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33 Ansichten10 SeitenAdvanced Fluid Dynamics CH 2

Adv Fluid Handout(2)

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Advanced Fluid Dynamics CH 2

© All Rights Reserved

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33 Ansichten10 SeitenAdv Fluid Handout(2)

Advanced Fluid Dynamics CH 2

© All Rights Reserved

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Basic Causes of Pressure Variation in a Flowing Fluid: In static fluid gravity causes pressure to

vary with elevation. In fluid flow in addition to the weight effect acceleration and viscous resistance

are the basic causes of pressure variation.

To accelerate a mass of fluid in a given

direction, there must be a net force in the

direction of acceleration. Therefore, the

pressure must decrease in the direction

of acceleration as shown in figure.

For flow in a pipe

A1, p1

F1 = p1 A1

p2, A2

F2 = p2 A2

P1 > P2

Since A1= A2, net pressure force on the fluid acts to the right, i.e, F1 > F2

In addition to acceleration, pressure variation is needed to overcome the viscous resistance, which acts

in opposition to the motion of the fluid.

Pressure Variation due to Weight and

Acceleration: Element shown in figure

is being accelerated in the l direction.

Applying Newtons second law in the l

direction and using the system approach,

Fl Ma l

pA p p A W sin lAa l

pA lA sin lAa l

(a) Fluid element. (b)Trigonometric relation

W l A

dividing by lA

p

sin a l

l

(1)

Taking the limit of

p

at a give time as l zero yields the partial derivative:

l

limit p

l 0 l

sin

p

l

limit z z

l 0 l

l

p

z

l

l

p z a l

l

(2)

When al = 0

p + z = C (for hydrostatic).

In other words, along a path of zero acceleration the pressure distribution must be hydrostatic. This

assumes that the gravity and pressure forces are the only forces acting. That is, it is a non-viscous flow.

Examples of Pressure variation Resulting from Acceleration

1

Uniform Acceleration of a Tank of Liquid: When open tank of liquid is accelerated to the right at a

rate of ax, a net force must act on the liquid in the same direction; this is accomplished when the liquid

redistributes itself in the tank as shown in figure by A'B'CD. Under this condition the hydrostatic force

at the left end is greater than the hydrostatic force at the right, which is consistent with the requirement

of

F = Ma.

Along the liquid surface A'B' pressure is constant, p = patm. Consequently

p

0

l

The acceleration along A'B' is given by al = ax cos . Hence, Eq. (2) reduces to

d

z a x cos where the total derivative is used because the variables do not change with time.

dl

= constant = g.

Therefore,

a cos

dz

x

dl

g

but

dz

sin

dl

Thus

sin

a x cos

g

or

tan

ax

g

Along a horizontal plane in the liquid, such as at the bottom of the tank, z is constant, then

p

a x

x

which shows that the pressure must decrease in the direction of the acceleration.

The change in pressure is consistent with the change in depth of liquid because hydrostatic pressure

variation prevails in the vertical direction, since there is no component of acceleration in that direction.

Thus as the depth decreases in the direction of acceleration, the pressure along the bottom of the tank

must also decrease.

Rotation of Tank of Liquid: Consider a cylindrical tank of liquid rotating at a constant rate , as

shown in figure. Surface A'A' appears after a period of time when a steady state has been

established.

Applying Eq. (2) in a radial direction,

2

d

p z a r V

dr

r

where the partial derivative has been dropped since the flow

is steady and a function only of the radius r. Acceleration in

the radial direction is negative (toward the centre of rotation).

Since,

V = r

d

p z r 2

dr

p z

r 2 2

constant

2

Bernoulli Equation

If the flow is steady, incompressible, non-viscous, and also irrotational, Bernoulli equation can be

derived from the Eulers equation

p z

p

V2

z

Constant

2g

V2

Constant (In pressure units)

2

In most applications the Bernoulli equation is written between two points, 1 and 2, in the flow field as:

V 2 p2

V2

V 12

p1

V22

(In

pressure

units)

(In head units)

p1 z1

p 2 z 2

1

2

2g

2g

2

2

Note that the V in the Bernoulli equation is the speed of the fluid and not a velocity component.

Bernoulli equation is a scalar equation. It can be used to predict the pressure distribution within the

fluid or the pressure distribution on a body if the flow pattern about the body is known.

1

Stagnation Tube: Writing Bernoulli equation

between points 1 and 2 for the stagnation tube

shown in figure (as z1 = z2)

V 12

V2

p1

p2 2

2

2

Velocity at point 2 is zero ( a stagnation point).

V12

Thus,

2

p 2 p1

acceleration normal to the streamlines where the

streamlines are straight and parallel),

p1 = d and p2 = (l + d).

2

l d d

V1 2 gl .

V12

Therefore,

which reduces to

A very simple device such as curved tube can be used to measure the velocity of flow.

Pitot Tube: The Pitot tube is based on the same principle as the stagnation tube, but it is much more

versatile than the stagnation tube. The Pitot tube has a pressure tap at the upstream end of the tube for

sensing the stagnation pressure . There are also ports located several tube diameters downstream of the

front end of the tube for sensing the static pressure in the fluid where the velocity is essentially the

same as the approach velocity.

Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1

and 2, shown in figure, and solving for V2 as V1 =

0.

p

p

V 2 2 g 1 z1 2 z 2

Using V2 = V, the velocity of the stream and

p

zh,

the

piezometric

head

V 2 g h1 h2

Flow velocity can be measured easily with the Pitot tube by connecting a pressure gage or manometer between taps that

lead to points 1 and 2. A major advantage of the Pitot tube is that it can be used to measure velocity in a pressurized pipe; a

simple stagnation tube is not convenient to use in such a situation. In gas-flow measurement, where a single differential

p

pressure gage is connected across the taps V 2

, where p is the pressure difference across the taps.

3

Fig. (a). Flow net for transition (half-section).

in figure (a), then irrotational flow will be

approximated for low-viscosity fluids such as

water or air. Hence the Bernoulli equation can be

used to obtain the pressure variation between

points in the flow field, including points adjacent

to the boundaries. Writing Bernoulli equation

between the reference point and any other point,

V 02

p

V 2 p0

z

z0

2g

2g

where p0, V0, and z0, are pressure, velocity, and elevation respectively, at the reference point; and p,

V, and z, are pressure, velocity, and elevation at any other given point. By rearrangement,

2

2

V 2 V 2

p

p0

V V

h h0

z

z 0

or

where h0 is the piezometric head at the

2g

2g

reference point, and h is the piezometric head at a given point. For gases in which hydrostatic effects

2

2

p p0 V V

p p 0 V 2 V 2

are negligible

or

2

2g

By nondimensionalizing

Because V

V

h h0

1 -

2

V0 / 2 g

V0

or

V

p p0

1 -

2

V0 / 2

V0

A

V

1

0 ), then the equations in terms of the flow passage are

(that is,

V0

A

A

h h0

p p0

A

A

1- 0

1 - 0

or

2

2

V0 / 2 g

V0 / 2

A

A

For two-dimensional flow, the streamline spacing is directly proportional to the flow area, that is

2

2

p p0

h h0

A0 n 0

n0

n0

1-

1-

. Then, in terms of the streamline spacing

or

A

n

V02 / 2 g

V02 / 2

n

n

where n is the distance between two adjacent streamlines

measured along the line (probably curved) perpendicular

to both streamlines as shown in figure (a). Since both

sides of above equations are dimensionless, application

of the equations is not a function of the density of the

fluid or the absolute size of the passage that controls the

flow. Consequently, test can be made on a small-scale

structure (a model), and the results may be applied to a

large-scale structure. This is the principle of model

testing. The left side of either of equations is often called

the pressure coefficient Cp. That is,

hh

p p0

Cp 2 0

Cp

or

V0 / 2 g

V02 / 2

Fig. (b). Relative piezometric head

It is the change in peizometric head (or pressure)

between two points in the flow field relative to the velocity head (kinetic pressure) of the reference

velocity. For the conduit of figure (a), the relative pressure (pressure coefficient) along the centreline

and along the boundary at various points is plotted in the figure (b). Because there are greater

variations of velocity near the boundary, the pressure variations are also greater along the boundary

than they are along the centreline.

Ideal Fluid

4

Fig (a) Irrotational flow past a cylinder

a fluid is initially incompressible and irrotational, then the

flow will be irrotational throughout the entire flow field. Fluid

cannot rotate because there is no shear stress (viscosity is

zero) on the surface of the body. Then if the flow is also

steady, the Bernoulli equation will apply. Consider the flow

pattern about a circular cylinder shown in figure (a). Because

the flow pattern is symmetrical with either the vertical or the

horizontal axis through the centre of the cylinder, the pressure

distribution on the surface of the cylinder, obtained by

application of the Bernoulli equation, is also symmetrical. In

figure (b) the relative pressure Cp is plotted outward

(negative) or inward (positive) from the surface of the

cylinder, depending on the sign of the relative pressure and on

a line normal to the surface of the cylinder. V0 and p0 are the

velocity and pressure of the free stream far upstream or

downstream of the body (points A and E). The points at the

front and rear of the cylinder (points B and D) are points of

stagnation (Cp = +1.0) and the minimum pressure (Cp = 3.0)

occurs at the midsection (point C) where the velocity is

highest. A fluid particle first decelerates, which is consistent

Fig. (b)

with the increase in pressure from A to B. Then as it passes

from B to C, it is accelerated to its highest speed by the action

of the pressure gradient; that is, the pressure decreases over the entire path from B to C. Next, as the

particle travels from C to D, its momentum at C is sufficient to allow it to travel to D against the

adverse pressure gradient (pressure increases in the direction of flow here). Finally, the particle

accelerates to the free stream velocity in its passage from D to E.

Separation

In regions where boundaries turn away from the flow so as to

cause the streamlines to diverge, the flow usually separates

from the boundary and a recirculation pattern is generated in the

region. This phenomenon is called separation, a typical case of

which is shown schematically in figure (b). Also shown, in

figure (a), is the pattern for ideal flow past a similar plate.

In the region between the high-velocity flow outside the zone of

separation and the low-velocity zone inside it (figure (b)),

vortices are formed. A vortex is defined as the motion of a

multitude of fluid particles around a common center. These

vortices are often called eddies, which through viscous action

are finally dissipated into heat.

In rivers the larger eddies are often called whirlpools. These vortices or eddies lead to the phenomenon

called turbulence. For the case of flow of water in rivers or wind in the atmosphere, the flow is almost

always turbulent. The eddies that are initially developed are relatively large, but in the process of

turbulent mixing, they break down into smaller and smaller eddies. Viscous resistance in the smallest

eddies eventually dissipates virtually all of the kinetic energy that initially existed in the larger eddies.

This process of vortex generation and decay is typical of all turbulent flows and is one of the most

significant aspects of fluid mechanics. Research in this area will be especially challenging and

rewarding for engineers and scientists for years to come.

The point of separation may be related to the shape and

roughness of a body. Considering the flow of a real (viscous)

5

viscous resistance, a thin layer of fluid has its velocity reduced

from that predicted by irrotational theory. In fact, the fluid

particles directly adjacent to the surface have zero velocity

(this no-slip condition at a boundary is characteristic of all

real fluids). The normal tendency is for the layer of

reduced velocity (called the boundary layer) to grow in thickness in the direction of flow. However,

because the main stream of fluid outside the boundary layer is accelerating in the same direction, the

boundary layer remains quite thin up to approximately the midsection. Downstream of the midsection

deceleration of the fluid next to the boundary is limited (in contrast with irrotational flow) because its

velocity is already small (much smaller than for irrotational flow) because of the viscous resistance.

Therefore, the fluid near the boundary can proceed only a very short distance against the adverse

pressure gradient before stopping completely. Once the motion of the fluid next to the boundary

ceases, this causes the main stream of flow to be diverted away, or to be separated from the

boundary. Thus the process of separation is produced. Downstream of this point of separation, the

fluid outside the surface separation has a high velocity and the fluid inside the surface of separation

has a relatively low velocity. Because of the steep velocity gradient along the surface of separation,

eddies are generated, which through viscous action are finally dissipated into heat.

Since the location of the point of separation on a rounded

body depends on the character of the flow in the boundary

layer, roughness of the surface or turbulence in the

approach flow has an effect on the location of the

separation point. For angular-type bodies, however, the

point of separation occurs at the sharp break in boundary

configuration. For flow past a square rod and a disk and

through a sharp-edged orifice, as shown in figure, flow separation occurs at the boundary

discontinuity. Because separation is closely associated with the viscous resistance of the fluid, the

Reynolds number (Re ) is an indicator of the onset of separation. For example, in flow past a

circular cylinder, separation occurs for a Reynolds number (Re = VD/) greater than 50. For

Reynolds numbers less than 50, the entire flow field is dominated by relatively large viscous resistance

that inhibit the onset of eddy motion in the fluid.

The effect of Separation on Pressure Distribution: When separation occurs, the flow pattern and

pressure distribution is

changed. Pressure that

prevails at the point of

separation also prevails

over the body within the

zone of separation. For

both cylinder and disk, as

shown in figure, the

pressure

on

the

downstream half of the

body is much less than the

pressure on the upstream

half; consequently, a net

force called, drag, is imposed on the body in the downstream direction.

Cavitation

Cavitation occurs in liquid systems when the pressure at any point in the system is reduced to the

vapour pressure of the liquid. Under such conditions, vapour bubbles form (boiling occurs) and then

collapse (condense), thereby producing dynamic effects that can often lead to decreased efficiency

and/or equipment failure. Consider

water flow through the pipe

restriction shown in figure. In

figure

(a),

the

physical

configuration and the plots of

piezometric head along the wall of

the conduit for different flows are

shown. In figure (b), the

dimensionless plot of piezometric

head along the wall is shown.

Here, the reference point is taken

at

the centre of the pipe. For low and

medium rates of flow, there is a

relatively small drop in pressure at

the constriction. Therefore, the

pressure in the water remains well

above the vapour pressure, and

cavitation does not occur. If the

rate of flow is high, however, the

piezometric-head line actually

drops below the pipe, thereby

indicating a less-than-atmospheric

pressure for the liquid in the

constriction.

The pressure can drop no lower than the vapour pressure of the

liquid, because at this pressure the liquid boils. Such a condition is

shown in figure (a), where vapour bubbles are forming at the

restriction, growing in size, then collapsing as they move into a

region of higher pressure as they are swept downstream with the

flow. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal that very high

intermittent pressures develop in the vicinity of the bubbles when

they collapse. These pressures may exceed 800 MPa (115,000 psi).

Therefore, if the bubbles collapse close to physical boundaries,

such as pipe walls, pump impellers, ship propellers, valve casings,

or dam-spillway floors, they can cause damage.

Usually this damage occurs in the form of a fatigue failure brought by the action of millions of bubbles

impacting against the surface material over a long period of time, thus producing pitting of the

material in the vicinity of the zone of cavitation. Cavitation in an enclosed pipe or machine can often

be detected by the characteristic sound generated. In large structures, it sounds like large rocks are

being carried through the system and are hitting the sides of the conduit. If the flow is increased even

more than indicated above, the minimum pressure is still restricted to the vapour pressure of the water,

but the zone of vaporization increases, as shown in figure (b). For such a condition the entire vapour

pocket may intermittently grow and collapse, producing serious vibration problems. Cavitation should

be avoided or minimized by the proper design of equipment and structures and by their proper

operation.

7

Problem Sheet No. 2

1.

A pipe slopes upwards in the direction of fluid flow at an angle of 30 with the horizontal. What

is the pressure gradient in the flow direction along the pipe in terms of the specific weight of the

liquid if the liquid is decelerating (accelerating opposite to flow direction) at a rate of 0.3 g?

(Ans: 0.20 )

2.

accelerated downward at 2/3 g and to the right at one g.

Here L = 2 m, H = 3 m, and the liquid has a specific gravity

of 1.3. Determine PC PA and PB PA.

(Ans: PB PA = 12.75 kPa; PC PA = 38.26 kPa)

3.

Fig. 1

entrance to the pipe, the flow is assumed to be irrotational.

Under these conditions, what is the pressure at A?

(Ans: 129.15 kPa)

4. Liquid flows with a free surface around a bend. The liquid is

inviscid and incompressible, and flow is steady and

irrotational. The velocity varies with the radius across the

flow as V

Fig. 2

1

m/s, where r is in meters. Find the difference in depth of the liquid from the

r

inside to the outside radius. The inside radius of the bend is 1 m and the outside radius is 3 m.

(Ans: h = 0.045 m)

5. The pressure coefficient distribution on a cylinder in a

cross flow is given by Cp = 1 4 Sin2 where is

the angular displacement from the forward stagnation

point. Assume that two pressure taps are located at

30 as shown in Fig. 3 and connected to a water

manometer. The cylinder is immersed in air with a

density of 1.2 kg/ m3 and a velocity of 50 m/s in the

direction shown on the figure. What will be the deflection on

the manometer, in centimeters?

Fig. 3

stagnation probe at station 2 and a static pressure tap at

station 1. The cross-sectional area of the tube at station 2 is

one-half that at section 1. Air with a density of 1.2 kg/m 3

flows through the duct. A water manometer is connected

between the stagnation probe and the pressure tap, and a

deflection of 10 cm is measured. What is the velocity at

station 2?

(Ans:

80.87

Fig. 4

m/s)

7. A pitot tube used to measure air velocity is connected to a differential pressure gage. If the air

temperature is 20 C at standard atmospheric pressure at sea level, and if the differential gage

reads a pressure difference of 3 kPa, what is the air velocity?

(Ans: 70.7

m/s)

8. A spherical probe, as shown in Fig. 5, is used for

finding gas velocity by measuring the pressure

difference between the upstream and downstream

points A and B. The pressure coefficients at point A

and

Calculate the gas velocity.

(Ans: 61.7

Fig. 5

m/s)

9. A rugged instrument used frequently for monitoring

gas velocity in smokestacks consists of two open

tubes oriented to the flow direction, as shown in

Fig. 6, and connected to a manometer. The pressure

coefficient is 1.0 at A and -0.3 at B. Assume that

water, at 20 C, is used in the manometer and that a

Fig. 6

0.8 cm deflection is noted The pressure and temperature of the stack gases are 101 kPa and

250 C. The gas constant of the stack gas is 200 J/kg K. Determine the velocity of the stack

gases.

10. A pitot tube is used to measure the air speed of an airplane. The pitot tube is connected to a

pressure-sensing device calibrated to indicate the correct air speed when the temperature is 17 C

and the pressure is 101 kPa. The airplane flies at an altitude of 3000 m, where the pressure and

temperature are 70 kPa and -6.3 C. The indicated airspeed is 60 m/s. What is the airspeed?

(Ans: 69.3

m/s)

********************************

10