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Application of Derivatives Theory 3

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interval [a, b] such that,

(i) f ( x ) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b].

(ii) f ( x ) is differentiable in the open interval ]a, b[

and

(iii) f ( a ) = f ( b )

Then there is atleast one value c of x in open

interval ]a, b[ for which f ( c ) = 0 .

Geometric Proof : Consider the portion AB of the

curve y = f ( x ), lying between x = a and x = b , such that

(i) it goes continuously from A to B

(ii) it has tangent at every point between A and B and

(iii) ordinate of A = ordinate of B

From figure, it is clear that f ( x ) increases in the

interval AC 1 , which implies that f ( x ) > 0 in this

region. Now, since there is unique tangent to be drawn

on the curve lying in between A and B and since each

of them has a unique slope i.e., unique value of f ( x ).

Y

f (b ) - f (a )

x

b-a

Since, f ( x ) is continuous in [a, b],

f ( x ) is also continuous in [a, b].

f( x ) = f ( x ) -

(a, b) and

f (b ) - f (a )

... (1)

f ( x ) = f ( x ) b-a

Clearly, f ( x ) satisfies all the condition of Rolle's

theorem.

\ There is at least one value of c of x between a and b

such that f ( c ) = 0 substituting x = c in (1), we get

f (b ) - f (a )

which proves the theorem.

f (c ) =

b-a

7. INCREASING FUNCTION

I. Strictly increasing function : A function f ( x ) is

known as strictly inreasing function in its domain in

x1 < x2 .

f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 )

and for higher value of input we have higher value of

A

D

input we have higher output.

B

Graphically it can be expressed as, shown in

X

O x= ax= c x= b

figure.

Here x1 < x2 f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 )

Thus, the function is strictly increasing.

\ Due to continuity and differentiability of the function

Y

f ( x ) in the region A to B. There is a point x = c where

f ( c ) = 0 should be zero.

Hence, f ( c ) = 0 where a < c < b .

f (x2)

Thus Rolle's theorem is proved.

f (x1)

Similarly the other parts of the figure given above

can be explained establishing Rolle's theorem throughout.

x1

x2 X

O

Note :

C1

C2

formulated :

1.

a given interval.

2.

In the graph,

f ( x + h ) - f ( x ) as x < x

1

2

f ( x ) = lim

h0

h

f

(

x

)

1 < f ( x2 )

+ ve

f ( x ) = lim

Thus, f ( x ) < f ( x + h )

h 0 + ve

f ( x ) satisfies the condition of Rolle's theorem or not.

i.e., f ( x ) > 0 .

Note

:

6. LAGRANGE'S MEAN VALUE THEOREM

In a function f ( x ),

(a) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b] and

(b) is differentiable int he open interval (a, b).

Then there is at lest one value c ( a , b ) , such that;

f (b ) - f (a )

.

f (c ) =

b-a

Proof :

Consider the function

increase in the value of x or f ( x ) > 0, " x domain.

Increasing function can be classified as :

(i) Concave up :

When f ( x ) > 0 and f ( x ) > 0, " x domain.

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