-hour after the full hour, the time is expressed as without five, ten, fifteen minutes
etc. one, two, three (o'clock) etc.; e.g. ,tp gznb ldf - five to two (literally, without five minutes
two). Note that the cardinal numeral in the Nominative case is used for the hour:
,tp ldflwfnb gznb (vbyen)
,tp ldflwfnb (vbyen)
,tp gznyflwfnb/,tp xtndthnb
,tp ltcznb (vbyen)
,tp gznb (vbyen)
,tp lde[ vbyen
,tp jlyjq vbyens

ldf

twenty-five (minutes) to
twenty (minutes) to
quarter to
ten (minutes) to
five (minutes) to
two minutes to
one minute to

two

Note:
a) in colloquial Russian gjkjdbyf is often replaced by gjk-; e.g. gjkdnjhjuj^ gjknhtnmtuj
b) vbyen may be omitted in ldflwfnm gznm (vbyen) dnjhjuj; in other phrases vbyens/vbyen must
be included; e.g. ldflwfnm xtnsht vbyens dnjhjuj; ltcznm vbyen dnjhjuj
c) to answer the question rjulf &&&$ simply add d at the beginning of the phrase which indicates the time
between the hour and half hour; e.g. d ltcznm vbyen dnjhjuj - at ten past one. Do not forget to use
gjkjdbyf in the Prepositional case; e.g. d gjkjdbyt dnjhjuj - at half past one (but d gjkdnjhjuj!)&
The phrases which indicate the time after the half hour do not require d; e.g. ,tp ltcznb ldf - at ten to
two.

Activity Six -
Reading/Speaking/Listening Pairwork. Read the Russian TV guide below and
listen to the TV presenter reading the guide using the 24 hour clock. Ask your partner when
various programmes start and finish using the 12 hour clock. Take it in turns to ask questions,
using the model below as a guide.
GHJUHFVVF RFYFKF ND6 VJCRDF

- Rjulf yfxbyftncz gthtlfxf Itcnm


yjdjcntq?
- Jyf yfxbyftncz d ctvm xfcjd enhf&
- F rjulf jyf rjyxftncz$
- Jyf rjyxftncz d ltcznm vbyen
djcmvjuj&

320

7.00
7.10 -
7.40

8.10
8.20
8.25
!
8.45
9.00
9.10
9.20 !

17.35 -
17.55
!
18.10
18.20
18.35
18.50
II, 9- -10-

19.55
20.05 - :
21.00
21.15 6

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You have already met two of these verbs in Chapter Three: blnb (to go on foot) and t[fnm (to go by
transport). There are twelve more verbs which express different types of motion (therefore fourteen in all);
e.g. ,t;fnm (to run), ktntnm (to fly), gksnm (to swim, float) etc. You will find the full list of verbs of
motion in the Grammar section.

Each of the fourteen types of motion is actually represented in Russian by two imperfective verbs, making
fourteen pairs in all; e.g. to go on foot is expressed by the pair blnb/[jlbnm and to go by transport is
expressed by the pair t[fnm/tplbnm& In each pair the first verb expresses movement in one direction only
and is called a unidirectional verb. The second verb expresses movement in more than one direction and
is called a multidirectional verb.

Chapter 17

Verbs of motion

Multidirectional verbs are used to express the following types of action:


1. action in various directions (backwards and forwards, up and down, to and fro, round and round,
and so on); e.g. vs [jlbv gj gfhre - we walk around the park
2. action performed more than once; e.g. vs [jlbv d gfhr rf;lsq ltym - we go to the park every
day; e.g. z jxtym htlrj [j;e d ntfnh - I hardly ever go to the theatre
3. action in general and the capacity to perform it; e.g. ht,/yjr e;t [jlbn - the child can already
walk .
z [j;
vs [lbv
ns [lbim
ds [lbnt
jy/jyf/jyj [lbn
jyb [lzn
z p;e
ns plbim
jy/jyf/jyj plbn

vs plbv
ds plbnt
jyb plzn

Activity Seven -
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the dialogue below and fill in the gaps choosing the
unidirectional verb t[fnm or the multidirectional verb tplbnm. Use them in the appropriate
form. Listen to the tape to check your answers.

1-
2-
1-
2-
1-
2-
1-
2-
1-
2-
1-

Lj,hsq ltym&
Plhfdcndeqnt& Vs c dfvb cjctlb gj regt&
Lf^ yfv ,eltn dtctktt _______________&
F ds relf _______________$
Z _______________ d Vjcrde^ ds nj;t$
Ytn^ z _______________ d Vbycr&
Pyfxbn^ vs ,eltv _______________ dvtcnt njkmrj xtnsht xfcf&
Ds xfcnj _______________ d Vjcrde$
Lf^ z _______________ d Vjcrde gznm-itcnm hfp d ujl&
Nfr xfcnj$ Ds^ yfdthyjt^ _______________ gj ltkfv$
Lf^ z _______________ d rjvfylbhjdrb& F ds ;bd/nt d Vbycrt
bkb nj;t _______________ d rjvfylbhjdre$
2- - Z nj;t ______________ d rjvfylbhjdre& J,sxyj z ______________
d Vjcrde^ yj d 'njv ujle yfif abhvf jnrhskf abkbfk d Vbycrt&
Levf.^ xnj ntgthm vyt ye;yj ,eltn xfcnj ____________ d Vbycr&
1- - Cnhfyyj^ xnj d yfitv regt ______________ njkmrj ldf xtkjdtrf&
Hfymit nhelyj ,skj regbnm ,bktn yf 'njn gjtpl^ f ntgthm
,bktns tcnm dctulf&
2- - Lf^ ntgthm k.lb _______________ vfkj^ ,bktns jxtym ljhjubt&
cjctlb gj regt
(n indeclinable)
yfv ,eltn dtctktt

people who share a compartment


(in a railway carriage)
that will be nicer for us

A new ab initio Russian course

gj ltkfv
rjvfylbhjdrf
abkbfk

on business
business trip
branch

321

Activity Eight -
Listening/Speaking Listen to the dialogues and tick the boxes which show the usual
way of going to work and the actual method used today. In each case indicate the time taken
for the journey. Then reconstruct the dialogues with your partner using the information from
the table and the appropriate forms of the verbs chosen.
lbfkju
1
2

blnb - [jlbnm
j,sxyj
ctujlyz

dhtvz

t[fnm - tplbnm
j,sxyj ctujlyz

dhtvz

Activity Nine -
Reading/Speaking Look at the train timetable below and then answer the questions
in Russian.
HFCGBCFYBT LDB:TYBZ GJTPLJD
yfghfdktybt

gjtplf

Vjcrdf - CfyrnGtnth,ehu
Vjcrdf - Rbtd
Vjcrdf - Dbkmy.c
Vjcrdf - Dfhifdf

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

dhtvz
ghb,snbz
8& 30

lyb ytltkb

651

dhtvz
jnghfdktybz
24& 00

303
526
260

12& 45
23& 30
9& 00

11& 25
7& 40
24& 00

gjy&^ ch&^ xn&


t;tlytdyj
dn&^ gzny&^ ce,&

t;tlytdyj

Rfr xfcnj [jlbn* 651-sq gjtpl$


Relf jy [jlbn$
Rjulf jy jnghfdkztncz b ghb,sdftn$
Relf [jlbn 303-bq gjtpl$
Gj rfrbv lyzv jy [jlbn$
Rjulf jy jnghfdkztncz b ghb,sdftn$
Gj rfrbv lyzv [jlbn gjtpl yf Dbkmy.c$
Rfrjq e ytuj yjvth$
Rjulf jy jnghfdkztncz b ghb,sdftn$
{jlbn kb gjtpl yf Dfhifde gj chtlfv$
Rfrjq e ytuj yjvth$
Rjulf jy jnghfdkztncz b ghb,sdftn$

* While the movement of people on vehicles is expressed by t[fnm - tplbnm^ the movement of the
vehicles themselves (trains, buses, trams, trolleybuses and cars) is normally expressed by blnb - [jlbnm&

Activity Ten -
Reading Read the following Aeroflot advertisement and answer the questions given
below in English. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.
crjkmrj dhtvtyb pfybvftn
ljhjuf yf vfibyt / gtirjv$
xeltcysq
yfghfdktybt
dhtvz jnghfdktybz

322

how long does it


take by car / on foot?
wonderful
destination
departure time

dhtvz ghb,snbz
Dbkmy.c
Dfhifdf

arrival time
Vilnius (capital of
Lithuania)
Warsaw

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 17

.
:
, , -

(
)

USD

SU 721

08.15

15.30

.,.,

SU 722

17.10

18.30

186 340

.,.,. SU 723

21.30

12.15+1

.,.,. SU 724

15.15

16.30

534 762

20.15

21.35

15

22.25

23.40

89 127

.,.,.

.- .,.,.
.
15

SU 731

SU 732

-1
, - .
.
:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

.: (095) 155-50-45 926-62-78


.: (383-2) 22-77-90
.: (421-2) 24-62-89
.

What new destinations are advertized?


Which of these is served by flight number SU 721?
On what days does this flight leave?
What is the flight number of the plane to St. Petersburg?
At what time does this flight arrive in St. Petersburg?
How often are there flights to Khabarovsk?
At what time does this flight leave Moscow?
From which of Moscows airports do all the flights depart?
What classes of seat are available on these flights?
Are there convenient connections with other flights?
What connecting destinations are mentioned in the advertisement?
Can you name any other sources of information about available flights?

gjk/n
dyenhb (+ gen)
djpleiyjt cjj,otybt
dsktn
ghbk/n
dsgjkyznm(-cz) (I) /
dsgjkybnm(-cz) (II)
fdbfkfqyth
A new ab initio Russian course

flight
inside
air communications
departure (flying)
arrival (flying)
to carry out, be carried
out
passenger aircraft

j,cke;bdfybt
gthdsq/,bpytc-/
'rjyjvbxtcrbq rkfcc
ghtlecvjnhtys (pl)
cnsrjdrf
d njv xbckt
cnhfys <fknbb
nehfutycndj

service
first/business/economy
class
are provided for
connection
including
the Baltic States
travel agency

323

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Look at the advertisement from Activity Ten again and answer the
following questions in Russian.
1&
2&
3&
4&

Relf ktnf.n yjdst htqcs Fhjakjnf$


Gj rfrbv lyzv ktnftn cfvjk/n d Yjdjcb,bhcr$
Tckb ctujlyz djcrhtctymt^ nj relf ctujlyz ktnbn* cfvjk/n$
Tckb ctujlyz dnjhybr^ nj relf ctujlyz ktnzn htqcs Su 721 b Su 731?

* You have already met the multidirectional verb ktnfnm (to fly) in Chapter Four. Its unidirectional pair
is ktntnm& The conjugation of this verb is as follows:
z ktx
ns ktnim
jy/jyf/jyj ktnn

vs ktnv
ds ktnnt
jyb ktnn

Activity Twelve -
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the dialogue below and fill in the gaps choosing
the appropriate form of either the unidirectional verb ktntnm or the multidirectional verb
ktnfnm& Listen to the tape to check your answers.

F - Ghjcnbnt^ ds yt vjukb ,s ghbcvjnhtnm pf vjbvb dtofvb$ Z njkmrj regk.


ufptne b dthyecm&
< - Lf^ rjytxyj&
F - Cgfcb,j dfv ,jkmijt&
< - Yt pf xnj&
F - Ye^ djn z b dthyekfcm& Ntgthm tcnm^ xnj gjxbnfnm lj dsktnf&
< - F ds relf ____________________$
F - Z ____________________ d Cjxb& F ds$
< - Z ____________________ d Gtnth,ehu^ yj nj;t [jntk ,s ____________________ d
Cjxb^ yf vjht& Nfv ctqxfc nfr [jhjij!
F - Lf^ gjujlf nfv ctqxfc jxtym ;fhrfz& Z j,sxyj ____________________ nelf d
ctynz,ht^ yj d 'njv ujle jngecr e vtyz d b.kt& F ds ____________________ d
Gtnth,ehu d rjvfylbhjdre$
< - Lf^ d rjvfylbhjdre& Vjq jngecr e;t rjyxbkcz&
F - F ult ds jnls[fkb$
< - Vs c ;tyjq ____________________ r lhepmzv d Bcgfyb.&
F - D Bcgfyb.$ F d rfrjv ujhjlt ds ,skb$
< - Vs ____________________ d Vflhbl&
F - Xeltcysq ujhjl! Z nj;t d ghjikjv ujle ,skf d Vflhblt^ ___________________
yf rjyathtywb.&
< - Ghjcnbnt^ rf;tncz^ j,]zdkz.n gjcflre yf vjq htqc&
F - Lj cdblfybz^ cxfcnkbdjuj genb!
< - Dfv nfr;t&
pfk dsktnf
ghbcvfnhbdfnm (I) /
ghbcvjnhtnm (II) pf dtofvb
djpdhfofnmcz (I) / dthyenmcz
(dthyecm^ dthy/imcz)
yt pf xnj

324

departure lounge
to keep an eye
on belongings
to return
youre welcome

ntgthm tcnm^
now I have
xnj gjxbnfnm
something to read
jngecr
holiday, leave
vs c ;tyjq
my wife and I
j,]zdkznm (I) / j,]zdbnm (II) to announce
gjcflrf
boarding
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

You will need to know how to say in Russian to depart and to arrive when flying. Add the prefixes (to indicate departure) or - (to indicate arrival) to the appropriate verb ktntnm or ktnfnm& The newly
formed verbs dsktnnm - dktntnm^ ghbktnnm - ghbktnnm are called compound verbs of motion.
For more details see the Grammar section.

Chapter 17

Activity Thirteen -
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and your partner plays the role of B,
then reverse the roles. Use the information given in Activity Ten.

At the information desk -

A
1. Say good afternoon.
Ask on what days the plane flies to Khabarovsk.
Ask at what time it departs from Moscow.
Ask at what time it arrives in Khabarovsk.
Ask the flight number.

B
Give an appropriate reply.
"
"
"
"

A
2. Say good morning.
Ask on what days there is a plane to St. Petersburg.
Ask at what time it departs from Moscow.
Ask at what time it arrives in St. Petersburg.
Ask for the flight number.

B
Give an appropriate reply.
"
"
"
"

The perfective forms of unidirectional verbs


The perfective infinitives of unidirectional verbs are formed with the prefix -; e.g. blnb/gjqnb (to go),
t[fnm/gjt[fnm (to travel), ktntnm/gjktntnm (to fly) etc.
Perfective forms either stress setting off or recent depature and possible arrival:

jy gjtltn d Vjcrde xthtp nhb lyz - he will be setting off for Moscow in three days
jyf gjikf d vfufpby - she has gone to the shop
jyb gjktntkb yf rjyathtywb. - they have gone to the conference

Activity Fourteen -
Reading/Speaking Look at the tickets below and answer the following questions in
Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.

1& Rfrjuj xbckf vj;yj


gjqnb d wbhr$
2& Crjkmrj cnjbn rf;lsq
,bktn$
3& Rfrjt vtcnj b hzl
erfpfys d ,bktnf[$
4& Rfrjuj xbckf vj;yj
gjqnb dj Ldjhtw cgjhnf$

A new ab initio Russian course

325

Activity Fifteen -
Reading/Writing Read the information on the train ticket and indicate whether the
following statements are True (G) or False (Y). Where you have written Y, write out the
correct version in Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

1. C 'nbv ,bktnjv vj;yj gjt[fnm d Ctdfcnjgjkm


(_________________________________________________________)
2. Gjtpl jnghfdkztncz d 7& 55 enhf&
(_________________________________________________________)
3. Gjtpl jnghfdkztncz ldflwfnm nhtnmtuj b.yz&
(_________________________________________________________)
4. nj gjtpl yjvth ctvm&
(_________________________________________________________)
5. Yjvth dfujyf - ldf&
(_________________________________________________________)
6. <bktn cnjbn ctvmcjn ldflwfnm he,ktq^ djctvmltczn rjgttr&
(_________________________________________________________)
7. Yjvth vtcnf - cjhjr xtnsht&
(_________________________________________________________)
The perfective forms of multidirectional verbs

The perfective infinitives of multidirectional verbs are also formed with the prefix -, i.e. [jlbnm/
gj[jlbnm (to walk), tplbnm/gjtplbnm (to travel), ktnfnm/gjktnfnm (to fly) etc.
These perfective forms express an action of short duration:
jy gj[jlbk gj rjvyfnt b ctk - he walked around the room for a while and then sat down
vs cyfxfkf gjtplbkb yf dtkjcbgtlt^ f gjnjv gjikb d rbyj - first we rode a bike for a bit and then
we went to the cinema
ldjhtw cgjhnf
ujcelfhcndtyysq
wbhr
nhb,eyf
dfujy

326

sports centre
state
circus
stand (at sports events)
carriage

vtcnj
hzl
erfpfys
ctrnjh
Ctdfcnjgjkm

seat
row
are indicated
section
Sebastopol
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 17

Activity Sixteen -
Writing Look at the pictures below. Complete the sentences beneath each picture
choosing the appropriate form of either [jlbnm/gj[jlbnm or tplbnm/gjtplbnm&

Jy ljkuj _______________ gj gfhre&

Jy ytvyjuj _______________ gj gfhre b


ei/k ljvjq&

Vs ytvyjuj _______________ yf yjdjq


vfibyt b gjcnfdbkb t/ d uhf;&

Vs e;t lfdyj yt _______________ yf


vfibyt^ jyf ckjvfkfcm&

Activity Seventeen -
Reading/Writing/Listening Listen to the tape twice and fill in the missing verbs of
motion which are given in the infinitive form in the box below. Then analyse the sentences and
justify the choice of the verbs.
t[fnm
tplbnm

gjt[fnm
ghbt[fnm

dsqnb
gj[jlbnm

dsktntnm
dsktnfnm

D ghjikjv ujle z ________________ d jngecr d ctynz,ht& D Vjcrdt gjujlf ,skf


lj;lkbdfz b [jkjlyfz^ gjnjve z htibkf ________________ yf .u^ yf X/hyjt vjht&
Vjq cfvjk/n __________________ d 9 xfcjd enhf& Vyt ye;yj ,skj __________________
d fhjgjhn pf ldf xfcf lj dsktnf^ d 7 xfcjd enhf& Z htibkf __________________ d
fhjgjhn fdnj,ecjv& Fdnj,ec bl/n lj fhjgjhnf 2 xfcf^ gjnjve z __________________
bp ljvf d 5 xfcjd& Z ljkuj [jlbkf gj jcnfyjdrt b ;lfkf fdnj,ec & Tuj dc/ yt ,skj^
b z htibkf _________________ yf nfrcb& Yj cdj,jlys[ nfrcb nj;t ljkuj yt ,skj& Z
jxtym ythdybxfkf^ dtlm z jgfplsdfkf yf cfvjk/n& Yfrjytw vyt elfkjcm gjqvfnm
nfrcb& Z jxtym ghjcbkf nfrcbcnf __________________ rfr vj;yj ,scnhtt& Z
________________ d fhjgjhn pf 30 vbyen lj dsktnf^ yj dc/-nfrb ecgtkf yf cfvjk/n!
Jy __________________ djdhtvz^ hjdyj d 9 xfcjd enhf&
(c-)kjvfnmcz (I)
pf ldf xfcf lj (+ gen)
(gjlj-);lfnm (;le^ ;l/im)
ythdybxfnm (I) (imp)
jgfplsdfnm (I) / jgjplfnm (I)
yf (+ acc)
vyt elfkjcm
A new ab initio Russian course

to break down
two hours before
to wait
to be anxious
to be late for
I managed

kjdbnm (kjdk.^ kjdbim) /


gjqvfnm (I)
(gj-)ghjcbnm (ghjie^ ghjcbim)
rfr vj;yj ,scnhtt
dc/-nfrb
ecgtdfnm (I) / ecgtnm (ecgt.^
ecgttim) yf (+ acc)

to catch
to ask
as fast as possible
all the same, still
to manage to catch

327

Compound verbs of motion


You have already met some of the compound verbs of motion in Activity Thirteen and Activity Seventeen. They are formed by adding a prefix to a simple verb of motion, which then acquires a new meaning;
e.g. t[fnm (to go by car, bus, train etc.) - ghbt[fnm (to arrive), dt[fnm (to depart). A perfective verb
with a new meaning is formed by using the unidirectional verb with a prefix; e.g. ghbt[fnm (pf) ghbtp;fnm (imp). An imperfective verb with the same new meaning is formed by using the multidirectional verb with the same prefix.
Compounds with similar new meanings can be formed from all simple verbs of motion by adding a prefix;
e.g. ktntnm (to fly) - ghbktntnm (to arrive by plane), dktntnm (to depart be plane).

The most common prefixes used with verbs of motion are given below in combination with blnb [jlbnm& For the full list of prefixes refer to the Grammar section.
imperfective
d[jlbnm
e[jlbnm

perfective
djqnb
eqnb

ds[jlbnm
lj[jlbnm
pf[jlbnm

dsqnb
ljqnb
pfqnb

gtht[jlbnm

gthtqnb

ghb[jlbnm

ghbqnb

preposition
d (+ acc)
jn (+ gen)
bp/c (+ gen)
bp (+ gen)
lj (+ gen)
d/yf (+ acc)
r (+ dat)
xthtp (+ acc)
- (+ acc)
d/yf (+ acc)
r (+ dat)

meaning
to enter
to leave (a person)
to leave (a place)
to go out of, to depart
to go as far as, to reach
to call in at a place
to call on someone
to cross
to come, to arrive
to come to see a person

Activity Eighteen -
Reading Read the following extract from a childrens poem and work out the
meaning of each compound verb of motion used in it. Complete the partial translation of the
poem.
Lheu (. )
Lheu et[fk lfktrj&
Vyt ,tp lheuf ytkturj&
Ltym ghji/k&
Gjnjv ytltkz&
Nhb ytltkb ghjktntkb&
Ktnjv - lj;lm&
Pbvj. - dm.uf&
Jxtym crexyj vyt ,tp lheuf&

My friend _______________ far away.


It is hard to be without a friend.
One day has _______________.
Then one week.
Three weeks have _______________.
It rains in summer.
There are snowstorms in winter.
I have really missed my friend.

Activity Nineteen -
Listening/Writing/Reading Listen to the dialogue (At the metro station) and fill in
the gaps in the partial transcription below. Read the completed transcription in pairs.

1-sq gfccf;bh - Crf;bnt^ gj;fkeqcnf^ rfr vyt ______________ lj cnfywbb


Ytdcrbq ghjcgtrn$
2-jq gfccf;bh - Nfr^ vs c dfvb ctqxfc yf cnfywbb Fdnjdj& Pyfxbn^ dfv
pbvj. = pbvjq

328

in the winter

dm.uf

snowstorm
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

2-jq gfccf;bh -

1-sq gfccf;bh 2-jq gfccf;bh -

Chapter 17

1-sq gfccf;bh -

ye;yj ______________ nhb jcnfyjdrb b ______________ yf


cnfywbb Nt[yjkjubxtcrbq bycnbnen&
Nfr^ [jhjij^ f gjnjv vyt^ yfdthyjt^ ye;yj ,eltn cltkfnm
gthtcflre$
Lf^ dfv ye;yj ,eltn ______________ yf lheue. kbyb.^
jyf cbytuj wdtnf yf c[tvt vtnhj^ b gthtctcnm yf lheujq
gjtpl& Gjnjv dfv ye;yj ,eltn ______________ dctuj jlye
jcnfyjdre b ______________ yf cktle.otq cnfywbb& nj b
,eltn Ytdcrbq ghjcgtrn&
<jkmijt cgfcb,j&
Yt pf xnj&

Activity Twenty -
Listening Listen to the tape again and indicate whether the following statements are
True (G) or False (Y). Where you have put Y write out the correct version in Russian.
1. The first passenger would like to go to the metro station Avtovo.
(___________________________________________________________)
2. She should go 4 stops and then change lines.
(___________________________________________________________)
3. She should get off at the metro station Institute of Technology.
(___________________________________________________________)
4. There she should change lines and take another train.
(___________________________________________________________)
5. She should travel three more stops.
(___________________________________________________________)
Activity Twenty-One -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. Look at the St. Petersburg underground map on the
following page. Then act out the dialogue from Activity Nineteen using the starting point and
information given below. You should change roles each time.
1. You are at Kupchino station
and would like to go to
Obukhovo station.

4. You are at Devyatkino station


and would like to go to
Alexander Nevsky Square.

2. You are at Obukhovo station


and would like to go to
Sadovaya.

5. You are at Alexander Nevsky


square station and would like to go
to Pushkinskaya.

3. You are at Sadovaya station


and would like to go to
Devyatkino.

6. You are at Pushkinskaya


station and would like to go to
Obukhovo.

jcnfyjdrf
yfdthyjt
(c-)ltkfnm (I)
gthtcflre
kbybz

stop
probably
to change (trains,
buses etc.)
line

A new ab initio Russian course

c[tvf vtnhj
gthtcf;bdfnmcz (I) /
gthtctcnm (gthtczle^
gthtczltim) yf (+ acc)

map of the metro


to change (trains,
buses etc.)

329

Activity Twenty-Two - Ldflwfnm dnjhjt pflfybt


Reading Work out the meaning of the following words which can often be seen at
underground stations, public buildings and in car parks. Indicate with arrows all the boxes
relevant to each word.

d[jl
ds[jl
gtht[jl
d]tpl
dstpl

330

EXIT FROM CAR PARK

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

ENTRANCE TO CAR PARK

ENTRANCE TO MUSEUM

CROSSING BETWEEN UNDERGROUND LINES


EXIT FROM CINEMA
ENTRANCE TO UNDERGROUND
ENTRANCE FOR DELIVERY VEHICLES

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

REFLEXIVE VERBS

Reflexive verbs are used as follows:


1. Real reflexives express an action which the subject performs on itself. This group
contains:

Chapter 17

GRAMMAR

a) a number of verbs which relate to personal grooming. The following list of common reflexive verbs
may prove useful:
,hbnmcz/gj,hbnmcz
rhfcbnmcz/yfrhfcbnmcz
regfnmcz/ds-, bcregfnmcz
vsnmcz/gj-^ dsvsnmcz
j,edfnmcz/j,enmcz
jltdfnmcz/jltnmcz
gthtjltdfnmcz/gthtjltnmcz
ghbx/csdfnmcz/ghbxtcfnmcz
ghjcsgfnmcz/ghjcyenmcz
gelhbnmcz/yf-^ gjgelhbnmcz
hfpltdfnmcz/hfpltnmcz
hfpedfnmcz/hfpenmcz
evsdfnmcz/evsnmcz

to shave (oneself)
to make up ones face
to bathe (oneself)
to wash (oneself)
to put on ones shoes
to dress (oneself)
to change (ones clothes)
to brush ones hair
to wake up
to powder ones face
to get undressed, to take off ones hat and coat
to take off ones shoes
to wash ones hands and face

b) other common real reflexives include the following:


pfobofnmcz/pfobnbnmcz
gjlybvfnmcz/gjlyznmcz
ghznfnmcz/cghznfnmcz
cgecrfnmcz/cgecnbnmcz
ecf;bdfnmcz/ectcnmcz

to defend oneself
to ascend
to hide (oneself)
to descend
to settle down

c) a number of real reflexives are reflexive only in the imperfective:


kj;bnmcz/ktxm
gthtcf;bdfnmcz/gthtctcnm
cflbnmcz/ctcnm
cnfyjdbnmcz/cnfnm

to lie down
to change trains etc.
to sit down
to (go and) stand, to become

Note: there is no reflexive verb in Russian to express to behave oneself. The following phrase is
used instead: ; e.g. jy gkj[j ct,z dtl/n - he behaves badly.

2. Reciprocal reflexives express reciprocal or joint action:


dbltnmcz/edbltnmcz
dcnhtxfnmcz/dcnhtnbnmcz
ltkbnmcz/gjltkbnmcz
ljujdfhbdfnmcz/ljujdjhbnmcz
lhfnmcz/gjlhfnmcz
pljhjdfnmcz/gjpljhjdfnmcz
pyfrjvbnmcz/gjpyfrjvbnmcz
vbhbnmcz/gjvbhbnmcz
j,ybvfnmcz/j,yznmcz
ghjofnmcz/ghjcnbnmcz
cjdtnjdfnmcz/gjcjdtnjdfnmcz
ccjhbnmcz/gjccjhbnmcz
wtkjdfnmcz/gjwtkjdfnmcz
A new ab initio Russian course

to see (each other)


to meet (each other)
to share
to agree
to fight (each other)
to say hello
to get acquainted (with each other)
to make it up
to embrace (each other)
to say goodbye
to take advice
to quarrel
to kiss (each other)

331

Note: reflexive verbs of motion with the prefixes - and c- also express joint action; e.g.
hfc[jlbnmcz/hfpjqnbcm (to disperse), c[jlbnmcz/cjqnbcm (to gather).

3. Reflexive verbs with a passive meaning. Many ordinary imperfective transitive verbs
acquire passive meaning when -cz is added to them. There is usually a third-person object in
the sentence; e.g. ghjlfdfnm% vs ghjlf/v rybub - we sell books; ghjlfdfnmcz% rybub
ghjlf.ncz l/itdj - the books are sold cheaply.
ujdjhbnm - ujdjhbnmcz%
ltkfnm - ltkfnmcz%
bcgjkyznm - bcgjkyznmcz%

'nj yt dcke[ - such things are not said aloud


rfr 'nj $ - how is that done?
'nf cbvajybz dgthdst - this symphony is
being performed for the first time

A number of reflexive passive verbs are used to express prohibition:

djcghtofnm - djcghtofnmcz% rehbnm - no smoking (literally: smoking is


prohibited)
ljgecrfnm - ljgecrfnmcz%
ltnb lj 16 ktn yt - children under 16 are not
admitted

Note: only imperfective verbs function as reflexive passives.

4. Intransitive reflexives. A reflexive particle can transform a transitive verb into an


intransitive verb. While English uses many verbs both transitively and intransitively (e.g. he
stopped the clock / the clock stopped), Russian always distinguishes transitive from
intransitive by adding a reflexive particle to a transitive verb ( jy xfcs / xfcs
).
transitive
yfxbyfnm/yfxfnm
rjyxfnm/rjyxbnm
ghjljk;fnm/ghjljk;bnm
jnrhsdfnm/jnrhsnm
pfrhsdfnm/pfrhsnm
kjvfnm/ckjvfnm

intransitive
yfxbyfnmcz/yfxfnmcz
rjyxfnmcz/rjyxbnmcz
ghjljk;fnmcz/ghjljk;bnmcz
jnrhsdfnmcz/jnrhsnmcz
pfrhsdfnmcz/pfrhsnmcz
kjvfnmcz/ckjvfnmcz

English
to begin, to start
to finish, to stop
to continue
to open
to close
to break

5. Reflexive verbs which express feelings:


a) some of them only have a reflexive form:
,jznmcz (+ gen)
ujhlbnmcz (+ instr)
yfltznmcz yf (+ acc)
yfckf;lfnmcz (+ instr)
yhfdbnmcz/gjyhfdbnmcz (+ dat)
hfcgkfrfnmcz (pf only)
hfccvtznmcz (pf only)
cvtznmcz/pfcvtznmcz yfl (+ instr)
cjvytdfnmcz/ecjvybnmcz d (+ prep)
eks,fnmcz/eks,yenmcz (+ dat)

to fear
to be proud of
to hope for, rely on
to enjoy
to please
to burst into tears
to burst out laughing
to laugh at
to express doubt about
to smile at

b) some of them have both reflexive and non-reflexive forms:


,tcgjrjbnm(cz)/gj,tcgjrjbnm(cz)
dtctkbnm(cz)/gjdtctkbnm(cz)
djkyjdfnm(cz)/dpdjkyjdfnm(cz)
332

to worry, (reflexive) to be worried


to amuse, (reflexive) to enjoy oneself
to excite, (reflexive) to get excited
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

to delight, (reflexive) to be delighted (with)


to acknowledge, (reflexive) to confess to
to frighten, (reflexive) to be frightened (of)
to gladden, (reflexive) to rejoice (at)
to upset, (reflexive) to get upset
to anger, (reflexive) to get angry (at)
to surprise, (reflexive) to be surprised (at)
to frown, to knit ones brow

6. Reflexive verbs that express the potential to perform some action (usually harmful):
recfnmcz (cj,frb recf.ncz)
wfhfgnmcz (rjirb wfhfgf.ncz)

Chapter 17

djc[bofnm(cz)/djc[bnbnm(cz) (+ instr)
ghbpyfdfnm(cz)/ghbpyfnm(cz) d (+ prep)
geufnm(cz)/bcgeufnm(cz) (+ gen)
hfljdfnm(cz)/j,hfljdfnm(cz) (+ dat)
hfccnhfbdfnm(cz)/hfccnhjbnm(cz)
cthlbnm(cz)/hfccthlbnm(cz) yf (+ acc)
elbdkznm(cz)/elbdbnm(cz) (+ dat)
[vehbnm(cz)/yf[vehbnm(cz)

to bite (dogs bite)


to scratch (cats scratch)

7. A number of reflexive verbs express out and out completion of an action. These verbs
usually have the prefixes ds-^ lj- or yf-:
dscsgfnmcz/dscgfnmcz
ljlevsdfnmcz/ljlevfnmcz
yftlfnmcz/yftcnmcz
yfgbdfnmcz/yfgbnmcz

to have a good sleep


to hit on an idea
to eat ones fill
to slake ones thirst; get drunk

Activity Twenty-Three -
Reading Read the following rules printed on the back of a theatre ticket. Underline
all the reflexive verbs that you can find. Translate the rules into English using the vocabulary
list at the foot of the page.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&

D[jl d phbntkmysq pfk gjckt nhtnmtuj pdjyrf pfghtoftncz&


Yf dtxthybt cgtrnfrkb ltnb vjkj;t 16 ktn yt ljgecrf.ncz&
Yf enhtyybt cgtrnfrkb ltnb ljgecrf.ncz c 7-vb ktn c jnltkmysv ,bktnjv&
D[jl d phbntkmysq pfk c gjhnatkzvb^ cd/hnrfvb b d ujkjdys[ e,jhf[ yt hfphtiftncz&
Ghb jnvtyt cgtrnfrkz ,bktns djpdhfof.ncz d rfcce ntfnhf lj yfxfkf cgtrnfrkz&

Activity Twenty-Four -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1.

I usually wake up at 8 oclock, but yesterday I woke up at 11 oclock.


2. I do not shave on Sundays.
3. In the morning I always get up, wash my hands and face, then have a shower , brush my
hair, get dressed, put on my shoes and have breakfast.
4. We have not seen each other for a long time.
5. They agreed to meet by the entrance to Nevsky Prospekt station.
6. She is always smiling.
7. They never quarrel.
8. He got angry and frowned.
9. I did not have enough sleep.
10. I am proud of him.
phbntkmysq pfk
pdjyjr
jnltkmysq

auditorium
bell
separate; (here:) own

A new ab initio Russian course

cd/hnjr
ujkjdyjq e,jh
ghb jnvtyt

package
headgear
in case of cancellation

333

NUMERALS IN OBLIQUE CASES

The cardinal numerals decline as follows:

1. yjkm/yekm declines like a masculine soft-sign noun with stressed ending


Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

yjkm/yekm
yjkm/yekm
yjk/yek
yjk/yek
yjk/v/yek/v
j yjk/yek

2. jlby declines like 'njn but with stressed ending


masculine
jly
jly/jlyju
jlyju
jlyjv
jlyv
j, jlyv

Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

feminine
jly
jly
jlyq
jlyq
jlyq
j, jlyq

neuter
jly
jly
jlyju
jlyjv
jlyv
j, jlyv

plural
jly*
jly/jly[
jly[
jlyv
jlyvb
j, jly[

* Used with plural-only nouns; e.g. jlyb cfyrb (one sledge)

3. gjknjh (m & n) / gjknjh (f) one and a half are the Nominative and Accusative
forms. In all other cases use gjknjhf.
4. ldf / ldt
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

masculine/neuter
ldf
ldf/ld[
ld[
ldv
ldev
j ld[

feminine
ldt
ldt/ld[
ld[
ldv
ldev
j ld[

5. gznm (and all other numerals ending in a soft sign)


Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

gznm
gznm
gzn
gzn
gznm
j gzn

itcnm
itcnm
itcn
itcn
itcnm
j itcn

ctvm
ctvm
ctv
ctv
ctvm
j ctv

dctvm
dctvm
djcmv
djcmv
djcvm
j djcmv

lcznm
lcznm
ltczn
ltczn
ltcznm
j ltczn

jlyyflwfnm*
jlyyflwfnm
jlyyflwfnb
jlyyflwfnb
jlyyflwfnm.
j, jlyyflwfnb

ldlwfnm
ldlwfnm
ldflwfn
ldflwfn
ldflwfnm
j ldflwfn

*11 - 19 decline with medial stress, whereas 5-10, 20 and 30 have stressed ending in all oblique cases.

6. chjr^ ltdzycnj^ cnj

These numerals have only one oblique case ending: -

Nom/Acc
Gen/Dat/Instr/Prep (j)

chjr
cjhjr

ltdzycnj
ltdzycnf

cnj
cnf

7. gznmltcn^ itcnmltcn^ cvmltczn^ dctvmltczn

334

The component parts of these numerals decline separately like soft-sign feminine nouns.
The stress falls on the second syllable in oblique cases:
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

gznmltcn
gznltcznb
gznmltcznm.
j gznltcznb

itcnmltcn
itcnltcznb
itcnmltcznm.
j itcnltzcnb

cvmltczn
ctvltcznb
ctvmltcznm.
j ctvltcznb

dctvmltczn
djcmvltcznb
djcmvmltcznm.
j djcmvltcznb

8. ldcnb - ltdznmcn
The component parts of these numerals decline separately:
Nom/Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

ldcnb
lde[cn
ldevcnv
ldevzcnvb
j lde[cn[

nhcnf
nh/[cn
nh/vcnv
nhtvzcnvb
j nh/[cn[

gznmcn
gznbcn
gznbcnv
gznbcnvb
j gznbcn[

Chapter 17

Nom/Acc
Gen/Dat
Instr
Prep

ltdznmcn
ltdznbcn
ltdznbcnv
ltdznbcnvb
j ltdznbcn[

9. nczxf declines like the feminine noun (Instrumental = nsczxm. or nsczxtq)


vbkkby^ vbkkbhl decline like the masculine noun
10. compound numerals
All parts of a compound numeral decline separately. In phrases the noun agrees with
the last element of the compound:
Nom/Acc
Gen/Dat/Prep
Instr

ldlwfnm gznm
(j) ldflwfn gzn
ldflwfnm gznm

11. ,f (m & n), ,t (f) both


Nom
Gen
Dat
Acc
Instr
Prep

,f
j,b[
j,bv
,f/j,b[
j,bvb
j, j,b[

,t
j,b[
j,bv
,t/j,b[
j,bvb
j, j,b[

Activity Twenty-Five -
Writing Write out the the numbers below in their appropriate cases.
1& Vjcrdf ,skf jcyjdfyf d 1147 ujle& 2& Yf nthhbnjhbb cjdhtvtyyjq Vjcrds
d cnfhbye ,skj ,jktt 800 jp/h b ,jkjn^ ghjntrfkj yt vtytt 150 htxtr b
hexm/d& 3& Rhfcyfz gkjoflm yt jxtym dtkbrf% t/ lkbyf - 695 vtnhjd^ f ibhbyf
- 130 vtnhjd& 4& Cjdhtvtyyjt yfpdfybt gkjoflb cj[hfybkjcm c 17 dtrf* ckjdj
rhfcyfz jpyfxftn rhfcbdfz& 5& Cjdhtvtyyst rhtvk/dcrbt cntys b ,fiyb
cnhjbkbcm c 1485 gj 1495 ujl& 6& Tckb ghjqnb c Rhfcyjq gkjoflb dljkm
cntys^ nj vj;yj edbltnm dct t/ 20 ,fity& 7& Cfvfz dscjrfz bp
rhtvk/dcrb[ ,fity - Nhjbwrfz^ dscjnf rjnjhjq jrjkj 80 vtnhjd& 8& J,ofz
ghjnz;/yyjcnm Rhtvk/dcrjq cntys - 2235 vtnhjd^ f njkobyf jn 3 lj 5 vtnhjd
ghb dscjnt jn 6 lj 17 vtnhjd&
jcyjdfy(f)
d cnfhbye
,jkjnj
htxrf
hextq
lkbyf
ibhbyf
cj[hfyznmcz (I) / cj[hfybnmcz (II)
A new ab initio Russian course

founded
in olden times
marsh
small river
stream
length
width
to remain

dtr
jpyfxfnm (I) (imp)
,fiyz
dscjnf
j,ofz ghjnz;/yyjcnm (f)
njkobyf
jn (+ gen) lj (+ gen)
ghb dscjnt

century
to mean
tower
height
overall length
thickness
from ... to ...
at a/the height

335

Activity Twenty-Six -
Reading/Speaking Read the following text and answer the questions in Russian.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

Lfnjq jcyjdfybz hvbnf;f cxbnftncz 1764 ujl^ rjulf d Gtnth,ehu ghb,skj 225
rfhnby bp <thkbyf^ rjnjhst regbkf heccrfz bvgthfnhbwf Trfnthbyf II& R 1774 ujle
rjkktrwbz hvbnf;f e;t drk.xfkf ,jktt 2000 rfhnby& Ctujlyz rfhnbyyfz ufkthtz
hvbnf;f cjcnjbn bp 50 pfkjd ahfywepcrjuj bcreccndf c XVIII gj XX dtr^ 37 pfkjd
bnfkmzycrjuj bcreccndf b vyjujxbcktyys[ pfkjd ujkkfylcrjq^ bcgfycrjq^ ytvtwrjq
b lheub[ tdhjgtqcrb[ irjk& "hvbnf;^ rfr Kedh^ veptq eybrfkmysq& Tckb ds ghjql/nt gj tuj 353 pfkfv^ ds cvj;tnt dcnhtnbnmcz c dtkbrbvb itltdhfvb vbhjdjuj
bcreccndf& Pltcm [hfyzncz gfvznybrb Lhtdytuj Tubgnf^ wbdbkbpfwbq Wtynhfkmyjq
Fpbb^ Rbnfz^ itltdhs lhtdytq Uhtwbb^ heccrjq b tdhjgtqcrjq rekmnehs&
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Rjulf ,sk jcyjdfy "hvbnf;$


Crjkmrj rfhnby ,skj d tuj gthdjq rjkktrwbb$
Crjkmrj rfhnby ,skj d tuj rjkktrwbb r 1774 ujle$
Bp crjkmrb[ pfkjd cjcnjbn rfhnbyyfz ufkthtz cjdhtvtyyjuj "hvbnf;f$
Gjxtve "hvbnf; xfcnj chfdybdftncz c Kedhjv$
Crjkmrj dctuj pfkjd d "hvbnf;t$

Unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion


1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&
13&
14&

The fourteen pairs of verbs of motion are conjugated as follows:

bln
[jlnm
[fnm
plbnm
,t;nm
,ufnm
ktnnm
ktnnm
gksnm
gkdfnm
ytcn
yjcnm
dtcn
djlnm
dtpn
djpnm
ktpnm
kpbnm
gjkpn
gkpfnm
,htcn
,hjlnm
nfonm
nfcrnm
rfnnm
rfnnm
uyfnm
ujynm

bl^ bl/im^ bl/n^ bl/v^ bl/nt^ bln


[j; ^ [lbim^ [lbn^ [lbv^ [lbnt^ [lzn
le^ ltim^ ltn^ ltv^ ltnt^ len
p;e^ plbim^ plbn^ plbv^ plbnt^ plzn
,tu^ ,t;im^ ,t;n^ ,t;v^ ,t;nt^ ,tun
,uf.^ ,uftim^ ,uftn^ ,uftv^ ,uftnt^ ,uf.n
ktx^ ktnim^ ktnn^ ktnv^ ktnnt^ ktnn
ktn.^ ktntim^ ktntn^ ktntv^ ktntnt^ ktn.n
gksd^ gksd/im^ gksd/n^ gksd/v^ gksd/nt^ gksdn
gkdf.^ gkdftim^ gkdftn^ gkdftv^ gkdftnt^ gkdf.n
ytc^ ytc/im^ ytc/n^ ytc/v^ ytc/nt^ ytcn
yji^ ycbim^ ycbn^ ycbv^ ycbnt^ yczn
dtl^ dtl/im^ dtl/n^ dtl/v^ dtl/nt^ dtln
dj;^ dlbim^ dlbn^ dlbv^ dlbnt^ dlzn
dtp^ dtp/im^ dtp/n^ dtp/v^ dtp/nt^ dtpn
dj;^ dpbim^ dpbn^ dpbv^ dpbnt^ dpzn
kpe^ kptim^ kptn^ kptv^ kptnt^ kpen
k;e^ kpbim^ kpbn^ kpbv^ kpbnt^ kpzn
gjkp^ gjkp/im^ gjkp/n^ gjkp/v^ gjkp/nt^ gjkpn
gkpf.^ gkpftim^ gkpftn^ gkpftv^ gkpftnt^ gkpf.n
,htl^ ,htl/im^ ,htl/n^ ,htl/v^ ,htl/nt^ ,htln
,hj;^ ,hlbim^ ,hlbn^ ,hlbv^ ,hlbnt^ ,hlzn
nfo^ nobim^ nobn^ nobv^ nobnt^ nofn
nfcr.^ nfcrtim^ nfcrtn^ nfcrtv^ nfcrtnt^ nfcr.n
rfx^ rnbim^ rnbn^ rnbv^ rnbnt^ rnzn
rfn.^ rfntim^ rfntn^ rfntv^ rfntnt^ rfn.n
ujy^ uybim^ uybn^ uybv^ uybnt^ uyzn
ujy.^ ujytim^ ujytn^ ujytv^ ujytnt^ ujy.n

cxbnfnmcz (I) (imp only)


bvgthfnhbwf
drk.xfnm (I) /drk.xbnm (II)
Kedh
itltdh
Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz

336

to be considered
empress
to contain
the Louvre
masterpiece
Central Asia

to go on foot
to go by
transport
to run
to fly
to swim,
float
to carry
to lead, drive
to transport
to climb
to crawl
to wander,
walk slowly
to drag
to roll
to chase,
drive fast

[hfybnmcz (II) (imp only)


to be kept
lhtdybq
ancient
Uhtwbz
Greece
wbdbkbpfwbz
civilisation
cjcnjznm (II) (imp only) bp (+ gen) to consist of
Lhtdybq Tubgtn
Ancient Egypt
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Imperative forms of verbs of motion are formed according to the rules outlined in Chapter 16. Note: the
imperative of t[fnm is gjtp;fq/gjtp;fqnt.

Chapter 17

Note: the past tense of some of the above verbs is irregular:


ytcnb
y/c^ ytck^ ytck^ ytck
dtcnb
d/k^ dtk^ dtk^ dtk
dtpnb
d/p^ dtpk^ dtpk^ dtpk
ktpnm
ktp^ kpkf^ kpkj^ kpkb
,htcnb
,h/k^ ,htk^ ,htk^ ,htk

Activity Twenty-Seven -
Reading Read the following childrens poem (Song of the traveller) and identify
the use of the unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion.
(. )
Gentitcndjdfnm^ lhepmz^
Jxtym bynthtcyj!
Pyftv 'nj ns b z^
"nj dctv bpdtcnyj!
Djn b tltv vs e;t
Yf ghtlkj;yjv gflt;t%
Vs tltv yf vfibyt^
Vs tltv yf dth,k.lt^
Vs tltv-tltv-tltv
Yf x/v$ Bkb yf rjv$
Yf gjtplt vs tltv
B yf dtkjcbgtlt^
F tckb vs yt tltv^
Nj vs bl/v gtirjv!
Gentitcndjdfnm^ lhepmz^
Jxtym bynthtcyj!
Pyftv 'nj ns b z^
"nj dctv bpdtcnyj!
Tplbv vs nelf - c.lf^
D cnhfys^ d c/kf^ d ujhjlf&
Vs tplbkb d Cfvfhe^
Vs tplbkb d Dfhifde^
D Dfhifde - pf uhfybwe^
D Dfhifde - pf he,t;&
D Cfhfnjd vs gjtltv^
D Rfkeue vs gjtltv^
B d 'njv yfv gjvj;tn
Dbybntkmysq gflt;!

My friends,
It is very interesting to travel!
You and I, we know it,
Everybody knows it!
And here we are already travelling
With the help of the Prepositional case:
we are travelling by car,
we are travelling by camel,
we are travelling-travelling-travelling
by what? or on what?
We are travelling by train
and by bicycle,
and if we are not travelling by transport,
we are walking!
My friends,
It is very interesting to travel!
You and I, we know it,
Everybody knows it!
We are travelling backwards and forwards,
to various countries, villages and towns.
We have been to Samara,
We have been to Warsaw,
We have been abroad,
to Warsaw - abroad.
We will go to Saratov,
We will go to Kaluga,
and the Accusative case
will help us with it!

Activity Twenty-Eight -
Writing Fill in the gaps choosing the appropriate form of the verb.
1& Dxthf vs (blnb - [jlbnm) d ntfnh& 2& Gjtpl 136 (blnb - [jlbnm) gj dnjhybrfv b
gznybwfv& 3& Z jxtym k.,k. (gksnm - gkfdfnm)& 4& "njn gfhj[jl (gksnm - gkfdfnm) d
Ym.-Qjhr& 5& D ghjikjv ujle z (ktntnm - ktnfnm) d Kjyljy gznm hfp& 6& Htqc 234
(ktntnm - ktnfnm) d Cfyrn-Gtnth,ehu nhb hfpf d ytltk.& 7& Ghjcnbnt^ 'njn fdnj,ec
(blnb - [jlbnm) d wtynh$ 8& Vjq csy to/ yt (blnb - [jlbnm)^ jy njkmrj (gjkpnb A new ab initio Russian course

337

gjkpfnm)^ dtlm tve dctuj itcnm vtczwtd& 9& J,sxyj ht,/yrf (dtcnb - djlbnm) d ltncrbq
cfl ,f,eirf^ yj ctujlyz tuj (dtcnb - djlbnm) vfnm& 10& Z (ytcnb - yjcbnm) rybue d
,b,kbjntre& 11& Z jxtym k.,k. (,htcnb - ,hjlbnm) gj ekbwfv dtxthytq Vjcrds& 12&
Jyf yt (dtcnb - djlbnm) vfibye& 13& (t[fnm - tplbnm) yf X/hyjt vjht! 14& Jy jgfplsdfk
d f'hjgjhn b (uyfnm - ujyznm) vfibye yf vfrcbvfkmyjq crjhjcnb& 15& Ltnb^ yt
ievbnt b yt (,t;fnm - ,tufnm) gj rjvyfnt! 16& Xtvjlfy ,sk jxtym nz;/ksv^ z yt
vjukf (ytcnb - yjcbnm) tuj b gj'njve (nfobnm - nfcrfnm) tuj gj gjke&

Figurative uses of verbs of motion


Some verbs of motion have figurative meanings. Usually only one of a pair is used
figuratively, either the unidirectional or the multidirectional verb. The following figurative
expressions may prove useful:
I. Only unidirectional verbs are used in the following phrases:
blnb

it is raining, snowing
the clock is working
this dress suits you
this film lasts 2 hours
the examination is in progress
to go against ones will

bl/n lj;lm^ cytu


xfcs blen*
'nj gkfnmt dfv bl/n
'njn abkmv bl/n 2 xfcf
bl/n 'rpfvty
blnb ghjnbd cdjtq djkb

* In certain contexts it is possible to use multidirectional verb [jlbnm; e.g. 'nb xfcs e;t lfdyj yt
[jlzn - this clock has been broken for a long time; vjb xfcs [jlzn jxtym [jhjij - my watch works
really well.
ktntnm
,t;fnm
dtcnb

time, days, years fly past


time, days, years fly past
to keep a diary
to carry on a correspondence
to conduct negotiations
to chair a meeting, a discussion

dhtvz^ lyb^ ujls ktnzn


dhtvz ,t;bn^ lyb^ ujls ,tuen
dtcnb lytdybr
dtcnb gthtgbcre
dtcnb gthtujdjhs
dtcnb cj,hfybt^ lbcreccb.

II. Only multidirectional verbs are used in the following phrases:


[jlbnm
yjcbnm
djlbnm

rumours are rife


to wear clothes
to bear a title, a name
to lead up the garden path

[jlzn cke[b^ hfpujdjhs


yjcbnm jlt;le
yjcbnm pdfybt^ bvz
djlbnm p yjc

Activity Twenty-Nine -
Reading Read the following childrens poem and underline the verb of motion which
is used figuratevly. Then complete the partial translation of the poem.
(. )

Ujdjhzn% xfcs cnjzn&


Ujdjhzn% xfcs cgtifn&
Ujdjhzn% xfcs blen^
Yj ytvyj;rj jncnf.n&
Vs cvjnhtkb c Vbirjq dvtcnt^
Yj xfcs cnjzn yf vtcnt&
338

They say: the clock is __________.


They say: the clock is __________.
They say: the clock is __________,
But it is a bit __________.
Mishka and I watched it together,
But the clock is_____________.
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Compound verbs of motion are formed by adding different prefixes to simple verbs of
motion. Most compound verbs are linked to the following noun by a preposition. The
following is a list of compounds from [jlbnm - blnb%
imperfective
d[jlbnm
ds[jlbnm
lj[jlbnm
pf[jlbnm

perfective
djqnb
dsqnb
ljqnb
pfqnb

j,[jlbnm

j,jqnb

jn[jlbnm
gtht[jlbnm

jnjqnb
gthtqnb

gjl[jlbnm
ghb[jlbnm

gjljqnb
ghbqnb

ghj[jlbnm

ghjqnb

hfc[jlbnmcz

hfpjqnbcm

c[jlbnm
c[jlbnmcz
e[jlbnm

cjqnb
cjqnbcm
eqnb

preposition
d (+ acc)
bp (+ gen)
lj (+ gen)
r (+ dat)
d/yf (+ acc)
djrheu (+ gen)
(+ acc)
jn (+ gen)
xthtp (+ acc)
(+ acc)
r (+ dat)
r (+ dat)
d/yf (+ acc)
vbvj (+ gen)
(+ acc)
gj (+ dat)
c (+ gen)
c (+ instr)
jn (+ gen)
bp/c (+ gen)

English
to enter, go in
to leave, go out of
to go up to
to call on (someone)
to call in at (a place)
to go round
to inspect; avoid
to leave, move away from
to cross

Chapter 17

COMPOUND VERBS OF MOTION

to go towards
to come to see (a person)
to arrive, come to (a place)
to pass
to cover a distance
to disperse, go in different
directions
to come down from, step off
to get together (with)
to leave a person
to leave a place

Compounds with similar changes of meaning can be formed from all the other verbs of
motion listed on page 336 by adding a prefix; e.g. ektntnm (to fly away), gthtgksnm (to
swim across), ghjgjkpnb (to crawl through) etc. Some verbs will change their stems when
a prefix is added to a simple verb of motion. These are indicated by the bold type below:
imperfective

perfective

-[jlbnm
-tp;fnm
-,tunm*
-gksdfnm
-gjkpnm*
-rfnsdfnm

-qnb
-t[fnm
-,t;fnm
-gksnm
-gjkpnb
-rfnbnm

* The stems -,tunm and -gjkpnm differ from the simple verbs of motion stems only in stress.

When forming the compound verbs of motion remember to apply the following spelling rules:
1. is inserted between a consonant and -; e.g. djqnb^ jnjqnb^ cjqnb
2. a hard sign is inserted between a prefix ending in a consonant and all stems beginning
with ; e.g. d]t[fnm^ d]tp;fnm^ c]t[fnm^ c]tp;fnm&
A new ab initio Russian course

339

Figurative uses of compound verbs of motion


Many compound verbs of motion have figurative meanings. The following expressions may
prove useful:
1. compounds from [jlbnm - blnb
d[jlbnm/djqnb d vjle
ds[jlbnm/dsqnb bp vjls
lj[jlbnm/ljqnb lj ck/p
pf[jlbnm/pfqnb ckbirjv lfktrj
gtht[jlbnm/gthtqnb r lheujq ntvt
gtht[jlbnm/gthtqnb dct uhfybws
gtht[jlbnm/gthtqnb bp her d herb
c[jlbnm/cjqnb c evf

to come into fashion


to become old-fashioned
to be reduced to tears
to go too far
to switch to a different topic
to overstep the limits
to pass through many hands
to go mad

2. compounds from djlbnm - dtcnb


dsdjlbnm/dsdtcnb rjuj-yb,elm bp nthgtybz
pfdjlbnm/pfdtcnb xfcs
pfdjlbnm/pfdtcnb rjuj-yb,elm
gthtdjlbnm/gthtdtcnb hfpujdjh yf lheue. ntve
gjldjlbnm/gjldtcnb rjuj-yb,elm
ghjdjlbnm/ghjdtcnb dhtvz
hfpdjlbnmcz/hfpdtcnbcm

to exasperate someone
to wind up a clock/watch
to wind someone up
to change the topic of conversation
to let someone down
to spend time
to get divorced

3. compounds from yjcbnm - ytcnb


dsyjcbnm/dsytcnb ghbujdjh
dsyjcbnm/dsytcnb cjh bp bp,s
z yt dsyjie tuj/t/
ljyjcbnm/ljytcnb yf rjuj-yb,elm
ghbyjcbnm/ghbytcnb gjkmpe

to pass sentence
to wash ones dirty linen in public
I cant stand him/her
to denounce someone
to be useful

Activity Thirty -
Writing Complete the following sentences using a preposition if appropriate. Remember that the noun endings may change.
1. Vs dsikb _______&(ljv) b gjikb _______ (gfhr)& 2& <f,eirf gjikf _______&(dhfx)&
3& Jy ghji/k _______ (z) b yt gjpljhjdfkcz& 4& Vs gthtikb _______&(ekbwf) b djikb
_______ (vfufpby)& 5& Rf;lsq ltym z ghj[j;e _______& (wtynhfkmyfz gkjoflm)& 6&
Fdnj,ec gjlji/k _______ (jcnfyjdrf) b jcnfyjdbkcz& 7& Vs gjl]t[fkb&_______
(ntfnh) yf nfrcb& 8& Yf rjyathtywb. ghbt[fkb ltktufwbb _______&(hfpyst cnhfys)&
9& Vfibyf dst[fkf _______ (ufhf;)^ ghjt[fkf _______ (vtnhjd ltcznm) b
jcnfyjdbkfcm& 10& Gj ljhjut yf hf,jne z pfi/k _______ (gjxnf) b regbk vfhrb& 11&
Jyf vtlktyyj j,jikf _______&(cfl) b djikf _______ (ljv)& 12& Vfibyf c]t[fkf
_______&(ljhjuf) b jcnfyjdbkfcm e htrb& 13& Vs ektnftv_______ (Vjcrdf) d ctvm
xfcjd dtxthf&

Activity Thirty-One -
Writing Fill in the gaps with the appropriate verbs of motion.
D ghjikjv ujle vs _______________ d Vjcrde yf 'rcrehcb.& Cyfxfkf vs yt vjukb
htibnm - _______________ gjtpljv bkb _______________ cfvjk/njv& D rjywt rjywjd
vs htibkb _______________ yf cfvjk/nt^ gjnjve xnj cfvjk/n
340

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Chapter 17

dctuj gjknjhf xfcf^ f gjtpl _______________ ldtyflwfnm xfcjd& Vs _______________d


fhjgjhn pf ldf xfcf lj dsktnf^ pfhtubcnhbhjdfkb ,bktns b ,fuf; b _______________
gjcvjnhtnm^ xnj tcnm d pfk t dsktnf& Nfv ,skb vfufpbys^ rfat b ,fh& Vs
_______________ d rfat b pfrfpfkb rjat& Rjulf jabwbfynrf _______________ rjat^
vs ecksifkb^ xnj j,]zdkztncz gjcflrf yf Vjcrde& Yj 'nj ,sk yt yfi htqc^ yfi
cfvjk/n _______________ xthtp xfc& Vs ecgtkb dsgbnm rjat b lf;t ytvyjuj
_______________ gj vfufpbyfv& Vs _______________ djdhtvz b _______________ d
Vjcrde d ldf xfcf lyz& Vs dpzkb nfrcb b _______________ d ujcnbybwe& Vs
_______________ jrjkj xfcf^ gjnjve xnj f'hjgjhn yf[jlbncz pf ujhjljv& Yfrjytw
vs edbltkb ,jkmijq pyfr Vjcrdf^ pyfxbn vs ________________ d ujhjl& Vbyen
xthtp gznyflw fnm vs _______________ r uj cnbybwt& Gjhnmt gjvju yfv
_______________ xtvjlfys b gjrfpfk^ ult yf[jlbncz yfi yjvth& Vs ytvyjuj
jnlj[yekb b _______________ cvjnhtnm ujhjl& Vs _______________ bp ujcnbybws b
edbltkb^ xnj Rhfcyfz gkjoflm yf[jlbncz ytlfktrj& Vs _______________ lj yt/
gtirjv^ vtlktyyj _______________ t/ b _______________ d Rhtvkm& Gjckt Rhtvkz
vs _______________ yf vtnhj yf Fh,fn& Yf 'njq ekbwt vyjuj vfufpbyjd b rfat&
Vs regbkb cedtybhs b ,bktns d <jkmijq ntfnh& Dtxthjv vs _______________ d
ntfnh b e;byfkb d htcnjhfyt& Yf cktle.obq ltym vs _______________ gjxnb dc.
Vjcrde yf 'rcrehcbjyyjv fdnj,ect b edbltkb vyjuj bynthtcyjuj&

Activity Thirty-Two -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1. Our plane departs at 7 p.m.
2. I left home at 9 a.m. and went to work by car. After work I went to see my friend.
3. My father brought the rare books from St. Petersburg for me.
4. Yesterday my sister brought an interesting book about London.
5. He entered the room, smiled and greeted us.
6. We drove round the square three times and still could not find the museum.
7. She came to see me when I was ill and brought me some nice cakes.
8. We went through the forest and came out by the river.
9. I went up to him and asked what he wanted.
10. The birds are flying, the dogs are running, the snakes are crawling and the fish
are swimming.
11. A car crossed the bridge and stopped.
12. We walked for about twenty minutes and arrived at mother s house* at six o'clock.
* (we) arrived at mother's house - (vs) ghbikb r vfnthb

cyfxfkf
d rjywt rjywjd
dctuj
pf ldf xfcf lj dsktnf
djdhtvz
A new ab initio Russian course

at first
eventually
in all; only
two hours before the flight
on time

yfrjytw
pyfxbn
gjhnmt (m indeclinable)
yf cktle.obq ltym
rcrehcbjyysq fdnj,ec

at last
so
porter, doorman
the next day
coach

341

342

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN -
AT HOME -
In Chapter Eighteen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about houshold goods and chores
2. to talk about everyday electrical appliances
3. to talk about broken equipment and faults
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. the pronoun -self ()
2. the pronoun such ()
3. verbs with consonant mutation
Activity One -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. Read the vocabulary list at the foot of the page and
describe each picture with an appropriate phrase. Then take it in turns with your partner to
ask whether you do these things yourself or somebody else does them for you.
You will need to know how to say in Russian myself , yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,
yourselves, themselves: cfv (m), cfv (f), cfv (n), cvb (pl); e.g. ds cfvb e,bhftnt d ljvt bkb
rnj-nj dfv e,bhftn$ - do you clean the house yourself or does somebody else clean for you?; z cfvf
e,bhf. d ljvt - I clean the house myself. Note that in Russian cfv (-, -, -b) usually follows a personal
pronoun or a noun; e.g. jy cfv ghbujnjdbk j,tl - he cooked the dinner himself. For more details see the
Grammar section.

(gj-)cnbhfnm (I)
e,bhfnm (I) / e,hfnm
(e,the^ e,th/im)

344

to wash (clothes)
to clean (house, flat etc.)

dsnbhfnm (I) / dsnthtnm (dsnhe^ to do the dusting


dsnhtim) gskm (f)
[jlbnm (II) pf gjregrfvb
to go shopping
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Conjugation of e,hfnm and dsnthtnm


(pf) (to clean)
z e,the
vs e,th/v
ns e,th/im
ds e,th/nt
jy/jyf/jyj e,th/n
jyb e,then

(pf) (to wipe up)


z dsnhe
vs dsnhtv
ns dsnhtim
ds dsnhtnt
jy/jyf/jyj dsnhtn
jyb dsnhen

Chapter 18

The conjugation of these verbs is irregular:

Activity Two -
Listening
Listen to the tape and tick below which household chores Ivan does
himself and which are done by other members of the family. The first one is completed for
you. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
household chores
cooking
washing (clothes)
decorating
house cleaning
vacuuming
dusting
floor polishing
watering plants
washing up
ironing
shopping

Ivan (himself)

his wife

his children

Activity Three -
Speaking
Pairwork. Using the answers from the table in Activity Two ask your
partner whether Ivan does the listed household chores himself. Use the model below as a
guide, and reverse the roles after each question.
- Bdfy cfv ujnjdbn$
- Ytn^ d tuj ctvmt ujnjdbn ;tyf&

or

- Bdfy cfv ltkftn htvjyn$


- Lf^ jy cfv ltkftn htvjyn&

Activity Four -
Speaking
Using the model from Activity Three, ask your partner whether he/she
does various household chores himself/herself. Then reverse the roles.
Note:
(i) the verbs gsktcjcbnm/ghjgsktcjcbnm and ukflbnm/gjukflbnm have final consonant mutation in the form. All
other personal forms retain the same consonant as in the infinitive; e.g. z gsktcjie^ ns gsktcjcbim^ jy(f) gsktcjcbn^
vs gsktcjcbv^ ds gsktcjcbnt jyb gsktcjczn* z ukf;e, ns ukflbim etc.
(ii) the verbs vsnm/gjvsnm have a vowel mutation in all personal forms; e.g. z vj.^ ns vjtim^ jy(f) vjtn^ vs vjtv^
ds vjtnt^ jyb vj.n. For more details see the Grammar section.
ljvfiybt ltkf
pfnj
(c-)ltkfnm (I) htvjyn (+ gen)
cfv^ cfv^ cfv^ cvb
(ghj-)gsktcjcbnm
(gsktcjie^ gsktcjcbim)
rjd/h (rjdhs)
(jn-)gjkbhjdfnm (III)
gjk
gjkbdfnm (I) / gjkbnm
(gjkm., gjkm/im)
A new ab initio Russian course

household chores
on the other hand
to decorate
oneself
to vacuum, hoover
carpet(s)
to polish
floor
to water

wdtnjr / wdtns
(gj-)vsnm (vj.^ vjtim)
(gj-)vsnm gjcele
(gj-)ukflbnm (ukf;e^ ukflbim)
(gj-)ukflbnm ,tkm/
ljhj;ysq en.u
ljdthznm (I) / ljdthbnm (II) (+ dat)
(c-);txm ((cj);ue^ ;;/im^ ;uen)
dtom (f)
nz;/ksq
cevrf

flower(s), plant(s)
to wash
to do the washing up
to iron
to do the ironing
travel iron
to trust
to burn
thing
heavy; hard
bag

345

Activity Five -
Reading
Work out the meaning of the words in the boxes below (the answers are
given in the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page). Then look at the pictures and the
slogans from the Russian magazine advertisements, which are mixed up. Read the slogans
and draw arrows matching them to the correct pictures.
cnbhfkmyfz vfibyf
hflbfnjh

vjoysq
j,sryjdtyysq
xelj (pl xeltc)
vjltkm (f)

346

powerful
ordinary
miracle
model

[jkjlbkmybr

regbd
htitybt
cnfylfhn
ghbxbyf

gsktcjc
rjvgm.nth

having bought
solution
standard
reason
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

- Ghjcnbnt^ z yt jxtym [jhjij ujdjh. gj-heccrb& Rfr yfpsdftncz gjhjijr lkz cnbhrb ,tkmz$
(Excuse me, I dont speak Russian very well. What do you call the powder used for washing clothes?)
- Cnbhfkmysq gjhjijr& (Washing powder.)

Chapter 18

Activity Six -
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. The phrases in the box below are useful for asking for
things if you dont know the precise term. Look at the pictures below and ask your partner
about the objects illustrated and about other objects, as appropriate. Use the following model
as a guide.

lkz vsnmz jrjy (for cleaning windows), lkz jnrhsdfybz rjycthdjd (for opening tins), lkz vsnmz
gjcels (for washing the dishes), lkz gjvjkf rjat (for grinding coffee), lkz jnrhsdfybz ,enskjr (for
opening bottles), lkz rbgzxtybz djls (for boiling water)

Activity Seven -
Listening Listen to the following descriptions of various domestic appliances and
complete the partially filled table below. Do not expect to understand every word.
appliances (in Russian)

electrical

hand operated

battery operated

rjatvjkrf
rjycthdysq yj;
cnbhfkmyfz vfibyf

gsktcjc
cnbhfkmyfz vfibyf
[jkjlbkmybr
hflbfnjh
rjvgm.nth
;blrjcnm (f)
ghbcgjcj,ktybt
inerf (inexrf)
rjycthdysq yj;
injgjh
gjceljvjtxyfz vfibyf
A new ab initio Russian course

vacuum cleaner
washing machine
refrigerator
radiator
computer
liquid
gadget
thing
tin opener
corkscrew
dishwasher

xfqybr
rjatvjkrf
njcnth
cntrkjjxbcnbntkm (m)
drk.xfnm (I) / drk.xbnm (II) (d
'ktrnhjctnm)
hexyjq
'ktrnhbxtcrbq
,fnfhtqrf
'ktrnhjctnm (f)
hf,jnfnm (I) jn ctnb

kettle
coffee grinder
toaster
glass cleaner
to plug in
hand operated
electric
battery
mains
mains operated

347

Activity Eight -
Reading/Writing/Listening
Read the following dialogue between a customer and a
shop assistant and fill in the gaps. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
- Plhfdcndeqnt^ vyt ye;yj ghbcgjcj,ktybt^ xnj,s jnrhsnm ,enskre dbyf&

- Ds bvttnt d dble ____________________$


- Lf^ rjytxyj^ ____________________& Z dctulf pf,sdf.^ rfr 'nj
yfpsdftncz gj-heccrb& B to/ vyt ye;ys nfrbt vfktymrbt inexrb lkz
vjtuj ajnjfggfhfnf&

- Rfrbt inexrb$ Lkz xtuj jyb bcgjkmpe.ncz$


- nj nfrbt vtnfkkbxtcrbt inexrb^ ,tp rjnjhs[ ajnjfggfhfn yt hf,jnftn&

- F^ dfv ye;ys ____________________! Djn^ gj;fkeqcnf& Xnj-yb,elm to/$


- Lf^ to/ vyt ye;yj regbnm nfre. inere^ xnj,s jnrhsdfnm rjycthds&

- Djn^ gj;fkeqcnf^ 'nj ____________________ ____________________&


- <jkmijt cgfcb,j& Lf^ xenm yt pf,sk^ vyt to/ ye;ys ldt dtob% jlyf^
xnj,s vj;yj ,skj gjukflbnm d ljhjut^ f dnjhfz^ xnj,s dcrbgznbnm
djle&

- Ds bvttnt d dble ____________________ ____________________ b


____________________ ____________________$
- Lf^ ____________________ ____________________ b ____________________
____________________&

- R cj;fktyb.^ jyb e yfc yt ghjlf.ncz& Dfv ye;yj gjqnb d vfufpby


ktrnhjnjdfhs&

Activity Nine -
Writing/Speaking Look at the labels on your clothes, your shoes, your watch etc.
Make a list of the countries where these things were made. Ask your partner where his/her
clothes and possessions were made, then reverse the roles. Use the model below as a guide.
- Ult cltkfy ndjq gjhnatkm$

- Jy cltkfy d Rbnft&

You will need to know how to say in Rusian made in ... Use the form cltkfy (for masculine nouns), cltkfyf (for
feminine), cltkfyj (for neuter) and cltkfys (for plural); e.g. 'njn rfhfylfi cltkfy d Rbnft - this pencil was made
in China; 'nf he,firf cltkfyf d Fyukbb - this shirt was made in England; 'nj gfkmnj cltkfyj d Hjccbb - this coat
was made in Russia; 'nb xfcs cltkfys d Zgjybb - this watch was made in Japan. For more details on these constructions
see Chapter 20.

Activity Ten -
Writing
Write a description of any three of the following objects using the
description of an iron (en.u) below as your model: njcnth^ rjvgm.nth^ xfqybr^
cnbhfkmyfz vfibyf^ gj celjvjtxyfz vfibyf&
"nf dtom cltkfyf bp vtnfkkf b gkfcnvfccs& Jyf jrjkj ldflwfnb gznb cfynbvtnhjd d lkbye b jrjkj
gznyflwfnb cfynbvtnhjd d ibhbye& Jyf bcgjkmpetncz lkz ukf;tybz ,tkmz& "nj en.u&
This object is made out of metal and plastic. It is about twenty-five centimetres long and about fifteen centimetres wide. It is
used for ironing clothes. It is an iron.
ghbcgjcj,ktybt
inexrf
bcgjkmpjdfnmcz (III) (imp) (+ instr)
bvtnm (bvt.^ bvttim) d dble

348

device, appliance
thing, object
to be used
to have in mind

(dc-)rbgznbnm (II)
gkfcnvfccf
vtnfkk(bxtcrbq)
d lkbye / d ibhbye

to boil
plastic
metal(lic)
in length / in width

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Rfrjq jy (jyf^ jyj) d lkbye/d ibhbye$


Rfrjq jy (jyf^ jyj) d njkobye$
Bp xtuj jy (jyf^ jyj) cltkfy (cltkfyf^ cltkfyj)$
Rfrjuj jy (jyf^ jyj) wdtnf$
Lkz xtuj jy (jyf^ jyj) bcgjkmpetncz$

How long/wide is it?


How thick is it?
Whats it made of?
What colour is it?
Whats it used for?

Chapter 18

Activity Eleven -
Speaking Pairwork. Each choose one of the objects from Activity Ten and find out
what your partners object is by asking questions about it. You might want to use some of the
questions given below. (Remember to change the gender of the nouns or pronouns where
appropriate.)

Activity Twelve -
Reading/Writing Read the sentences and write down what you should do as in the
model. Use the verbs and phrases in the box below.
drk.xbnm
drk.xbnm d hjptnre
jnrhenbnm (or jnrhsnm)
pfrhenbnm (or pfrhsnm)

dsrk.xbnm
dsrk.xbnm bp hjptnrb
gthtrk.xbnm
jnrk.xbnm

cltkfnm (gj)nbit
cltkfnm (gj)uhjvxt
gjvtyznm

- Xnj dfv ye;yj cltkfnm^ tckb ds [jnbnt cvjnhtnm ntktdbpjh$ - Drk.xbnm tuj&

Xnj dfv ye;yj cltkfnm^ tckb ...


1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

ds pfrjyxbkb hf,jnfnm yf rjvgm.ntht$


ds [jnbnt gjukflbnm he,fire$
ds [jnbnt gjckeifnm hflbj$
hflbj buhftn jxtym nb[j$
vfuybnjajy buhftn ckbirjv uhjvrj$
abkmv^ rjnjhsq ds [jnbnt gjcvjnhtnm^ bl/n gj lheujq ghjuhfvvt$
ds [jnbnt yfkbnm djle d dfyye$
rjyxbkbcm ,fnfhtqrb d ajnjfggfhfnt$
dfyyf e;t gjkyf$
gthtujhtkf kfvgjxrf$

Note: plugs in Russia do not have switches, so the Russian phrases drk.xbnm d hjptnre/dsrk.xbnm bp hjptnrb (plug
in/unplug) also mean to switch on/off.

drk.xbnm (II) (pf)


drk.xbnm (II) (pf) d hjptnre
jnrhenbnm (jnrhexe^
jnrhenbim) (pf)
pfrhenbnm (pfrhexe^
pfrhenbim) (pf)
rhfy
dsrk.xbnm (II) (pf)
dsrk.xbnm (II) (pf) bp hjptnrb
gthtrk.xbnm (II) (pf)
A new ab initio Russian course

to switch on
to plug in
to turn on (tap)
to turn off
tap
to switch off
to unplug
to change (channels)

jnrk.xbnm (II) (pf)

to turn off (electricity,


water)
cltkfnm (I) (pf) (gj)nbit
to turn the sound down
cltkfnm (I) (pf) (gj)uhjvxt to turn the sound up
gjvtyznm (I) (pf)
to change
yfkbnm (II) (yfkm.^
to fill the bath with
yfkm/im) (pf) djle d dfyye water
,fnfhtqrb rjyxbkbcm
the batteries are flat
dfyyf gjkyf
the bath is full
kfvgjxrf gthtujhtkf
the bulb is gone

349

Activity Thirteen -
Reading
Read the following dialogue and answer the questions below. Use the
vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you. Then read the passage in pairs.
Nfyz
Vfif
Nfyz
Vfif

Nfyz
Vfif

Nfyz
Vfif

Nfyz
Vfif
Nfyz

Vfif
Nfyz
Vfif

Ghbdtn^ Vfif^ rfr ltkf$


Kexit yt cghfibdfq^ [e;t ytrelf&
F xnj ckexbkjcm$
Ns ghtlcnfdkztim^ vs ytlfdyj ghbt[fkb bp jngecrf^ b gj ljhjut bp
f'hjgjhnf ljvjq e yfc ckjvfkfcm vfibyf& Xnj-nj ckexbkjcm c vjnjhjv&
Ntgthm vfibyf d htvjynt&
Ye^ yt cnjbn nfr hfccnhfbdfnmcz& Gjxbyzn dfie vfibye&
Z cyfxfkf yt jxtym hfccnhjbkfcm^ yj ns ;t pyftim^ xnj ,tlf ybrjulf yt
ghb[jlbn jlyf&* Ckjvfyyfz vfibyf - 'nj njkmrj jlyf bp yfib[ ghj,ktv&
F xnj to/ ckexbkjcm$
Ghbt[fkb vs ljvjq^ f nfv jlyf ghj,ktvf pf lheujq& Cyfxfkf ckjvfkfcm
cnbhfkmyfz vfibyf^ gjnjv [jkjlbkmybr^ f ctujlyz enhjv yt hf,jnfk
fdnjjndtnxbr& B nfr e;t gjxnb vtczw& B 'nj njkmrj rhegyst ghj,ktvs^ f
vtkjxfv z b cx/n gjnthzkf&
Lf^ jxtym ytghbznyj&
Ye lf kflyj& Yflt.cm^ xnj crjhj dc/ ,eltn [jhjij& F rfr ltkf e nt,z$
E vtyz dc/ ,jktt-vtytt yjhvfkmyj& Djn njkmrj ytlfdyj yfxfk ghjntrfnm
rhfy yf re[yt b ntktdbpjh ,fhf[kbn& Yj 'nj dc/ vtkjxb& Z e;t dspdfkf
cfynt[ybrf b ntktvfcnthf&
F xnj c ntktdbpjhjv$ Dtlm ns ytlfdyj dspsdfkf ntktvfcnthf&
Cyfxfkf bcxtp wdtn^ f ntgthm dhtvz jn dhtvtyb bcxtpftn pder&
Z levf.^ xnj nt,t kexit regbnm yjdsq ntktdbpjh^ dtlm 'njn e;t jxtym
cnfhsq& Ns gjnhfnbim ,jkmit ltytu yf htvjyn^ xtv yf yjdsq ntktdbpjh&

* The English equivalent of the Russian saying ,tlf ybrjulf yt ghb[jlbn jlyf (literally: misfortune never comes
alone) is troubles always come in threes. Another common Russian saying with the same meaning is ghbikf ,tlf jndjhzq djhjnf (literally: when misfortune has come - open your gates).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

What happened to Mashas car on the way home from the airport?
Where is Mashas car now?
What major problems did Masha find at home?
What else went wrong?
What did she do to fix the problems?
Why did Tanya have to call the TV repair man twice?
What solution to Tanyas problems did Masha propose?
What is the gist of the final sentence?

[e;t ytrelf
ghtlcnfdkznm (I) / ghtlcnfdbnm (II)
(c-)kjvfnmcz (I)
vjnjh
htvjyn
yt cnjbn ...
hfccnhfbdfnmcz (I) /
hfccnhjbnmcz (II)
(gj-)xbybnm (II)
,tlf
ckjvfyysq
jlyf ghj,ktvf pf lheujq
fdnjjndtnxbr

350

it couldnt be worse
to imagine; present
to break (down)
engine
repair
it is not worth ...
to get upset

rhegysq
ye lf kflyj
vtkjxm (f)
gjnthznm (I) (pf) cx/n
,jktt-vtytt
ghjntrfnm (I) (imp)
,fhf[kbnm (II) (imp)
cfynt[ybr
to repair
ntktvfcnth
misfortune
bcxtpfnm (I) / bcxtpyenm
broken (down)
(bcxtpye^ bcxtpytim)
one problem after another pder
ansaphone
(gj-)nhfnbnm (II)

large
well, OK
little thing
to lose count
more or less
to leak, drip
to be on the blink, pink
plumber
TV repair man
to disappear
sound
to spend

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

objects
car
tape recorder
camera
tap
window
watch

1&
2&

3&

it wont
work

it wont
open

it wont
record

- Xnj c ndjtq vfibyjq$


- Jyf yt ______________&
- E yfc _______________
vfuybnjajy&
- F xnj ckexbkjcm$
- Jy gjxtve-nj yt _______________&
- Vj;yj dpznm ndjq ajnjfggfhfn$
- F xnj^ ndjq __________________$
- Lf^ dcgsirf yt _______________&

it wont
start

4&

5&

6&

its
stopped

its
dripping

Chapter 18

Activity Fourteen -
Listening/Writing
Listen to the dialogues which identify problems with
various household objects. Tick what is wrong with each thing. The first one is done
for you. Listen again and fill in the gaps in the partial transcription which follows.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.

- Ye;yj dspdfnm cfynt[ybrf$


- F xnj ckexbkjcm$
- Rhfy d dfyyjq ______________&
- D rjvyfnt nfr leiyj! Jnrhjq
jryj^ gj;fkeqcnf&
- Jyj yt _________________&
- Rjnjhsq xfc$
- Yt pyf.^ vjb xfcs _______________&

Activity Fifteen -
Speaking
Role-play. You play the role of A and your partner plays the role of B,
then reverse the roles.
A
1& Tell your partner you know that his/her car
was repaired and ask how it is now.
Ask if your partner recorded the TV
programme last night.
Ask what happened to it.
Suggest that your partner call a TV
repair man.

B
Say that your car is more or less all right but the
engine is pinking from time to time.
Say you did not record it because your video
recorder doesnt work.
Say it wont record.
Say you are going to buy a new video recorder
because you have called the repair man three
times and it will be cheaper to buy a new one.

2.

Say that you are very unhappy (ytljdjkty/


ytljdjkmyf)&

Ask if your partner is happy with (ljdjkty/


ljdjkmyf + instr) his/her new washing
machine.
Ask why. What has happened?
Ask if the repair man has been called.
Ask whether the washing machine is under
guarantee (c ufhfynbtq)&

pfdjlbnm(cz) (pfdj;e^ pfdjlbim) /


pfdtcnb(cm) (pfdtle^ pfdtl/im)
gjxtve-nj
pfgbcsdfnm (I) / pfgbcfnm (pfgbie^
pfgbitim)
dcgsirf
A new ab initio Russian course

to start (car)
for some reason
to record
flash

Say it is already on the blink. The door (ldthwf)


wont close properly (gkj[j pfrhsdftncz)&
Say you called him a week ago to repair the
door and now you have called him again.
Reply in the affirmative.
dspsdfnm (I) / dspdfnm (dspjde^
dspjdtim) (+ acc)
leiyj
jcnfyfdkbdfnmcz (I) /
jcnfyjdbnmcz (II)
dbltjvfuybnjajy

to call (s.one)
stuffy
to stop
video recorder

351

type verbs
Most verbs which end with -cnb have a consonant mutation in all personal forms. These are first conjugation
verbs:
(cn/l) - to start (car)
z pfdtle
vs pfdtl/v
ns pfdtl/im
ds pfdtl/nt
jy/jyf pfdtl/n
jyb pfdtlen

(cn/l) - to translate
z gthtdtle
vs gthtdtl/v
ns gthtdtl/im
ds gthtdtl/nt
jy/jyf gthtdtl/n jyb gthtdtlen

For more details see the Grammar section.

Activity Sixteen -
Reading Read the following text and note how the verbs are used. Answer the
questions in Russian after the text, using the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help
you.
Rfr db[hm
Vjq csy dctulf relf-nj cgtibn& Jy^ rfr db[hm& Djn b ctujlyz jy ghb,t;fk bp irjks^
gjtk yf [jle b e,t;fk yf nhtybhjdre gj ntyybce& D cgtirt jy dctulf xnj-nj hjyztn^
hfpkbdftn^ gfxrftn^ hfccsgftn^ hfp,bdftn^ jghjrblsdftn bkb ghj;buftn&
Jy e,t;fk yf nhtybhjdre^ f z [j;e gj ljve b^ rfr cgfcfntkmyfz rjvfylf^ ecnhfyz.
gjcktlcndbz db[hz.
Z pf[j;e yf re[y. b db;e% gjrf jy tk^ jy hfpkbk cjr b hfccsgfk cjkm^ bcgfxrfk crfnthnm
b cfkatnre vfqjytpjv^ ehjybk yf gjk nfhtkre b hfp,bk t/^ jghjrbyek cnek b ghj;/u
re[jyyjt gjkjntywt& Vjq csy j,tlfk dctuj ldflwfnm vbyen^ f z ghbdjlbkf re[y. d
gjhzljr wtksq xfc& Vyt yfljtkj nhfnbnm cnjkmrj vyjuj dhtvtyb yf e,jhre^ gjnjve z
htibkf crfpfnm csye dtxthjv^ xnj c pfdnhfiytuj lyz jy cfv ,eltn e,bhfnm pf cj,jq&
Vj;tn ,snm^ nj yfexbn tuj ,snm ,jktt frrehfnysv&
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&

Gjxtve vfnm chfdybdftn cdjtuj csyf c db[htv$


Xnj dctulf ghjbc[jlbn^ rjulf jy cgtibn$
Gjxtve vfnm chfdybdftn ct,z cj cgfcfntkmyjq rjvfyljq$
Xnj edbltkf vfnm yf re[yt$
Crjkmrj dhtvtyb jyf ghbdjlbkf re[y. d gjhzljr$
Xnj jyf htibkf cltkfnm dtxthjv b gjxtve$

Note: hfpkbnm and hfp,bnm are first conjugation verbs and have the vowel o and a soft sign in all personal forms; e.g.
z hfpjkm./hfpj,m.^ ns hfpjkm/im/hfpj,m/im^ jy/jyf hfpjkm/n/hfpj,m/n^ vs hfpjkm/v/hfpj,m/v^ jyb
hfpjkm.n/hfpj,m.n&
Hfccgfnm is also a first conjugation verb, but it conjugates as follows: z hfccsgk.^ ns hfccsgktim^ jy/jyf
hfccsgktn^ vs hfccsgktv^ ds hfccsgktnt^ jyb hfccsgk.n&
db[hm (m)
yf [jle
d cgtirt
nhtybhjdrf
hjyznm (I) / ehjybnm (II)
hfpkbdfnm(I) / hfpkbnm
(hfpjkm.^ hfpjkm/im)
(bc-)gfxrfnm (I)
hfccsgnm (hfccsgk.^
hfccsgktim) / hfccgfnm (I)
hfp,bdfnm (I) / hfp,bnm
(hfpj,m.^ hfpj,m/im)
jghjrblsdfnm (I) /
jghjrbyenm (jghjrbye^
jghjrbytim)

352

whirlwind
on the move
in (his) haste
training session
to drop
to spill (liquid)
to make dirty
to spill (dry
goods)
to break (glass
etc.)
to knock over

ghj;bufnm (I) / ghj;txm


(ghj;ue^ ghj;;/im) (past
ghj;/u)
cgfcfntkmyfz rjvfylf
ecnhfyznm (I) / ecnhfybnm (II)
gjcktlcndbt
crfnthnm (f)
re[jyyjt gjkjntywt
ghbdjlbnm (ghbdj;e^
ghbdjlbim) / ghbdtcnb
(ghbdtle^ ghbdtl/im) d gjhzljr
vyt yfljtkj
e,jhrf
c pfdnhfiytuj lyz
frrehfnysq

to burn
rescue team
to eliminate
consequence
tablecloth
tea towel
to put in order
I am fed up
cleaning
as of tomorrow
careful

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

spilt some
wine

broke a
plate

knocked
over a
glass

dropped
a plate

spilt some
sugar

dirtied the broke a


tablecloth glass

burnt the
napkin

1
2
3
4
5
6

Chapter 18

Activity Seventeen -
Listening
Listen to the dialogues in which people apologize for doing something
wrong and tick what happened in each case. Do not expect to understand every word.

Activity Eighteen -
Speaking
Pairwork. Play the role of A and imagine that you have done the things
listed below. Apologize to your partner who will choose the appropriate reply from those
listed under B. Change roles each time. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help
you.
A
spilt the tea
torn the tablecloth
burnt the carpet
knocked over a vase
dirtied the sofa
broken a wine glass
dropped and broken a plate
scratched the table
spilt the washing powder

never mind
not to worry
it could happen to anyone
oh dear!
thats a pity
how did that happen?
you are so clumsy
thats all right
it happens

Activity Nineteen -
Reading/Writing Read the following text about the new year and fill in the gaps with
the correct forms of the verb to put, or with cnjznm^ kt;fnm^ cbltnm or dbctnm, which
you met in Chapter Fifteen. If necessary, you may use a dictionary to help you with this text.
Ctujlyz nhblwfnm gthdjt ltrf,hz& Yjdsq ujl - vjq k.,bvsq ghfplybr^ b r yfv dctulf
ghb[jlzn d ujcnb lhepmz& Djn b ctujlyz d djctvm xfcjd dtxthf r yfv ghblen ujcnb& Vs c
ve;tv ,skb pfyzns wtksq ltym& Enhjv^ gjrf jy [jlbk gjregfnm /kre^ z [jlbkf d vfufpby
pf ghjlernfvb& Gjnjv vs dvtcnt erhfifkb /kre b e,bhfkb rdfhnbhe& Vs
_______________ yf /kre yjdjujlybt buheirb^ f gjl /kre _______________ gjlfhrb lkz
dct[ yfib[ ujcntq& Vs ghjgsktcjcbkb rjdhs^ dsnthkb gskm b gjvskb gjk& Ntgthm d
rdfhnbht xbcnj b e.nyj& Xnj,s dctv ,skj elj,yj cbltnm^ vs _______________ cnjk
gjcthtlbyt rjvyfns^ f xnj,s ,skj ,jkmit vtcnf^ vs dsytckb bp rjvyfns kbiy..
vt,tkm& J,sxyj ntktdbpjh _______________ d euke jrjkj ,fkrjyf^ yj ntgthm nfv
_______________ /krf^ f ldf rhtckf b ;ehyfkmysq cnjkbr ctqxfc _______________ d cgfkmyt&
,jrfk
cfkatnrf
yt djkyeqcz/djkyeqntcm
yt gtht;bdfq(nt)
ybxtuj
,sdftn
A new ab initio Russian course

wine glass
napkin
dont worry
not to worry
never mind
it happens

ckexfqyj
'nj cj dczrbv vj;tn ckexbnmcz
ujcgjlb / ,j;t vjq
;fkm
dc/ d gjhzlrt
(gj-)wfhfgfnm (I)

by accident
it can happen to anyone
oh dear, oh god
thats a pity
thats all right
to scratch

353

Gjnjv z ujnjdbkf e;by^ f vjq ve; yfrhsdfk yf cnjk& Jy _______________ nfhtkrb b


,jrfks lkz dbyf^ _______________ yj;b^ dbkrb b kj;rb^ gjcthtlbyt cnjkf jy
_______________ dfpe c wdtnfvb^ f cktdf jn nfhtkjr _______________ cfkatnrb& To/ yf
cnjkt _______________ cdtxb b _______________ jnrhsnrb lkz rf;ljuj ujcnz&
Pdjyzn d ldthm& Djn b ujcnb!
Vs jnrhsdftv ldthm b ghbukfiftv b[ djqnb& D ghb[j;tq ievyj b ntcyj& Dct cybvf.n
gfkmnj b ifgrb^ _______________ b[ yf dtifkre b ghj[jlzn d rjvyfne& Ltnb chfpe ;t
gj,t;fkb r /krt^ r gjlfhrfv^ yj b[ to/ ytkmpz jnrhsdfnm& Jyb ljk;ys _______________
gjl /krjq lj ldtyflwfnb xfcjd yjxb& Vs dct ctkb pf cnjk^ gje;byfkb b cj cvt[jv b
hfpujdjhfvb ghjdjlbkb cnfhsq ujl& B djn xfcs ,m.n ldtyflwfnm hfp& Vs jnrhsdftv
,enskre ifvgfycrjuj& C Yjdsv Ujljv! C yjdsv cxfcnmtv! Gjnjv vs jnrhsdfkb
gjlfhrb^ buhfkb d hfpyst buhs b nfywtdfkb&

Christmas and New Year in Russia


The Russian Christmas (Hj;ltcndj) falls on 7th
January according to the Julian Calendar. It is not widely
observed; the main celebration being on New Years
Eve (yjdjujlyzz yjxm) when a tree (yjdjujlyzz
/krf) is decorated. Presents are exchanged at midnight
amidst general celebration with fireworks etc. Small
children have to wait until morning to find out what
they have received from Ltl Vjhjp (Grandfather
Frost), the Russian equivalent of Father Christmas. He
is usually helped by his granddaughter Cytuehjxrf
(the Snow Maiden). The tree generally remains in place
until the old style New Year or 15th January.

Activity Twenty -
Reading/Writing
Read the text from Activity Twenty again and indicate whether the
following statements are True (G) or False (Y)& Where you have put Y write out the correct
version in Russian. The first one is done for you.
1.

We put all the presents under the tree.


(Ytn^ vs gjkj;bkb dct gjlfhrb gjl /kre)

2.

We hoovered the carpets, dusted the flat and washed the floors.
(_______________________________________________________)

______

3.

We put the table in the corner of the room.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

4.

Usually the television set is by the window.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

5.

Our Christmas tree is in the corner by the balcony.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

/krf
rjd/h (rjdhs)
d eujk (movement), d euke (location) (+gen )

354

Christmas tree
carpet(s)
in the corner (of)

__Y__

gjcthtlbyt (+gen )
jcnfnmcz (jcnfyecm^
jcnfytimcz) (pf)

in the middle (of)


to remain

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

My husband put the vase of flowers in the middle of the table.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

7.

He put the napkins on the right by the plates.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

8.

There are also chocolates on the table and a flower for each guest.
(_______________________________________________________)

______

9.

Our guests put their coats and hats on the sofa.


(_______________________________________________________)

______

10. The presents should remain under the tree until twelve p.m.
(_______________________________________________________)

______

Chapter 18

6.

GRAMMAR
THE PRONOUN -SELF
The pronoun cfv declines as follows:
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

masculine
cfv
cfv/cfv-ju
cfv-ju
cfv-jv
cfv-v
j cfv-v

feminine
cfv-
cfv-/cfv-j/*
cfv-q
cfv-q
cfv-q/-.
j cfv-q

neuter
cfv-
cfv-
cfv-ju
cfv-jv
cfv-v
j cfv-v

plural
cv-b
cv-b/cfv-[
cfv-[
cfv-v
cfv-vb
j cfv-[

* The Accusative feminine is an old-fashioned literary form, but it is still used in phrases with the
pronoun ; e.g. ytyfdbltnm/k.,bnm - hate/love oneself.
is an emphatic pronoun and may precede or follow a noun:
z gthtlfk(f) gjcskre (or ) - I passed the parcel to Marina herself
When used with another pronoun it normally follows that pronoun:
z hfpujdfhbdfk(f) c - I talked to him himself
agrees with other pronouns and nouns in case, gender and number.
Note: do not confuse and

jy regbk ct,t ikzge - he bought himself a hat


jy regbk ikzge - he himself bought a hat
CFV and CVSQ
Note that the above pronouns differ in declension and use. indicates precise location; e.g.
vs ;bd/v d cfvjv wtynht ujhjlf - we live in the very centre of the town
f ntgthm gjdnjhb dc/ c cvjuj yfxfkf - and now repeat everything from the very beginning
vs gjljikb r cvjq djlt - we went right up to the water.
A new ab initio Russian course

355

Cvsq is always stressed on the stem:


masculine
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

cvsq
cvsq/cvjuj
cvjuj
cvjve
cvsv
j cvjv

feminine

neuter

plural

cvfz
cve.
cvjq
cvjq
cvjq
j cvjq

cvjt
cvjt
cvjuj
cvjve
cvsv
j cvjv

cvst
cvst/cvs[
cvs[
cvsv
cvsvb
j cvs[

Note: the phrase njn ;t cfvsq (nf ;t cfvfz^ nj ;t cfvjt^ nt ;t cfvst) means the same; e.g. jy
gjdnjhbk njn ;t cfvsq djghjc ldf;ls - he repeated the same question twice; yfv yhfdbncz nf ;t
cfvfz vepsrf - we like the same music; pltcm dc/ nj ;t cfvjt - everything is the same here; e yfc nt ;t
cfvst bynthtcs - we have the same interests.
The phrase njn cfvsq (nf cfvfz^ nj cfvjt^ nt cfvst) means the very; e.g. 'nj njn cfvsq xtkjdtr^ c
rjnjhsv ns [jntk(f) gjpyfrjvbnmcz - this is the very person you wanted to meet; 'nj nj cfvjt jpthj^
j rjnjhjv z ujdjhbk dfv - this is the very lake I told you about; z regbk(f) ne cfve. gkfcnbyre^
rjnjhe. ns [jntk - I bought the very record you wanted; 'nj nt cfvst k.lb^ rjnjhst cghfibdfkb j
nt,t - these are the very people who asked about you.

Activity Twenty-One -
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

She said, I want to try to do it myself.


We built this house ourselves.
He always does everything himself.
She decided to repair the washing machine herself.
They did not want to renovate their flat themselves.
You must translate this text yourself. (formal)
We saw the singer herself.
The director himself told us about it.
I myself was not there, I was away on holiday.
The bus goes all the way to the village.
He always wants to sit in the very centre of the first row.
We did not stop talking all the way home.
NFRJQ (:T)

The pronoun (such) has stressed ending in all forms and declines as follows:
Nom
Acc
Gen
Dat
Instr
Prep

masculine
nfrq
nfrq/nfruj
nfruj
nfrve
nfrv
j nfrv

feminine
nfrz
nfr.
nfrq
nfrq
nfrq
j nfrq

neuter
nfrt
nfrt
nfruj
nfrve
nfrv
j nfrv

plural
nfrt
nfrt/nfr[
nfr[
nfrv
nfrvb
j nfr[

bynthtcysq abkmv - such an interesting film


ctujlyz [jhjifz gjujlf - today is such good weather
jy yfgbcfk vyt lkbyyjt gbcmvj - he wrote me such a long letter
e yt/ uhecnyst ukfpf - she has such sad eyes
356

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

d ckexft
ghb j,cnjzntkmcndf[
j,hfpjv
lj cntgtyb
-czrjq
-nj

in that case
in the(se) / such circumstances
thus
to such an extent
so-and-so
so-and-so; such-and-such

The phrase means the same (as), the same sort/type of ; e.g. jyb regbkb vfibye^ rfr
e yfc - they bought the same type of car as we have.

Chapter 18

The following phrases with nfrjq may prove useful:

Note: the adverb is related to and means so, thus; e.g. jy ecnfk^ xnj chfpe pfcyek - he got
so tired that he fell asleep immediately; ctujlyz [jkjlyj^ xnj z htibkf yt ds[jlbnm bp ljvf - it is so
cold today that Ive decided not to leave the house.

Activity Twenty-Two -
Reading/Writing
Translate the following into English.
1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&

Vs regbkb ne cfve. rybue^ rjnjhe. ds htrjvtyljdfkb&


Jy k.,bn xbnfnm ne ;t cfve. rybue ytcrjkmrj hfp&
"nj nj cfvjt gkfnmt^ rjnjhjt ,skj yf vyt d ltym yfitq dcnhtxb&
Z yt k.,k. xfcnj yfltdfnm nj ;t cfvjt gkfnmt&
Tve gjlfhbkb njn cfvsq vjnjwbrk^ j rjnjhjv jy vtxnfk&
E ytuj dc/ to/ njn ;t cfvsq vjnjwbrk^ rjnjhsq e yfc ,sk ltcznm ktn yfpfl&
Pltcm ybxtuj yt bpvtybkjcm% dc/ nt ;t rfhnbys dbczn yf cntyf[^ nj ;t
gbfybyj cnjbn e jryf^ lf;t njn ;t rjn kt;bn yf lbdfyt&
8& Yfrjytw z edbltk nt pyfvtybnst rfhnbys^ htghjlerwbb rjnjhs[ cnjkmrj hfp
dbltk d rybuf[&
9& E yb[ nfrjq [jhjibq ljv!
10& Z dctulf vtxnfk j nfrjq vfibyt&
11& Z nfr ljkuj ;lfk fdnj,ec^ xnj cjdthityyj pfv/hp&
VERBS WITH CONSONANT MUTATION
I. First conjugation verbs ( type) with consonant mutation in all forms.
These verbs all end with -, and do not retain the suffix -a in the personal forms. They mostly have a mobile
stress (it changes from the ending to the stem after the first person singular), and they all undergo consonant
mutation:
c>i
gbcnm
(to write)
z gbi
ns gitim
jy(f) gitn
vs gitv
ds gitnt
jyb gien

htghjlerwbz
cjdthityyj

p>;
crfpnm
(to say)
crf;
cr;tim
cr;tn
cr;tv
cr;tnt
cr;en

reproduction
completely

A new ab initio Russian course

l>;
ukjlnm
(to gnaw)
ukj;
uk;tim
uk;tn
uk;tv
uk;tnt
uk;en

u>;
ldufnm
(to move)
ld;e
ld;tim
ld;tn
ld;tv
ld;tnt
ld;en

n>x
itgnnm
(to whisper)
itgx
igxtim
igxtn
igxtv
igxtnt
igxen

pfvthpfnm (I) / pfv/hpyenm (pfv/hpye^


pfv/hpytim) (past pfv/hp^ pfvthpkf)

to freeze

357

[> i

cr > o

r>x

n>o

vf[nm
(to wave)
z vfi
ns vitim
jy(f) vitn
vs vitv
ds vitnt
jyb vien

bcrnm
(to seek)
bo
otim
otn
otv
otnt
oen

gkrfnm*
(to cry)
gkxe
gkxtim
gkxtn
gkxtv
gkxtnt
gkxen

[ktcnnm
(to lash, whip)
[kto
[kotim
[kotn
[kotv
[kotnt
[koen

, > ,k^ v > vk^


g > gk
lhtvnm
(to doze)
lhtvk
lhvktim
lhvktn
lhvktv
lhvktnt
lhvk.n

* gkrfnm has a fixed stress on the stem.

Activity Twenty-Three -
Writing
Conjugate the following verbs which follow the patterns above.
hfccrfpnm (pf)
,jhvjnnm/ghj,jhvjnnm
dzpnm/cdzpnm
cgfnm (imp)
rjkt,nmcz
kbpnm (imp)
vpfnm/yfvpfnm*
ghnfnm/cghnfnm*
hpfnm/gjhpfnm*
njgnnm/pfnjgnnm
[j[jnnm/pf[j[jnnm
xtcnm/gjxtcnm
otrjnnm/gjotrjnnm

to tell
to mutter
to knit, tie
to pour
to hesitate
to lick
to spread, smear, oil, grease
to hide
to cut, slice
to trample (down)
to laugh loudly
to scratch
to tickle

* These verbs have a fixed stress on the stem.

Activity Twenty-Four -
Writing
Fill in the gaps using the verbs given in brackets in the appropriate form.
Translate the sentences into English.
1& Rnj (bcrfnm)^ njn dctulf yfql/n& 2& Vfktymrbt ltnb xfcnj (gkfrfnm) gj yjxfv& 3& Yfi
rjn jxtym k.,bn^ rjulf tve (xtcfnm) pf e[jv& 4& Z ctqxfc (yfhtpfnm) [kt,^ (yfvfpfnm) tuj
vfckjv b cltkf. ,enth,hjls c cshjv& 5& Jy xfcnj xnj-nj (,jhvjnfnm) dj cyt& 6& <f,eirf
cblbn e jryf b (dzpfnm) yjcrb& 8& Dflbv dctulf nfr uhjvrj ([j[jnfnm)& 9& Ctujlyz z
(hfccrfpfnm) dfv j F& Geirbyt& 10& O/nrjq vj. z otyrf^ (otrjnfnm) tuj ,jrf& 11& To/
ns (lhtvfnm)^ lheu ghtktcnysq& 12& Ltnb cblzn yf crfvtqrt^ (kbpfnm) vjhj;tyjt b dtctkj
cvt.ncz& 13& Cyfxfkf jyf ljkuj (rjkt,fnmcz)^ yj gjnjv cjukfiftncz ghbyznm
ghbukfitybt& 14& Jy jxtym jnrhsnsq xtkjdtr b ybrjulf yt (ghznfnm) cdjb[ xedcnd&
15&Jcnjhj;yj^ gjk njkmrj xnj gjvskb^ yt (pfnjgnfnm) tuj&
rnj &&& njn &&&
xtcfnm pf e[jv
dj cyt
otyjr

358

a person who ...


to tickle (its) ears
in ones sleep
puppy

,jr
ghtktcnysq
xedcndj
jcnjhj;yj

side
charming
feeling
careful
S azov (Russian from Scratch )

(i) Most verbs in - with preceding -c- have a consonant mutation in their personal forms. They also have
fixed stress (as in the infinitive):
gthtdtcn*
(to translate)
z gthtdtl
ns gthtdtl/im
jy(f) gthtdtl/n
vs gthtdtl/v
ds gthtdtl/nt
jyb gthtdtln

cn > l
,htcn*
(to wander)
,htl
,htl/im
,htl/n
,htl/v
,htl/nt
,htln

dtcn*
(to lead)
dtl
dtl/im
dtl/n
dtl/v
dtl/nt
dtln

pfdtcn*
(to start)
pfdtl
pfdtl/im
pfdtl/n
pfdtl/v
pfdtl/nt
pfdtln

,k.cn*
(to guard)
,k.l
,k.l/im
,k.l/n
,k.l/v
,k.l/nt
,k.ln

Chapter 18

II. First conjugation verbs in -nb and -/- (pfdtcnb type) with consonant mutation in all forms.

Other mutations are as follows:


cn > ,
uhtcn*
crhtcn*
(to row)
(to scour)
z uht,
crht,
ns uht,/im crht,/im
jy(f) uht,/n crht,/n
vs uht,/v crht,/v
ds uht,/nt crht,/nt
jyb uht,n crht,n

vtcn**
(to sweep)
vtn
vtn/im
vtn/n
vtn/v
vtn/nt
vtnn

cn > n
gktcn**
(to plait)
gktn
gktn/im
gktn/n
gktn/v
gktn/nt
gktnn

wdtcn **
(to flower)
wdtn
wdtn/im
wdtn/n
wdtn/v
wdtn/nt
wdtnn

ytcn*
(to carry)
ytc
ytc/im
ytc/n
ytc/v
ytc/nt
ytcn

cn > c
gfcn*
(to graze)
gfc
gfc/im
gfc/n
gfc/v
gfc/nt
gfcn

* These verbs have an irregular masculine past tense, i.e. uhtcnb - uh/,^ crhtcnb - crh/,^ ytcnb - y/c& The
feminine, neuter and plural past tenses are formed by adding - k and the appropriate endings to the masculine
past tense; e.g. uh/, (uht,k^ uht,k^ uht,k)&
** The verbs vtcn^ gktcn and wdtcn have the past tenses v/k/vtk^ gk/k/gktk and wd/k/wdtk,
respectively.
Note that the verb hfcn (to grow) is unusual in that it does not mutate at all: z hfcn^ ns hfcn/im^ jy(f)
hfcn/n^ vs hfcn/v^ ds hfcn/nt^ jyb hfcnn. The past tense of hfcnb is also irregular: hjc^ hjck^
hjck^ hjck&
When -nb is preceded by -p- the following mutation occurs - pn > p:
dtpn* (to convey)
z dtp
ns dtp/im
jy dtp/n
vs dtp/v
ds dtp/nt
jyb dtpn

pn > p

gjkpn* (to crawl)


gjkp
gjkp/im
gjkp/n
gjkp/v
gjkp/nt
gjkpn

* These verbs have an irregular masculine past tense, i.e. dtpnb - d/p (dtpk^ dtpk^ dtpk); gjkpnb - gjkp
(gjkpk^ gjkpk^ gjkpk)&

A new ab initio Russian course

359

(ii) Verbs in -/- have the following consonant mutations in all personal forms:
rkfcnm
(to put)
z rkfl
ns rkfl/im
jy(f) rkfl/n
vs rkfl/v
ds rkfl/nt
jyb rkfln

cn > l
ctcnm
(to sit down)
cle
cltim
cltn
cltv
cltnt
clen

rhfcnm
(to steal)
rhfl
rhfl/im
rhfl/n
rhfl/v
rhfl/nt
rhfln

cn > y
rkzcnm
(to curse)
rkzy
rkzy/im
rkzy/n
rkzy/v
rkzy/nt
rkzyn

ktpnm*
(to climb)
kpe
kptim
kptn
kptv
kptnt
kpen

cn > p
uhspnm*
(to gnaw)
uhsp
uhsp/im
uhsp/n
uhsp/v
uhsp/nt
uhspn

* These verbs have an irregular masculine past tense, i.e. ktpnm - ktp (kpkf^ kpkj^ kpkb)^ uhspnm - uhsp
(uhpkf^ uhpkj^ uhpkb)&
(iii) Verbs in - have the following consonant mutations in all personal forms:

,thxm
(to look after)

;txm
(to burn)

z ,thtu
ns ,tht;/im
jy(f) ,tht;/n
vs ,tht;/v
ds ,tht;/nt
jyb ,thtun

;ue
;;/im
;;/n
;;/v
;;/nt
;uen

ktxm
(to lie
down)
kue
k;tim
k;tn
k;tv
k;tnt
kuen

x > u/;*
vjxm
ghtyt,hxm
(to be
(to disdain)
able)
vju
ghtyt,htu
v;tim
ghtyt,ht;/im
v;tn
ghtyt,ht;/n
v;tv
ghtyt,ht;/v
v;tnt
ghtyt,ht;/nt
vuen
ghtyt,htun

cnhbxm
(to cut
[hair/nails])
cnhbu
cnhb;/im
cnhb;/n
cnhb;/v
cnhb;/nt
cnhbun

yfghxm
(to strain)
yfghzu
yfghz;/im
yfghz;/n
yfghz;/v
yfghz;/nt
yfghzun

* u mutates to before /

dktxm
(to attract, pull)
z dktr
ns dktx/im
jy(f) dktx/n
vs dktx/v
ds dktx/nt
jyb dktrn

djkjxm**
(to drag)
djkjr
djkjx/im
djkjx/n
djkjx/v
djkjx/nt
djkjrn

gtxm
(to bake)
gtr
gtx/im
gtx/n
gtx/v
gtx/nt
gtrn

x > r/x*
ctxm
(to flog/beat)
ctr
ctx/im
ctx/n
ctx/v
ctx/nt
ctrn

ntxm
(to flow/leak)
ntr
ntx/im
ntx/n
ntx/v
ntx/nt
ntrn

njkxm
(to crush)
njkr
njkx/im
njkx/n
njkx/v
njkx/nt
njkrn

* r mutates to x before t//


**djkxm is a colloquial alternative to the regular second conjugation verb djkjxnm.

Activity Twenty-Five -
Writing Fill in the gaps using the verbs given in brackets in the appropriate form.
Translate the sentences into English.
1& Jy xnj-nj (itgnfnm) tq^ b jyf cxfcnkbdj eks,ftncz& 2& Vfnm cnjbn yf gkfnajhvt^
(gkfrfnm) b uhecnyj (vf[fnm) yfv dcktl& 3& Jyf dctulf dc/ (rkfcnm) yf cdjb vtcnf& 4&Dctulf
rf;tncz^ xnj xe;bt ltnb (hfcnb) jxtym ,scnhj& 5& <f,eirf dctulf dcnf/n jxtym hfyj%
cyfxfkf jyf (gtxm) [kt,^ gjnjv (crhtcnb) b vjtn gjk^ (dzpfnm) dyerfv dfht;rb^ ujnjdbn
j,tl^ b nfr wtksq ltym - jyf yt (vjxm) cbltnm ,tp ltkf& 6& Jyf ybrjulf yt (ktxm) cgfnm^
gjrf yt cltkftn dct ltkf& 7& Pbyf hf,jnftn d gfhbrvf[thcrjq% jyf wtksq ltym (cnhbxm) b
,httn& 8& Yfv ye;yj dspdfnm cfynt[ybrf% e yfc (ntxm) rhfy& 9& Jctym. d cflf[ b gfhrf[
360

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

III. Second conjugation verbs in -bnm and -tnm (ujdjhbnm type) with consonant mutation in the first
person singular only.
(i) verbs in -bnm have the following consonant mutations in the first person singular forms:
, > ,k
k.,nm
(to love)
z k.,k
ns k,bim
jy(f) k,bn
vs k,bv
ds k,bnt
jyb k,zn

g > gk
regnm
(to buy)
regk
rgbim
rgbn
rgbv
rgbnt
rgzn

d > dk
cndbnm
(to put)
cndk.
cndbim
cndbn
cndbv
cndbnt
cndzn

v > vk
rjhvnm
(to feed)
rjhvk
rhvbim
rhvbn
rhvbv
rhvbnt
rhvzn

a > ak
uhfanm
(to rule [paper])
uhfak
uhabim
uhabn
uhabv
uhabnt
uhazn

l>;
uklbnm
(to iron)
z uk;e
ns uklbim
jy(f) uklbn
vs uklbv
ds uklbnt
jyb uklzn

p>;
kpbnm
(to climb)
k;e
kpbim
kpbn
kpbv
kpbnt
kpzn

c>i
ghjcnm
(to ask)
ghji
ghcbim
ghcbn
ghcbv
ghcbnt
ghczn

cn > o
vcnbnm
(to avenge)
voe
vcnbim
vcnbn
vcnbv
vcnbnt
vcnzn

n>x
gkfnnm
(to pay)
gkfx
gknbim
gknbn
gknbv
gknbnt
gknzn

Chapter 18

(;txm) ce[bt kbcnmz& 10& Z jxtym ecnfkf b ,jkmit yt (vjxm) hf,jnfnm& 11& Tuj (dktxm)
ujhs b gentitcndbz& 12& Rjulf xtuj-yb,elm jxtym ;l/im^ nj rf;tncz^ xnj lyb (gjkpnb)
jxtym vtlktyyj&

(ii) verbs in -tnm have the following consonant mutations in the first person singular forms:
v > vk
ievnm
(to make a noise)
z ievk
ns ievim
jy(f) ievn
vs ievv
ds ievnt
jyb ievn

g > gk
[hfgnm
(to snore)
[hfgk
[hfgim
[hfgn
[hfgv
[hfgnt
[hfgn

cn > o
cdbcnnm
(to whistle)
cdbo
cdbcnim
cdbcnn
cdbcnv
cdbcnnt
cdbcnn

n>x
ktnnm
(to fly)
ktx
ktnim
ktnn
ktnv
ktnnt
ktnn

c>i
dbcnm
(to hang)
dbi
dbcim
dbcn
dbcv
dbcnt
dbcn

l>;
cblnm
(to sit)
cb;
cblim
cbln
cblv
cblnt
cbln

Second conjugation verbs in -bnm and -tnm may have either a fixed stress or a mobile stress.

If the stress is on the final or penultimate syllable of the infinitive, it remains in the same position in all forms;
e.g. cndbnm - cndk.^ cndbim* ievnm - ievk^ ievim&

Mobile stress: the final syllable of the infinitive and the first person singular are stressed, while elsewhere the
penultimate syllable is stressed; e.g. k.,nm - k.,k^ k,bim&

uhecnyj
vf[fnm (imp) (vfie^ vfitim) (+ instr)
dcktl (+ dat)
A new ab initio Russian course

sadly
to wave
after

xe;jq
dfht;rf
(gj-),hbnm (,ht.^ ,httim)

someone elses
mitten
to shave

361

Activity Twenty-Six -
Writing Fill in the gaps, using the appropriate form of the verbs given in brackets.
1& Z jxtym (k.,bnm) dtcye& 2& - Rjulf ds (ktntnm) d Vjcrde$ - Z (ktntnm) pfdnhf& 3&Gfkmnj
(dbctnm) yf dtifkrt& 4& Z e;t ljkuj (dbctnm) yf ntktajyt^ yflj pfrfyxbdfnm hfpujdjh&
5& Ctqxfc z hf,jnf.% (cbltnm) ljvf c ltnmvb^ (ujnjdbnm) j,tl^ (ukflbnm) ,tkm/^
(gsktcjcbnm) rjdhs^ jlybv ckjdjv - (cktlbnm) pf ljvjv& 6& Ctqxfc z (gjrjhvbnm)
ht,/yrf b gjqle d vfufpby& 7& Jy ghjcnj (rbgtnm) uytdjv& 8& D rjvyfnt nb[j^ njkmrj z
(crhbgtnm) gthjv gj ,evfut& 9& Z yt (nthgtnm) k;b b ytxtcnyjcnb& 10& Z (pfdbctnm) jn
nt,z& 11& Pf jryjv (ievtnm) dtnth b km/n lj;lm& 12& Vs ljujdjhbkbcm^ xnj rjulf z
(pfcdbcntnm)^ jy dsqltn bp erhsnbz&

Yt ,jknfq! (Dont chatter!) = Yt dbcb yf ntktajyt! (Dont stay on the phone!)


dtifkrf
dbctnm yf ntktajyt
rbgtnm (imp) uytdjv
crhbgtnm (imp) gthjv
nthgtnm (imp) (nthgk.^
nthgbim)
kj;m (f)
ytxtcnyjcnm (f)

362

coat hanger, peg


to be on the telephone
to seethe with anger
to scratch with a pen
to tolerate, stand
lie
untruth, dishonesty

pfdbctnm (II) jn (+ gen)


ievtnm (imp) (ievk.^
ievbim)
km/n lj;lm
ljujdjhbnmcz (II) (pf)
pfcdbcntnm (pf)
(pfcdboe^ pfcdbcnbim)
dsqnb bp erhsnbz

to be dependent on
to howl, make a noise
it is pouring down
to agree
to begin to whistle
to come out of hiding

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

CHAPTER 19

CHAPTER NINETEEN -
PERSONAL INFORMATION -
In Chapter Nineteen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about ages, weights and heights
2. to talk about peoples appearance
3. to talk about personality types
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1.
2.
3.
4.

expressions of approximation
the short forms of adjectives
nouns in apposition
the particle

Activity One -
Writing
Look at the following pictures and write down the approximate age of the
people illustrated. Use the model below as a guide.
Jkmut ktn ldflwfnm (reversed word order)
Olga is about twenty.
Jkmut jrjkj ldflwfnb ktn (jrjkj + gen)

Fhrflbq
Gtnhjdbx

Cth/;f

Kblbz
Bdfyjdyf

Vfrcbv

Activity Two -
Reading
Read the following dialogue in pairs and indicate with a tick in the table
after the dialogue the age of each person mentioned in the conversation. The first one is done
for you. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.
F - Rfr ns levftim^ crjkmrj ktn Vfhbb Gtnhjdyt$
< - Z levf.^ xnj tq ujlf nhblwfnm nhb&
F - Z nj;t nfr levfkf^ yj ytlfdyj z epyfkf^ xnj tq e;t pf cjhjr& T/ csye Cfit e;t
jrjkj gznyflwfnb ktn&
< - Yte;tkb$ Jyf nfr [jhjij dsukzlbn&
F - Lf^ jyf dsukzlbn vjkj;t cdjb[ ktn^ f djn t/ ctcnhf Cdtnkfyf dsukzlbn cnfhit
cdjtuj djphfcnf& Crjkmrj ktn ns tq lfim$
< - Z ,s lfkf tq ktn ldflwfnm itcnm^ yj hfp ns ujdjhbim^ xnj jyf dsukzlbn cnfhit
cdjb[ ktn^ nj^ vj;tn ,snm^ tq jrjkj ldflwfnb xtnsh/[ ktn&
364

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Ytn^ tq njkmrj ldflwfnm ktn&


F ns pyftim^ crjkmrj ktn b[ jnwe^ Dbrnjhe Bdfyjdbxe$
Z ,s lfkf tve ktn itcnmltczn gznm^ yj^ ujdjhzn^ xnj tve e;t ctvmltczn c xtv-nj&
Lf^ tve ytlfdyj bcgjkybkjcm ctvmltczn ctvm ktn& Jy ghtrhfcyj dsukzlbn lkz
cdjtuj djphfcnf&

name
Maria

Petrovna

about 15 about 77 about over 40 about 24 20 about 65 over 70


26
33

Chapter 19

F <F < -

Sasha

Svetlana

Victor
Ivanovich

Activity Three -
Speaking Pairwork. Discuss with your partner the age of each person illustrated in
Activity One, using the dialogue from Activity Two as a guide. Reverse roles after each
picture.
Activity Four -
Listening Listen to the recording in which six people describe their relatives. Fill in
the table below with the appropriate information. Some of the answers are given for you.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
k.lb
ve; Vfhbys
csy Jkmub
;tyf Bdfyf
jntw Nfyb
vfnm Nfyb
ltleirf Cdtns
,f,eirf <jhb
epyfdfnm (epyf.^
epyf/im) / epyfnm (I)
pf cjhjr
dsukzltnm (imp) (dsukz;e^ dsukzlbim)
vjkj;t cdjb[ ktn

djphfcn

hjcn

dtc
4.5 rbkj

uk fpf
ujke,st

djkj cs
hecst

ptk/yst
60

ctlst
kbcsq

to recognize

djkjcs
[eljofdsq / [eljq
over 40
,h.ytn(rf)
to look
rehyjcsq
[fhfrnth
younger than
dtcbnm (II) (imp)
ones years
&&& c gjkjdbyjq
djphfcn
age
rfhbq
z ,s lfk(f) (+ dat)
I would put ... at vzurbq
ctvmltczn c xtv-nj over 70
hecsq
tve bcgjkybkjcm &&& hes just turned ... yf cdtnt
lkz cdjtuj djphfcnf for ones age
cnhjqysq
hjcn
height
chtlytuj djphfcnf

weight
ghb,kbpbntkmyj
A new ab initio Russian course

hair
thin, lean
dark-haired person
snub-nosed
personality
to weigh
... and a half
brown (eyes)
soft
light-brown (hair)
in the world
well-proportioned
(of) average height
approximately

dscjrbq
tall, high
rf,ker
heel
c nheljv
with difficulty
(gj-)cnfhtnm to grow old
(cnfht.^ -tim)
ctljq
grey (hair)
gjkysq
stout
kscsq
bald
ujh,bnmcz (II) to stoop
gj-ght;ytve as before
(gj-)gjkytnm to grow stout
(gjkyt.^ -tim)
cthsq
grey (eyes)
n/vysq
dark

365

Activity Five -
Writing/Listening Look at the chart below and complete it by converting the
information into the metric system, using the table after the chart to help you. Then write the
information for each person in Russian. The first one is done for you. Finally, listen to the tape
to check your answers.
name

height

weight

hjcn

dtc

John

6 ft 3 ins

14 st 2 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Mary

5 ft 5 ins

9 st

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Mike

5 ft 8 ins

10 st 5 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Helen

5 ft 7 ins

9 st 7 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Karen

5 ft 4 ins

8 st 7 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Anna

4 ft11 ins

6 st 10 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

Robert

5 ft 10 ins

12 st 7 lbs

&&& v &&& cv

&&& ru

1 in
12 ins
1 lb
2.2 lbs
1 st

=
=
=
=
=

2.5 cm
1 ft (30 cm)
450 gm
1 kg
14 lbs (6.4 kg)

1& Hjcn L;jyf ghb,kbpbntkmyj 1 vtnh 88 cfynbvtnhjd^ jy dtcbn 90


rbkjuhfvvjd&
2& Hjcn Vthb _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3& Hjcn Vfqrf ______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4& Hjcn {tkty _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5& Hjcn Fyys _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
6& Hjcn Hj,thnf _____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
366

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

Bodystat

Chapter 19

Activity Six -
Reading/Speaking
Read the Body Statistics Report completed for Anna at the Sports
Centre. Answer the questions after the report in Russian, using the vocabulary at the foot of
the following page to help you.

GHFDLF J CJCNFDT DFITUJ NTKF


JNX?N
% Fyyf <thybrjdf
% <lhjcnm, Vjcrdf
% 25

% 1v 75cv

% 12&10&02

;bh = 17&5%
dtc ;bhf = 10&5 ru
dtc rjcntq b vsiw = 49&5 ru
j,obq dtc ntkf = 60 ru
djlf = 59&5%
j,]/v djls d ntkt = 35&7 k (=kbnhjd)
ehjdtym abpbxtcrjq frnbdyjcnb%

21 - 27%
14 - 18 ru
47 - 51 ru
63 - 68 ru
50 - 60%
30 - 36 k
, bprbq/chtlybq,
chtlybq, /,

Rjvvtynfhbb rjycekmnfynf% ds yf[jlbntcm d [jhjitq abpbxtcrjq ajhvt^ yj dfi dtc


ytvyjuj yb;t yjhvs^ dfv ,jkmit yt cktletn nthznm dtc^ gjllth;bdfqnt tuj yf 'njv
ehjdyt bkb gjghfdmntcm yf 3 ru&

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&

Ult b rjulf ghj[jlbkf ntcn Fyyf <thybrjdf$


Crjkmrj tq ktn$
Rfrjq e yt/ hjcn$
Crjkmrj jyf dtcbn$
Crjkmrj dtczn t/ rjcnb b vsiws$
Crjkmrj ghjwtynjd jn t/ j,otuj dtcf cjcnfdkztn ;bh$
Cjjndtncndetn kb 'nj yjhvt$
Vyjuj kb jyf pfybvftncz cgjhnjv$
Xnj tq yt cktletn ,jkmit ltkfnm$
Rfrbt ldf cjdtnf lf/n tq rjycekmnfyn$

A new ab initio Russian course

367

Activity Seven -
Listening
Look at the picture and then listen to the tape. You are going to hear one
of the people in the picture speaking. Try to identify who is speaking after the first listening.
Listen again and identify the other people, filling in the appropriate information in English in
the table below the picture.

name

age

height

Inna
Andrei
Katya
Nikita

cjcnfd
ntkj
jnx/n
,jlhjcnm (f)
lfyyst
htrjvtyletvsq
;bh
rjcnm (f)
vsiwf
j,obq
j,]/v
ehjdtym (m)
ybprbq

368

composition
body
report
good spirits
data
recommended
fat
bone
muscle
general
volume
level
low, short

eyes
mother/father

hair

looks like

(+ dat) yt cktletn
(gj-)nthznm (I)
gjllth;bdfnm (I) / gjllth;fnm (II)
gjghfdkznmcz (I) / gjghfdbnmcz (II)
cjj (III) (imp) (+ dat)
ghj[jlbnm (II) (imp)
cjcnfdkznm (I) / cjcnfdbnm (II)
gjkyst ue,s
eprbt ue,s
hjdm (f) / ,hjdb
htcybwf / htcybws
eyfcktljdfnm (III) (pf)
gfhtym (m)

one ought not (to)


to lose
to maintain
to put on weight
to correspond (to)
to take place
to comprise
full lips
thin lips
eyebrow(s)
eyelash(es)
to inherit
boy(friend)

S azov (Russian from Scratch )

1&
2&
3&
4&
5&
6&
7&
8&
9&
10&
11&
12&

Crjkmrj ktn Byyt b Fylht.$


Crjkmrj ktn b[ ctcnht Rfnt$
Rfrjuj jyb hjcnf$
Rfrjuj wdtnf ukfpf Ybrbns$
Rfrjuj jy hjcnf$
Yf rjuj jy gj[j;$
Yf rjuj gj[j;f Rfnz$
Rfrbt xthns jyf eyfcktljdfkf jn hjlbntktq$
Rfrbt djkjcs e Byys$
Yf rjuj jyf gj[j;f$
Crjkmrj ktn Ybrbnt$
Xnj jy k.,bn yjcbnm$

Chapter 19

Activity Eight -
Speaking/Listening/Writing Answer the questions in Russian using the information
from the table in Activity Seven. Then listen to the tape again and complete the sentences
which follow the questions. You should provide two pieces of information missing from the
table about each person in the picture.

Missing Information
1. E Byys

a) ___________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________

2. E Fylhtz a) ___________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________
3. E Rfnb

a) ___________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________

4. E Ybrbns a) ___________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________
Activity Nine - L
Reading Read the following story and answer the questions in Russian.
Ltl^ ,f,f b Fk/if (>& Rjdfkm)
Cgjhzn ltl lf* ,f,f^ yf rjuj gj[j; b[ dyer& <f,f ujdjhbn%
- Fk/if yf vtyz gj[j;& Nfrjq ;t evysq b nheljk.,bdsq&
Fk/if ujdjhbn%
- Dthyj^ dthyj^ z dtcm d ,f,e&
Ltl ujdjhbn%
- F gj-vjtve^ Fk/if yf vtyz gj[j;& E ytuj nfrbt ;t ukfpf - rhfcbdst^ ujke,st&
B ,jhjlf ,jkmifz dshfcntn^
rjulf Fk/if b cfv dshfcntn&

Fk/it pf[jntkjcm^ xnj,s e ytuj dshjckf nfrfz ;t ,jhjlf^ b jy ujdjhbn%


* lf= b
A new ab initio Russian course

369

- Dthyj^ dthyj^ z ,jkmit yf ltlf gj[j;&


<f,f ujdjhbn%
- Rfrfz ,jhjlf dshfcntn^ to/ ytbpdtcnyj& Yj Fk/if yf vtyz gj[j;& Jy nfr ;t^
rfr b z^ k.,bn xfq c