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Let f be a real valued function defined on the closed


interval [a, b] such that,
(i) f ( x ) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b].
(ii) f ( x ) is differentiable in the open interval ]a, b[
and
(iii) f ( a ) = f ( b )
Then there is atleast one value c of x in open
interval ]a, b[ for which f ( c ) = 0 .
Geometric Proof : Consider the portion AB of the
curve y = f ( x ), lying between x = a and x = b , such that
(i) it goes continuously from A to B
(ii) it has tangent at every point between A and B and
(iii) ordinate of A = ordinate of B
From figure, it is clear that f ( x ) increases in the
interval AC 1 , which implies that f ( x ) > 0 in this
region. Now, since there is unique tangent to be drawn
on the curve lying in between A and B and since each
of them has a unique slope i.e., unique value of f ( x ).
Y

f (b ) - f (a )
x
b-a
Since, f ( x ) is continuous in [a, b],
f ( x ) is also continuous in [a, b].
f( x ) = f ( x ) -

Since, f ( x ) exists in (a, b), hence f ( x ) also exists in


(a, b) and
f (b ) - f (a )
... (1)
f ( x ) = f ( x ) b-a
Clearly, f ( x ) satisfies all the condition of Rolle's
theorem.
\ There is at least one value of c of x between a and b
such that f ( c ) = 0 substituting x = c in (1), we get
f (b ) - f (a )
which proves the theorem.
f (c ) =
b-a

7. INCREASING FUNCTION
I. Strictly increasing function : A function f ( x ) is
known as strictly inreasing function in its domain in
x1 < x2 .

f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 )

i.e., for the smaller input we have smaller output


and for higher value of input we have higher value of
A
D
input we have higher output.
B
Graphically it can be expressed as, shown in
X
O x= ax= c x= b
figure.
Here x1 < x2 f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 )
Thus, the function is strictly increasing.
\ Due to continuity and differentiability of the function
Y
f ( x ) in the region A to B. There is a point x = c where

f ( c ) = 0 should be zero.
Hence, f ( c ) = 0 where a < c < b .
f (x2)
Thus Rolle's theorem is proved.
f (x1)
Similarly the other parts of the figure given above
can be explained establishing Rolle's theorem throughout.
x1
x2 X
O
Note :
C1

C2

On Rolle's theorem generally two types of problems are


formulated :
1.

To check the applicability of Rolle's theorem to given function on


a given interval.

2.

To verify Rolle's theorem for a given function in a given interval.

In the graph,
f ( x + h ) - f ( x ) as x < x
1
2
f ( x ) = lim

h0
h

f
(
x
)

1 < f ( x2 )
+ ve

f ( x ) = lim
Thus, f ( x ) < f ( x + h )
h 0 + ve

In both types of problems we first check whether


f ( x ) satisfies the condition of Rolle's theorem or not.
i.e., f ( x ) > 0 .
Note
:
6. LAGRANGE'S MEAN VALUE THEOREM
In a function f ( x ),
(a) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b] and
(b) is differentiable int he open interval (a, b).
Then there is at lest one value c ( a , b ) , such that;
f (b ) - f (a )
.
f (c ) =
b-a
Proof :
Consider the function

It means that the value of f( x ) will keep on increasing with an


increase in the value of x or f ( x ) > 0, " x domain.

Classification of Strictly increasing function :


Increasing function can be classified as :
(i) Concave up :
When f ( x ) > 0 and f ( x ) > 0, " x domain.