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153 Ansichten109 SeitenNaval Architect book

Dec 07, 2014

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Naval Architect book

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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153 Ansichten109 SeitenNaval Architect book

© All Rights Reserved

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CHAPTER 1

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE FOR THE SALVAGE ENGINEER

1-1 INTRODUCTION

Ships are built for a wide variety of purposes, but all must meet certain fundamental requirements. They must have reserve buoyancy to enable

them to carry their designed loads and resist damage, stability to resist environmental forces or damage, and strength to withstand the stresses

imposed on their structure by their own weight, cargo, stores, and the sea. The following discussion provides the salvage engineer with the

basics of surface ship construction, stability, and strength. Submarine construction and stability are discussed in the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage

Manual, Volume 4 (S0300-MAN-A6-040).

Vessels are built to construction specifications based on stability and strength requirements, that are, in turn, based on intended service. Publicly

owned vessels (Navy, Coast Guard, etc.) are built to government specifications. Most Navy ships are built to the General Specifications for

Ships (GENSPECs), published by the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), although some auxiliaries are built to commercial specifications.

Stability standards for Navy ships are established by Design Data Sheet (DDS) 079 issued by the Naval Ship Engineering Center. Construction

rules and stability standards for commercial vessels are established by classification societies, the International Maritime Organization (IMO),

and government regulations for the country of registry; the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) and United States Coast Guard (USCG) establish

and enforce construction rules and stability standards for U.S. vessels. The U.S. rules are often based on IMO standards. The U.S. Maritime

Administration (MARAD) may place additional requirements on ships built with Federal financial assistance. MARAD also produces standard

designs for certain types of merchant ships. Stability and construction standards are discussed in Appendix C.

There is a basic difference in the way naval architects and salvage engineers approach the problems of ship stability and strength. Naval

architects, as designers, divide the subject into examinations of intact and damage conditions. The stability and strength of a proposed design

is examined in normal operating, or intact, conditions, which must, as matter of course, include free liquid surfaces in tanks. Damage stability

analysis examines a ship design in various hypothetical conditions of damage that include breaches in the immersed hull.

The salvage engineer on the other hand, deals with damaged stability and strength, i.e., ships in conditions of known or identifiable damage,

that may or may not include breaches in the immersed hull. There is a subtle distinction between damage and damaged stability. A salvage

engineer doesnt really deal with damage stability, or for that matter, with intact stability either. He deals with damaged stability, and conditions

that can reasonably be attained from the initial damaged condition. While the salvage engineer also examines hypothetical conditions, those

conditions usually have as a point of departure an initial damaged condition. This chapter discusses ship stability in light of those factors that

provide and enhance stability, and those that impair or degrade.

Those familiar with standard naval architecture texts may feel that this handbooks treatment of the subject glosses over the distinction between

intact and damage stability. This is true to some extent, because in the main, the distinction just doesnt matter to salvage engineers; they deal

with stabilitygood, bad, or indifferentas they find it. The fact that free surface occurs in intact ships does not obscure the fact that it always

impairs stability.

1-2 HULL FORM

A ships hull is a complex geometric form that can be defined accurately by mapping its surface in a three-dimensional orthogonal coordinate

system. If a Cartesian coordinate system is used, conventions usually set the Z-axis vertical, the X-axis longitudinal and the Y-axis athwartships.

Principal dimensions are measured along these axes. The hull form can be shown in two dimensions by a series of curves formed by the

intersection of the hull surface with planes parallel to these axes. The hull form, chosen by the designer, controls the stability and performance

characteristics of the ship in its normal environments.

1-2.1 Location of Points Within a Ship. Because a ship is a three-dimensional mobile object, references within the ship itself must be

established for locating points in, on, and about the ship. The position of any point in the ship can be described by measuring its position from

reference planes or lines. The following planes are most commonly used:

Centerplane A vertical plane passing fore and aft down the center of a ship; the plane of symmetry for most hull forms.

Midship Plane A transverse, vertical plane perpendicular to both the centerplane and the design waterplane, located at the

midpoint of the molded hull length between perpendiculars on the design waterplane.

Baseplane A horizontal plane passing through the intersection of the centerplane and the midships plane, or through the lowest

point of the molded hull.

1-1

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The intersections of the reference planes with specified locations on the hull create additional reference lines and points:

Forward Perpendicular (FP) A vertical line through the intersection of the stem and the design or load waterline (DWL, LWL).

After Perpendicular (AP) A vertical line at or near the stern of the ship. In naval practice, the after perpendicular passes through

the after extremity of the design waterline; in commercial practice, the after perpendicular usually passes through the rudder post,

or the centerline of the rudder stock if there is no rudder post.

Midship Section (

Centerline (C

L or CL) The projection of the centerplane in plan or end views of the hull.

Baseline (B

L or BL) The projection of the baseplane in the side or end views of the hull. In ships with design drag where the

baseline passes through the intersection of the midships section and the keel, parts of the hull will be below the baseline. For ships

with flat-plate keels that float on an even keel, the baseline, bottom of the molded surface, and top of the keel plate coincide; if

the keel plate is an outside strake (lapped over the adjacent strakes rather than butt-welded to them), the top of the flat-plate keel

is below the bottom of the molded surface by the thickness of the strakes on each side of it (the garboard strakes). In vessels with

hanging bar keels, the top of the keel coincides with the bottom of the molded surface.

1-2.2 Location of Points. The position of any point in the ship can be described by its:

1-2.3 Ship Dimensions. Molded dimensions, lines, etc., describe the fair surface defined by the framing and are principally of use to the

shipbuilder. Displacement dimensions and lines describe the surfaces wetted by the sea and are of principal interest to the naval architect and

salvage engineer in determining stability and performance characteristics. Extreme dimensions, such as extreme breadth, account for projections

such as overhanging decks, fender rails, etc. Molded dimensions differ from displacement dimensions by the plating, planking, or sheathing

thickness. In steel ships, this difference usually amounts to less than one percent of the total displacement. Displacement dimensions are not

usually tabulated as such; if desired, they are deduced by adding plating thickness to molded dimensions, or deducting appendage measurements

from extreme dimensions.

The principal dimensions of a ship are length, beam, and depth. Two other important dimensions are draft and freeboard. Figure 1-1 shows

the principal dimensions of a ship.

1-2

Length between perpendiculars (L, LBP or Lpp), is used for the calculation of hydrostatic properties. Length overall (LOA) is

the maximum length of the vessel, including any extensions beyond the perpendiculars, such as overhanging sterns, raked stems,

bulbous bows, etc. Length on the waterline (LWL or LWL) may or may not be the same as LBP, depending on the location of the

perpendiculars; tabulated LWL is usually taken on the design waterline.

Beam or breadth (B) is the width of the ship. Molded beam is measured amidships or at the widest section from the inside surface

of the shell plating. Maximum beam or extreme breadth is the breadth at the widest part of the ship, and is equal to the molded

breadth plus twice the plating thickness plus the width of fenders, overhanging decks, or other solid projections.

Draft (T) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the deepest part of the ship at any point along the length. Drafts are

usually measured to the keel and are given as draft forward (Tf), draft aft (Ta) and mean draft (T or Tm). A ships forward and

after draft marks are seldom at the perpendiculars and mean draft is not necessarily amidships; the slight errors introduced by using

drafts at these points can be discounted if trim is not extreme. Molded drafts are measured from the molded baseline, while keel

drafts are measured from a horizontal line though the lowest point on the bottom of the keel extended to intersect the forward and

after perpendiculars. Navigational or extreme drafts indicate the extreme depth of sonar domes, propellers, pit swords, or other

appendages which extend below the keel, and are therefore not used to calculate hydrostatic properties. Draft scales for keel drafts

are usually placed on both sides of the ship at each end as near as practical to the respective perpendiculars. The external draft

marks are generally Arabic numerals, with height and spacing arranged so that the vertical projection on the vessel of the numeral

heights and vertical spacing between numerals are both six inches. The draft figures are placed so that the bottom of the figure

indicates the keel draft. Drafts can thus be read to the nearest quarter-foot (3 inches) in relatively calm waters.

Freeboard (F) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the uppermost watertight deck.

Depth (D) is the vertical distance between the baseline and the uppermost watertight deck and is the sum of freeboard and draft.

Molded depth is measured from the top of the outer keel to the underside of the main or freeboard deck at the side. Depending

on hull form and ships attitude, both freeboard and depth can vary along the length of the ship. Unless otherwise specified,

tabulated values for depth and freeboard are usually taken at midships or at the point of minimum freeboard.

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B

developed to meet specific requirements of

speed, seakeeping ability, and capacity for

the intended use of the vessel. The shape

MIDSHIPS

of the hull is defined by the plan shapes

SECTION

produced by the intersection of three

D

families of orthogonal planes and the hull

surface. Most hulls are symmetrical about

the vertical plane of the centerline. The

T

intersection of the ships molded hull

surface with this and parallel planes is

called a buttock, or buttock line. The term

CL

buttock was formerly applied only to the

AP

FP

portions of these lines aft of midships; the

DWL

forward portions were called bow lines. A

plane parallel to the baseplane and

LBP

perpendicular to the centerline plane is a

LOA

waterplane.

The intersection of

waterplanes and the molded hull are called

Figure 1-1. Principal Dimensions.

waterlines (WL).

The intersection of

transverse planes perpendicular to both

waterplanes and buttocks are termed sections. The superimposed sections (body plan), waterplanes (halfbreadth plan), and buttocks (sheer plan)

form the lines plan or lines drawing for the ship. Like other engineering drawings, the lines plan is composed of views from ahead or astern,

from above, and from the starboard side. Figure FO-1 is the lines plan for an FFG-7 Class ship.

The lines plans for steel ships usually show the molded surface. For surface ships, the molded surface is the inside of the shell plating, while

the molded surface for submarines is the outside of the hull plating. For vessels with hanging bar keels, the line of the bottom of the keel is

shown on the sheer plan to complete the lower contour of the vessel; the keel line is not usually shown for vessels with flat-plate keels because

it lies so near the line of the bottom of the molded surface. Because of the greater hull thickness, wooden ships may have separate molded and

displacement lines drawings.

1-2.4.1 The Body Plan. The body plan shows the outline of the transverse sections of a ship at equally spaced stations or ordinates along the

length of the ship. The distance between perpendiculars is commonly divided into 10 or 20 equal spaces by 11 or 21 stations, including the

forward and after perpendiculars. More or fewer stations may be used depending on the complexity of the hull shape. Half-spaced stations

may be used when the shape of the hull form changes rapidly, such as near the bow and stern. As the transverse sections are normally

symmetrical about the centerline, it is conventional to show only half sections with the forward stations on the right and after stations on the

left. Stations are numbered from forward aft, with the forward perpendicular as station zero on U.S. Navy ships. Stations forward of the forward

perpendicular (if any) may be designated by negative numbers or letters. Commercial vessels, particularly foreign-built vessels, commonly

number stations from aft forward, with the after perpendicular as zero.

1-2.4.2 Halfbreadth Plan. Due to symmetry, it is conventional to show only half of the waterplanes in a halfbreadth plan. Waterlines are

designated by their height above the baseline. The waterlines define the shape and area of the waterplane and are spaced closely enough to

accurately define the waterplane at any draft.

1-2.4.3 Sheer Plan. Superimposed buttocks form the sheer plan. They are spaced as necessary to adequately define the ships form.

1-3

S0300-A8-HBK-010

geometric concepts are useful in describing

a ships form. Figure 1-2 illustrates some

of the following definitions:

1-4

ONE-HALF OF

MOLDED BREADTH

TUMBLEHOME

CAMBER

modern ships, the form of the

hulls transverse section in the

midships region extends without change for some distance

fore and aft. This is called

parallel midbody and may be

described as extensive or

short, or expressed as a

fraction of the ships length.

Even in ships without parallel

midbody, the form of the

fullest transverse section

changes only slightly for

small distances forward or aft.

FREEBOARD

MOLDED

DEPTH

DESIGN WATERLINE

DESIGN

DRAFT

MOLDED

DRAFT

the hull forward of the midship section.

After body The portion of

the hull abaft the midship

section.

Entrance The immersed

portion of the hull forward of

the section of greatest immersed area (not necessarily

amidships) or forward of the

parallel midbody.

DEADRISE

SHEER

AFT

CL

MOLDED

BASE LINE

SHEER

FORWARD

DEPTH

Run The immersed portion of the hull aft of the section of greatest immersed area or aft of the parallel midbody.

Deadrise The departure of the bottom from a transverse horizontal line measured from the baseline at the molded breadth line

as shown in Figure 1-2. Deadrise is also called rise of floor or rise of bottom. Deadrise is an indicator of the ships form; fullbodied ships, such as cargo ships and tankers, have little or no deadrise, while fine-lined ships have much greater deadrise along

with a large bilge radius. Where there is rise of floor, the line of the bottom commonly intersects the baseline some distance from

the centerline, producing a small horizontal portion of the bottom on each side of the keel. The horizontal region of the bottom

is called flat of keel, or flat of bottom. While any section of the ship can have deadrise, tabulated deadrise is normally taken at

the midships section.

Knuckle An abrupt change in the direction of plating or other structure.

Chine The line or knuckle formed by the intersection of two relatively flat hull surfaces, continuous over a significant length

of the hull. In hard chines, the intersection forms a sharp angle; in soft chines, the connection is rounded.

Bilge radius The outline of the midships section of very full ships is very nearly a rectangle with its lower corners rounded.

The lower corners are called the bilges and the shape is often circular. The radius of the circular arc is called the bilge radius

or turn of the bilge. The turn of the bilge may be described as hard or easy depending on the radius of curvature. If the shape

of the bilge follows some curve other than a circle, the radius of curvature of the bilge will increase as it approaches the straight

plating of the side and bottom. Small, high-speed or planing hulls often do not have a rounded bilge. In these craft, the side and

bottom are joined in a chine.

Tumblehome The inward fall of side plating from the vertical as it extends upward towards the deck edge. Tumblehome is

measured horizontally from the molded breadth line at the deck edge as shown in Figure 1-2. Tumblehome was a usual feature

in sailing ships and many ships built before 1940. Because it is more expensive to construct a hull with tumblehome, this feature

is not usually incorporated in modern merchant ship design, unless required by operating conditions or service (tugs and

icebreaking vessels, for example). Destroyers and other high-speed combatants are often built with some tumblehome in their mid

and after sections to save topside weight.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Flare The outward curvature of the hull surface above the waterline, i.e., the opposite of tumblehome. Flared sections cause

a commensurately larger increase in local buoyancy than unflared sections when immersed. Flaring bows are often fitted to help

keep the forward decks dry and to prevent "nose-diving" in head seas.

Camber The convex upwards curve of a deck. Also called round up, round down, or round of beam. In section, the camber

shape may be parabolic or consist of several straight line segments. Camber is usually given as the height of the deck on the

centerline amidships above a horizontal line connecting port and starboard deck edges. Standard camber is about one-fiftieth of

the beam. Camber diminishes towards the ends of the ship as the beam decreases. The principal use of camber is to ensure good

drainage in calm seas or in port, although camber does slightly increase righting arms at large angles of inclination (after the deck

edge is immersed). Not all ships have cambered decks; ships with cambered weather decks and flat internal decks are not

uncommon.

Sheer The rise of a deck above the horizontal measured as the height of the deck above a line parallel to the baseline tangent

to the deck at its lowest point. In older ships, the deck side line often followed a parabolic profile and sheer was given as its value

at the forward and after perpendiculars. Standard sheer was given by:

sheer forward = 0.2L + 20

sheer aft = 0.1L + 10

where sheer is measured in inches and L is the length between perpendiculars in feet. Actual sheer often varied considerably from

these standard values; the deck side profile was not always parabolic, the lowest point of the upper deck was usually at about 0.6L,

and the values of sheer forward and aft were varied to suit the particular design. Many modern ships are built without sheer; in

some, the decks are flat for some distance fore and aft of midships and then rise in a straight line towards the ends. Sheer

increases the height of the weather decks above water, particularly at the bow, and helps keep the vessel from shipping water as

she moves through rough seas. Some small craft and racing yachts are given a reverse or hogged sheer to give headroom

amidships without excessive depth at bow and stern.

Rake A departure from the vertical or horizontal of any conspicuous line in profile, defined by a rake angle or by the distance

between the profile line and a reference line at a convenient point. Rake of stem, for example, can be expressed as the angle

between the stem bar and a vertical line for ships with straight stems. For curved stems, a number of ordinates measured from

the forward perpendicular are required to define the stem shape. Ships designed so that the keel is not parallel to the baseline and

DWL when floating at their designed drafts are said to have raked keels, or to have drag by the keel.

Cut-up When a keel departs from a straight line at a sharp bend, or knuckle, the sloping portion is called a cut-up. High-speed

combatants usually have a long cut-up aft (extending 13 to 17 percent of LWL) to enhance propeller performance and

maneuverability. Ice-breaking vessels often have a cut-up forward to allow the ship to ride up on the ice.

Deadwood Portions of the immersed hull with significant longitudinal and vertical dimensions, but without appreciable transverse

dimensions. Deadwood is included in a hull design principally to increase lateral resistance or enhance directional stability without

significantly increasing drag when moving ahead. Sailing craft require deadwood to be able to work to windward efficiently.

Skegs or fins are fitted on barges to give directional stability. Deadwood aft is detrimental to speed and quick maneuverability

and is minimized by use of cut-up sterns in high-speed combatants and by arched keels or sluice keels (with athwartships apertures)

in tugs and workboats.

Appendages Portions of the vessel that extend beyond the main hull outline or molded surface. Positive appendages, such as

rudders, shafts, bosses, bilge keels, sonar domes, etc., increase the underwater volume, while negative appendages, such as bow

thruster tunnels and other recesses, decrease the underwater volume. Shell plating, lying outside the molded surface, is normally

the largest single appendage, and often accounts for one-half to two-thirds of the total appendage volume. Appendages generally

account for 0.2 to 2 percent of total immersed hull volume, depending on ship size, service, and configuration. Paragraph 1-4.10.2

discusses methods for estimating appendage displacement.

Hull Surfaces Hull surfaces are either warped, consisting of smoothly faired, complex three-dimensional curves, developed,

consisting of portions of cylinders or cones, or flat. Hydroconic hulls are built up of connected flat plates rather than plates rolled

to complex curves. Hydroconic construction lowers production costs and may simplify fitting patches to a casualty.

1-5

S0300-A8-HBK-010

dimensionless numbers that describe hull fineness and

overall shape characteristics. The coefficients are ratios of

areas or volumes for the actual hull form compared to

prisms or rectangles defined by the ships length, breadth,

and draft. Since length and breadth on the waterline as

well as draft vary with displacement, coefficients of form

also vary with displacement. Tabulated coefficients are

usually based on the molded breadth and draft at designed

displacement. Length between perpendiculars is most often

used, although some designers prefer length on the

waterline. Coefficients of form can be used to simplify

area and volume calculations for stability or strength

analyses. As hull form approaches that of a rectangular

barge, the coefficients approach their maximum value of

1.0. The following paragraphs describe the most commonly

used coefficients. Table 1-1 gives sample coefficients for

different type ships.

1-2.5.1 Block. The block coefficient (CB) is the ratio of

the immersed hull volume () at a particular draft to that

of a rectangular prism of the same length, breadth, and

draft as the ship:

CB =

BTL

where:

B

T

L

=

=

=

=

beam, [length]

draft, [length]

length between perpendiculars, [length]

(CM) is the ratio of the area of the immersed midship

section (Am) at a particular draft to that of a rectangle of the

same draft and breadth as the ship:

CM =

B

T

=

=

Block

Coefficient

CB

Type Ship

Navy Ships

Aircraft Carrier (CV-59 Class)

0.578

0.984

0.729

0.594

1.000

0.694

0.510

0.810

0.780

0.510

0.850

0.760

0.470

0.770

0.750

0.652

0.981

0.777

0.542

0.908

0.791

Commercial Vessels

General Cargo (slow-speed)

0.800

0.992

0.880

0.700

0.980

0.810

0.576

0.972

0.695

0.757

0.978

0.845

0.802

0.997

0.874

0.842

0.996

0.916

Container Ship

0.600

0.970

0.740

RO/RO

0.568

0.972

0.671

Ore Carrier

0.808

0.995

0.883

0.900

0.995

0.950

Passenger Liner

0.530

0.956

0.690

Barge Carrier

0.570

0.950

0.820

0.530

0.910

0.680

0.550

0.833

0.850

BT

0.660

0.906

0.892

Harbor Tug

0.585

0.892

0.800

0.565

0.938

0.724

section, [length2]

beam, usually taken at the waterline, [length]

draft, [length]

Coefficients for commercial vessels are typical values; coefficients for specific ships will

vary. Coefficients of form for U.S. Navy ships can be obtained from Naval Sea Systems

Command, Code 55W. Coefficients for many merchant vessels are available from the

National Cargo Bureau, telephone (212) 571-5000. The builders hull number or name

and type of vessel must be provided to access the data files.

the ratio of the area of the waterplane (AWP) to that of a rectangle of the same length and breadth as the ship:

CWP =

where:

1-6

Waterplane

Coefficient

CWP

may be greater than 1.

AWP =

B

LWL

Midship

Coefficient

CM

AM

where:

AM =

= beam, [length]

= length on the waterline, [length]

AWP

LWL B

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1-2.5.4 Prismatic. The longitudinal prismatic coefficient (CP) is the ratio of the immersed volume to the volume of a prism with length equal

to the ships and cross-section area identical to the midship section:

CP =

= B

AM L

CM

where:

=

AM =

L =

area of the immersed portion of the midships section, [length2]

length between perpendiculars, [length]

If length between perpendiculars and length on the waterline are equal (as they are for Navy ships), the prismatic coefficient is equal to the block

coefficient divided by the midships section coefficient. The prismatic coefficient thus indicates the longitudinal distribution of the underwater

volume of a ships hull. For a given length, breadth, draft, and displacement, a low (fine) CP indicates a hull with fine ends. A large (full) value

for CP indicates a hull with relatively full ends. For this reason, the prismatic coefficient is sometimes called the longitudinal coefficient.

The vertical prismatic coefficient (CVP) is

the ratio of the immersed hull volume to

the volume of a prism having a length

equal to the ships draft and a cross section

identical to that of the waterplane:

AWP T

100

where:

AWP =

T

immersed volume,

[length3]

area of the waterplane,

[length2]

= draft, [length]

the block coefficient divided by the

waterplane coefficient and indicates the

vertical distribution of the underwater

volume. A full CVP indicates a concentration of volume near the keel and a fine

CVP, a concentration nearer the waterline.

CVP =

125

75

50

H

DT

EA

R

B

PTH

DE

T

DRAF

25

handbook and many naval architecture

texts, relationships and approximations for

0

various hydrostatic and stability parameters

0

450

600

750

900

are given as applicable to ships of ordinary,

LBP, FT

or normal form. With the broad range of

FROM ELEMENTS OF SHIP DESIGN, R. MUNRO-SMITH, 1975.

ship type, size, and service requirements,

normal form is best defined by a range of

coefficients and dimension ratios. Table

Figure 1-3. Approximate Ship Proportions.

1-1 gives typical coefficients of form and

Figure 1-3 shows approximate linear

relationships between length, beam, depth,

and service draft. The relationships given below, adapted from R. Munro-Smiths Elements of Ship Design, and deadweight coefficients (defined

in Paragraph 1-3.3), are used to estimate ship dimensions during preliminary design and can help to determine whether a hull should be

considered normal.

Dimensional Ratios:

Ship type

General Cargo

Tankers

VLCC

L/B

6.3 to 6.8

7.1 to 7.25

6.4 to 6.5

B/T

2.1 to 2.8

2.4 to 2.6

2.4 to 2.6

T/D

0.66 to 0.74

0.76 to 0.78

0.75 to 0.78

1-7

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CB 1.00

0.23

Vk

L

CB 1.00

0.19

Vk

L

CB 1.00

Vk

0.175

(VLCC)

L

where:

Vk =

L =

length between perpendiculars, ft

Beam range:

L

9

L

9

L

9

+ 20 ft B

+ 15 ft B

+ 39 ft B

+ 25 ft (cargo ships)

+ 21 ft (tankers, bulk carriers)

+ 50 ft, or

46 ft (VLCC)

where:

B = beam, ft

Beam to length relationship:

B = Ln

where B and L are given in feet and:

n

0.66 to 0.68 for VLCC

0.0093LB =

DWT

C

T

where:

L

B

DWT

T

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

beam, ft

deadweight, lton

draft, ft

0.85 to 2.0 for general cargo ships

0.525 to 0.590 for tankers

0.446 to 0.459 for VLCC

1-2.7 Offsets. The hull form can be described in tabular format by a set of measurements known as offsets. Offsets are distances measured

from the centerline to the side of the ship at each station and waterline. Molded offsets are measured to the molded surface (inside of shell

plating for steel surface ships); displacement offsets are measured to the outer hull surface. Offsets define the hull proper, without appendages.

Supplementary appendage offset tables are sometimes available. Molded or displacement offsets are usually presented in a table in the form

feet-inches-eighths. The table of offsets for an FFG-7 Class ship shown in Figure FO-1 is typical. The waterline halfbreadth entry for station

4 at the 8' 0" waterline reads 10 - 2 - 3 indicating 10 feet, 23 8 inches. Since the station spacing is given as 20.4 feet on the plan (LBP = 408

feet, 408/20 stations = 20.4), this offset precisely locates the point on the skin of the ship 81.6 feet from the forward perpendicular (4 20.4),

eight feet above the baseline and 10 feet 23 8 inches from the centerline.

Lines drawings can be constructed from tables of offsets. Of more use to the salvor is the fact that offsets can be obtained from body or

halfbreadth plans and used to determine ship volumes and areas by numerical integration (described in Paragraph 1-4). Offsets can be scaled

from arrangement drawings, or in the worst case, measured on site.

1-8

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1-2.8 Wetted Surface. The area of all or part of a ships hulls wetted surface is important to hydrodynamic resistance and pressure force

calculations. Wetted surface multiplied by average shell thickness calculates shell volume to be added to the molded volume to determine total

displacement. The area of complex hull surfaces can be calculated by numerical integration from offsets or the shell expansion plan, but this

is a tedious and time-consuming task. Wetted surface can be estimated by one of the following empirical relationships:

Denny-Mumford Formula:

= 1.7L T

T

AS = 1.7L T

L B CB

Taylors formula:

A S = C D L

Haslar formula for fine-lined ships:

AS

= 3.3

2/3

L

2.09 1/3

where:

AS

L

T

B

CB

D

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

B/T

3.5

16.0

4.0

16.5

5.0

17.5

8.0

20.5

9.0

21.3

10.0

22.2

11.0

23.0

12.0

23.8

13.0

24.5

14.0

25.1

16.0

26.3

18.0

27.2

length between perpendiculars, ft (immersed length)

displacement volume, ft3 = CB LBT

mean draft, ft

molded beam, ft

block coefficient

displacement, ltons

a coefficient, ranging from 15.2 to 16.0 for vessels with 0.8 Cm 0.98 and 2.5 B/T 3.5. For shallow draft vessels, C is

expressed as a function of B/T in Table 1-2.

A body immersed in a fluid will experience an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced. This force of buoyancy is

the resultant of the normal pressures exerted by the fluid on each element of the immersed bodys surface. Buoyancy is opposed by the

downward force of gravity, or the objects weight. In order for equilibrium to exist, the two forces must be balanced. An object heavier than

an equivalent volume of water has negative buoyancy and will sink until it encounters a solid object or denser liquid, where its apparent weight

is decreased by the buoyant force acting on it. Similarly, an object less dense than water will exhibit positive buoyancy and will float with an

immersed volume such that the weight of the displaced water exactly equals the objects weight. Deeper immersion requires the application

of force. An object whose density equals that of the surrounding water is said to have neutral buoyancy and will float at whatever depth it is

placed. A ship floats by enclosing large volumes of less dense material, principally air, in a watertight skin so that its average density is less

than that of the surrounding water. To be useful, a ships effective density must be much less than that of the surrounding water to allow the

ship to support not only its own weight, but also that of crew, cargo, stores, etc.

1-3.1 Ships Weight, Displacement and Capacity. An objects displacement is the weight of the water it displaces; displacement represents

the force of buoyancy (B) acting on the object. For a ship in static equilibrium, floating free of any solid support, displacement (D) is equal

to the weight of the ship and everything in it (W), measured in long tons of 2,240 pounds. Displacement is usually given for either the

lightshipthe weight of the ship without cargo or storesor full-load conditions. A ships displacement is related to the volume of displaced

water, called the displacement volume or volume of displacement ( or V), by the weight density of water (g/gc).

D =

= W

gc

If mass density is given in slugs per cubic foot, and g in feet per second per second (ft/sec2), g/gc gives weight density in pounds-force per cubic

foot. In a standard gravitational field (g = 32.174 ft/sec2) pounds-mass and pounds-force are numerically equal. Since the worldwide variation

of gravitational acceleration is slight, weight density in pounds-force per cubic foot () can be taken as numerically equal to mass density, in

pounds-mass per cubic foot without significant error.

1-9

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With weight held constant, the product of displacement volume and water density must also be constant. For a given weight, displacement

volume varies inversely with the density of the surrounding waterdisplacement volume in water of known density can be related to

displacement volume water of any density:

1 1 = 2 2

2 =

1 1

2

The density of seawater varies with salinity and temperature, but is approximately 64 pounds per cubic foot; the density of fresh water is about

62.4 pounds per cubic foot. It is sometimes more convenient to use the inverse density, or specific volume (), of 35 cubic feet per ton of

seawater. The equivalent figure for fresh water is 35.9, commonly rounded to 36.

W =

W =

sw

35

fw

36

36

fw = sw

35

Care must be exercised not to confuse displacement, measured in long tons, with gross, net, or register tonnage. Tonnage is a measurement

of the enclosed volume of a ship used to describe her cargo capacity and does not indicate displacement. Register tonnage (gross and net) is

measured according to the rules of the country of registry or international rules, and is used as a basis for port fees, canal tolls, and similar

charges. Measurement tons were formerly equal to 100 cubic feet, but the more recent international rules determine tonnage by formulas that

do not relate volume to tonnage directly. Gross tonnage is a measure of the internal volume of the entire shipthe hull plus enclosed spaces

above the main deck. Net tonnage is derived from a formula based on the molded volume of cargo spaces, the number of passengers carried,

molded depth, and service draft; net tonnage gives an indication of the ships earning capacity. Commercial vessels engaged in international

voyages are issued a Tonnage Certificate by the country of registry. Certain special tonnages, such as Suez or Panama Canal tonnages, are

calculated by somewhat different formulae and recorded on separate certificates.

Cargo capacity may also be given in conventional volumetric units. Tank capacities are usually specified in barrels, gallons, or cubic meters.

For petroleum products and other liquids subject to thermal expansion, practical capacity is less than net capacity, to ensure that a tank "filled"

with cold oil will not overflow as the oil warms. U.S. Navy practice sets oil tank operating capacity at 95 percent of net capacity; U.S. Merchant

Marine practice at 98 percent. Dry cargo capacity is specified in cubic feet or cubic meters. Bale capacity is the volume below deck beams

and inboard of cargo battens, that is free for the stowage of bags, barrels, crates, bales, pallets, etc. Grain capacity is the net molded underdeck

volume, after deductions for the volume of frames, floors, and other structure, that is available for the stowage of granular bulk cargo. Capacity

of container ships is expressed as the number of standard 8-foot-wide by 8-foot-high containers of specified length that can be carried, often

converted to 20-foot equivalent units (TEU), or 40 foot equivalent units (FEU). Capacity for roll-on/roll-off (RO/RO) cargo and vehicle carriers

may be expressed as the number of units that can be carried or as the area of the cargo decks, in square feet or square meters.

1-3.2 Standard Loading Conditions. Displacement and stability characteristics are often referenced to certain standard conditions of loading.

1-3.2.1 U.S. Navy Ships. Characteristics are usually tabulated for the following standard conditions of loading (from NSTM Chapter 096):

1-10

Condition A - Lightship The ship complete, ready for service in every respect, including permanent ballast (solid and liquid),

onboard repair parts, aviation mobile support equipment as assigned, and liquids in machinery at operating levels, without any

items of variable load (provisions, stores, ammunition, crew and effects, cargo, aircraft and aviation stores, passengers, saltwater

ballast, fuel and other liquids in storage tanks). Formerly Condition II.

Condition A-1 - Lightship Condition A without permanent ballast. Formerly condition II-A.

Condition B - Minimum Operating Condition A condition of minimum stability likely to exist in normal operation (following

the ships liquid loading instructions). For warships, Condition B approximates the ships condition toward the end of a hostile

engagement following a long period at sea. Liquids are included in amounts and locations that will provide satisfactory stability,

trim, and limitation of list in case of underwater damage. Formerly Condition V.

Condition C - Optimum Battle Condition As formerly applied to minor combatants, the ship loaded with full ammunition

allowance and two-thirds provisions, fuel, lube oil, etc. Fuel distribution and seawater ballast are in accordance with liquid loading

instructions, except that service tanks are assumed half-full and one pair of storage tanks per machinery box are assumed empty.

Formerly Condition LS. In current practice, this condition applies only to ships with extensive underwater defense systems, such

as aircraft carriers and battleships. Liquids are carried in the amounts and locations that provide the optimum resistance to

underwater damage.

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(1) Full load (contractual) The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus authorized complement of

personnel and passengers and their effects, full allowance of ammunition in magazines and ready service spaces, full allowance

of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, provisions and stores for the periods specified in design specifications,

sufficient fuel to meet endurance specifications, anti-roll tank liquid, liquids in tanks to required capacity in accordance with

liquid load instructions, and cargo in the amounts normally carried or a specified portion of full capacity. This condition is

used for weight estimates and reporting.

(2) Full load (departure) Same as full load (contractual) except that fuel and lube oil tanks are 95-percent full, potable and feed

water tanks 100-percent full. Formerly Condition VI. This condition is used in inclining experiment reports.

Condition E - Capacity Load The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus the maximum number

of crew and passengers that can be accommodated, with their effects, maximum stowage of ammunition in magazines and ready

service spaces, full allowance of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, maximum amount of provisions and stores that

can be carried in assigned spaces, tanks filled to maximum capacity (95 percent for oil tanks, 100 percent for fresh water),

maximum amounts of cargo and supplies, with the provision that the limiting drafts not be exceeded.

Data is sometimes tabulated for special or unusual loading conditions, such as special ballast conditions for amphibious warfare ships. Details

for each condition of loading are found in the ships damage control book. Standard displacement is a condition defined by the Washington

Naval Conference of 1923 as "The displacement of the ship, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and

ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for the crew, miscellaneous stores and implements of every description that are

intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board." Standard displacement was defined primarily as an aid to

ensuring compliance to restriction on warship size and total naval tonnage under international treaties, but provides a convenient means of

comparing warships and is commonly given in published summaries of naval strength, such as Janes Fighting Ships. Characteristics for standard

displacement are not normally tabulated in damage control books or similar documents.

1-3.2.2 Commercial Vessels. Two major conditions of loading are referenced in dealing with commercial vessels:

Lightship, Lightweight, or Light Displacement The ship with all items of outfit, equipment, and machinery, including boiler

water and lubricating oil in sumps, but without cargo, provisions, stores, crew, or fuel.

Fully Loaded Lightship plus cargo, fuel, stores, etc., to settle the ship to her load line. Also loaded, load, or full-load

displacement. For ships designed to carry different classes of cargo, full-load conditions may be tabulated for each type of cargo.

The trim and stability booklet will normally tabulate stability data for ballasted and partly loaded conditions, and for end of voyage and

intermediate conditions with varying amounts of fuel and stores consumed.

1-3.2.3 Loading Instructions. Specific loading instructions are provided to help operating personnel avoid loading the ship so that her stability

is dangerously low or the hull girder is overstressed. The most basic instruction is that ships shall not be loaded so heavily that their load line

(merchant) or limiting draft marks (naval) are submerged. Detailed loading instructions are given in the trim and stability booklet for merchant

ships or the damage control book for Navy ships. In certain types of ships, such as container ships, RO/RO ships, barge carriers, and ferries,

improper loading can easily reduce stability to dangerously low levels. In other ships, such as tankers and ore carriers, improper loading can

seriously overstress the hull. Transient conditions created while loading or unloading can also degrade stability or overstress the hull. Load

and stability computers supplement or replace loading instructions on many tankers, bulk carriers, and other large ships or ships with unusual

stability problems. Load computers are briefly described in Paragraph 4-2.5.3.

1-3.3 Deadweight. Deadweight (DWT) is the load carried by a ship. It is the difference between the lightship displacement and total

displacement of the ship at any time. Maximum or load deadweight is the carrying capacity of a ship measured in 2,240-pound long tons, and

is the difference between the lightweight and fully loaded displacements. Deadweight includes fuel, provisions, munitions, crew and effects,

cargo, or any other weight carried. For a merchant ship, cargo deadweight, paying deadweight, or payload is the part of the deadweight that

is cargo and therefore earning income.

It is not uncommon for the deadweight of a merchant ship to be given, but not its full-load displacement. A deadweight coefficient (CDWT) can

be defined as the ratio of full-load displacement to total deadweight:

CDWT =

FL

DWT

FL = DWT CDWT

where:

CDWT

FL

DWT

=

=

=

deadweight coefficient

full-load displacement

total deadweight

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Typical ranges for deadweight coefficient are given by R. Munro-Smith (Elements of Ship Design, 1979):

General cargo ship

Ore carrier

Bulk carrier

Oil tanker

Very large tanker, VLCC

1.39

1.30

1.19

1.16

1.28

1.61

1.39

1.28

1.25

1.32

1-3.4 Change in Draft. Draft is significant as the only principal dimension that varies routinely, while length and beam remain essentially

constant. Volume of displacement, and therefore draft, will change as a ships displacement changes due to loading or discharging cargo,

consuming or loading fuel or stores, or flooding. The new volumes and mean drafts can be computed by using the relationships shown. For

example: a box-shaped lighter 100 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 10 feet in depth, displacing 429 tons of seawater with zero trim. Because

waterplane area is constant at any draft, drafts can be found by:

= W = 35 (429) = 15,015 ft3

= L B T = 100 (30) T = 15,015 ft3

T =

LB

15,015

= 5 ft

100 (30)

where:

L

B

T

=

=

=

=

=

=

total weight of the barge, lton

specific volume of seawater = 35 ft3/lton

length between perpendiculars, ft

beam, ft

draft, ft

If weight (displacement) is decreased to 350 tons, the new mean draft is given by:

= 35W = 35(350) = 12,250 ft3

T =

12,250

= 4.08 ft = 4 ft 1 in.

3,000

For a complex ship shape, drafts cannot be calculated directly. The change in draft (T) can be determined if certain assumptions are made.

The increase in volume can be considered to be a prism of uniform thickness with vertical sides and horizontal section with area equal to the

waterplane area. For a wall-sided vessel (one with vertical sides, like the box-shaped lighter), this is mathematically exact; it is sufficiently

accurate for most ships for small changes in draft. The thickness of the prism is determined by dividing its volume by the area of the

waterplane:

T =

(15,015) 12,250)

=

=

AWP

L B CWP

(100)(30)(1.0)

= 0.92 ft = 11 in.

where:

T

AWP =

CWP =

1-12

= change in draft, ft

= change in displacement volume, ft3

waterplane area, ft2

waterplane coefficient

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The salvor may encounter ships in water of varying densities. The waters of harbors and estuaries might be salty, fresh or brackish; the salinity

and density of the water may depend on the state of the tide. The equalities shown can be used to relate displacement volume, draft and

displacement of any ship in water of any known density. Recalling that:

1 1 = 2 2

1

1

L B T CB

2

L B T CB

where:

L

B

T

CB

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

water density, lb/ft3

inverse density or specific volume, ft3/lton

length between perpendiculars, ft

beam, ft

draft, ft

block coefficient

With length and breadth constant, and CB assumed constant for a small change in draft,

T1

T2

1

T1

2

1

T2

and:

T2 =

SW

FW

T12

1

=

35

36

and:

36

TFW = TSW

35

The difference between fresh water and seawater drafts may range from 6 inches for an FFG-7 to 1.2 feet for a large aircraft carrier, or more

on a large crude carrier. Differences encountered when dealing with brackish water will be correspondingly less, and may be dealt with by using

values for fresh water and saltwater as upper and lower boundaries if the water density is unknown or variable.

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1-3.5 Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI). The foregoing analysis can be carried a step further to determine the change in displacement (D)

required to cause a change in draft of one inch. For seawater:

T =

;

AWP

= 35D

W =

T =

35 D

AWP

T AWP

35

D =

AWP

(35)(12)

AWP

420

= TPI

where:

D

35

AWP =

TPI

= displacement, lton

= displacement volume, ft3

= water density, lb/ft3

= specific volume, ft3/lton

waterplane area, ft2

= tons per inch immersion, lton/in.

Tons per inch immersion for water of any density can be obtained by a similar calculation.

1-3.6 Reserve Buoyancy. The watertight volume between the waterline and the uppermost continuous watertight deck provides the reserve

buoyancy to the ship. Although this volume does not actually provide any buoyancy, it is available to enable the ship to take on additional

weight. Freeboard is an indication of the reserve buoyancy remaining. Freeboard and draft can be considered opposite ends of a sliding scale,

with draft representing the buoyancy in use and freeboard the buoyancy remaining.

1-3.7 Center of Gravity. A homogeneous bodys center of gravity is located at its center of volume, or centroid. The center of gravity of

a ship is not so easily definable, but can be assumed to be located on the centerline near the midship plane in a ship floating without list or trim.

The center of gravity of a ship is a function of weight distribution; its position varies with loading. With all weights stationary, the center of

gravity remains fixed regardless of the movement of the ship. Its position relative to any of the three reference planes along a perpendicular

axis (n) is given mathematically by:

n dw

=

G =

W

nw

w

where:

G

n

W

=

=

=

distance from the origin to an incremental weight dw, or to an individual weight w

total weight = w

The location of the center of gravity greatly influences the stability characteristics of a vessel: the vertical location (VCG, or KG) influences

a vessels ability to resist heeling forces; the longitudinal location (LCG) relative to the longitudinal location of the center of buoyancy

determines trim; and a transverse location (TCG) off the centerline results in a list.

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1-3.8 Center of Buoyancy. The force of buoyancy, like gravity, can be resolved to act upwards through a single point. The center of buoyancy

(B) is located at the centroid of the submerged hull form. As the ship inclines, the shape of the underwater volume changes and the center of

buoyancy moves to the new geometric center. When a ship is at rest without list, the center of buoyancy is on the centerline directly below

the center of gravity. The location of the center of buoyancy responds directly to draft changes. As the ships displacement is increased or

decreased with a corresponding change in draft, the center of buoyancy will move to the new centroid of the redefined submerged hull form.

1-3.9 Metacenter. As shown in Figure 14, vertical lines drawn through successive

centers of buoyancy (B1, B2, and B3) as the

ship inclines slightly intersect at an

imaginary point on the centerline called the

metacenter (M). In a stable vessel, M is

located above the center of gravity. The

vertical location of M is one of the most

critical parameters affecting a ships initial

stability.

M

WL2

WL

flotation is the point about which the ship

trims and heels, and is at the geometric

center of the ships floating waterplane. It

is usually located aft of midships, although

it may be forward of midships in fullbodied ships.

WL

WL

WL1

B2

B1

WL2

Curves or Curves of Sectional Areas are a

Figure 1-4. Relative Positions of M, B, and G During Small Inclinations.

collection of curves plotting sectional area

along the X-axis against draft on the Y-axis.

The curves are usually presented in one of the two formats shown in Figure FO-3. The section area curve may show area for either the whole

section, or for one side only, as noted on the drawing. The areas generally do not account for appendages, but may include shell plating, as

noted on the drawing. Section areas can be taken from the curves for any draft and any condition of trim or hull deflection. Section area is

converted to unit buoyancy by dividing by the specific volume of water (35 cubic feet per long ton per foot of length for seawater). Volume

of displacement and other hydrostatic properties can be determined by integration of section area or derived unit buoyancy ordinates by the

numerical methods described in Paragraph 1-4.

The rosette arrangement (Figure FO-3A), with all the curves drawn to a single set of axes, produces a more compact drawing and is favored

by some designers because lack of fairness in the hull will show itself with the curves lying side by side. Section areas are read from the

intersection of a horizontal line through the station draft on the center scale with the appropriate curve. When calculating buoyancies for varying

waterlines or wave profiles, it is sometimes more convenient to arrange the curves along the ships profile, with a vertical axis at each station

as shown in Figure FO-3B. With the section area curves arranged in this format, a trimmed waterline can be plotted as a straight line passing

through the forward draft at station zero, and the after draft at the after perpendicular, eliminating the need to determine draft at each station.

Section areas can be picked off by drawing a horizontal line from the intersection of the waterline with each vertical station marker to the

appropriate curves. If the Bonjeans Curves are not available in this format, the curves and area scale can be traced from the rosette onto a hull

profile drawn on tracing paper. The horizontal length scale for the hull profile is not critical, but should be consistent throughout its length if

buoyancy is to be calculated on waterlines that are not horizontal.

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The salvage engineer may be required to calculate hydrostatic data for a casualty when curves of form or other documents are not available;

for a casualty in an unusual condition, such as a ship floated upside down or on its side; or for portions of a ship that has been cut into sections.

A ships form consists of a number of intersecting surfaces, usually of nonmathematical form. Areas and volumes enclosed by these surfaces,

as well as moments of areas and volumes, and second moments of area, must be determined to calculate hull hydrostatic characteristics.

For a curve plotted on an xy coordinate system, the area under the curve and moments, second moments (moments of inertia), and location of

the centroid can be expressed as simple integrals. Since hull forms are seldom definable by mathematical equations, areas, moments, and

volumes are calculated by manual integration methods rather than by direct integration. Manual integration methods are also used to evaluate

any parameter that can be expressed as a curve of a function of some variable. For example, the total force, location of the center of effort,

and force moment of an unevenly distributed force (such as current forces) can be determined from a curve showing the force distribution.

Graphical and numerical manual integration methods are described in the following paragraphs.

1-4.1 Graphical Integration. An obvious way to calculate the area under a curve (or within a shape) is to plot the curve to scale on graph

paper and count the squares under the curve. This method can be extended to calculate the first moment of area, My = xy dx, by multiplying

the height (number of squares, y) in each column by its distance from the origin (x), and summing all such products. In the same way, the

second moment is calculated by multiplying the height of each column by x2. By adopting sign conventions and adjusting the location of the

origin, moments can be calculated about any desired axis. Graphical integration of large, complex areas is very tedious, but can be very accurate

for even the most complex or discontinuous curves.

1-4.2 Numerical Integration. Numerical integration methods, or rules, are based on the same premise as graphical integration; that the area

under a curve can be closely approximated by breaking the area up into smaller shapes whose areas can be calculated or estimated easily, and

summing the areas of these shapes. Most rules depend upon the substitution of a simple mathematical form for the actual curve to be integrated.

The accuracy of the result depends upon the accuracy of the fit between the real and assumed curves.

1-4.3 Trapezoidal Rule. The trapezoidal

rule substitutes a series of straight lines for

a complex curve to allow integration of the

curve in a simple tabular format.

Conceptually, the trapezoidal rule is the

simplest of the numerical integration rules.

a series of n trapezoids bounded by n + 1

equally spaced ordinates, y0, y1, y2, y3, ...,

yn, (at stations x0, x1, x2, x3, ..., xn) as

shown in Figure 1-5. If the station spacing

is h, the area (a0,1) of the first trapezoid is:

a0,1 =

y0 + y1

2

y1

y0

y2

y3 .........................

yn-1

yn

x

x1

x0

x3 .........................

x2

x n-1

xn

The total area of the shape (A) is approximately equal to the sum of the areas of the trapezoids:

A = a0, 1

=

=

y0 y1

2

h

y

2 0

y

= h 0

2

a1, 2

a2, 3

y1 y2

2

2y1

y1

...

1, n

y2 y3

2y2

y2

an

2 y3 . . .

y3

...

...

yn

yn

yn

yn

This expression is called the trapezoidal rule, and can be used to calculate areas of any shape bounded by a continuous curve, simply by dividing

the shape into a number of equal sections and substituting the ordinate values and the station spacing, or common interval, into the rule. The

common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is the common interval (h). If the common interval and common multiplier (CM) are separated into

two factors, the common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is 1.

The factors by which each ordinate is multiplied (1 2, 1, 1, 1, ..., 1 2) are the individual multipliers (m). The products of the individual multipliers

and ordinates are called functions of area, (A). The area under the curve is thus expressed as:

A = y dx = h f (A)

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S0300-A8-HBK-010

Because the trapezoidal rule substitutes a series of straight lines for the curve to be integrated, it is best suited for use with smooth, long-radius

curves such as the waterlines of a ship. The rule underestimates the area under convex curves, and overestimates the area under concave curves.

Accuracy increases as station spacing is decreased. If greater accuracy is required in regions of considerable curvature, e.g. at the ends of the

ship, stations are taken at half-divisions. When half-spaced stations are used, the individual multipliers for the half-stations and adjacent stations

must be adjusted. If, for example, a half-station is inserted between ordinates 1 and 2:

y0 y1

A =

y1 y1.5 h

2

2

y1.5 y2 h

2

2

y2 y3

2

yn

h ...

yn

h

y 1.5 y1 y1.5 1.5 y2 2y3 ... yn

2 0

3

1

3

1

1

y1

y1.5

y2 y3 ...

y

= h y0

2

4

2

4

2 n

The individual multiplier for the half-station is 1 2, and 3 4 for the station on either side of it. A similar analysis will show that if several

sequential half-stations are inserted (i.e., 21 2, 31 2, 41 2, etc.) the multipliers for all stations and half-stations between the first and last half-stations

is 1 2, and the multiplier for the two outlying whole stations is 3 4. It may be more convenient to use the first form of the rule, to avoid divisors

greater than 2, in which case all the individual multipliers are doubled.

1-4.4 Simpsons Rules. The replacement

of a complex or small radius curve by a

series of straight lines limits the accuracy of

calculations, unless a large number of ordinates are used. Integration rules that replace the actual curve with a mathematical

curve of higher order are more accurate.

Simpsons rules assume that the actual curve

can be replaced by a second-order curve

(parabola). Figures 1-6 through 1-8 demonstrate the derivations of Simpsons rules.

y

2

Y = ax

+ bx + c

y0

y1

x=0

y2

x=1

x=2

shows a curve of the form y = ax2 + bx + c.

It is expressed by three evenly spaced

ordinates y0, y1 and y2, at x = 0, 1, and 2

(station spacing = 1). The values of the

ordinates are:

X

h

AREA = __ (y0 + 4y1 + y2 )

3

y0 = a (0)2

b (0)

c = c

y1 = a (1)2

b (1)

c = a

y2 = a (2)2

b (2)

c = 4a

for x = 1

b

c

2b

for x = 1

c

for x = 2

2

A = (ax 2

0

bx

ax 3

3

c) dx =

bx 2

2

cx

2

0

8

a

3

2b

2c

y2

2 y1 = y0

a =

( y2

b = y1

2b

2 y1

4a

2 y0

2b

2a =

y0

2a

y0 )

2

y0

a = y1

y0

(y2

2y1

2

y0)

3

y

2 0

y2

2

2 y1

1-17

S0300-A8-HBK-010

8

a

3

2b

2c =

= 2 y0

3 y0

y2

A =

1

y

3 0

4 y1

8 y2

2 y1

2

4

y

3 2

4 y1

y0

8

y

3 1

3

y0

2

2

4

y =

3 0

1

y

3 0

2 y1

y2

2

4

y

3 1

2 y0

1

y

3 2

y2

h

(y

3 0

A =

This relationship is Simpsons first rule, or

3-ordinate rule, commonly called Simpsons

rule. The rule calculates correctly the area

under a second order curve and will

approximate the area under any curve that

passes through the same three points. The

accuracy depends on how closely the actual

curve approaches the parabolic form

assumed by the rule. Simpsons Rule is the

numerical integration rule used most widely

for ship calculations.

4 y1

1

1

2

y2 )

STATION

4

4

1

1

2

3-ORDINATE

MULTIPLIERS

SIMPSONS

MULTIPLIERS

The rule can be extended to calculate the area under a long nonparabolic curve such as a ships waterline. If the length of the curve is divided

into enough equal parts, as shown in Figure 1-7, it can be reasonably approximated by a series of parabolic segments. For a curve divided into

n equal parts, the area between the first (0) and third (2) ordinates would be given by:

A0

h

(y + 4y1 + y2)

3 0

where:

A0-2

h

L

n

=

=

=

=

area under the curve between the first and third ordinates

distance between ordinates = L/n

length of the curve

number of sections between ordinates = number of ordinates - 1

Similarly, the area between the third (2) and fifth (4) ordinates would be:

A2

h

(y + 4y3 + y4)

3 2

A4

h

(y + 4y5 + y6)

3 4

The area between the fifth (4) and seventh (6) ordinates:

and so on.

The total area is the sum of all the two section areas:

A = A0

=

A2

A4

... An

2 n

h

y 4y1 2y2 4y3 2y4 4y5 2y6 ... yn

3 0

This is the general form of Simpsons rule. Since the rule consists of a summation of areas over two sections of a curve divided into a number

of equal sections, the curve must be divided into an even number of sections (by an odd number of stations) to apply the rule. The common

multiplier (CM) is 1 3; the individual multipliers are 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4,..., 2, 4, 1. The derivation of the individual multipliers as a tabular summation

of the 3-ordinate rule multipliers for each two adjacent sections is shown in Figure 1-7.

1-18

S0300-A8-HBK-010

In regions where the slope of the curve changes rapidly, the accuracy of the rule can be increased by inserting intermediate (half-spaced) stations.

When half-spaced stations are used, the individual multipliers are modified. For example, a half-station could be inserted at 21 2 were there a

rapid change in form between the third and fourth stations of the curve in Figure 1-7. The area between the first and second stations is

calculated as before:

A0

h

(y + 4y1 + y2)

3 0

With the insertion of the half-station (21 2), the 3-ordinate rule can be applied to the area between the third and fourth ordinates (A2-3), with an

ordinate spacing of h/2:

A2

y

h y

2

=

y2 4y2.5 y3 = 2 2y2.5 3

32

2

3

The area between the fourth and sixth stations (A3-4) is now:

h

(y + 4y4 + y5)

3 3

A3

A3

... An

A = A0

A2

1 n

y2

2y3

h

2 y2.5 y

y3 4y4 y5 ... yn

y0 4y1 y2

3

2

2

h

1

1

3 0

2

2

Note that unless another half-spaced station is inserted, the number of sections (n) will be even, and the rule unworkable. Intermediate stations

can be inserted at any equal division of the station spacing (third-stations, quarter-stations, etc.) and multipliers deduced in a similar manner.

Intermediate stations can be inserted anywhere along the length of the curve so long as two rules are followed:

An even number of intermediate stations must be inserted, so that the total number of segments remains even (total number of

ordinates is odd).

Intermediate stations must be inserted so there are an even number of segments in each group of consecutive whole or partial

segments (each group of whole or partial segments includes an odd number of ordinates).

near the ends of waterlines where the hull

form changes rapidly with respect to length.

The individual multipliers can be quickly

determined by tabulating and summing the

appropriate 3-ordinate rule multipliers as

shown in Figure 1-8.

1-4.4.2 Simpsons Second Rule. Rules

can be deduced, in a similar manner, for

areas bounded by different numbers of evenly spaced ordinates, or by unevenly spaced

ordinates. For four evenly spaced ordinates:

5-1/2

2-1/2

0 STATION

1

1/2

1-1/2

1 3-ORDINATE

2

2

1

1/2

1-1/2

2

2

1

1/2

1-1/2

1/2

1/2

1 SIMPSONS

MULTIPLIER

MULTIPLIER

A =

3h

(y0 + 3y1 + 3y2 + y3)

8

A =

3h

(y0 + 3y1 + 3y2 + 2y3 + 3y4 + 3y5 + 2y6 + ... + yn)

8

Simpsons second rule can be used with 4 + 3i ordinates, where i is a positive integer (i.e., 4, 7, 10, 13, etc.).

1-4.5 Applications. The derivations of Simpsons rules and the trapezoidal rule were demonstrated with area computations to aid

conceptualization, but the rules can integrate any function that can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates. If, for example, the ordinates represent

sectional areas along a ships length for a given waterline, the products of the multipliers and ordinates are functions of volume, (V), and their

summation (integral of the curve) is the volume of displacement. Calculation of areas, moments, centroids, and second moments of areas by

the are described in the following paragraphs.

1-19

S0300-A8-HBK-010

shown in Figure 1-9, the moment of an

elemental strip of area about some vertical

axis YY is xydx. To determine the moment

of a larger area about the axis, the integral

M = xy dx must be evaluated. Instead of

multiplying the value of y at each station

by the appropriate multiplier, the value xy

is multiplied, where x is the distance from

the station to the reference axis, and dx is

the width of each strip, or the common

interval h. The value y dx = hyn is the area

of the strip an; the first moment of this area

about some reference axis YY is:

AREA a = ydx

yy

yn

1/2 yn

xx

dx

FOR SHADED STRIP: a = ydx

ay2 y3dx

i = ___ = ____

12

12

Myy = xa = x(ydx)

Iyy = x 2a = x2(ydx)

3

y2

y dx

y 2 ( ydx) _____

Ixx = __ a + i = __

+

2

2

12

moments of all the strips, that is, the

integral of the incremental moments along

the length:

L

MYY = xn an dx

0

x a dx =

n n

where:

CM

(A)

mn

=

=

=

function of area = mnyn

common multiplier for the appropriate rule and station

If the reference axis is chosen to fall on an ordinate station, then the moment arms have the common interval (h) as a common factor, i.e., xn

= snh, where xn is the moment arm and sn is the number of stations from the reference axis to station n. The factor h can be brought outside

the summation:

MYY = CMh sn(A)

The products of the number of stations from the reference axis and the functions of area, sn(A), are the functions of moment (M):

MYY = CMh (M)

The distance from the centroid of the shape to the reference axis (x) is the moment divided by the area:

x

1-20

MYY

A

CM h f (M)

=

CM f (A)

f (M)

h

f (A)

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The centroid of a symmetrical shape lies on the axis of symmetry, and its location can be defined by summing moments about a single axis

perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. To precisely locate the centroid of an asymmetrical shape, moments must be summed about another,

perpendicular, axis. The calculation can be performed by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and integrating with respect to y rather

than x. Moments about an axis XX can also be determined using y ordinates, but with slightly less accuracy. Referring again to Figure 1-9,

the moment about axis XX of the elemental strip dx is:

y

y2

y

MX X = a = y dx = dx

2

2

2

where y is the height of the strip, and a its area. The total moment is the integral of the incremental moments along the length, and the integral

can be evaluated numerically:

MX X

Ly

n

an dx =

= 0

2

yn

2

CM f (A)n =

CM yn f (A)n

2

The product of the y ordinate and the function of area for each segment can be defined as the function of moment about x, (MXX):

f MX X = y f (A) = y 2 mn

CM

2

MX X =

f MX X

where mn is the individual multiplier for the nth ordinate. The distance from the centroid of the shape to the axis XX (y) is the moment divided

by the area:

MX X

A

CM

f MXX

f MXX

2

=

CM f (A)

2 f (A)

Moments can be summed about any axis, although it is simplest to sum them about an axis through x0 so that the number of stations from the

reference axis is simply the station number. For ship calculations, moments are often summed about the midships section to reduce the size

of the products and sums for manual calculation, and because the centers of flotation, buoyancy, and gravity normally lie near midships. When

moments are summed about a station other than an end station, a sign convention must be adopted so that distances to one side of the reference

axis (and therefore moments and functions of moments) are negative.

1-4.5.2 Second Moments of Area. The second moment of area (moment of inertia, I) of a plane shape about an axis YY parallel to the vertical

ordinates is given by:

IYY = 0L x2y dx

where:

IYY =

x

=

L =

distance from axis YY to elemental vertical strip of height y and width dx

length of the area whose second moment is desired, measured along an axis perpendicular to YY

An analysis similar to that taken for the calculation of first moments will show that the second moment of the area under a curve is calculated by:

IYY = CMh2 (IYY)

where:

CM

h

(IYY)

sn

mn

yn

=

=

=

=

=

=

common multiplier

common interval

function of second moment about axis YY = sn2mnyn

number of stations from axis YY to station n

individual multiplier for station n

height of the ordinate at station n

1-21

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The second moment of an area (moment of inertia) is always smallest about an axis through its centroid, (the neutral axis in bending stress analysis).

If moment of inertia about some axis YY, parallel to the neutral axis is known, the moment of inertia about the neutral axis (INA) is found by the

parallel axis theorem:

INA = IYY - Ad 2

where d is the distance from axis YY to the neutral axis, and A is the total area of the section.

The second moment of area about an axis XX perpendicular to axis YY can be calculated by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and

integrating twice with respect to y rather than x. To determine the second moment about a horizontal axis of symmetry, such as the moment

of inertia of a waterplane about its centerline, the integration can also be performed using the original set of ordinates. In Figure 1-9 (Page 120), y is the half-ordinate of an incremental strip of a waterplane measured from the centerline. The second moment of area of the incremental

strip about the centerline is:

y 2

ixx = a

2

y 2

i0 = y dx

2

1 3

1 3

y dx = y dx

3

12

where:

ixx

a

i0

dx

=

=

=

=

=

area of the incremental strip

second moment of area of the incremental strip about a horizontal centroidal axis

(1 12)y3dx if strip is assumed to be rectangular

width of the incremental strip

L 1

1 L

IXX, half = y 3dx = y 3dx

0 3

3 0

The second moment of the total area is twice this amount, and this will be the second moment about the centerline, since the waterplane is

symmetrical about the centerline. The integration y3dx can be performed numerically:

CM h

IX X = 2

f IX X

where:

CM

h

(IXX)

=

=

=

mn

yn

common multiplier

common interval

function of second

moment about axis XX =

mnyn3

individual multiplier for

station n

height of the half-ordinate

at station n

1-4.5.3

Volumes and Centroids of

Volume. Volumes are calculated by integrating a curve of sectional areas. To calculate the volume of the tank shown in

Figure 1-10, the shape is first cut at several

stations to form section outlines. The area

of each section is calculated, and the areas

taken as ordinates along the length of the

tank. Integrating the area ordinates by the

trapezoidal rule:

y0

0

V = a dx = h (V)

where:

(V)

mn

an

1-22

=

=

=

individual multiplier for station n

area of section at station n

4

y4 = 0

x0

ORDINATES

FOR AREA

INTEGRATION

ORDINATES

FOR VOLUME

INTEGRATION

(AREAS)

a0

x1

a1

x3

x2

a2

a3

S0300-A8-HBK-010

MYY = h2 (M)

where:

(M)

sn

=

=

number of stations from axis YY to station n

d =

h 2 f (M)

=

h f (V)

f (M)

h

f (V)

These forms are exactly the same as those used to calculate areas and moments and centroids of areas; the only difference is that ordinate values

represent areas rather than linear distances. Integrations can be performed along additional axes to precisely locate the centroid of the shape.

1-4.5.4 General Forms for Area and Moment Calculations. Calculation of areas, moments, centroids, and second moments of area by

Simpsons first and second rules can be expressed in general forms:

A = (CM) h f (A)

MYY = (CM) h f (M)

CM

MXX =

f MXX

2

x =

(CM) h f (M)

=

(CM) f (A)

f (M)

h

f (A)

where:

A

MYY

MXX

=

x

y

IYY

IXX

CM

h

(A)

(M)

(MXX)

(IYY)

(IXX)

s

m

yn

= first moment of area about axis YY

first moment of area about axis XX

= distance from centroid of area to axis YY

= distance from centroid of area to axis XX

= second moment of area about axis YY

= second moment of area about centerline axis XX

= common multiplier for the appropriate rule (1, 1/3, 3/8, etc)

= common interval

= function of area

= mnyn

= function of moment about YY

= snmnyn = sn(A)

= function of moment about XX

= mnyn2

= yn(A)

= function of second moment about YY = sn2mnyn

= sn(M) = sn2(A)

3

= function of second moment about XX = mnyn

= number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n

= individual multiplier for station n for the appropriate rule

= height of the ordinate at station n (half-ordinate for IXX)

Examples 1-1 and 1-2 demonstrate the use of the trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule to calculate waterplane functions for an FFG-7 Class ship.

1-23

S0300-A8-HBK-010

EXAMPLE 1-1

CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY TRAPEZOIDAL RULE

Using 11- and 21-ordinate trapezoidal rules, calculate the waterplane area (AWP), location of the center of flotation (LCF), moment of inertia of the waterplane

about the centerline (ICL) and a transverse axis through the LCF (ICF), tons per inch immersion in saltwater (TPI), and waterplane coefficient (CWP) for the 16-foot

waterline of an FFG-7 Class ship. Compare these values with actual data.

Actual Properties:

L

Bmax

AWP

LCF

=

=

=

=

ICF

ICL

TPI

CWP =

408 ft

45.6 ft

13,860 ft2

24.1 ft aft of midships = 228.1 ft from forward perpendicular

= 135,888,480 ft4

= 1,664,145 ft4

= 33 tons/in

0.745

Since the waterplane is symmetrical about its centerline, areas and moments can be found by integrating one side of the waterplane along the centerline with

half-ordinates (halfbreadths) measured from the centerline, and doubling the results. Halfbreadths for the 16-foot waterline, in feet, inches, and eighths, are

taken from Figure FO-1. The integrations are best performed in a tabular format. To integrate on 11 ordinates, halfbreadths for stations 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,

14, 16, 18, and 20 are used.

Integration on 11 ordinates:

Station

Ordinate,

y

ft-in-1/8

ft

0-4-5

0.39

Integration on 21 ordinates:

Multiplier

m

1

(A)

my

ft2

0.19

Lever

(M)

(IYY)

s

s (A) s (M)

ft

ft3

ft4

0

0.0

0.0

(IXX)

m y3

ft4

0.03

6 -10 - 5

6.89

6.89

6.89

6.89

327.1

12-11 - 0

12.92

12.92

25.84

51.68

2156.7

17- 9 - 2

17.77

17.77

53.31

159.93

5611.3

20-11 - 5

20.97

20.97

83.88

335.52

9221.4

10

22- 7 - 1

22.59

22.59

112.95

564.75

11527.9

12

22- 8 - 3

22.70

22.70

136.20

817.20

11697.1

14

21- 8 - 4

21.71

21.71

151.97

1063.37

10232.4

16

19- 7 - 1

19.59

19.59

156.72

1253.76

7518.0

18

16- 8 - 6

16.73

16.73

150.57

1355.13

4682.6

20

12- 7 - 0

12.58

6.29

10

62.90

629.00

995.4

941.23

6237.65

63969.9

168.34

h

= 408/10

AWP = 2h (A)

MFP = 2h 2 (M)

=

=

=

40.8 ft

2(40.8)(168.34)

2(40.8)2(941.23)

(M)

= h

(A)

941.23

(40.8)

168.34

IFP

ICF

= 2h 3 (IYY)

= IFP - Ad 2

=

=

2(40.8)3(6237.65)

= 847,288,842 ft4

847,288,842 - 13,736.5(228.1)2 = 132,516,043 ft4

TPI = AWP / 420

=

CWP = AWP / (LB)

=

= 13,736.5 ft2

= 3,133,618 ft3

2(40.8/3)(63,969.9)

13,736.5/420

13,736.5/(408 45.6)

= 1,739,981 ft4

= 32.7 tons

= 0.738

Station

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Ordinate,

Multiplier

y

m

ft-in-1/8

ft

0 - 4 - 5 0.39

1/2

3 - 7 - 6 3.65

1

6 -10 - 5 6.89

1

10- 0 - 2 10.02

1

12-11 - 0 12.92

1

15- 6 - 1 15.51

1

17- 9 - 2 17.77

1

19- 6 - 7 19.57

1

20-11 - 5 20.97

1

21-11 - 5 21.97

1

22- 7 - 1 22.59

1

22- 9 - 4 22.79

1

22- 8 - 3 22.70

1

22- 3 - 7 22.32

1

21- 8 - 4 21.71

1

20- 9 - 5 20.80

1

19- 7 - 1 19.59

1

18- 2 - 1 18.18

1

16- 8 - 6 16.73

1

15- 1 - 0 15.01

1

12- 7 - 0 12.58

1/2

h

= 408/20

AWP = 2h (A)

MFP = 2h2 (M)

(A) Lever

(M)

(IYY)

s

ft2

ft

ft3

ft4

0.19

0

0.0

0.0

3.65

1

3.65

3.65

6.89

2

13.78

27.56

10.02

3

30.06

90.18

12.92

4

51.68

206.72

15.51

5

77.55

387.75

17.77

6

106.62

639.72

19.57

7

136.99

958.93

20.97

8

167.76 1342.08

21.97

9

197.73 1779.57

22.59

10

225.90 2259.00

22.79

11

250.69 2757.59

22.70

12

272.40 3268.80

22.32

13

290.16 3772.08

21.71

14

303.94 4255.16

20.80

15

312.00 4680.00

19.59

16

313.44 5015.04

18.18

17

309.06 5254.02

16.73

18

301.14 5420.52

15.01

19

285.19 5418.61

6.29

20

125.80 2516.00

338.18

3775.54 50052.98

= 20.4 ft

= 2(20.4)(338.18)

= 2(20.4)2(3775.54)

AWP, ft2

LCF, ft fm FP

ICF, ft4

ICL, ft4

TPI, tons/in

CWP

1-24

13,860.0

228.1

135,888,480

1,664,145

33

0.745

ft4

0.03

48.6

327.1

1006.0

2156.7

3731.1

5611.3

7495.0

9221.4

10604.5

11527.9

11836.8

11697.1

11119.4

10232.4

8998.9

7518.0

6008.7

4682.6

3381.8

995.4

128200.7

= 13,797.5 ft2

= 3,142,457 ft3

(M)

= h

(A)

3775.54

= (20.4)

338.18

IFP

ICF

= 2h 3 (IYY)

= IFP - Ad 2

= 2(20.4)3(50,052.98)

= 849,865,964 ft4

= 849,865,964 - 13,797.6(227.8)2 = 134,155,856 ft4

TPI = AWP / 420

= 13,797.6 / 420

CWP = AWP / (LB)

= 13,797.6 / (408 45.6)

= 1,743,529 ft4

= 32.9 tons

= 0.742

Comparison:

Actual

(IXX )

11 Ordinate

Value

Error, %

13,737.8

0.88

228.1

0.00

132,502,924

2.49

1,739,981

4.56

32.7

0.91

0.738

0.94

Value

13,797.500

227.800

134,155,856.000

1,743,529.000

32.900

0.742

21 Ordinate

Error, %

0.45

0.13

1.28

4.77

0.30

0.40

S0300-A8-HBK-010

EXAMPLE 1-2

CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY SIMPSONS RULE

Use Simpsons first rule with 11 ordinates to calculate the waterplane properties that were calculated in Example 1-1. Compare the results with actual data

and the results by trapezoidal rule.

Ship dimensions and actual waterplane properties are the same as for Example 1-1. Halfbreadths for stations 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 from

Figure FO-1 are used to integrate on 11 stations. Integration:

Station

Ordinate,

Multiplier

(A7)

Lever

(M)

(IYY)

(IXX)

my

s (A)

s (M)

m y3

ft-in-1/8

ft

ft2

ft

ft

ft4

ft4

0-4-5

0.39

0.39

0.0

0.0

0.06

6 -10 - 5

6.89

27.56

27.56

27.56

1308.3

12-11 - 0

12.92

25.84

51.68

103.36

4313.4

17- 9 - 2

17.77

71.08

213.24

639.72

22445.1

20-11 - 5

20.97

41.94

167.76

671.04

18442.7

10

22- 7 - 1

22.59

90.36

451.80

2259.00

46111.4

12

22- 8 - 3

22.70

45.40

272.40

1634.40

23394.2

14

21- 8 - 4

21.71

86.84

607.88

4255.16

40929.8

16

19- 7 - 1

19.59

39.18

313.44

2507.52

15036.0

18

16- 8 - 6

16.73

66.92

602.28

5420.52

18730.4

20

12- 7 - 0

12.58

12.58

10

125.80

1258.00

1990.9

2,833.84

18,776.28

192,702.4

508.09

h

AWP =

MFP =

IFP

ICF

=

=

ICL

TPI

CWP =

=

=

408/10

3 h (A)

2

3 h2 (M)

(M)

h

(A)

3 h 3 (IYY)

IFP - Ad2

3 (h/3) (IXX)

AWP/420

AWP/(LB)

=

=

40.8 ft

3 (40.8)(508.09)

2

3 (40.8)2(2833.84)

2

=

=

13,820.1 ft2

3,144,882 ft3

=

=

2833.84

(40.8)

508.09

2

3 (40.8)3(18,776.28)

850,156,311 - 13,820.1(227.6)2

2

3 (40.8/3)(192,702.4)

13,820.1/420

13,820.1/(408 45.6)

=

=

227.6 ft from FP

850,156,311 ft4

134,508,685 ft4

1,747,168 ft4

32.9 tons

0.743

LCF

Comparison:

Actual Value

Value

AWP, ft2

Error, %

11 Ordinate

21 Ordinate

13,860

13,820.1

0.29

0.88

0.45

228.1

227.6

0.22

0.00

0.13

ICF, ft4

135,888,480

134,508,685

1.02

2.49

1.28

ICL, ft4

1,664,145

1,747,168

4.99

4.56

4.77

33

32.9

0.30

0.91

0.30

0.745

0.743

0.27

0.92

0.40

LCF, ft fm FP

TPI, tons/in

CWP

The accuracy of an 11-ordinate Simpsons rule compares favorably with that of a 21-ordinate trapezoidal rule. Simpsons rule with 21 ordinates

is only marginally more accurate than with 11 ordinates for this waterplane shape. Note that Simpsons rule calculates the moment of inertia

about the centerline with slightly less accuracy than the trapezoidal rule. The derivation of the form: ICL = (CM)(h/3) (IXX) assumes a constant

ordinate over the entire section (see Paragraph 1-4.3.3). The Simpsons multipliers do not correct for this assumption. The constant-ordinate

assumption is essentially correct for very full ships and barges with extensive parallel midbody, and will yield very accurate values for ICL.

Accuracy of ICL calculations for fine-lined ships can be increased only by using very close station spacing or integrating along an axis

perpendicular to the centerline. The 5 percent accuracy shown here should be sufficiently accurate for most salvage work.

1-25

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-4.6 Other Simpsons Rule Forms. Simpsons rules can be derived for numbers of ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply, and

to determine areas of "left over" segments at the ends of curves.

1-4.6.1 5, 8, Minus One and 3, 10, Minus One Rules. An additional Simpsons rule, known as the 5, 8, minus one rule, is used to determine

the area between two ordinates when three consecutive ordinates are known. For ordinates y0, y1, and y2, the area between the first and second

ordinates is given by:

1

h (5y0 + 8y1 - y2)

A0-1 =

12

The area between the second and third ordinates can be found by applying the rule backwards:

1

h (-y0 + 8y1 + 5y2)

A1-2 =

12

The validity of the 5, 8, minus one rule can be verified by observing that the sum of the expressions for the two sectional areas is the 3-ordinate

rule:

1

h 5y0 8y1 y2

A = A0 1 A1 2 =

y0 8y1 5y2

12

1

h y0 4y1 y2

=

3

The 5, 8, minus one rule cannot be used for moments. The first moment of the area between the first and second ordinates (A1-2) about the first

ordinate is given by the 3, 10, minus one rule:

1 2

h (3y0 + 10y1 - y2)

M1 =

24

These two Simpsons rules are at times convenient, but are less accurate than the first and second rules.

1-4.6.2 Simpsons Rules for Any Number of Ordinates. Simpsons rules can be combined one with another to derive rules for numbers of

ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply. For example, the first rule can be used for 3, 5, 7, 9, ... ordinates, and the second rule for

4, 7, 10, .... ordinates. A rule can be deduced for six ordinates as shown below:

3

h y0 3y1 3y2 y3

A0 3 =

8

1

h y3 4y4 y5

A3 5 =

3

3

9

9

3

1

4

1

y1

y2

y3

y3

y4

y5

A

= A0 3 A3 5 = h y0

8

8

8

3

3

3

8

1

h 9y0 27y1 27y2 17y3 32y4 8y5

=

24

This is not the only rule suitable for six ordinates. By skillful use of the 5, 8, minus one rule, a rule with less awkward multipliers can be

deduced:

1

h 5y0 8y1 y2

A0 3 =

12

3

h y1 3y2 3y3 y4

A1 4 =

8

1

h y3 8y4 5y5

A4 5 =

12

A

= A0

A1

A4

5

25

25

25

25

5

y0

y1

y2

y3

y4

y5

= h

24

24

24

24

15

12

25

h 0.4y0 y1 y2 y3 y4 0.4 y5

=

24

Substituting the same values for ordinates y0 through y5 in each rule will verify that they are equivalent. Rules deduced in this manner can be

used in the general forms described in Paragraph 1-4.4.4.

1-4.7 Other Integration Rules. Simpsons rules and the trapezoidal rule are satisfactory for most manual calculations. The Newton-Cotes,

Tchebycheffs, and Gauss rules are more accurate, but require more tedious manual calculations. These rules are described in most general naval

architecture texts, such as Basic Ship Theory by K.J. Rawson and E.C. Tupper, or Muckles Naval Architecture by W. Muckle and D.A. Taylor.

1-26

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-4.8 General Notes For Numerical Integration. The numerical integration rules presented have relative advantages and disadvantages. When

time and/or access to high-speed computers permits, the salvage engineer may select the optimum integration rule for a well-defined curve.

For curves where ordinates are tabulated for only certain stations, a rule appropriate to that number and spacing of stations must be adopted.

Some generalizations about the applicability of integration rules are listed below:

The trapezoidal rule uses constant ordinate spacing and simpler multipliers than the other rules. Any number of ordinates can be

used. The rule can accommodate half-stations at any point, and the multipliers for half-stations are easily derived. For a single

integration (area calculation) of a gentle curve, the trapezoidal rule is nearly as accurate as the Simpsons rules, but progressively

greater errors are introduced on successive integrations (for moments and moments of inertia).

Simpsons rules and the trapezoidal rule include the common interval as part of the common multiplier and can therefore calculate

areas or volumes, moments, centroids, and second moments of area (single, double, and triple integrations) directly.

Simpsons rules are the most commonly used integration rules because they are more accurate than the trapezoidal rule, but simpler

to use than the more accurate Newton-Cotes, Tchebycheffs, and Gauss rules.

Simpsons rules exactly integrate first-, second-, and third-order curves. Successive integrations produce progressively higher order

curves: the curve of area under a second-order curve is a third order curve, and the curve of the moment of areas is then a fourthorder curve. Simpsons rules will therefore exactly calculate the first moment of a second-order curve, or the second moment of

a first-order curve. Calculating the second moment of a second-order or higher curve involves integrating a fourth-order equation,

so some error is introduced even for a parabolic curve. Additional error may arise for an arbitrary curve. Experience has shown

that Simpsons rule calculates moments and second moments of relatively smooth, continuous curvessuch as those describing

ship formsaccurately if a sufficiently close station spacing is used.

An even-ordinate Simpson rule is only marginally more accurate than the next lower odd-ordinate rule; odd-ordinate Simpson rules

are therefore preferred, and almost universally used in salvage.

1-4.9 Integration of Discontinuous Curves. The integration rules discussed are applicable to continuous curves. The area under a

discontinuous curve can be obtained by applying appropriate rules to the portions of the curve between discontinuities and summing the areas.

For curves with large numbers of closely spaced discontinuities, it is simpler to divide the curve into segments at the discontinuities, approximate

each segment by a rectangle, triangle, or trapezoid, calculate the area of each segment, and sum the areas to find the total area. The centroid

of each segment can be calculated or estimated. Moments, second moments, and the centroid of the entire area can be calculated by summing

the products of each area and the lever arm from its centroid to a selected axis in a tabular format. Replacing a segment of the curve between

discontinuities (stations) with a horizontal line at a value equal to the average ordinate creates a rectangle with area equal to the area under the

curve between the two stations. If the curve between stations can be reasonably approximated by a straight line, a horizontal line intersecting

the curve midway between stations has a y value equal to the average ordinate. Repeating this process along the length of the curve creates

a stepped curve. If the discontinuities, and subsequent stations, are evenly spaced, the curve can be integrated by a modification of the

trapezoidal rule:

A = y dx = h

n

1 n

MYY = xy dz = h 2

IYY = x 2y dx = h 3

n

1

n

1

sn 1/2 yn

sn 1/2 2 yn

where:

A

MYY

IYY

h

sn

yn

=

=

=

=

=

=

first moment of area about axis YY

second moment of area about axis YY

common interval

number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n

height of the mid-ordinate between stations n and n-1

Weight distribution curves for ships are usually drawn assuming a constant weight distribution between stations as stepped curves. The addition

of the continuous buoyancy curve and stepped weight curve creates a discontinuous load curve. The load curve is usually stepped as described

above to facilitate integration along its length to define the shear curve. Alternatively, the buoyancy curve can be stepped before summing with

the weight curve. A stepped 10-segment (11-ordinate) buoyancy curve can be constructed from standard Navy 21-station Bonjeans Curves by

taking unit buoyancy calculated from section areas for odd station as the average unit buoyancy for segments bounded by even stationsunit

buoyancy for segment 02 is based on section area for station 1, that for segment 24 on the area for station 3, etc. Example 1-4 includes an

integration of this type.

1-27

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-4.10 Calculation of Hull Properties. Various integrations of a ships hull form are used to determine properties such as displacement,

locations of centers, tons per inch immersion, etc., known collectively as functions of form, hydrostatic functions, or hydrostatic data. Waterlines,

buttocks, and stations of lines drawings are spaced to support numerical integration, usually by Simpsons or the trapezoidal rules. Halfbreadths

(offsets) taken along the length of a waterline provide ordinate values to define the waterplane shape; halfbreadths taken at different waterlines

at the same station provide ordinate values to define the station shape. Because ships are symmetrical about the centerline, integrations are

customarily performed for one side of the section or waterplane only, and doubled to give the total area or moment.

When working from offsets, sectional areas are usually calculated by vertical integration on horizontal ordinates from the centerline. An

integration up to a waterline gives section area corresponding to that waterline. Integrating the curve of areas along the ships length gives

volume of displacement; the centroid of the volume is the center of buoyancy.

Waterlines are integrated along the ships length to determine area of the waterplane, location of the centroid of the waterplane (center of

flotation), and moment of inertia of the waterplane about the centerline and about a transverse axis through the center of flotation. From these

properties, tons per inch immersion, location of the metacenter, etc., can be calculated. Displacement volume can be calculated by taking

waterplane areas as ordinates and integrating vertically.

Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is obtained by longitudinal integration of the sectional areas. Height of the center of

buoyancy (KB) can be obtained by vertical integration of waterplane areas, or by calculating a vertical moment of area for each section. The sum

of all the vertical area moments divided by the sum of the sectional areas gives KB. Integrations of this form are included in Example 1-4 and

Appendix F.

1-4.10.1 Functions of Form. Functions of hull form are

usually calculated for each waterline so they can be plotted

as a function of draft as the ships Curves of Form, also

called Hydrostatic Curves, or Displacement and Other

Curves (D & O Curves). Figure FO-2 is a reproduction of

the curves of form for an FFG-7 Class ship. Hydrostatic data

is also recorded in the Functions of Form Diagram (Figure

B-1) for Navy ships and Hydrostatic Tables (Figure B-2) for

commercial vessels. The salvage engineer may be required

to calculate hydrostatic data when curves of form or other

documents are not available or for a casualty in an unusual

condition. Whether functions of form are calculated for a

complete range of drafts or for only a few selected drafts depends on the form of the ship and the nature of information

required by salvors. Manual calculations are best performed

on organized tabular forms called displacement sheets.

Ship Type

Appendage allowance:

APP/FL

Twin-screw, small combatant with keel sonar dome1 . . . . . . .

Single-screw, small combatant with bow sonar dome1 . . . . . .

Twin-screw, small combatant with bow sonar dome1 . . . . . . .

Twin-screw amphibious warfare ships with well decks1 . . . . . .

shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Twin-screw LST1

without bow thruster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

with tunnel bow thruster (negative appendage) . . . . . . .

Single-screw merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,

less than 5,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Single-screw merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,

5,000 to 15,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . .

shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Single-screw merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,

greater than 15,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . .

Twin-screw merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form . .

shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VLCC, ULCC, very large bulk carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0.0167

0.0200

0.0049

0.0060

0.0106

0.0057

0.0049

...

...

0.0024

0.0014

...

0.0075

. . . 0.0015

placements (buoyancies) based on section areas taken from

Bonjeans Curves do not include appendage volume/ dis. . . 0.0050

placement, although sectional areas from some Bonjeans

. . . 0.0040

Curves include shell plating. If known, appendage dis. . . 0.0010

placements can be added to the integrated displacement; effect on LCB can be determined by moment balance. When

. . . 0.0025

appendage buoyancy is unknown, appendage displacement

. . . 0.0081

can be estimated as a fraction of full load displacement,

. . . 0.0035

. . . 0.0046

called an appendage allowance. Appendage allowances

. . . 0.0015

vary with ship size, type, and configuration. Warships

generally have more and larger appendages than auxiliaries

or commercial vessels. Vessels with high power-to-size

Source: 1Jamestown Marine Services, 1990, unpublished; based on data from 22

ratios have larger screws and rudders than lower powered

hull types entered into ship data files for the NAVSEA POSSE Program

vessels; appendage allowance increases with the number of

screws. Large bow sonar domes on combatants are faired

into the hull, and are included in Bonjeans Curves and offsets; keel-mounted domes are appendages. For a given ship type and configuration,

appendage allowance generally increases as size decreases. Approximate appendage allowances for different ship types are given in Table 1-3.

Appendage displacement is essentially constant with draft, as most appendages (except shell plating) are low on the hull and will be emerged

only by extremely low drafts. Once determined, appendage displacement can be added to the integrated displacement for any draft that covers

the appendages to determine total displacement. Shell plating displacement can be adjusted for drafts less than full load by assuming that onehalf of the shell plating volume is concentrated in the bottom third of the draft range, and the remaining volume is evenly distributed over the

upper two-thirds of the draft range. It is usually safe to assume that LCB for the displacement with appendages is virtually the same as that

for the integrated (without appendages) displacement.

1-4.10.3 Station Spacing. In full-bodied ships (low-speed general cargo, large tankers, bulk carriers, etc.) the lengths of the waterlines between

stations in the midbody are nearly straight lines. In many modern full-bodied ships, the waterlines over the midbody are, in fact, straight lines,

forming a parallel midbody. Integration on 10 equal divisions of length (11 stations, 0-10) is sufficiently accurate for most purposes. If the

curvature of the waterlines increases sharply near the ends of the ship, half-spaced stations can be inserted to increase accuracy, for example,

at stations 1 2, 11 2, 81 2 and 91 2.

1-28

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Accuracy can be increased by reducing the station spacing throughout the length of the curve. This increases the number of calculations to be

performed, but avoids determining additional multipliers and may be simpler to program for computer calculation. For ship calculations, offsets

are usually tabulated for either 11 or 21 basic stations (10 or 20 equal divisions), with half-stations as necessary. Offsets for Navy ships are

normally tabulated for 21 basic stations, although additional tables may be prepared for very close station spacing. Offset tables for 2-foot station

spacing are available for the FFG-7, for example. Even when 21-station offset tables or Bonjeans Curves are available, integration on 11

stations is sufficiently accurate for most hull volume calculations on any smooth hull form, including fine-lined warships.

1-4.10.4 Full Sections. In full, relatively

flat-bottomed sections, special care must be

taken in calculating the area from the base

to the lowest waterline to avoid error.

Figure 1-11 shows a section near midships

where the turn of the bilge fairs into a

straight line (the rise of floor line) at point

A.

If the entire area below CD is

calculated using horizontal ordinates from

the centerline, very close ordinate spacing

must be used to avoid error because of the

rapid change of form in the shell line. The

area below CD can be calculated accurately

using vertical ordinates from CD, with halfspaced ordinates inserted near the outboard

end, or by dividing the area into two

segments, as shown. The area KABC is a

trapezoid whose area can be calculated

accurately when the position of A and rise

of floor can be determined. The area ADB

can be obtained by using Simpsons rule,

either with horizontal ordinates measured

from AB, or with vertical ordinates

measured from BD.

CL

C

K

1-4.10.5 Lowest Waterlines. When displacement volume is calculated by vertical integration of waterplane areas, the volume under the lowest

one or two waterlines is calculated separately. Since the form of the ship changes so rapidly near the keel, the volume under the lowest one

or two waterlines is calculated by integrating sectional areas along the ships length. This volume is added to the volume determined by

integrating waterplane areas from the lower waterlines upward to obtain the total volume of displacement.

1-4.10.6 Ends of Full Hull Forms. On

SIMPSONS RULE

very full hulls, such as spoon-bowed

ASSUMED PARABOLIC

barges, large tankers (VLCC, ULCC), and

FORM

bulk carriers, the parallel midbody extends

WATERPLANE

nearly to the ends of the ship, where it

OUTLINE

joins to a short forebody or afterbody with

steep or sharply curving lines. The aft ends

of the lower waterlines of many fine-lined

ships also curve sharply. If the ordinate

adjacent to the end ordinate is some

2

1

FP STATIONS

distance away from the end of the parallel

midbody, the curve from this ordinate to

TRAPEZOIDAL RULE

ASSUMED STRAIGHT LINE

the end ordinate (which is 0 or very small)

assumed by Simpsons rules or the

trapezoidal rule will fall well inside the

Figure 1-12. Inherent Integration Error in Full Waterlines.

actual waterline as shown in Figure 1-12.

This will cause a serious underestimation of

area for the end sections that will lead to even greater errors in calculations of moments and second moments about axes near midships because

of the long lever arms. Intermediate stations should be inserted so that there are ordinates near the ends of the parallel midbody and at least

one or two ordinates in the forebody and afterbody. Alternatively, waterplane areas for the midbody, forebody, and afterbody can be calculated

separately and summed. The midbody area can be treated as a rectangle or integrated by a 3-ordinate Simpson or trapezoidal rule; the midbody

and forebody areas can be calculated by any convenient rule with appropriate ordinates.

1-4.10.7 Tank and Compartment Volumes. A compartments molded volume is greater than its floodable volume (the volume of liquid that

can be contained), because of the volume occupied by fittings and structure. Floodable volumes of filled holds, machinery spaces, living spaces,

etc., are estimated from molded volumes by use of permeability factors, as explained in Paragraph 1-9.1.1. Framing, sounding tubes, sea chests

and similar structures in ordinary skin tanks typically occupy about 21 4 to 21 2 percent of the molded volume in double-bottom tanks, about 1

percent in cargo tanks (i.e., permeability of empty tanks is 971 2 to 973 4 percent, and 99 percent, respectively). Heating coils, if fitted, usually

occupy an additional 1 4 percent of the molded volume. Flush tanks lie entirely within the ships framing and are externally stiffened, so floodable volume, or capacity, is essentially equal to molded volume. To calculate volumes and centroids of flush tanks, offsets are taken to the inner

surface of the tank, rather than the hull molded surface. Bale capacity of holds is calculated from offsets taken from sections showing the line

of cargo battens, line of the bottoms of deck beams, and the top of the hold ceiling (above the inner bottom) including any gratings, with deductions for stanchions and other obstructions. Grain capacity is the molded volume, less the volume of structure, hold ceiling, and shifting boards.

1-29

S0300-A8-HBK-010

W

ships ability to resist rotation about its

longitudinal axis and return to an upright

position after being disturbed by an upsetting force. The following paragraphs define

the elements of transverse stability and

provide methods to calculate the transverse

stability characteristics of a vessel.

CENTER OF

GRAVITY

W

W

(b)

1-30

(c)

(a)

floating at rest, with or without list and

trim, is in static equilibrium; that is, the

forces of gravity and buoyancy are equal

and acting in opposite directions in line

with one another. Stability is the tendency

of a ship to return to its original position

when disturbed after the disturbing force is

removed. Stability can be described as

positive, negative, or neutral.

1-5.2 Internal Forces. The internal forces

affecting floating bodies are the forces of

gravity and buoyancy. Both of these forces

act at all times on wholly or partially

submerged bodies. Figure 1-13 illustrates

the relationship between the forces of

buoyancy and gravity. Assuming the prism

floats with half its volume submerged, and

with the center of gravity located as shown,

the prism can come to rest in either

position (a), with the center of gravity

directly above the center of buoyancy, or

(c), with the center of buoyancy above the

center of gravity. In either position, the

forces of buoyancy and gravity act along

the same vertical line. If the prism is

inclined from (a) to (b), or from (c) to (d),

a couple, or righting moment, is developed

between the lines of action of buoyancy

and gravity that tends to move the body

back to its original position, i.e., the body

floats with positive stability in either

position. In position (a), with the center of

gravity above the center of buoyancy,

stability is provided by the bodys shape, or

form, and is termed form stability. If the

width of the prism is reduced while the

center of gravity remains on the centerline

at the same location, a situation arises in

which the center of buoyancy does not

move far enough to be to the right of the

center of gravity as the body is inclined

from (a) to (b). The body can then attain

positive stability only in position (c), with

the center of buoyancy above the center of

gravity. Bodies floating with the center of

buoyancy above the center of gravity

develop positive initial righting moments

regardless of shape. This mode of stability

is called weight stability. Sailing yachts

with deep weighted keels, spar buoys,

conventional ships with very low centers of

gravity, and submarines all exhibit weight

stability. Capsized ships floating upside

down very often have their centers of

gravity below the center of buoyancy, and

operate in a weight stability mode.

(d)

20

Z

B

45

37

G

B

B

80

61

TO ZERO (GZ = 0)

S0300-A8-HBK-010

the ship is inclined, in a manner that

depends on the shape of the hull near the

waterline. The center of buoyancy initially

moves away from the centerline as the ship

is inclined, as shown in Figure 1-14. At

some angle of inclination, the center of

buoyancy begins to move back towards a

vertical reference line drawn through the

original position of the center of buoyancy.

The vertical line of action of the center of

gravity continues to move outward as the

ship is inclined.

At some angle of

inclination, the line of action of gravity

moves outboard of the line of action of

buoyancy, creating an upsetting moment.

Ships that have slowly heeled through

progressively greater angles of inclination

will suddenly capsize when this angle of

zero righting moment (angle of vanishing

stability) is passed.

In Figure 1-15, the prism is assumed to be

neutrally buoyant so that it is wholly

submerged but clear of the bottom. An

inclination from (a) produces an upsetting

moment that tends to rotate the prism away

from its initial position. Conversely, a

inclination from (c) produces a righting

moment. A submerged object clear of the

bottom or other restraints can therefore

have positive stability in only one position,

that is, with the center of buoyancy above

the center of gravity. Submerged objects

therefore operate in a weight stability

mode. The difference in behavior of

floating and submerged objects is due to

the fact that the center of buoyancy of a

submerged object is fixed at the center of

volume of the object, while the center of

buoyancy of a floating object will generally

shift when the object is inclined. Because

the center of buoyancy of a submerged

object is fixed, the righting moment cannot

change to an upsetting moment as the

object inclines unless the position of the

center of gravity shifts.

Stability of

submarines and other submerged objects is

discussed more completely in the U.S. Navy

Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 4 (S0300A6-MAN-040).

Figure 1-16 shows how a stable ship

subjected to normal disturbances will

develop moments tending to return the ship

to its original position. A couple is formed

as the lines of action of the opposing forces

of gravity and buoyancy are separated. The

arm of this couple, called the righting arm,

is the lever to which the ships weight is

applied to right the ship. Figure 1-17

shows the upsetting arm developed when

unstable ships are disturbed.

B

B

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

M

RIGHTING

MOMENT

W1

G

L

B1

L1

CL

UPSETTING

MOMENT

G

Z

W1

M

B1

L1

CL

1-31

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Wave action,

Wind,

Collision,

Grounding,

Any inclination of a ship can be termed heel, but inclinations are broadly defined as heel, list, or roll depending on the duration and nature of

the forces causing the inclination.

Heel The term heel is specifically applied to noncyclic, transient inclinations caused by forces that may be removed or reversed

quickly. Such forces include wind pressure, centrifugal force in high-speed turns, large movable weights, etc.

List A list is a permanent, or long-term inclination, caused by forces such as grounding or offcenter weight that are not likely

to be removed suddenly.

Roll When an inclining force is suddenly removed, a ship does not simply return to its upright position, but inclines to the

opposite side and oscillates, or rolls, about its equilibrium position for some time before coming to rest. The natural rolling period

(period of roll assumed by a ship free of restraints and exciting forces) is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution. Rolling

is cyclic in nature and is induced or aggravated by short duration, repetitive or cyclic forces, such as wave forces.

1-5.4 Heights of Centers. The relative heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter govern the magnitude and sense

of the moment arms developed as the ship inclines. They are, therefore, the primary indicators of a ships initial stability. Nominally, the

symbols KG, KB, and KM indicate the heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter above the bottom of the keel, while

the symbols VCG and VCB indicate the vertical positions of the centers of gravity and buoyancy, measured from the baseline. In practice,

KG/KB and VCG/VCB are used almost interchangeably; in steel ships with flat plate keels, the difference in height above baseline and keel for

any point is generally less than two inches and is not significant.

1-5.4.1 Height of the Center of Gravity. The height or vertical

position of the center of gravity above the keel (KG or VCG) is defined

by weight distribution. KG can be varied considerably without change

of displacement by shifting weight up or down in the ship. Conversely,

it is possible to add or remove weight without altering KG. In most

ships, the center of gravity lies between six-tenths of the depth above

the keel and the main deck:

where:

D = hull depth, keel to main deck

For barges with raked or ship-shaped bows and cut-up sterns, lightship

KG can be estimated as 0.53D. For tank barges, KG for full load varies

little from the lightship value.

Table 1-4 gives very approximate values for the height of the center of

gravity for several types of merchant ships at lightship, and for some

naval ship types at full load. Calculation of KG can be a laborious and

time-consuming process, but ignorance of the height of a ships center

of gravity invites disaster. If the height of the ships center of gravity

is known for any condition of loading (lightship, for example), and the

location of added or removed weights is known, the new height of the

center of gravity can be calculated:

Wold KGold

Wold

Ship Type

w (kg)

w

Dry Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.68D

Passenger/Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.75D

Insulated Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.72D

Cross-Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.68D

Oil Tanker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.69D

Cruiser/Destroyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.55D

Frigate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.61D

0.63D

0.72D

0.62D

Tender/Repair Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.5D

Source:

1

Applied Naval Architecture, R. Munro-Smith, 1967

2

Jamestown Marine Services, 1990

where:

KG

W

w

kg

1-32

=

=

=

=

KG

(D = depth

at midships)

KGnew =

total weight of the ship and contents

individual weights added (+) or removed (-)

height above keel of centers of gravity of added or removed weights, w

S0300-A8-HBK-010

obtained from the ships officers, usually the chief mate.

In the absence of better information, the design

estimations proposed by R. Munro-Smith (Applied Naval

Architecture, 1967) shown in Table 1-5 may be helpful.

of the center of buoyancy above the keel (KB) is solely

a function of the shape of the underwater volume. As

the centroid of the underwater hull, the center of

buoyancy is lower in flat-bottomed, full-bodied ships,

such as tankers and ore carriers, than in finer lined ships

like destroyers or frigates. Disregarding changes in the

shape of the immersed hull due to trim and heel, KB of

any ship is a function of displacement, and therefore of

draft. The height of the center of buoyancy can be

calculated by summing incremental waterplane areas

(aWP) multiplied by their heights above the keel (z) and

dividing the result by the displacement volume ():

KB =

Hold/Space

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

tween decks

deck at mid length of the space

Based on full holds (homogeneous cargo) in general cargo ship with machinery amidships,

three holds forward and two aft. In ships with extensive parallel midbody, it may be more

appropriate to apply the expression for hold No. 3 to all holds in the parallel midbody, with

the expression for No. 1 or No. 2 (depending on fineness of forebody) applied to the

forward most hold. A similar analysis should be applied to holds aft of the machinery

space, if any.

1

a z dz

wp

This expression can be evaluated by numerical integration methods if accurate drawings or offsets are available. In practice, KB can be

approximated with sufficient accuracy for salvage work as 0.52T for full-bodied ships and 0.58T for fine-lined ships. At very light drafts, KB

is closer to the given waterline because the lower waterlines are usually much finer than the waterlines in the normal draft range. As a vessels

underwater hull form approaches a rectangular prism (CB = 1.0), KB approaches 0.5T. The following empirical relationships give estimates for

KB that are very close to calculated values for merchant vessels of ordinary form at normal drafts:

KB =

1 5T

3 2

KB = Tm

AWP

AWP

AWP

(Morrishs Formula)

(Posdunines Formula)

Tm

where:

Tm

AWP =

= displacement volume, [length3]

waterplane area, [length2]

1-5.4.3 Metacentric Height. The transverse metacentric height (GMT), commonly called the metacentric height, of a ship is the vertical

separation of the center of gravity and the transverse metacenter (see Figure 1-4) and is a primary indicator of initial stability. A ship with a

positive metacentric height (G below M) will tend to right itself by developing righting arms as soon as an inclining force is applied. A ship

with a negative metacentric height (G above M) will list to either port or starboard with equal facility until the centers of buoyancy and gravity

are on the same vertical line, and thereafter develop positive righting arms. This condition, known as lolling, is a serious symptom of impaired

initial stability. Metacentric height is calculated by subtracting the height of the center of gravity from the height of the metacenter above the

keel:

GMT = KMT - KG

Transverse Metacentric Radius. The transverse metacentric radius (BMT) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the

metacenter. This distance is termed a radius because for small heel angles, the locus of successive centers of buoyancy approximates a circular

arc, with the transverse metacenter as its center. Metacentric radius is equal to the moment of inertia of the waterplane about its longitudinal

centerline (transverse moment of inertia, IT) divided by the underwater volume of the hull ():

BMT =

IT

1-33

S0300-A8-HBK-010

For a rectangular waterplane, IT = LB3/12, = LBT and:

BMT =

IT

LB 3

12

LBT

B2

12T

where:

L

B

T

=

=

=

beam, [length]

mean draft, [length]

If the waterplane shape can be accurately defined, the moment of inertia can be determined by numerical integration. If not, the transverse

moment of inertia of most ships waterplanes can be approximated by:

IT CIT LB3

where CIT is the transverse inertia coefficient and is approximated by CWP2/11.7 or 0.125CWP - 0.045. These expressions for transverse inertia

coefficient are derived from the analysis of numerous ships, and are reasonable approximations for use in salvage for ships with CWP < 0.9.

For ships with CWP > 0.9, LB3/12 is a closer approximation of the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane.

Height of the Metacenter. The height of the metacenter above the keel is calculated by adding the metacentric radius to the height of the center

of buoyancy above the keel:

KM = KB + BM

GM = KB + BM

KG

When denoting transverse metacenter, BM, KM, and GM, the subscript "T" is often omitted as understood.

Ships with large GM develop large initial righting arms and therefore respond to moderate disturbing forces with sharp, short-period rolling.

These ships are said to be stiff. Ships with smaller metacentric heights develop smaller initial righting arms and roll more gently in a seaway.

Ships with small metacentric heights are said to be tender. Insufficient initial stability results in constant rolling in even gentle seas, making

work difficult, and may allow extreme rolling in heavier seas, perhaps causing the ship to take on water or capsize. Excessive initial stability,

or stiffness, is also undesirable because it produces an uncomfortable ride, reduces personnel effectiveness, increases requirements on weapons

stabilization systems, increases lateral acceleration loads on topside cargo and equipment, and increases hull stresses. These matters usually

do not concern the salvage engineer, but very stiff rolling of a casualty under tow may damage sensitive equipment, loosen patches, or place

excessive loads on damaged structure. The term seakindly is used to describe a ship whose metacentric height is great enough to give adequate

stability, but not large enough to cause excessive stiffness.

The natural rolling period is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution and can be expressed as a function of GM and transverse radius

of gyration (k):

TR =

2k

g GM

where:

=

=

=

GM =

g =

TR

k

1-34

transverse radius of gyration of the ship mass, [length]

0.4 to 0.5 times the beam, depending on depth and transverse weight distribution

transverse metacentric height, [length]

acceleration due to gravity, [length/sec2]

S0300-A8-HBK-010

If GM and k are expressed in feet, and g is taken as 32.174 ft/sec2, the rolling period formula reduces to:

TR =

1.108 k

GM

and:

2

k

GM = 1.108

TR

If the natural rolling period is known, GM can be estimated. Taking radius of gyration k as beam (B) multiplied by a coefficient (C), a

conservative estimate of GM can be made:

GM

CB

TR

The coefficient C can be taken as 0.4 to 0.5 for naval surface ships (0.44 average), 0.4 to 0.45 for submarine hulls based on bodies of revolution,

and 0.32 to 0.37 for other submarines. Ships and Marine Engines, Volume IV, The Design of Merchant Ships (Schokker et al, 1953) gives some

experimentally derived values for commercial vessels: 0.425 for large cargo and passenger liners, 0.385 for smaller passenger liners, 0.390 for

a loaded passenger liner, and 0.405 for an ore ship in ballast. This same text references Laursens possibly more correct approach of expressing

radius of gyration as a function of both beam and depth:

k = C B2 + D2

where the constant C ranges from 0.35 to 0.39 for cargo ships of ordinary form.

The rolling period formula will not give an accurate estimate of GM for a ship rolling in a seaway because the rolling period is modified by

wave and wind forces. Significant changes in GM will be reflected by marked changes in rolling period; increased rolling period is a sign of

deteriorating stability. An empirically derived relationship holds that stability is adequate when:

TR 2 B

where:

B = beam, ft

1-5.5 Righting Arm. At equilibrium, the forces of gravity and buoyancy act equally in opposition along the vertical centerline. As the center

of buoyancy shifts with a heel, the two opposing forces act along separate and parallel lines. The forces establish the couple which tends to

return a stable ship to the upright position. The distance GZ between the lines of action of the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy,

as shown in Figure 1-16, is the righting arm. The sine of the angle of inclination () is the ratio of GZ to GM.

sin =

GZ

GM

GZ = GM sin

This relationship applies for heel angles so small that the waterplane shape is not appreciably changed, usually taken as less than 10 degrees

for wall-sided ships and 7 degrees for fine-lined ships. At greater angles of heel, the metacenter moves away from the centerline and the

relationship between GZ and GM no longer applies.

1-5.6 Righting Moment. The force applied to a righting arm (GZ) is the ships weight. The righting moment (RM) developed at any angle

of heel is given by:

RM = W GZ

At any angle of heel, the stability of the ship is measured by the righting moment developed. Since the righting moment is equal to the righting

arm times displacement and displacement normally remains constant as the ship heels, the righting arm may also be used to measure stability

for a given condition of loading. This assumption lends itself to the use of the cross curves of stability as discussed in Paragraph 1-5.9.

1-35

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-5.7 Change of Displacement. Any change of displacement will affect the righting moments developed by the ship. An increased

displacement increases W in the expression RM = W GZ, but also affects GZ by:

The height of the metacenter is normally reduced as displacement increases because the increase in KB is usually less than the reduction in BM.

The opposite effects will be noted when displacement is decreased. Additionally, the location of the added weight will affect the location of

the center of gravity and therefore GM and GZ. These effects are simultaneous but not normally compensatory. The net effect of a change

in displacement may be either an increase or a decrease in righting moments. In general, the addition of low weight or removal of high weight

will increase stability, but each change of displacement must be carefully analyzed to determine its exact effect.

1-5.8 List. List, a long-term inclination of

the ship to one side or the other, is caused

by:

DD

CV

ARS

AOR

LCC

RO/RO

Offcenter weight.

Negative GM.

6

5

4

3

A combination of offcenter

weight and negative GM.

2

1

identified by the ships tendency to return

to its listing condition when an external

force is applied temporarily and then

removed. A list caused by negative GM is

identified by the ships tendency to loll, or

list to either side with equal facility, when

disturbed. A list caused by a combination

of offcenter weight and negative GM is

identified by the ships tendency to list with

equal facility to either side, but with a

greater degree of list to one side. Negative

GM is the most serious condition that

causes a list and should be corrected first.

Paragraph 1-9.4 discusses the effects of

negative GM in greater detail.

ship, the cause must be determined.

Inappropriate corrective measures will only

aggravate the situation.

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

arm GZ is the distance between the lines of

1

action of buoyancy and gravity at any

0

angle of heel. Since the expression GZ =

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

GM sin cannot be used at larger angles of

INCLINATION, DEGREES

heel, the righting arm for a given heel

angle is determined by accurately locating

Figure 1-18. Typical Stability Curves.

the centers of gravity and buoyancy, and

measuring the separation between their

lines of action. If movable weights within the ship can be neglected, the center of gravity can be assumed to be fixed. As the ship heels, the

center of buoyancy will move to the new center of the underwater volume, which can be determined by numerical integration or graphical means.

As a ship heels, it also changes its trim to some extent to maintain constant displacement. This small change in trim can usually be disregarded

when calculating righting arms. Centers of buoyancy for various inclinations, and the resulting righting arms are determined by numerical

integration. These computations can be shortened somewhat by the methods described in Paragraph 1-5.11. A plot of righting arm against heel

angle is variously called a curve of statical stability, stability curve, righting arm curve, or GZ curve. Figure 1-18 shows typical stability curves

for various ship types.

1-36

S0300-A8-HBK-010

ships displacement is variable, the

designers prepare stability curves for a

range of displacements. It is customary to

plot righting arm values against

displacement for each of a number of

angles of inclination to create a group of

curves known as cross curves of stability.

By entering the cross curves with the

displacement of the ship and reading the

righting arms for each angle of heel, a

stability curve for any displacement can be

developed. Since height of the center of

gravity varies with loading, an assumed

position of the center of gravity was used

by the designer to develop the cross curves

of stability. Once the stability curve has

been corrected for the true location of the

center of gravity, the following stability

data can be obtained:

CENTER OF GRAVITY ASSUMED 19.00 ABOVE

BOTTOM OF KEEL AMIDSHIPS

3

45

60

70

2

30

20

1

10

3,000

4,000

Range of stability.

Figure 1-19. FFG-7 Class Cross Curves of Stability.

any angle of inclination.

Maximum righting arm and

moment.

Metacentric height.

Angle of deck edge immersion.

Class cross curves of stability from Figure

1-19 to develop the initial and corrected

stability curves. Figure 1-20 is the stability

curve as taken from the cross curves for a

displacement of 3,200 tons.

KG ASSUMED AT 19

DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS

RIGHTING ARMS IN FEET

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

DEGREES OF INCLINATION

RANGE OF STABILITY

1-37

S0300-A8-HBK-010

actual center of gravity lies above the

assumed center of gravity, the metacentric

height is decreased and the ship is less

stable; conversely, if the actual center of

gravity is below the assumed center, the

metacentric height is increased and the ship

is more stable.

G1 Z1 = GZ - G G1SIN0

G2 Z2 = GZ + G G2SIN0

0

Z1

Z

arm, GnZn is equal to the assumed righting

arm plus or minus the vertical distance

between the actual and assumed KG,

multiplied by the sine of the angle of heel:

W1

Z2

stabilitythe range of inclinations through

The new stability curve is again the difference between the two curves.which the

ship develops positive righting armsis indicated by the intersections of the stability

curve with the horizontal axis. For the

corrected stability curve in Figure 1-22, the

range of stability is from 0 to 75 degrees.

0

L

L1

CL

GG1sin = 2sin

2

DUE TO RISE IN G

10

20

30

40

50

60

DEGREES OF INCLINATION

70

80

90

5

KG = 21

DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS

RIGHTING ARMS - FEET

height. It is a common practice, especially

with European designers, to develop cross

curves based on an assumed pole height of

zero. Since the assumed position of the

center of gravity coincides with the keel,

the resulting cross curves are termed KN

curves.

G

G2

be constructed graphically as a sine curve

correction.

is less than the assumed height, the

correction curve is plotted below the

horizontal axis.

scale as the curve of statical stability as

shown in Figure 1-22. The ordinates of the

corrected curve are the differences between

the ordinates of the two curves and can be

picked off and plotted using dividers, as

shown, or determined by tabular

calculation.

G1

1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

DEGREES OF INCLINATION

RANGE OF STABILITY

Figure 1-22. Correction to Stability Curve, G Two Feet Higher Than Assumed.

1-38

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-5.9.4 Righting Arm and Righting Moment. The righting arm at any inclination is read directly from the curve. Because each stability curve

applies only to a specific displacement and KG, the righting moment can be obtained directly for any angle by multiplying the righting arm by

the displacement. Maximum righting arm, maximum righting moment, and angle of maximum righting moment can be determined by inspection

of the stability curve. From the corrected stability curve in Figure 1-22, maximum righting arm is approximately 1.1 feet at 51 degrees of

inclination, giving a maximum righting moment of 3,520 foot-tons (1.1 ft 3,200 tons). Maximum righting arm and the angle at which it occurs

are important parameters when an upsetting moment is applied gradually or statically. Once the upsetting moment exceeds the maximum righting

moment, the ship will list past the angle of maximum righting arm. If the upsetting moment is not immediately removed, the ship will capsize,

because as the ship heels to progressively greater angles, righting moment, already less than the upsetting moment, will steadily decrease. However, ships can, and do, safely roll past their angle of maximum righting arm in response to short-term or cyclic upsetting forces.

1-5.9.5 Metacentric Height. GM is the measure of the slope of the GZ curve at the origin. The metacentric height is equal to the height of

the intersection of a tangent to the statical stability curve at the origin with a perpendicular to the horizontal axis at 57.3 degrees (one radian).

Although metacentric height can be approximated from a stability curve by this means, it is more common that GM is known and the intercept

is sketched to help draw the initial part of the stability curve. The corrected stability curve in Figure 1-22 indicates a GM of approximately

1.2 feet.

1-5.9.6 Angle of Deck Edge Immersion. For most hull forms, an inflection point in the curve corresponds roughly to the angle of deck edge

immersion. This point is not necessarily at or near the angle of maximum righting arm. The inflection results from the abrupt change in the

shapes of the waterplane and underwater volume as the deck edge is immersed. The rate of increase in righting arm has changed from positive

to negativei.e., righting arms are still increasing, but at a slower rate. The angle of deck edge immersion varies along the length of the ship,

but lies within a relatively narrow range for the large midbody sections that have the greatest influence on the stability curve. The stability curve

in Figure 1-22 shows the angle of deck edge immersion to be about 38 degrees.

1-5.9.7 Righting Energy. The area under

the stability curve, (foot-degrees, meterradians), is a measure of the ships dynamic

stabilityits ability to absorb energy

imparted by winds, waves or other external

forces.

A ship with very little area

(righting energy) under its stability curve

could be rolled past its range of stability

and capsized by even a momentary

disturbance.

1-5.10 Effects of Hull Form on the

Stability Curve. While initial stability

(righting arms at small angles of heel)

depends almost entirely on metacentric

height, the overall shape of the stability

curve is governed by hull form. Figure 123 shows how changing hull form increases

or decreases righting arm by altering the

position and movement of the center of

buoyancy.

Figure 1-24 (Page 1-40)

illustrates how altering hull form affects the

stability curve as described in the following

paragraphs.

INCREASED BEAM

INCREASED DEPTH

FINING THE BILGES

1-5.10.1 Beam. Of all the hull dimensions

that can be varied by the designer, beam

LOCAL INCREASE IN IMMERSED VOLUME

has the greatest influence on transverse

stability. Metacentric radius (BM) was

LOCAL LOSS IN IMMERSED VOLUME

shown to be proportional to the ratio B2/T

in Paragraph 1-5.4.3. BM, and therefore

Figure 1-23. Effects of Changing Hull Form.

KM, will increase if beam is increased

while draft is held constant. If freeboard is

held constant while beam is increased, the angle of deck edge immersion is decreased; righting arms at larger angles and the range of stability

are reduced. If the depth remains constant, overall stability will be reduced because KB decreases, increasing BG, although this will be offset

at small angles by the increase in BM.

1-39

S0300-A8-HBK-010

proportionally to displacement, with beam

and draft held constant, KB and BM are

unchanged. In practice, increasing length

usually causes an increase in KG, reducing

initial stability. If length is increased at the

expense of beam, righting arms are reduced

over the full range of stability. If length is

increased at the expense of draft, righting

arms will be increased at small angles, but

decreased at large angles.

1-5.10.3 Freeboard. Increasing freeboard

increases the angle of deck edge

immersion, increasing righting arms at

larger angles and extending the range of

stability.

If draft is held constant,

increasing freeboard causes a rise in the

center of gravity, mitigating the benefits of

increased freeboard to some extent.

1-5.10.4

Draft.

Reduced draft

proportional to reduced displacement

increases initial righting arms and the angle

of deck edge immersion but decreases

righting arms at large angles.

INCREASED BEAM

INCREASED LENGTH

DECREASED DRAFT

INCREASED FREEBOARD

REFERENCE

STABILITY CURVE

INCREASED LENGTH

DECREASED BEAM

REFERENCE

STABILITY CURVE

FLARE

INCREASED

DISPLACEMENT

EXTREME TUMBLEHOME

AND/OR DEADRISE

FROM STABILITY AND TRIM OF FISHING VESSELS, J. ANTHONY HIND, 1982.

and draft are held constant, displacement

can be increased only by making the ship

fuller. The filling out of the waterline will

usually compensate for the increased

volume of displacement, and BM, as a

function of I/, will increase. Height of

the center of gravity will also be decreased

by filling out the ships form below the

waterline. These changes will enhance

stability at all angles.

1

S

1-5.10.6 Side and Bottom Profile. As

M

can be seen in Figures 1-13 and 1-25, the

L

W

caused by inclining a wall-sided ship can

Z

G

W1

be calculated by simple geometry. The

stability curve develops good early righting

B1

B

arms and range of stability. Extreme deadGZ = MS+GMsin

rise (fining the bilges) or tumblehome in

the vicinity of the inclined waterline reCL

duces the increase in waterplane area and

outward shift of the center of buoyancy, resulting in a shallow stability curve. Ships

Figure 1-25. Residuary Righting Arm.

with flaring sides develop large righting

arms because of the rapid increase in waterplane area and large shift of the center of buoyancy as the ship is inclined. A round-bottomed ship with vertical sides beginning somewhat above

the water line, such as a tug or icebreaker, will roll easily to small angles of inclination but develop strong righting moments at large angles.

In the same way, flare or watertight sponsons some distance above the water line will have no effect on initial stability, but will cause a sharp

upward turn in the stability curve at larger angles of heel.

1-40

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-5.11 Prohaskas Method. As shown in Figure 1-25, the righting arm at large heel angles can be thought of as consisting of two parts:

GZ = MS + GMsin

The distance from the upright metacenter to the line of action of buoyancy (MS) is called the residuary stability lever. The GMsin term depends

principally on KG, while MS is essentially a function of hull form. For inclinations up to about 30 degrees in merchant hulls of ordinary beam

to draft ratio, MS can be approximated as:

MS =

BM 2

tan sin

2

where:

BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship

A more accurate approach is to define a residuary stability coefficient (CRS):

CRS =

MS

BM

where :

BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship, [length]

GZ can now be defined in terms of GM, BM, and CRS:

GZ = (BM)CRS + GMsin

Using this basic approach, a regression analysis was performed using data from 31 warship hulls to obtain expressions for CRS in terms of other

hull parameters. The following expressions give reasonable estimates for CRS at 30 degrees of heel for fine-lined ships:

CRS = 0.8566

1.2262

KB

T

CRS = 0.1859

0.0315

B

T

KB

= 0.8109

T

0.2536 CM

0.035

B

T

0.03526 CM

where:

KB

T

B

CM

=

=

=

=

mean draft, ft

beam, ft

midships section coefficient

1-41

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Longitudinal stability is the measure of a ships ability to resist rotation about a transverse axis and to return to its original position.

Longitudinal stability is particularly important when refloating stranded ships. The effects of weight shifts, additions, and removal may not be

apparent since a grounded ship is restrained from responding as a floating ship would. The effects must be calculated to ensure that the salvor

can accurately predict trim and longitudinal stability of the vessel when afloat.

1-6.1 Trim. Because the angles of inclination about transverse axes are quite small compared to typical angles of heel about a longitudinal

axis, trim is defined as the difference between the forward and after drafts:

t = Taft

Tfwd

where:

t = trim

Regardless of the difference between forward and after drafts, if a ships waterline is parallel to the design waterline, it has zero trim. Most

ships are designed with equal forward and after drafts. Some ships are designed with a deeper draft aft, called keel drag, to keep the propellers

adequately submerged in all operating conditions, or with a slightly deeper forward draft. Drag or other designed differences in fore and aft

draft should not be confused with trim. For ships with drag, trim is defined as:

t =

Taft

Tfwd

drag

Trim greater than one percent of the ships length is usually considered excessive. Excessive trim significantly alters the shape of the underwater

volume and can adversely affect transverse stability.

1-6.2 Longitudinal Stability Parameters. The longitudinal positions of centers of buoyancy, gravity, and flotation and their movements

influence the longitudinal stability characteristics of a ship. The height of the longitudinal metacenter, similar in concept to the transverse

metacenter, is the other major parameter of longitudinal stability.

1-6.2.1 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Gravity. The longitudinal position of the center of gravity (LCG) is determined by summing

weight moments about a vertical transverse reference plane, normally through one of the perpendiculars or the midship section.

1-6.2.2 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Buoyancy. The

longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is the longitudinal location of the centroid of the underwater hull. For most hull

forms, LCB lies near the midships section. For low-speed, full-bodied

cargo vessels, the optimum position of the center of buoyancy (from a

hull resistance standpoint) is about 0.02LWL forward of midships. As

speed increases, the optimum position moves aft. At a speed-to-length

ratio (Vk/

L) of 1.0 the optimum position is 1 to 2 percent of LWL aft

L = 2. Table

of midships and about 4 percent aft of midships for Vk/

1-6 gives approximate ranges for the longitudinal position of the center

of buoyancy as a function of the block coefficient.

CB

buoyancy lie on the same vertical line. LCB and LCG are therefore the

same distance from the midship section in a ship floating on an even

keel. In a ship with trim, there is a small difference in the distances of

B and G from midships due to their vertical separation, but this

difference is so small that it can usually be ignored.

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

From Ships and Marine Engines, Volume IV, Design of Merchant Ships,

Schokker et al, 1953

1-6.2.3 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Flotation (LCF). The center of flotation is the geometric center of the ships waterplane.

The ship trims about a transverse axis through the LCF. The location of the center of flotation is required to calculate final drafts after a change

in trim. This can be calculated if the shape of the waterplane is known. In ships of normal form, the center of flotation may lie either slightly

forward or slightly aft of midships. The center of flotation of fine-lined ships is usually about five percent of the ships length aft of midships.

A broad transom increases the relative proportion of waterplane area aft of midships and will tend to shift LCF aft. If unknown, the center of

flotation can be assumed to be amidships without introducing significant error to most salvage calculations.

1-6.2.4 Longitudinal Metacenter. The longitudinal positions of the centers of buoyancy and gravity are simply projections of these centers

onto the vertical centerplane. The longitudinal metacenter, in contrast, is a point distinct from its transverse counterpart. Its height is an

indication of the ships ability to resist trimming forces.

Longitudinal Metacentric Radius. The longitudinal metacentric radius (BML) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the

longitudinal metacenter. The longitudinal metacentric radius is calculated by:

BML =

1-42

IL

S0300-A8-HBK-010

If the waterplane shape is defined by ordinate stations, the moment of inertia can be determined numerically. If not, the longitudinal moment

of inertia of most ships waterplanes can be approximated by:

IL B L 3 CIL

where CIL = tegression analysis derived longitudinal inertia coefficient, approximated by 0.143CWP - 0.0659. For a rectangular barge, IL =

B(L3)/12; the value of CIL for a rectangular waterplane (the limiting value) is 1/12 or 0.0833.

Because the longitudinal moment of inertia is proportional to the cube of the ships length rather than beam, the longitudinal moment of inertia

and longitudinal metacentric radius are much greater than their transverse counterparts.

Height of the Longitudinal Metacenter. The height of the longitudinal metacenter (KML) is given by:

KML = KB + BML

Longitudinal Metacentric Height. The longitudinal metacentric height (GML) is the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal

metacenter.

GML = KML - KG

= KB + BML - KG

1-6.3 Trimming Arms and Moments. If

the center of gravity is displaced from its

longitudinal position in vertical line with

the center of buoyancy, as shown in Figure

1-26, a trimming moment (MT) equal to

GG1(W) tends to rotate the ship about a

transverse axis through the center of flotation. As the ship inclines, the shape of

the underwater volume changes and the

center of buoyancy moves until it is again

in line with the center of gravity. Simultaneously, the projection of the position of

the center of gravity onto a horizontal plane

moves towards the high end of the ship.

For small trim angles, the horizontal translation of the position of the center of

gravity can be neglected. The trim resulting from a known trimming moment could

be determined precisely by iterative

numerical integration, but this would be a

tedious process.

Simple methods to

estimate trim with reasonable accuracy are

described in the following paragraphs.

A ship trims about an axis through its

center of flotation because LCF lies at the

centroid of the waterplane. The moments

of volumes of the wedges immersed and

emerged as the ship trims are equal,

although the volumes are not. Because the

volumes are not equal, the ships will settle

or rise slightly as it trims to maintain

constant displacment. LCF also shifts

slifhtly as the ship trims and changes draft.

LCF

G1

W

LCF

L1

G1

W1

B1

ML

MT

W

W1

LCF

G

B

ZL

B1

L1

L

1-6.4 Moment to Change Trim One Inch (MT1). A trimming moment applied to the ship in Figure 1-27 causes a longitudinal inclination

or trim angle, . The immersion and emergence of the two wedges of buoyancy causes the center of buoyancy to move forward a distance BB1.

A longitudinal righting arm GZL develops. Because the small vertical separation between B and G is much less than the longitudinal metacentric

height, GZL and BB1 are approximately equal. The moment arm GZL can be related to the longitudinal metacentric height as in transverse

inclinations:

GZL

sin =

, GZL = GML sin Mt = W GML sin

GML

where:

GZL =

GML

= longitudinal metacentric height, [length]

W = ships weight, [force]

1-43

S0300-A8-HBK-010

By similarity of triangles:

sin =

t

L

where:

t

L

=

=

length between perpendiculars, [length]

Mt =

W (GML )

12 L

where:

GML

Mt

W

L

=

=

=

=

trimming moment, ft-tons

ships weight, lton

length between perpendiculars, ft

This moment is called the moment to change trim one inch (MT1); in metric units, a moment to trim one centimeter (MTCM) is similarly defined.

MT1 is useful for evaluating the effect of trimming moments so long as the change in trim is not great enough to change the waterplane area

or shape appreciably:

Mt

t =

MT1

If longitudinal metacentric height (GML) is unknown, MT1 can be closely approximated by using metacentric radius (BML), since the difference

between GML and BML is small a percentage of their values:

IL

(BML ) W

IL

35

=

(seawater)

MT1

=

12 L

420 L

12 L

This value is known as the approximate moment to trim one inch. MT1 can also be approximated less accurately by an empirical relationship:

MT l =

30 (TPI)2

B

where:

TPI =

B =

ships beam, ft

1-6.5 Drafts After a Change in Trim. As a ship trims about the center of flotation, the change in draft at the bow is proportional to the ratio

of the distance between the forward perpendicular and the center of flotation to the length of the ship:

Tf =

t df

L

New Tf = Tf Tf

Likewise, the change in draft aft:

Ta =

tda

L

New Ta = Ta Ta

where:

Tf

t

df

L

Ta

da

=

=

=

=

=

=

change of trim

distance from forward perpendicular to LCF

length between perpendiculars

change in draft aft

distance from after perpendicular to LCF

and distance, draft, trim, and length are measured in like units.

1-44

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-6.6 Movement of LCB and LCG with Change of Trim. As discussed in Paragraph 1-5.3, movements of LCB and LCG accompany changes

of trim. From Figures 1-26 and 1-27:

BB1

GG1

t

=

= tan =

BML

GML

l

BB1 =

BML t

L

and

GG1 =

GML t

L

where:

BML

GML

t

L

=

=

=

=

=

longitudinal metacentric height

change of trim

length between perpendiculars

trim angle

The shift of LCG or LCB with a change in trim can be closely approximated by:

t (MT1)

BB1 or GG1 =

W

where:

t

MT1

W

=

=

=

moment to trim one inch, lton/in.

ships weight, lton

The hull characteristics of a ship are determined and tabulated when the ship is designed and verified following construction. This information

is contained in a number of different documents, described in detail in Appendix B. The two most useful documents are the previously discussed

cross curves of stability and curves of form. In the absence of detailed stability information or the precise mapping of the hull form necessary

to develop hydrostatic characteristics by numerical integration, hull characteristics must be estimated. Methods of estimating some of the

required parameters have been presented in the previous sections. When information is extremely limited, an analytical method, based on a

parametric hull model, can be employed. This method has been shown to yield results within 10 percent of rigorously determined values for

most ship forms. The parametric method has its inception in a regression analysis of 31 commercial hull types published by Joseph D. Porricelli,

J. Huntly Boyd, Jr., and Keith E. Schleiffer in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, Vol.91, pp. 307-327, August

1983. Many of the relationships were subsequently refined though further regression analysis by Herbert Engineering Corporation as part of

the NAVSEA Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE) development work in 1990 (use of POSSE is detailed in Volume 2 of the Salvage

Engineers Handbook). At the same time, relationships for stability parameters and weight distributions applicable to warships and other finelined ships were developed. The parametric factors for warships and naval auxiliaries were derived from analysis of U.S. Navy hulls and may

not apply precisely to ships of other navies. This is particularly true of amphibious warfare ships and fleet replenishment auxiliaries. U.S. Navy

amphibious warfare ships and replenishment auxiliaries are designed for a 20-knot service speed and are correspondingly finer than slower

auxiliaries and bow-door LSTs with typical speeds in the 10- to 16-knot range.

1-7.1 Parametric Model. The method creates a baseline parametric model of the hull, consisting of the following parameters for the full-load

condition:

Coefficients of form, CB, CWP, CP, CM

Displacement and weight, D, W

Height of the center of buoyancy, KB

Height of the Metacenter, KM

Height of the Center of Gravity, KG

Metacentric radius, BM

Metacentric Height, GM

Tons per Inch Immersion, TPI

Moment to Trim One Inch, MT1

Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy, LCB

Longitudinal position of the center of flotation, LCF

Longitudinal position of the center of gravity, LCG

Parameters for other conditions are extrapolated from the baseline, or full-load model.

1-45

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Length between perpendiculars, L

Breadth, B

Depth, D

Maximum summer draft amidships, T

Design sea speed at normal service draft, Vk

This information is available from sources such as the ABS Record, Janes Shipping Registry, Lloyds Register of Shipping, etc., or may be

compiled from other sources, including the ships crew or agents.

1-7.1.2 Displacement and Coefficients of Form. To determine the necessary hydrostatic characteristics of a ship, the coefficients of form

are first estimated, starting with the block coefficient:

V

CB = f1 1.10736 0.550401 k

L

where:

Vk

L

f1

=

=

=

length between perpendiculars, ft

1.61 for destroyer type hulls (including cruisers based on destroyer hulls, such as CG-16, CG-26, CG-47, etc.)

1.41 for frigates

1.28 for cruisers

1.08 for bulk carriers

1.06 for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carriers

1.04 for liquid natural gas (LNG) carriers

1.03 for ore-bulk-oil (OBO) carriers

1.03 for lumber ships

1.025 for product tankers/chemical carriers

1.01 for crude carriers

1.00 for breakbulk freighters and most barges with rake*

0.98 for cargo liners (16-18 kts)

0.97 for container ships

0.96 for Navy replenishment oilers (Vk 20 kts, AO/AOE/AOR)

0.95 for RO/RO ships

0.93 for Navy replenishment vessels other than oilers (Vk 20 kts, AE/AFS)

0.91 for amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD/LPH/LKA/LST)

0.89 for barge carriers, Navy repair ships/tenders (AR/AD/AS)

In the context of the following discussions, the phrase "barges with rake" refers to ocean going barges with raked, ship-shaped or

spoon-shaped bows, and cut-up sterns, usually with skegs. It does not apply to box-shaped lighters or to barges designed for harbor

use with identical flat rake at bow and stern.

Waterplane coefficient:

CWP = k1 0.702 CB

where:

k1

0.360

0.325

0.336

0.339

0.387

0.370

0.316

0.306

for

for

for

for

for

for

for

for

container ships

RO/RO ships

naval repair ships/tenders

destroyers, frigates, and cruisers

well deck type amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD)

Navy replenshishment ships and fast LKA, LST (20 kts)

other merchant ship types and slow-speed naval auxiliaries

CP = 0.917 CB + k2

where:

k2

1-46

0.075 for barges with rake

0.147 for destroyers, frigates, and cruisers

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Midships coefficient:

CB

CM =

CP

With an estimate for block coefficient, displacement volume and displacement can be estimated:

= L B T CB

L B T CB

= W

where:

=

D =

=

W =

full-load displacement

ships weight at full load

1-7.1.3 Heights of Centers. Height of the center of buoyancy (KB) is estimated by a form of Posdunines formula:

KB =

CWP

CB + CWP

where:

CWP =

CB

waterplane coefficient

= block coefficient

mean draft

Metacentric radius is equal to the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane (IT) divided by the displacement volume ():

IT

BM =

IT = L B 3 CIT

where CIT is the transverse inertia coefficient and is a function of waterplane shape. CIT is determined from the waterplane coefficient (CWP):

CIT = 0.125 CWP

0.045

for ships

= 0.125 CWP

0.043

Transverse metacentric height for the full-load departure condition (corrected for free surface) is correlated to beam, or beam to depth ratio,

depending on ship type:

B

for cargo liners and container ships

GM = 2.816 - 1.88

D

B

= 15.86 - 19.62

D

B

= 0.714 + 2.2

D

= f2 B

B2

T

= f3 +

- 0.53 D

12 T

for barges

where:

f2

0.065 for bulk carriers

0.075 for OBO carriers

f3

=

=

1.00 for barges without rake

1-47

S0300-A8-HBK-010

From the estimates for KB, BM, and GM, KM and KG can be estimated:

KM = KB + BM

KG = KM - GM

Since the estimate for KG is based on the parameterized GM estimate, the value returned is the virtual, or effective KG (corrected for free

surface).

GM does not parameterize well for U.S. Navy hulls because Navy stability standards (described in Appendix C) do not include minimum GM

requirements. Uncorrected full-load KG does parameterize well, as a function of depth:

KG = f4D

(Navy hulls)

where:

f4

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.55

0.61

0.63

0.72

0.62

0.50

for

for

for

for

for

for

frigates

amphibious warfare ships without well decks

amphibious warfare ships with well decks (LSD/LPD)

fleet replenishment auxiliaries

repair ships/tenders

For Navy hulls, GM (uncorrected for free surface) is calculated from the estimates for KB and KG. The parametric factors were derived from

an analysis of U.S. Navy hulls and may not apply precisely to ships of other navies.

1-7.1.4 Tons Per Inch Immersion. TPI is calculated directly, using the estimated waterplane coefficient to estimate waterplane area:

L B CWP

TPI =

420

where L and B are measured in feet.

1-7.1.5 Moment to Trim One Inch. A value for MT1 is found using estimates for longitudinal metacentric height or radius:

MT 1 =

GML W

12 L

BML W

12 L

BML =

IL

IL

35 W

IL

MT1 =

420 L

The longitudinal moment of inertia, IL, of a ship-shaped waterplane can be expressed as:

IL = B L 3 CIL

where the longitudinal inertia coefficient, CIL, is given by:

CIL = 0.143 CWP - k3

where:

k3

1-48

0.0659

0.0664

0.0643

0.0634

for

for

for

for

replenishment auxiliaries

amphibious warfare ships

destroyers, frigates, and cruisers

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-7.1.6 Longitudinal Positions of Centers. The distance from the forward perpendicular to LCF, LCB, and LCG can be estimated as follows.

LCF is estimated as a function of speed (Vk) and length (L):

V

LCF = 0.5L k + 0.914

160

V

= 0.485 L k

100

V

= 0.5 k

135

for tankers

0.9

0.924

0.95

= 0.5 L

Vk

1.03

V

= L 0.5 k

135

0.924

V

= 0.5 L k

135

0.23

0.95

LCB at full load and zero trim is approximated as a function of length (L) and prismatic coefficient (CP):

LCB = L 0.5 - 0.175CP - k4

where:

k4

0.125

0.111

0.117

0.126

0.146

for

for

for

for

for

replenishment auxiliaries

amphibious warfare ships

destroyers, frigates, and cruisers

barges with rake

To estimate the longitudinal position of the center of gravity, trim must be known or estimated. If unknown, trim can be estimated from similar

ships as a percentage of length. Multiplying trim (t) in inches by MT1 gives the trimming moment Mt:

MT 1 (t) = Mt

Trimming moment divided by weight (W) gives the trim arm or lever (GZL):

Mt

= GZL

W

Since the trim arm is the horizontal separation between LCB and LCG prior to trimming:

LCB GZL = LCG

Upon trimming, LCB will relocate to a position in vertical line with LCG. LCG can be assumed to be directly above the estimated LCB for

a ship with zero trim at normal full-load departure condition.

1-7.2 Changes. The values calculated are for the full-load departure conditions, and must be corrected for other conditions. Floating or grounded

drafts can be observed on site. New floating displacement, drafts and location of center of gravity are determined by evaluating the effects of all

weight changes from the normal full-load departure condition. Hydrostatic properties are assumed to vary linearly with draft according to:

TPI2 = TPI1

TPI1 0.0075 T1 - T2

MT12 = MT11

MT11 0.025 T1 - T2

LCB2 = LCB1

LCB1 0.002 T1 - T2

LCF2 = LCF1

LCF1 0.004 T1 - T2

Where the subscript 1 denotes the full-load condition and the subscript 2 the new condition. The drafts T1 and T2 are taken at the LCF for each

condition.

1-49

S0300-A8-HBK-010

forward perpendicular. These relationships

apply only so long as the change in draft or

trim does not cause a significant change in

the shape of the underwater hull form. KM

does not vary significantly with draft until

draft is dramatically decreased, to

approximately two-thirds full-load draft,

after which it increases.

Vk

CB

T B

CWP

KB CT

1-7.3 Calculation Hierarchy. Only CB,

GM (or KG), and LCF are calculated

directly from the basic input data (L, B, T,

D, Vk). Because other parameters are

successively calculated from previously

calculated parameters, basic data, and

empirically derived factors, there is a

hierarchy of accuracy among the calculated

parameters. This hierarchy is shown in the

two panels of Figure 1-28. Two panels are

used to reduce the complexity of the

diagram. The basic input parameters are

listed across the top of each of the two

panels.

B L

GM

TPI

IT

BM

KM

KG

B T L

described in this paragraph was developed

through regression analysis of typical,

conventional hull forms. The less typical a

particular hull, compared to ships of the

same type, the greater the error introduced

by use of the relationships given.

As this method is based primarily on

analysis of the speed-to-length ratio, errors

will be larger for an underpowered

hullfor example, a hull designed for 20

knots but actually powered for only 16

knots.

W,

CB

CM

LCB

LCG

GZL MT

Vk

MTI

CP

TPI

BML

LCF

CWP

IL

KB

IT

BM

KM

KG

Because of the interdependence among various parameters, changing any parameter (except LCF) creates a ripple effect that necessitates

recalculation of other parameters. Mixing bits of actual data with data calculated by the analytical method in a set of salvage calculations

without recalculating lower precedence parameters tends to give poorer results than complete sets of either calculated or actual data. Specifically,

hydrostatic properties and coefficients of form must be compatible.

Within the framework of these limitations, the parametric method yields results sufficiently accurate for salvage work, and provides a means

to evaluate a casualtys condition when only limited information is available.

1-7.5 Applications to Salvage Calculations. The nature of the relationships in the analytical method dictates the methodology of their use.

From the input data, the method calculates parameters and creates a baseline ship model in the full-load condition. From the base condition,

parameters at other conditions are calculated by one of two approaches.

1-50

The new condition is defined by drafts (for example, drafts on departure from last port). Change in block coefficient is calculated

first. With the new block coefficient, mean draft and trim, a new set of parameters is calculated. The difference between old and

new displacements gives the required weight change between the full-load and new condition. If the change in draft results from

stranding, the difference between old and new displacements is the ground reaction. This approach can also be used to determine

the amount and LCG of weight that must be added or removed to reach a desired draft and trim.

The new condition is defined by change in weight (consumption of fuel and consumables, flooding, cargo discharge, etc.). The

sum of weight change and old displacement gives the new displacement. Change in draft is calculated from the total weight

change and TPI. For large weight changes, the change in draft is calculated incrementally, recalculating TPI for each intermediate

draft. Shift of LCG is calculated by moment balance. A new block coefficient is calculated from the new displacement and mean

draft. With the new block coefficient and mean draft, a new set of parameters is calculated as for the full-load condition, except

that the new LCB is calculated from the new LCG.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The salvage engineer must fully appreciate the relationship between weight and ship stability. The addition and removal of weight is the most

common evolution affecting a ships stability and can be the result of onloading and offloading cargo and equipment, refueling, consuming stores

or fuel, ballasting, etc. Weight additions and removals have three effects:

changes and changes in the hull

characteristics. The change in the

transverse metacentric radius is

particularly important because of its

potential effect on stability. Both

weight additions and removals may

change the moment of inertia of the

waterplane. Weight additions will

increase and weight removals will

decrease displacement volume. Table

1-7 illustrates the general effect of

weight changes on an intact ship. To

evaluate a weight change, it is

simplest to assume that the weight is

added or removed at the center of

gravity (G) for the purpose of

calculating the effect on mean draft,

and then moved to its final location

in a series of steps to account for the

effects of its vertical, transverse, and

longitudinal moments.

STABILITY

CENTER OF

GRAVITY

CENTER OF

BUOYANCY

METACENTER*

Weight shift up

Weight shift down

Weight shift transverse

Decrease

Increase

Decrease

Up

Down

Port/Starboard

No change

No change

To low side

No change

No change

No change

Weight added at G

Weight added above G

Weight added below G

Decrease

Decrease

Increase

No change

Up

Down

Up

Up

Up

Down

Down

Down

Weight removed at G

Weight removed above G

Weight removed below G

Increase

Increase

Decrease

No change

Down

Up

ACTION

Down

Down

Down

Up

Up

Up

waterplane shape and area do not change appreciably for moderate changes of draft and

displacement. As draft increases with added weight, the reduction in BM [I /] is greater than

the rise of B. Conversely, as draft and displacement decrease, the increase of BM is greater

than the lowering of B.

are moved about the ship,

displacement and mean draft remain constant; stability parameters that are functions of displacement or draft, such as height of metacenter, are

therefore unaffected. The distance the center of gravity moves when a weight is shifted is the product of the weight (w) times the distance

moved (d), divided by the total weight of the ship (W):

wd

GG1 =

W

This distance can be resolved into vertical, transverse, or longitudinal components. A single weight shift can cause any combination of

transverse, vertical, or longitudinal shifts of the center of gravity with attendant effects on longitudinal and transverse stability. Although they

occur simultaneously, each effect can be assumed to occur independently; the effects can be calculated separately as though they were occurring

sequentially. Change of KG alters GM and righting arms as discussed in Paragraph 1-5. The effects of longitudinal and transverse weight shifts

are discussed in the following paragraphs.

1-51

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Shifts. When a weight movement has a

longitudinal component, LCG shifts and the

ships weight acting through the new center

of gravity and buoyancy acting through the

old center of buoyancy form a couple, or

trimming moment, as shown in Figure 1-26.

The magnitude of the trimming moment is:

Mt = W GG1

where:

W1

W

Mt

GG1

=

=

=

ships weight

trimming moment

longitudinal distance from

the old LCG to the new

LCG

product of the weight moved (w) and the

longitudinal distance moved (d).

L1

G1

B

Mt = wd

CL

offcenter weight is to create an inclining

moment. This effect can be evaluated by

calculating the lateral movement of the

ships center of gravity off the centerline.

The magnitude of the inclining moment is:

MI = W(GG1)

where:

GG1

MI

of center of gravity,

[length]

inclining moment, [forcelength]

ships weight (including

the offcenter weight),

[force]

W1

since:

Z

Z1

wd

GG1 =

W

T

0

G1

L1

where:

d

that the weight w is moved,

[length]

CL

then:

W GG1 = wd = MI

The inclining moment will cause the ship to list to an angle where the center of buoyancy is again in vertical line with the center of gravity.

The angle of list becomes the new equilibrium position; when disturbed, the ship will roll about the angle of list. The effect of a permanent

list is to reduce the righting arms and range of stability when the ship rolls towards the list, and increase them when the ship rolls away from

the list. For small angles of inclination (less than 7 to 10 degrees), list can be found by reference to the metacentric height. From Figure 1-29,

the list due to an offcenter weight can be seen to be:

GG1

tan =

GM

1-52

wd

= tan 1

W GM

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-8.1.3 Stability Curve Correction for Offcenter Weight. Figure 1-30 shows a ship whose center of gravity has moved from G to G1. When

inclined towards G1 to some angle , the righting arm developed is not GZ, but a smaller arm, G1Z1. The reduction in righting arm (GT) is:

GT = GG1cos

As with the sine correction for actual KG, the offcenter weight correction, as a cosine curve, is plotted to the same scale as the curve of statical

stability as shown in Figure 1-31. The corrected stability curve is the difference between the two curves. The angle at which the corrected curve

crosses the horizontal axis is the angle of list caused by the offcenter weight. Extending the curve to the left of the origin shows the increased

righting arms developed on the side away from the list. In dynamic situations, the increase in righting energy on the side away from the list

does not increase stability because the ship will roll about the angle of list. If the ship is subjected to a constant upsetting force, such as a steady

beam wind, the increased righting arms provide additional stability if the ship is oriented so that the upsetting force heels the ship away from

the list, towards its strong side. The increased righting arms and energy must also be overcome if the salvage plan calls for the ship to be heeled

away from the list by external forces. It should also be remembered that if the ship is heeled towards its strong side, the area under the curve

from the point where the curve crosses the axis to the angle of heel represents stored energy. If this area is larger than the area under the

stability curve on the weak side, the ship could capsize if suddenly released.

3

COSINE

CORRECTION

CURVE FOR

OFFCENTER

WEIGHT

2

GG1 COS

WITH KG OF 21

0

LOSS IN RIGHTING ARMS DUE

TO OFFCENTER WEIGHT

1

2

3

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

80

90

ANGLE OF INCLINATION,

RANGE OF STABILITY

ROLLS TO STBD

3

2

CORRECTED

STABILITY CURVE

ANGLE OF LIST

0

RANGE OF STABILITY

ROLLS TO PORT

1

2

POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS, STBD

3

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

ANGLE OF INCLINATION,

1-8.2 Weight Additions and Removals. Weight addition or removal at the center of gravity changes displacement without introducing

trimming or inclining moments. The increase or decrease in mean draft in inches (T) is approximately equal to the weight added or removed

(w) in tons divided by the tons per inch immersion (TPI):

w

T =

TPI

1-53

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-8.2.1 Weight Changes Away From the Center of Gravity. When weights are added or removed at some distance from the center of gravity,

the center of gravity moves toward the added weight, or away from a removed weight, to a new position determined by the size and location

of the weight. The weight change can be treated as an addition (or removal) at the center of gravity, followed by a shift to the location where

the weight is added:

(Gg) (w)

GG1 =

(W1)

where:

GG1

Gg

W1

w

=

=

=

=

distance between ship and added weight centers of gravity, [length] = the distance d that the weight is "shifted"

new total weight of ship, [force] = W w

weight added (+) or removed ()

The new vertical, transverse, and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can also be calculated directly, by summing moments. Height

of the center of gravity is given by:

W (KG) w (kg)

KG1 =

W w

where:

KG1

W

KG

w

kg

=

=

=

=

=

original weight (displacement) of the ship, [force]

original height of the ships center of gravity, [length]

weight added (+) or removed (-), [force]

height of the center of gravity of the added or removed weight above the keel, [length]

New transverse and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can be determined by the same method.

A longtitudinal moment caused by weight addition or removal will not necessarily trim the ship. Most ships are not symmetrical about a

transverse axis; as a ship settles or rises, the change in buoyancy is weighted towards one end, causing LCB to shift towards the fuller end.

If the buoyancy moment generated by the shift in LCB equals the trimming moment, the ship will not trim. Conversely, a weight added directly

above or below the center of gravity may cause the ship to trim to keep the centers of buoyancy and gravity in vertical line. For any weight

addition or removal, a ship will assume the trim that brings the center of buoyancy directly under the new center of gravity. The trim resulting

from a weight change can be determined very precisely by calculating LCB for trimmed waterlines at the new displacement until a trim is found

that brings LCB under LCG. Simpler approximate methods to determine trim resulting from weight changes can be derived by determining

where weights must be added or removed from a ship to change draft without changing trim. These methods are described in the following

paragraphs, and are sufficiently accurate for virtually all situations.

1-8.2.2 Weight Changes Without Change of Trim. If a weight is to be added to a ship without changing trim, it must be added at a location

that will be in vertical line with the resultant upward force of the added buoyancy. If the rise or sinkage is parallel, the added buoyancy results

from the immersion of a layer of uniform thickness between the old and new waterplanes. The center of buoyancy of this layer is very close

to the midpoint of a line connecting the centroids (centers of flotation) of the old and new waterplanes.

For small draft changes through a ships normal range of drafts, the old and new waterplanes are very nearly the same size and shape. The line

connecting the centroids is therefore essentially vertical and the center of buoyancy of the immersed layer is in line with the centroid of the old

waterplane, or center of flotation. For moderate weight changes, causing small changes in draft, at locations other than the center of flotation,

trim can be closely approximated by:

a. Taking the distance from the added or removed weight to the LCF as the trimming arm,

b. Multiplying the trimming arm by the weight to determine trimming moment, and

c. Dividing the trimming moment by MT1 to find the resulting trim.

For larger weights whose addition or removal causes draft changes large enough to appreciably change hydrostatic functions, the trimming arm

is taken as the distance from the new LCG to the LCB at the new waterline. Since TPI varies with draft, an iterative solution is required, as

shown in Example 1-3.

1-54

S0300-A8-HBK-010

EXAMPLE 1-3

WEIGHT AND TRIM

This example calculates trim resulting from moderate (causing small changes in draft) and large weight additions at various locations on an FFG-7 Class ship.

a.

FFG-7 Class ship at the following locations:

b. Calculate the location for the center of gravity of 1,000 tons of weight to

be removed from an FFG-7 Class ship with initial drafts of 14 feet 6 inches

forward and aft without changing trim.

First estimate of new mean draft:

(2) Center of Gravity.

(3) 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular.

FFG-7 Curves of Form are given in Figure FO-2. Initial

drafts are 14 feet, 6 inches, forward and aft, LBP is 408 feet.

From the curves of form:

TPI

LCF

LCB

MT1

W

=

=

=

=

=

32

23.4 feet abaft midships

LCG

=

1.4 feet abaft midships

745 foot-tons

3,495 tons

T

Tnew

=

w/TPI = 1,000/32 = 31.25 31 inches

Told - T = 14' 6" - 31" = 11 feet 11 inches

TPIavg

T

Tnew

=

LCF at 11' 9"

=

=

=

Tnew

=

28.5

(32 + 28.5)/2 = 30.25

1,000/30.5 = 33.06 33 inches

- T = 14' 6" - 33" = 11 feet 9 inches

14 feet abaft midships

between the old and new LCF,

(23.4 + 14)

= 18.7 feet abaft midships

lcb =

2

w

100

= 3.125 inches 3 inches

=

TPI

32

= Tnew T = 14 feet 6 inches 3 inches = 14 feet 9 inches

T =

Tnew

Removing the 1,000 tons so that the center of gravity of the removed

weight is approximately 19 feet abaft midships will cause no noticeable

trim.

c. Calculate the change in trim for an FFG-7 Class ship with initial drafts of

14' 6" forward and aft if 1,000 tons are removed from the following

locations:

(1) LCF.

(2) LCG.

The change in draft is small, so adding the weight at

LCF causes no change of trim. This is verified by

observing that the LCF at the new mean draft of 14 feet

9 inches is 23.5 feet. The center of the new waterplane

(LCF) is only 0.1 foot from the center of the old

waterplane, so the center of buoyancy of the immersed

layer is essentially directly over the old LCF.

Mt

t

=

=

=

=

23.4 - 1.4 = 22 feet

w(trim arm) = 100(22) = 2,200 foot-tons

Mt / MT1 = 2,200/745 = 2.95 3

inches by the bow

50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular is 154 (204 -50)

feet forward of midships

Trim arm

Mt

t

=

=

=

Tnew

LCB at 11' 9"

MT1 at 11' 9"

MT1avg

=

=

=

=

6 feet forward of midships

565 foot-tons

(745 + 565)/2

=

655

Trim arm

100(177.4) = 17,740 foot-tons

Mt/MT1 = 17,740/745 = 23.81 23

inches by the bow

GG1

Gg

GG1

LCG1

=

=

=

=

trim arm

=

=

=

=

Mt

t

(Gg)(w)/(W + w)

23.4 -1.4 = 22 feet

(22)(1,000) / (3,495 - 1,000) = 8.8 feet forward

-1.4 feet (aft) + 8.8 feet (forward) = 7.4 feet

forward of midships

distance from new LCG to new LCB

7.4 - 6 = 1.4 feet (LCG is forward of LCB)

1,000(1.4) = 1,400 foot-tons

Mt/MT1 = 1,400/655 2 inches by the bow

GG1

LCG1

trim arm

Mt

t

=

=

=

=

=

0

1.4 feet abaft midships

6 + 1.4 = 7.4 feet (LCG is aft of LCB)

1,000(7.4) = 7,400 foot-tons

Mt / MT1 = 7,400/655 11 inches by the stern

Gg

GG1

LCG1

=

=

=

trim arm

Mt

t

=

=

=

(151.4)(1,000)/(3,495 - 1,000) = 60.7 feet aft

1.4 feet (aft) + 60.7 feet (aft) = 62.1 feet abaft

midships

62.1 + 6 = 68.1 feet (LCG is aft of LCB)

1,000(68.1) = 68,100 foot-tons

Mt/MT1 = 68,100/655 104 inches by the stern

1-55

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-8.2.3 Point of Constant Draft. When a weight is added at some point away from the LCF, the ship trims as it sinks to a new mean draft.

Drafts on the opposite side of the LCF are reduced by the effect of trim, but increased by parallel sinkage. At some point the reduction in draft

caused by trim equals the increase in draft caused by parallel sinkage:

T due to parallel sinkage = T due to change of trim

w

Tparallel sinkage =

TPI

wd1

wd1 d2

Ttrim =

t =

MT 1

MT 1 L

wd1d2

w

=

TPI

MT 1 (L)

where:

t

d1

MT1

L

TPI

d2

w

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

distance from the LCF to the added or removed weight, ft

moment to change trim one inch, ft-ton/in

length between perpendiculars, ft

tons per inch immersion, lton/in

distance from the point of constant draft to the LCF, ft

weight added or removed, lton

The relationship can be solved to determine the point of constant draft for weight added or removed at a known location. It is generally more

useful to solve for d1 to find the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft constant at some point:

(MT1) (L)

d1 =

(TPI) (d2)

Note that w cancels out of the equation. So long as the weight change is not large enough to significantly alter MT1, TPI, or the position of

LCF, the amount of weight added or removed does not affect the location of the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft

constant at another point.

1-8.3 Inclining Experiment. The predictable and measurable effects of offcenter weight are used to determine height of center of gravity in

an inclining experiment. By shifting a known weight a specified distance, the movement of the center of gravity can be determined. The

resulting inclination (heel) observed and the tangent formula (see Paragraph 1-8.1.2):

GG1

wd

tan =

=

GMeff

W (GM)

is solved for the as inclined, or effective metacentric height, GMeff:

GMeff =

GG1

tan

wd

W tan

Inclining experiment reports are an important source of data for ship characteristics, especially a baseline vertical position for the center of

gravity.

1-8.4 Sallying Ship. Sallying ship is a procedure in which the ship is rocked, or sallied, by rapidly shifting weights back and forth, by

rhythmically heaving on the deck edge with a crane, or by personnel running back and forth. If, after inducing rolling, all exciting forces are

removed, the ship will roll with the time of roll equal to her natural rolling period. It is impossible to remove all exciting forces, but if the ship

is sallied in calm water, is clear of the bottom throughout her roll, the number of mooring lines has been reduced to the minimum acceptable

and those remaining are slack, and the ship is free of any other significant restraints, her rolling period will closely approximate the natural

rolling period, TR. GM can be estimated by means of the rolling period formula:

1.108 k 2 C B 2 0.44B 2

GM =

T

T

T

R

R

R

To determine the rolling period accurately, the ship should be timed through several rolls and the result divided by the number of rolls to find

the average rolling period. A derivation of the rolling period formula, with constants for various ship types, is given in Paragraph 1-5.4.3.

Sallying ship is often performed in conjunction with an inclining experiment as a check on the accuracy of the experiment or to provide a means

to calculate an initial estimate of GM. The accuracy of the procedure is degraded by the influences of offcenter weights, free surfaces, and

exciting or restraining forces, such as personnel moving about the ship, unslackened crane hoists or mooring lines, hydrodynamic effects of water

entrained by the moving hull surface in confined basins, etc.

1-56

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-8.5 Ballast. A ships loading varies considerably during a voyage as fuel and stores are consumed, and for merchant ships and auxiliaries,

from one leg of a voyage to another as cargo is taken on and discharged. Ballast, liquid or solid, is carried to maintain stability or seakindliness.

As fuel is consumed from double-bottom tanks, the ships center of gravity rises and metacentric height is reduced. Saltwater ballast taken into

low tanks restores metacentric height to a safe value. All ships require certain drafts, displacement, and trim for seakindliness, propulsion

efficiency, and steering control. Discharge of cargo from forward holds and tanks trims the ship by the stern. A light draft forward causes

pounding and slamming in a seaway, reduces visibility from the bridge, and makes steering difficult in beam winds. Fuel and cargo oil tanks

were formerly used alternately as sea water ballast tanks in most ships. Environmental protection standards now prohibit discharge of oily water

in most areas, so modern ships are usually designed with dedicated or segregated ballast tanks (SBT). Normal practice is to provide ballast

capacity such that the ships displacement in ballast is 40 to 60 percent of the full-load displacement. Cargo tanks are often piped for ballast;

if the tanks have been cleaned prior to taking ballast, the ballast is clean and can be discharged overboard; otherwise the ballast is dirty and

is discharged to receiving facilities ashore. Ballast tanks are distributed over the length of the ship to provide flexibility in controlling trim and

hull bending moments. In general cargo ships, the combined center of the ballast tanks is usually near or below the combined center of the fuel

tanks. Ships designed to carry dense cargo, such as stone and ore carriers, have an excess of volume that is taken up by wing ballast tanks.

Some of these vessels are very stiff in light condition, so high ballast tanks are fitted to reduce metacentric height. Fuel tanks are still commonly

piped for saltwater ballast for emergency use. Many warships are fitted with compensating fuel tanks that admit seawater through openings in

the bottom of the tanks as fuel is drawn off the top, maintaining nearly constant weight and center of gravity in the tank.

Solid ballast, usually consisting of loose stone or sand, river mud, or other dredge spoil, is sometimes carried by cargo ships. Decomposing

organic material in mud ballast can produce flammable and toxic gases, such as methane or hydrogen sulfide. Solid ballast, carried in holds

or tween decks, can degrade stability by shifting, as explained in Paragraph 1-9.3.

Fixed solid ballast is sometimes fitted, particularly after conversions involving addition of high weight and in submarines. Ordinary concrete

or special heavy aggregate concrete is commonly used. The U.S. Navy has used cast iron ingots or lead pigs weighing about 60 pounds each.

The cast iron ingots are sometimes covered with a layer of 3 to 4 inches of cement mortar. High density drilling mud stowed in double-bottom

tanks is also used as ballast.

Ballasting instructions, where applicable, are included in the damage control book for Navy ships, and in the trim and stability booklet or loading

instructions for commercial vessels.

A ships afloat stability can be impaired or otherwise changed by any of the following:

Change in the shape of the submerged hull from grounding or battle damage changing KM,

The first three conditions affect stability of the intact ship as well. Only free communication with the sea is predicated on damage to the hull.

As the primary indicator of initial stability, GM can be expressed as a function of the above effects:

GM = KM KG FS FC

The following paragraphs demonstrate the methods to calculate and apply the effect of these conditions on stability.

1-9.1 Flooding. Flooding can be caused by breaches in the hull, accumulating firefighting water, damaged saltwater systems, or any other

condition that admits uncontrolled amounts of liquid into the watertight envelope of the ship. Seawater flooding increases displacement and

reduces reserve buoyancy. Offcenter flooding causes list and reduces transverse stability. Major flooding towards the ends of the ship reduces

longitudinal stability, and in extreme cases may result in the loss of the ship by plunging. The effects of added weight on stability and trim

are addressed in Paragraph 1-8. In addition to the increased weight, loose water causes other serious consequences discussed in the following

paragraphs.

1-57

S0300-A8-HBK-010

by the contents of the flooded compartment. The space

occupied by solid objects or watertight volumes cannot be

occupied by floodwater, so total volume and weight of floodwater admitted is reduced. This effect is called permeability,

and a permeability factor, or ratio of the volume of

floodwater to the total volume of the space, can be defined:

available volume

=

total volume

The volume of the water entering a flooded space can be

determined by calculating the volume of the space and

multiplying by an appropriate permeability factor. The

permeability of tanks can usually be taken as the percentage

of full capacity to which they are filled to calculate the

amount of floodwater admitted. Not using a permeability

factor will result in overestimating the amount of water a

space contains. If the exact quantity of floodwater cannot be

determined, it is usually safest to err on the high side by

disregarding permeability. Permeability for cargo can be

calculated from cargo density or stowage factor, as explained

in Appendix E, U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1

(S0300-A6-MAN-010); the appendix includes an extensive

list of material densities and cargo stowage factors.

Permeabilities calculated from cargo stowage factors or cargo

densities may not be entirely accurate for breakbulk cargo in

rigid watertight packaging (cans, steel boxes, etc.) as water

will not be able to enter all void spaces in the cargo.

Permeability factors for some typical spaces and cargoes are

given in Table 1-8.

1-9.1.2 Downflooding. Downflooding occurs when a ship

heels sufficiently to immerse an opening above the normal

waterline, such as an open door or holed shell plating. This

angle of heel is defined as the downflooding angle. Righting

arms are reduced as the water accumulates on the low side,

and as an offcenter weight creates an additional upsetting

moment. A ship rolling so that it cyclically immerses a shell

opening may assume a permanent list or increase the period

and angle of roll due to the free surface effect described in

the next paragraph. As roll angle and period increase, the

time the opening is immersed increases, admitting greater

amounts of water.

1-9.1.3 Flooding into Liquid-filled Spaces. Tanks often

contain immiscible liquids, such as fuel or cargo oil, with

densities different from seawater. If an oil tank is holed,

there may be either a net inflow or outflow of liquid. There

may be an inflow even if the liquid level in the tank is above

sea level. If the density of the oil in the tank is low enough

that its head pressure at the hull penetration is less than the

seawater head pressure, water will flow into the tank. Head

pressure is a function of liquid depth and density:

Ph = h =

where:

Ph

1-58

=

=

=

=

head pressure

liquid weight density

liquid specific volume = 1/

liquid depth at point in question

Permeability,

Space

fully flooded

above mid height

below mid height

lower third

Engine rooms (diesel and gas turbine)

Firerooms

Auxiliary machinery spaces

Pump rooms

Steering gear rooms

Shops

Offices, electronics spaces

Living spaces

General stores

Magazines

Powder

Small arms

Small arms ammunition

Rocket stowage

Torpedo stowage

Handling rooms

Chain locker

Full Load

Minimum Operating

Condition

0.85

0.90

0.75

0.70

0.85

0.90

0.85

0.90

0.85-0.90

0.90

0.95

0.95

0.80-0.90

0.85

0.90

0.75

0.70

0.85

0.90

0.85

0.90

0.85-0.90

0.90

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.60

0.80

0.60

0.80

0.70

0.80

0.65

0.95

0.80

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.65

Cargo Spaces:

Space

Tanks, empty, on molded volume2

Double-bottom tanks

Cargo tanks

Tanks of known capacity

Empty

With liquid contents

Bulk and breakbulk cargo (average)3

Container holds3

RO/RO holds (average)4

Liquids in cans or barrels1

Permeability,

0.97

0.99

1.00

1 - percent full

0.60-0.80

0.70

0.85

0.40

Notes:

1

From Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet, DDS 079-1, Aug 75

See Paragraph 1-4.10.7 for discussion.

3

See Appendix E, U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) for

discussion of how to calculate permeability/volume of floodwater from cargo stowage

factor/density.

4

Permeability of hold around containers; does not include space inside containers/

trailers.

2

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The equilibrium liquid level in the tank is the level that will give the same head pressure as the seawater. When there is an outflow of liquid

from the tank, the equilibrium level can be determined simply:

1 h1 = sw hsw

h1 = sw hsw

i

where the subscripts i and sw denote properties of the liquid inside the tank and of the seawater outside the hull, respectively. Since specific

gravity is directly related to density , the ratio of seawater to product specific gravities can be substituted for the density ratio. The outflow

of liquid lightens the ship, and may trim or heel it, varying hsw, so an iterative solution is required.

When there is an inflow of seawater into the tank, a water bottom forms. If the tank is holed at its bottom, hi remains essentially constant, but

lies over the water bottom of depth hsw,i. Equilibrium head pressure at the hull penetration is now expressed:

i hi + sw hsw, i = sw hsw

The inflow of seawater adds weight and may trim or heel the ship. It is possible that the liquid level will reach the tank top before equilibrium

is reached; the block of oil is held in place by sea pressure, and there can be no further weight addition, even if the ship continues to settle,

unless oil escapes through tank vents or other avenues.

Tankers carrying light oils that have suffered severe bottom damage may float in this manner, with much of the ships weight transmitted from

the tank tops to the water through the oil mass, rather than through the sides of the hull to the bottom structure. Since the lower level of the

liquid mass is above the hull penetration, and separated from it by a water bottom, there is little leakage in calm seas.

If the side of a tank is holed at a height such that the internal head pressure is less than the seawater head pressure, water will flow into the

tank. If the hole is low enough that it is covered by the water bottom, the situation is identical to that described above. If the hole is above

the top of the initial water bottom, there will be an ongoing oil-seawater exchange until the water bottom covers the opening.

The local seawater depth over a hull opening can vary with time as the ship rises, settles, trims, or lists in response to weight changes, or as

tide rises and falls around a stranded or sunken ship. Tanks may be subject to either inflow or outflow at different times. Heavily damaged

tanks will normally reach equilibrium in 20 minutes or less, although significant leakage will continue from casualties that strand at a tide that

is higher than subsequent low tides.

It is not always necessary to discharge a damaged tank completely to stop oil or other light liquids from leaking into the sea. The water bottom

formed when a tank is damaged near its bottom can prevent further discharge of liquids lighter than water. For example, in a tanker with a 50foot molded depth and a 30-foot draft, there is a 20-foot difference in head between sea level and oil level in full cargo tanks. If a full tank

is breached through its bottom plating, oil leaks out until the internal oil head balances the external seawater head. The depth of oil is

determined by converting the water head to an oil head. For the tanker described, and an oil specific gravity of 0.8:

hi =

g, sw

g, i

hsw =

1.025

30 = 38.44 ft

0.8

where:

hsw

hi

g, sw

g, i

=

=

=

=

oil depth with head equivalent to seawater head, ft

seawater specific gravity = 1.025

oil specific gravity = 0.8

For fresh water, specific gravity is taken as 1.0, and oil depth is found by dividing the draft or penetration depth by specific gravity; for the case

described above, the equivalent oil head is 37.5 feet. As a practical matter, the equilibrium oil depth has been reached when the cargo pumps

begin to draw water instead of oil. The thickness of the water bottom can be increased by drawing oil from the top of the tanks with portable

pumps, allowing water to flow in through the breached plating. In the initial stages of a pollution incident, salvors should attempt to create or

increase water bottoms in damaged tanks, especially if pumping or storage capacity is limited and several tanks are leaking. As operations

continue, water bottoms can be systematically increased until the tanks are completely discharged. Liquid and solid pollutants can be removed

by the methods discussed in Paragraphs 3-3 and 3-4, and the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 5 (S0300-A6-MAN-050).

The effectiveness of water bottoms is limited for water-soluble liquids or liquids with a specific gravity very near one. Water bottoms cannot

be created at all under liquids with specific gravities greater than one. Many bulk chemicals fall into this category, as well as some crude oils

and bunker fuels. Many chemicals are also highly soluble in water and cannot be contained by water bottoms.

1-59

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-9.2 Loose Water. Liquid in a partially flooded compartment is free to move as the ship inclines. The adverse effects of loose water result

from the unrestrained movement of masses of water. The movement of significant weights causes the ships center of gravity to move off the

centerline as the ship inclines.

1-9.2.1

Free Surface Effect.

The

movement of the ships center of gravity

caused by loose water movement can be

related to the width of the free surface and

the angle of inclination. The loss of

righting arm results from the weight of a

wedge of water transferred from the high to

the low side, as shown in Figure 1-32. For

small angles, the volume of the wedge in a

rectangular tank can be calculated:

y (y tan)

dl =

Vwedge =

0

0

2

l

B

M

W1

W

Gv

L1

Z G2

y tan

dl

2

W

g

where:

l

y

=

=

half-width of the tank

(from its centerline)

angle of inclination

CL

For a rectangular tank, the centroids of the wedges are at 2 3y from the centerline of the tank; the plan area of most tanks approximates a

rectangle sufficiently to assume that the centroid of the wedge lies 2 3y from the centerline. The centroid of the transferred wedge therefore

moves a total distance of 4 3y. The moment of volume of the transferred wedge is:

l y 2 tan

l 2

4

d l y = tan

y 3 dl

moment of volume =

0

0

2

3

3

The integral 0l 2 3y3 dl is the second moment of area (moment of inertia), i, of the liquid surface (see Paragraph 1-4.5.2 for a derivation).

Substituting:

moment of volume = i tan

The weight moment of the transferred wedge is:

weight moment = f i tan

where f is the weight density of the fluid in the tank.

The weight shift and accompanying moment will cause a shift of the ships center of gravity parallel to the inclined liquid surface (and the

inclined waterline) to a new position G2:

f i tan

f i tan

=

GG2 =

W

w

Righting arms are reduced by the transverse shift of center of gravity; the transverse component of the shift GG2 is found by multiplying by

the cosine of the angle of inclination:

i tan

cos = f i sin

GG2 transverse = GG2 cos = f

w

w

The righting arm with free surface is found by subtracting the transverse shift of G from the righting arm without free surface:

f i sin

GZcorr = GZ GG2 transverse = GZ

w

where:

W

w

GZcorr

1-60

=

=

=

=

weight density of the water in which the ship is floating

volume of displacement

righting arm corrected for new position of the center of gravity, G2

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The free surface correction is applied to the basic statical stability curve by graphical or tabular means in the same way the sine correction for

increased KG is applied (see Paragraph 1-5.10.1). The effect on stability of a free surface can be much greater than the effect of the weight of the

floodwater. The total correction is the sum of the corrections for each free liquid surface.

The component of the weight moment causing the transverse shift of center of gravity, f isin, is called the moment of transference. For many ships,

moments of transference are tabulated for each tank, with f expressed in long tons per cubic foot. Moments of transference are normally calculated

for a slack condition (50 percent full) and a full condition (100 percent for water tanks, 95 percent for Navy fuel tanks, 98 percent for commercial

vessel cargo tanks) for a series of heel angles. The free surface correction for each tank at each angle is obtained by dividing the moment of

transference by the ships displacement. Tabulated moments of transference are included in the damage control books of newer Navy ships.

Approximate moments of transference can be calculated by assuming a rectangular free surface:

moment of transference rectangle = f i sin = f

where:

l

b

3

lb 3

1 lb

sin =

sin

12

f 12

L1

=

=

compartment length

compartment width

feet per long ton, the expression reduces to:

l b 3 sin

moment of transference sw =

420

W

W1

L1

nearly empty, the liquid pockets when the

ship heels; that is, the liquid moves to

expose the deck or to cover the overhead, as

shown in Figure 1-33. Once the liquid

begins to pocket, the center of gravity, g, of

the liquid mass moves very little as heel

angle increases. The reduction in righting

arm is simply that of an offcenter weight of

known location. Model tests have shown

that pocketing normally decreases free

surface effect by approximately 25 percent.

The angle at which pocketing occurs can be

predicted by geometry. As the tank shown

in Figure 1-34 is inclined, a wedge of liquid

shifts from the high side to the low side.

The increase in water level on the low side

is equal to the decrease on the high side.

This distance (h) can be expressed as a

function of the tank breadth (b) and the

angle of inclination, :

b

h = tan

2

Pocketing occurs at angles of inclination

where h is equal to or greater than the

liquid depth in the tank (d) or the overhead

clearance (a) as shown in Figure 1-34.

Solving for :

2h

p = tan 1 p

b

where:

L

W1

CL

b

l1

a

b

_ tan = h

2

y

w

d

w1

hp

pocketing begins

a or d, whichever is less

1-61

S0300-A8-HBK-010

account for pocketing and tank shape.

When using approximate moments, a

statical stability curve can be constructed

by applying a free surface correction for

angles up to p, and an offcenter weight

(cosine) correction for larger angles.

Alternatively, the gradual diminishment

of the moment of transference can be

evaluated by defining the moment of

transference as the product of f i and

some factor C that is less than sin:

moment of transference = f i C

where:

f

lton/ft3

moment of inertia of the

free surface, ft4

transference factor from

Table 1-9, 1-10, or 1-11

depends on the degree of fullness, ratio of

depth to breadth of the compartment, and

the angle of inclination. To simplify

evaluation of the factor C, tanks or flooded

spaces are assumed to be full or empty (no

free surface), half-full (worst case) or 95

percent full in naval practice or 98 percent

full in merchant practice (normal operating

condition). Tables 1-9 through 1-11,

reproduced from the Society of Naval

Architects and Marine Engineers

Principles of Naval Architecture, give

factors for 50, 95, and 98 percent full

tanks. These tables have been derived for

rectangular tanks but will provide

sufficient accuracy for most tanks if certain

adjustments are made to the entering

parameters of breadth and depth.

Tanks with substantial variation in

breadth, such as those that are

approximately trapezoidal in plan view,

usually have a small free surface effect;

the breadth at the narrow end should

generally be used to determine the depth

to breadth ratio. If greater accuracy is

required, breadth can be taken as:

3

b =

12 i

l

Ratio of

depth to

breadth

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

0.13

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.14

0.21

0.27

0.31

0.35

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.14

0.21

0.27

0.34

0.40

0.50

0.57

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.12

0.19

0.26

0.33

0.40

0.53

0.65

0.74

0.83

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.11

0.16

0.23

0.30

0.37

0.51

0.66

0.80

0.94

1.06

1.16

1.24

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

1.31

0.09

0.14

0.20

0.26

0.33

0.47

0.63

0.79

0.96

1.13

1.30

1.47

1.7

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

0.06

0.10

0.16

0.21

0.27

0.41

0.56

0.74

0.92

1.12

1.34

1.56

2.0

2.7

3.7

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

0.04

0.07

0.11

0.16

0.21

0.33

0.47

0.65

0.85

1.06

1.30

1.56

2.1

3.1

5.0

9.3

13.4

16.2

16.8

16.8

16.8

16.8

16.8

0.02

0.03

0.06

0.09

0.14

0.24

0.38

0.54

0.74

0.96

1.22

1.50

2.2

3.4

6.0

13.5

24.0

37.0

54.0

73.0

96.0

121.0

150.0

Ratio of

depth to

breadth

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

0.02

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.16

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.02

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.19

0.22

0.25

0.30

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.02

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.19

0.20

0.24

0.28

0.35

0.46

0.53

0.57

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.58

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.18

0.20

0.24

0.29

0.38

0.52

0.64

0.74

0.80

0.85

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.24

0.29

0.38

0.56

0.71

0.85

0.97

1.09

1.16

1.22

1.27

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.23

0.29

0.38

0.58

0.78

0.96

1.14

1.30

1.46

1.6

1.7

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.22

0.28

0.39

0.62

0.87

1.12

1.36

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.3

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.23

0.31

0.45

0.77

1.12

1.5

1.9

2.3

2.7

3.2

3.6

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.05

0.07

0.10

0.14

0.18

0.23

0.28

0.41

0.64

1.14

2.6

4.6

7.1

10.3

14.0

18.2

23.0

28.5

For tanks not rectangular in transverse section, the depth should normally be taken as the greatest depth. Accuracy can be increased by taking

depth as n times the distance from the free surface to the tank top, where n is 2 for tanks 50 percent full, 20 for tanks 95 percent full, or 50

for tanks 98 percent full. The tables should be entered with the next larger value for depth to breadth ratio unless interpolations are made. The

increase in accuracy gained by interpolation is usually insignificant.

1-62

S0300-A8-HBK-010

be time-consuming and tedious. Figure

1-32 shows that an equivalent righting

arm Gv Z can be developed by extending

the line of action of gravity back through

the ships centerline. Raising the ships

center of gravity to Gv has the same

effect on stability as shifting it to G2.

The virtual rise in the center of gravity

can be related to the actual transverse

shift:

GG2 = GGv sin

At small angles (less than 7 to 10

degrees), GZ = GMsin; the reduction in

righting arm is approximately GGvsin:

GZcorr = GM sin GGv sin

Setting the two expressions for GZcorr

equal:

f i sin

GM sin GGv sin = GZ

w

Noting that GMsin = GZ and canceling

common terms:

Ratio of

depth to

breadth

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.16

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.16

0.22

0.27

0.30

0.33

0.35

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.17

0.24

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.44

0.48

0.51

0.54

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.10

0.13

0.17

0.24

0.31

0.38

0.44

0.49

0.55

0.60

0.64

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.16

0.24

0.31

0.38

0.46

0.52

0.59

0.65

0.71

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.15

0.22

0.30

0.38

0.46

0.54

0.62

0.70

0.78

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.13

0.22

0.30

0.38

0.48

0.58

0.67

0.77

0.87

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.09

0.14

0.23

0.34

0.45

0.58

0.70

0.84

0.98

1.12

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.17

0.27

0.47

1.06

1.9

2.9

4.2

5.8

7.5

9.5

11.8

f i

w

f i

w i

f

i

f

For flooding from the sea, the density ratio becomes one, and:

GGv =

where:

GGv

i

=

=

=

transverse moment of inertia of the free surface

volume of displacement

If free surface exists in several tanks or compartments, the virtual rise of G is calculated separately for each compartment and the results summed

to determine the total virtual rise. The virtual position of the center of gravity is then used to develop a corrected stability curve, as described

in Paragraph 1-5.9.1.

Treating free surface effect as a virtual rise of the center of gravity provides a relatively quick and easy estimate of the reduction in initial

stability. The method overestimates the reduction in righting arm at larger angles because it does not account for pocketing or the reduction

in lever arms of the transferred wedge as heel angle increases, but is acceptably accurate if the sum of i for all slack tanks in ft4 is less than

twenty times the displacement in long tons. When virtually all free liquid surfaces are subject to pocketing at small angles, as in ships with

nearly full fuel load or cargo tanks, it is common practice to determine the reduction in righting arm (by transference) at an arbitrarily selected

angle of 5 or 10 degrees, and translate the reduction in righting arm into loss of metacentric height by dividing by the sine of the angle.

Equipment, cargo, or stores that pierce the floodwater surface reduce the area and effect of the free surface; this effect is called surface

permeability. The surface permeability factor is the moment of inertia of the actual free surface divided by the moment of inertia of an unpierced

plane surface with the same outer perimeter. Surface permeability is very difficult to estimate accurately. An error in estimation can cause the

salvor to believe the ship is more stable than it actually is. If, on the other hand, surface permeability is neglected, the calculations will indicate

less stability than the ship actually possesses, erring on the safe side for the salvor.

1-63

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-9.2.2 Cross-flooding. Situations exist where, by design or damage, liquids can freely transfer, or cross-flood, between athwartships tanks:

Cross-flooding ducts fitted between shaft alleys, voids, and similar spaces in small ships to prevent the large offcenter weight

moments that would result if only one side flooded.

Faulty or inadvertently opened valves or valve manifolds, especially those connecting deep tanks where the liquid surface is above

the level of the valve.

Anti-roll tanks consisting of two tanks, normally carried about half-full, on opposite sides of the ship connected by relatively smalldiameter sluice pipes.

The shift of liquid from one space to another is treated as a moment of transference between the two tanks to determine reduction in righting

arm. The effect on initial stability, as a loss of metacentric height, is calculated for each tank separately.

1-9.2.3 Liquids of Different Densities. A tank may contain two different liquidsone of them is usually seawater. Examples include ruptured

cargo or fuel tanks and compensating tanks with water bottoms. Even if the tank is filled with liquid, there is a free surface at the interface

between the two liquids that will remain parallel to the inclined waterline. There will be a wedge of volume on the low side where the denser

liquid displaces the less dense, and a corresponding wedge on the high side where the less dense liquid displaces the denser, causing the center

of gravity of the tank to shift. This effect can be evaluated by using the difference in densities for the value f in the expressions for moment

of transference and virtual rise of G.

1-9.2.4 Bulk Cargoes. Bulk cargoes, such as grain and ore, and loose solid ballast, can produce an effect similar to that of free surface, but

the effect is modified by friction and inertia of the individual particles. In general, bulk cargo will begin to shift when the angle of inclination

is approximately equal to the angle of repose of the cargo. This is the angle between the horizontal and the slope of a granular bulk material

that is freely poured onto a horizontal surface. However, violent or cyclic ship motions or vibration can cause the cargo to shift at smaller

angles. A cargo that shifts during a heavy roll to one side will not necessarily shift back when the ship rolls to the opposite side. The tendency

to roll to greater angles on the low side can cause progressive cargo shifting that can lead to capsize. Some cargoes, especially certain ores,

may act like semi-liquid slurries in the presence of even a small amount of moisture, and shift readily when inclined.

Ships designed to carry bulk cargo, such as grain, are fitted with permanent or temporary longitudinal bulkheads in their holds that may be

supplemented with shifting boards to limit cargo movement. The cargo is normally pressed up to the tops of the holds and between the overhead

deck beams. If the cargo is not large enough to fill the hold, a portion of the grain is bagged and laid over the bulk grain to prevent shifting.

The cargo may also be tommed down by placing tomming boards, held in place by shores extending to the deck above, over the leveled cargo.

1-9.2.5 Free Communication Effect. A partially flooded, noncenterline space open to the sea introduces the effects of both offcenter weight

and free surface. In addition, floodwater is free to enter or leave the space as the ship inclines. The distribution and weight of floodwater varies

with time as the ship inclines. This creates virtual rise in the center of gravity, in addition to that caused by free surface:

Virtual rise of G = F C = GGc =

Ay2

1

where:

A =

y

=

1 =

transverse distance from the center of the flooded compartment to the ships centerline

volume of displacement to the after flooding to the waterline

Free communication exists only when the water level inside the damaged compartment remains the same as the sea level outside the hull. This

occurs only when the hull opening is relatively large compared to the volume of the space, and the compartment is vented.

1-9.3 Icing. Ice accumulation in freezing weather steadily adds high weight, increasing displacement and raising center of gravity. In severe

conditions, ice thicknesses of six inches or more can collect on weather decks in a short time. Ice builds up as spray or precipitation freeze

onto above-water structures. The rate of accumulation is therefore influenced by relative direction of winds and seas, and is seldom uniform

on both sides of the ship. The offcenter weight of accumulated ice will cause list that may cause increased ice accumulation on the low side,

especially if the primary source of ice is wind-driven spray.

High winds often accompany icing conditions; ice loading can severely degrade the ships ability to withstand heeling moments from beam

winds. As an example, a destroyer that has adequate stability for a 100-knot beam wind without ice meets the wind heel criterion (see Appendix

D) for only 80 knots with 200 tons of accumulated ice. The 200-ton ice accumulation corresponds to an average ice thickness of 5 to 6 inches

over those areas subject to icing. The effect is more severe on smaller vessels; 50 tons of topside ice on a 140-foot minesweeper reduces

maximum righting arm from 1.2 feet to 0.7 feet, and reduces maximum allowable beam wind from 85 to 40 knots.

1-64

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Once ice has started to form, it will continue to form as long as conditions favor icing. The only recourse is to remove the ice or leave the area

where ice formation is likely. Frequent heading changes can help prevent the accumulations of large weights of offcenter ice. Icing presents

particular difficulties to ships that are not free to maneuver, such as strandings and vessels under tow. The effects of accumulated weights of

ice (and snow) must be evaluated before refloating a heavily coated stranding. Removing ice from an unmanned vessel under tow may be

difficult or impossible; conditions favorable to icing are often also unfavorable for at-sea personnel transfers. At slow towing speeds, the time

needed to reach an area where conditions are significantly less favorable to icing may be considerable. Offcenter ice accumulation is likely on

towed vessels because tows follow a relatively steady course. It is important to ensure that a casualty has adequate stability under icing

conditions, or that heaters or other means to prevent icing be installed, if the casualty is to be towed through areas where icing is likely.

The U. S. Department of Commerce Publication Climatological and Oceanographic Atlas for Mariners provides guidance for expected winds and

icing conditions. In general, heavy to severe icing will occur when wind speed is greater than 30 knots and air temperature less than 28 degrees

Fahrenheit. Icing predictions can also be provided by Fleet Weather Centers and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

books are based on specific loading

conditions, and the assumption that the

prescribed tank emptying/ballasting

sequence has been followed. They are not

valid for conditions that differ significantly

from these assumptions.

1-9.4

Added Weight Versus Lost

Buoyancy. The foregoing discussions have

assumed that flooding, with or without free

communication, increases the weight of the

ship by the weight of the floodwater. This

method, called the added weight method, assumes that none of the hull surface exposed

to the buoyant force of the water is lost.

90

5-100-3&4-F

5-250-1&2-F

85

80

WIND SPEED (KNOTS)

include icing studies and limiting wind

velocity curves for various thicknesses of

accumulated ice.

Figure 1-35 is the

limiting wind curve for an FFG-7 Class

ship with 9 inches of ice on the foredeck;

there are also curves for 6 inches and 12

inches of ice. The fuel-ballast sequence

numbers refer to steps in the prescribed

tank emptying and ballasting sequence.

The plot is entered by reading vertically

from the appropriate fuel-ballast sequence

number to the solid wind heel curve, and

then horizontally to the maximum wind

speed for which the ship meets the Navy

wind heel criteria. The dashed lines show

the increase in allowable wind that can be

gained by ballasting the indicated tanks.

For example, at fuel sequence 6, the ship

has adequate stability to withstand 58-knot

beam winds with 9 inches of ice on the

foredeck. Continuing vertically along the

sequence 6 line shows that the limiting

wind can be increased to 62 knots by

ballasting tank 5-32-0-W, or 72 knots by

ballasting 5-32-0-W, 5-116-0-W, and 5326-1 and 2-W. If necessary, fuel tanks 5250-1 and 2-F, which are emptied by

sequence 4, can be ballasted to increase

limiting wind to 83 knots.

75

5-116-0-W

5-326-1&2-W

5-32-0-W

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 18

Figure 1-35. FFG-7 Class Ship Limiting Winds for Icing Conditions.

Item

Added Weight

yes

Lost Buoyancy

no

yes

no

yes

yes

yes

no

yes

yes

Shift of metacenter

yes

yes

yes

no

yes

no

Change in displacement

An alternative method, called the lost buoyancy method, can be used where floodwater in free communication with the sea is assumed to remain

part of the sea, and the flooded portion of the ship no longer contributes buoyancy. The vertical pressure forces about the flooded compartment

are assumed to act on the sea rather than on the ship.

Flooding in free communication with the sea can be assessed by either method, but the two methods cannot be mixed during calculations. Table

1-12 itemizes the important points of the two methods.

The method used is a matter of personal preference, although the added weight method is more commonly used. Unless otherwise specified,

hydrostatic and stability calculations in this book are made by the added weight method. A more complete discussion of the lost buoyancy

calculation method can be found in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Principles of Naval Architecture.

1-65

S0300-A8-HBK-010

from added high weight (raised G) or increased displacement (lowered M), or both.

New initial righting arms are calculated

using the new value for GM. The stability

curve can be corrected for the new KG with

a sine curve correction as described in Paragraph 1-5.9. A ship with a very low

metacentric height will roll sluggishly. If

GM is negative, the ship is initially unstable and will loll to some angle where the

center of buoyancy has moved sufficiently

to begin to develop positive righting arms.

The ship will settle with equal facility to

the same angle of loll on either side. The

angle of loll may be estimated by:

= tan

2 GM

BM

LOLLING RANGE

57.3

57.3

ANGLE

OF LIST

NEGATIVE

GM

When GM is negative, the corrected stability curve will indicate the list or angle of loll and a measure of the stability remaining beyond the

angle of loll as shown in Figure 1-36.

A warship or laden merchant vessel with negative metacentric height is in a very dangerous condition. A positive metacentric height should

be restored immediately. In general, negative metacentric height is dealt with by one of three methods:

Shifting weight downward in the ship, removing high weight or adding low weight to lower the center of gravity, or

Free surface is suppressed by pumping from slack tanks directly overboard or by consolidating the contents of slack tanks to press up as many

tanks as possible. Partially flooded spaces should be dewatered if they can be made tight and pumped, or allowed to flood to the overhead.

When there are several slack tanks or partially flooded spaces, judicious selection of spaces to be pumped down can result in a simultaneous

suppression of free surface and a lowering of G. The effects of both the reduction of free surface and loss of low weight should be calculated

before emptying low tanks or spaces. In some cases, the net effect of pumping out is to raise the center of gravity unacceptablyflooding the

space from the sea would be more effective. The dewatering sequence should be arranged to avoid reducing GM dangerously while pumping

out. In ships with marginal stability, the transient free surface created while pumping down solid flooded spaces can cause loss of GM.

Shifting weights transversely to correct a list caused by negative GM will only aggravate an already dangerous situation. If enough weight is

shifted or added to bring the ship upright, it will list to the opposite side to an angle approximately twice that of the original list; the loll angle

is now added to the list due to offcenter weight.

1-9.6 Drydocking. A ship being drydocked is subject to an unusual loading situation; part of the ships weight is supported by keel blocks,

part by the surrounding water. This condition is complicated by changes in the size and shape of the submerged hull form as draft changes while

the dock is pumped out. This situation is analogous in many ways to that of a grounded ship, where part of the ships weight is supported by

the ground and part by water, and hull form changes with the state of the tide or passage of waves. The fundamental stability problem is to

determine whether the ship will remain stable from the time it first touches the blocks until it has completely settled, or landed, on them. On

undocking, the problem is whether the ship will be stable from the time it begins to leave the blocks until it is completely afloat. Positive GM

is taken as the indicator of adequate stability. The following discussion of docking stability is summarized from NAVSHIPS Technical Manual

(NSTM) 997, Docking Instructions and Routine Work in Drydock.

1-9.6.1 Block Reaction and Residual Buoyancy. When the keel of a ship begins to land on the blocks in a drydock, it pushes down with

an initial force w, causing a block reaction, P. A ship with trim, t, by the stern, will contact the aftermost keel block first. This block is called

the knuckle block because the ship pivots

on it. Strictly speaking, the knuckle rer1

action is not the entire block reaction, but

r

can be assumed to be in most cases. The

Gv

block reaction has two effects: a virtual

W

L

weight removal at the keel and a longG

B1

W1

L1

itudinal trimming moment. As the ship setP

tles on the blocks, P increases from zero

and is distributed over all the blocks. As

the water level falls, the distributed block

reaction increases until it equals the ships

weight, W.

The actual or residual

buoyancy, B, is equal to W - P. It is the

residual buoyancy that determines the

ships hydrostatic characteristics. Figure 1Figure 1-37. Drydocking Forces.

37 diagrams the forces on a ship during

drydocking.

1-66

S0300-A8-HBK-010

moments about the knuckle block:

17

docking is analyzed either by evaluating the

effect of weight removal at the keel, or by

balancing moments about the point of first

contact. Draft at landing and draft at

instability (GM = 0) are determined and

compared. Figure 1-38 shows sample plots

for an FFG-7 Class ship.

ML = Wr B1r1

15

DRAFT AT LANDING

14.9 FEET

RESIDUAL BUOYANCY

MOMENT B1 r1

14

13

WEIGHT MOMENT, Wr

= 3,769(118.4)

446,250 FOOT-TONS

12

11

2.5

where:

3.0

4.0

3.5

4.5

5.0

MOMENT, FOOT-TONS x 10 5

=

=

B1

=

=

ships weight

distance from knuckle block to

LCG, as shown in Figure 1-38

residual buoyancy of the ship

at current draft

distance from knuckle block to

LCB, as shown in Figure 1-38

the residual displacement and LCB vary

with draft. The draft at landing is the draft

where ML is zero with the keel parallel to

the tops of the keel blocks; that is, where

the weight and buoyancy moments are

equal, with B1 and r1 determined for the ship

with her keel parallel to the keel blocks.

Buoyancy moments can be calculated for a

range of drafts and plotted as shown in

Figure 1-38. The draft at landing is

indicated by the intersection of the weight

moment and buoyancy moment curves.

DRAFT AT LANDING

17

W

r

r1

16

16

15

W(KG)=

=3,769(18)

=67,842

FOOT-TONS

KM1 B 1

14

13

DRAFT AT INSTABILITY

13.25 FEET

12

11

5

10

9

4

MOMENT, FOOT-TONS x 10

DRAFT AT INSTABILITY

T1 = Tm -

P

12(TPI)

where:

Tl

Tm

=

=

draft at landing, ft

mean draft on entering the dock, ft

TPI

PL =

t (MT1)

h

where:

t

MT1

=

=

moment to trim one inch, ft-lton/in

T1 = Tmax -

2

(t)

3

where Tmax is the deepest draft on entering the dock, and Tmax and t are given in consistent units.

Draft at Instability. After touching the keel blocks, GM is given by:

GM1 = KM1 - KGv

where:

GM1

KM1

=

=

height of the metacenter after touching blocks

KGv

1-67

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The center of gravity undergoes a virtual rise due to the addition of negative weight at the keel. The height of the virtual center of gravity is:

KGv =

w(kg)

W(KG) ( P) (0)

W(KG)

=

=

W P

B1

w

It is useful to plot GM1 for various drafts to visualize the relationship between the metacentric height and draft while the ship is on the blocks.

The draft at instability is found by setting GM1 equal to zero:

W(KG)

B1

KM1 =

W(KG)

B1

By considering the products as moments and plotting moments against drafts as shown in Figure 1-38, the draft at instability is shown by the

intersection of the two curves. If this draft is less than the draft at landing by a comfortable margin, the ship should remain stable until firmly

supported by the keel blocks, or when it begins to leave the blocks on refloating. Example 1-4 illustrates the stability calculations for an FFG-7

Class ship entering drydock.

EXAMPLE 1-4

Determine draft at landing and whether the ship will remain stable

throughout the docking.

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

408 ft

14 ft 3 in

16 ft 1 in

15 ft 2 in

3,769 tons

7.6 ft abaft midships

18 ft

The knuckle block will contact the keel at a point 330 feet abaft the forward

perpendicular.

From the Curves of Form (FO-2):

LCB

LCF

MT1

TPI

a.

r1

Tm

ft

Initial conditions:

L

Tf

Ta

Tm

W

LCG

KG

=

=

=

=

23.8 ft abaft midships

773 ft-tons

32.5 tons

408

h = 330

23.8 = 102.2ft

2

t (MT1)

22 (773)

P =

=

= 166.4

102.2

h

P

166.4

T1 = Tm

= 14.74 ft

= 15.17

12 (32.5)

12 (TPI)

15.17

15.0

14.0

13.0

12.0

11.0

B1

ltons

3,769

3,660

3,290

2,910

2,550

2,210

LCB*

ft

-3.18

-2.6

-0.08

2.6

5.32

8.1

r1

ft

122.82

123.42

125.92

128.6

131.32

134.1

B 1r 1

ft-tons

462,909

451,644

414,277

374,226

334,866

296,361

draft at landing of approximately 14.9 feet.

c. Draft at instability:

KM1(B1) =

W(KG) =

W(KG)

3769(18) = 67,842 foot-tons

Tm

ft

15.17

15.0

14.0

13.0

12.0

11.0

B1

ltons

3,769

3,660

3,290

2,910

2,550

2,210

KM1

ft

122.82

123.42

125.92

128.6

131.32

134.1

KM1B1

ft-tons

84,049

81,764

73,992

65,882

58,089

50,609

or

Tl

t

Tl

b.

=

=

=

Ml =

r

=

Wr =

1-68

Tmax - 2/3(t)

22 in = 22/12 ft

16.08 - [2/3(22/12)] = 14.86 ft

Wr B 1r 1

330 - [408/2 - (-7.6)] = 118.4

3769(118.4) = 446,249.6 446,250 foot-tons

showing a draft at instability of approximately 13.25 feet.

d. Margin between draft at landing and draft at instability:

Draft at landing - Draft at instability = 14.9 - 13.25 = 1.65 feet

Draft at landing exceeds draft at instability by 1.65 feet; the ship will be

completely settled on the docking blocks well before the residual

buoyancy ceases to provide adequate stability.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

specifications based on intended service.

Publicly owned vessels (Navy, Coast

Guard, etc.) are built to government

specifications. Most Navy ships are built to

General Specifications for Ships

(GENSPECs), although some auxiliaries are

built to commercial specifications.

Construction rules for commercial vessels

are established by classification societies

and government regulations for the country

of registry; the American Bureau of

Shipping (ABS) and United States Coast

Guard (USCG) establish construction rules

for the United States.

The hull structure consists of a watertight

grillage of stiffened plates supported by a

framework of mutually supporting

longitudinal and transverse members. The

framework and shell plating work together

to carry imposed loads. The framework

carries imposed loads and stiffens the shell

plating to allow it to function effectively as

a strength member under edge and lateral

loading. The arrangement of the structural

members is dictated by the framing system.

Structural members, with the exception of

shell plating and stanchions, are categorized

as either longitudinal, with their long axes

approximately parallel to the ships

centerline, or transverse, with their long

axes athwartships or vertical, approximately

perpendicular to the longitudinal members.

In a general context, any structural stiffener

can be called a frame, although the term is

usually reserved for the transverse frames

described in Paragraph 1-10.3.1.

1-10.1 Framing Systems. While ships

vary considerably in the details of their

construction, most conform to one of two

basic framing systems. Some reflect a

combination of the two systems. With

longitudinal and transverse structural

members crossing at right angles, only one

can be continuous. In the longitudinal

system, shown in Figure 1-39, this conflict

is resolved by the use of closely spaced

continuous longitudinal members with

intercostal transverses. The transverse

system, shown in Figure 1-40 (Page 1-70),

uses closely spaced continuous transverse

members with intercostal longitudinals.

INNER BOTTOM

CENTER

GIRDER

(KEEL)

MARGIN PLATE

BOTTOM DETAIL:

SLOT

FLOOR

FLAT

BAR

FLOOR

THROUGH

BRACKET

SHORT

LENGTH

FLOOR

CONTINUOUS LONGITUDINAL

AT WATERTIGHT FLOOR

LONGITUDINAL

LONGITUDINAL CUT AT

WATERTIGHT FLOOR

1-69

S0300-A8-HBK-010

construction, continuity of the intercostal

members depends on the strength of the

joining connections; the intercostal

members contribute less direct strength to

the framing grillage and serve primarily to

stiffen the longitudinal members and shell

plating. With good alignment and modern

welding practices, full strength can be

maintained, regardless of the previous

assembly continuity of members.

In

modern, welded-construction ships, framing

systems are distinguished by the relative

size, number, and spacing of transverse and

longitudinal members.

Longitudinally

framed ships have many small, closely

spaced longitudinals, with fewer, larger,

and more widely spaced transverses;

transversely framed ships have many small,

closely spaced transverses, with fewer,

larger, and more widely spaced

longitudinals. For average merchant ships,

typical close spacing is 2 to 4 feet, typical

wide spacing is 10 to 15 feet.

Merchant ships and naval auxiliaries may

use either longitudinal or transverse

framing, depending on the service of the

ship. Generally, the same system is used

throughout the ship.

Most naval

combatants (except submarines) are

longitudinally framed, with transverse

framing near the bow and stern. Because

naval ships require a greater reserve of

strength to provide damage resistance, their

frame members are generally deeper and/or

more closely spaced than those of similarly

sized merchant vessels.

Appendix B

describes the construction and

characteristics of different types of ships.

MAIN DECK

STRINGER

TWEEN

DECK

WATERTIGHT

BULKHEAD

WATERTIGHT

BULKHEAD

GUNWALE

ANGLE

SHEER

STRAKE

DECK

BEAMS

DECK GIRDER

BEAM

KNEE

STANCHION

FRAMES

INNER BOTTOM

WATERTIGHT

FLOOR

CENTER

GIRDER

SIDE GIRDER

MARGIN PLATE

TANK

SIDE

BRACKET

LIGHTENING HOLE

PLATE

FLOOR

FLOOR

AIR HOLE

LIMBER HOLE

BRACKET

REVERSE BAR

BRACKET

BRACKET

FLOOR

FRAME BAR

tudinal framing systems (Figures 1-39A and

1-39B) are more efficient structurally, providing greater strength for the same weight; they are, however, less efficient in the use of internal space because of the deep web frames

supporting the longitudinals. Longitudinal framing has been widely used in tankers and bulk carriers where the disruption of internal spaces

caused by the web frames is unimportant. Modern practice tends increasingly towards longitudinal framing, or a combination system, in most

types of ships.

1-10.1.2 Transverse Framing. Transverse framing (Figure 1-40) is most often found in dry cargo vessels where deep web frames would

interfere with cargo stowage. Wooden ships are transversely framed. Given the load-carrying capacity of wood, the lack of longitudinal strength

of this system limits the maximum length of wooden vessels. Conversely, this system provides good resistance to racking stresses caused by

lateral forces that tend to distort a vessels cross section.

1-10.1.3 Combination Systems. There are framing systems that combine elements of both longitudinal and transverse framing. Figure 1-41

shows two common combination framing systems. The combination framing system was introduced to overcome the disadvantages of

longitudinal framing for dry cargo vessels. Longitudinal strength is provided by longitudinal framing in the double bottom and under the strength

deck; transverse framing is used along the side plating where longitudinal bending stresses are smaller. Plate floors and heavy transverse beams

are fitted at intervals to support the main deck and bottom longitudinals and increase transverse strength.

Cantilever framing is a modification of the combination framing system with some special features. It was developed to facilitate the building

of ships with very long and wide hatchways where the remaining deck structure provides insufficient transverse and longitudinal strength.

Transverse strength is maintained by the use of special web frames, or cantilevers, at frequent intervals abreast the hatchways. The ship is

strengthened longitudinally by heavier than normal sheerstrakes and deck stringer plates. The side plating may be extended upward at the

sheerstrake as a heavy bulwark, in place of the usual light bulwark or rails. Hatch side coamings are deep and may be continuous through the

length of the hatch deck. If the ship has two hatches abreast, a deck girder or longitudinal bulkhead is fitted on the centerline.

1-70

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-10.1.4

Connections.

In riveted

construction, a variety of plates, angles, and

scarfs were used to create strong and rigid

joints between structural members. In

welded construction, most connections

between plates and shapes are made

directly through butt or fillet welds,

although brackets and angle bars are used

in some joints for extra stiffness.

1-10.2

Longitudinal Members.

Longitudinal structural members resist

bending about athwartships axes.

LONGITUDINALS

HATCH COAMING

STRONG BEAM BETWEEN HATCHWAYS

TRANSVERSE

BEAM

CANTILEVER

BEAM

TRANSVERSE

SIDE FRAME

LONGITUDINALS

LONGITUDINAL

FRAMING

IN BOTTOM

longitudinal member that runs the length of

the ships bottom along the centerline. In

CANTILEVER FRAMING

COMBINATION SYSTEM

large ships, the keel normally consists of an

outer flat keel, the inner (plate) keel, a

vertical keel (sometimes called the center

Figure 1-41. Combination Framing Systems.

vertical keel, or CVK), and a horizontal top

flange called the keel rider plate. In small

vessels, the outer keel, vertical keel, and rider plates may consist of an I- or H-beam, while in large vessels, the keel is a built-up section. Duct

keels are flat-plate keels with two center girders, instead of one, on either side of the keel plates. Duct keels are commonly used forward of

propulsion machinery spaces to provide a pipe tunnel. The keel usually varies in cross section along the length of the ship. Some newer vessels

have no distinct keel. Instead, there is a cellular double bottom consisting of a grillage of heavy stiffeners plated over top and bottom. In this

system, the center girder is generally distinguishable from the side girders only by location. In very large, broad vessels, specially strengthened

longitudinals, called docking keels, are fitted at some distance to either side of the center keel. The docking keels help distribute docking loads

as the ship rests on three rows of keel blocks. In smaller vessels and some older merchant vessels, an outer vertical keel or bar keel is fitted.

In wooden vessels, the keel is usually a large timber, or series of timbers scarfed together. A timber keelson may be fixed atop the keel to

increase strength. In glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) vessels, the keel may be a wooden or metal member firmly bonded to the GRP skin, or may

consist of a multiple-fiber layup.

1-10.2.2 Other Longitudinal Members. Structural members that run the length of the vessel along shell plating or decks are variously termed

stringers, girders, or longitudinals. These members stiffen the entire structure against longitudinal bending loads, and reinforce shell and deck

plating against local loads. They may be built-up sections or standard structural sections. In the U.S. Navy, longitudinal members along the

side plating are called stringers; those along the bottom plating, longitudinals; and those under decks, girders. In large ships, heavy, deep, bottom

longitudinals may be fitted at some distance to either side of the keel. These members are often sized and located to carry the vertical loads

imposed by side blocks when dry docking. The heavy longitudinals are variously called sidegirders, keelsons, or docking keels.

Bilge keels may be fitted externally at the turn of the bilge to improve seakeeping by resisting rolling. Bilge keels are not usually structural

members; if they are attached by load carrying connections and extend for a significant length of the ship, they may contribute to the ships

longitudinal strength.

1-10.3 Transverse Structural Members. Transverse members are fitted primarily to stiffen the hull and enable it to resist shear and torsional

loads.

1-10.3.1 Frames. Transverse frames are analogous to ribs extending from the backbone of the keel inside the shell plating. They may continue

to the upper decks in their full cross section or be reduced in size at some height above the keel. Frame spacing and dimensions often vary

throughout the length of the ship to compensate for variations in loading. Intermediate partial frames may be added for local strengthening.

Web framesdeeper-than-normal frames with heavy flangesare often placed at intervals of several frame spaces, to stiffen and strengthen

the hull. Frames connect the longitudinal members and maintain spatial relationships in the face of shear and torsion. They also strengthen

the plating against bending under hydrostatic and dynamic loads or buckling under hull shear and bending, and act as ring stiffeners. U.S. Navy

practice is to number frames from the forward perpendicular (frame 0) aft; most foreign and many U.S. commercial vessels number frames from

aft forward. Frames forward of the forward perpendicular are designated by letters or negative numbers.

1-10.3.2 Floors. The portion of the frame from the keel to the turn of the bilge is a floor. Floors that do not continue into frames are

sometimes used for local strengthening or machinery foundations. Deep floorsdeeper than the standard floorsare used at the ends of the

ship and in high-load areas.

1-71

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-10.3.3

Beams.

Athwartships deck

stiffeners are called beams.

They

strengthen the deck against local loads,

including hydrostatic loads for weather

decks, and contribute to overall ship

strength by increasing rigidity. Deck beams

normally join directly to frames at their

outboard ends, forming a continuous frame

ring. Triangular brackets, called beam

brackets or beam knees, are fitted to stiffen

the joint, or the beam is faired in to the

frame in a smooth arc to form a continuous

structure, as shown in Figures 1-39, 1-40,

and 1-41.

WEB

SHELL PLATING

RABBET

WRAPPER

PLATES

STEM

BAR

side and bottom plating; i.e., those portions

of the ships skin that hold back the sea.

Bottom plating extends from the keel to the

turn of the bilge, side plating from the turn

of the bilge to or slightly beyond the upper

or main deck edge. Shell and deck plating

is arrayed in longitudinal strips called

strakes.

The strake adjacent to the keel is called the

garboard strake. The outer keel may be

incorporated into a keel strake. Strakes are

lettered from the keel outboard, starting

with the garboard strake as A. The strake

at the turn of the bilge is the bilge strake.

The uppermost strake, which joins to the

strength deck plating, is the sheer strake.

The keel, garboard, bilge, and sheer strakes

contribute significantly to longitudinal

strength, and are usually constructed of

heavier or stronger plate.

BREASTHOOK

COLLISION

BULKHEAD

PLATE STEM

SCARF

SCARF FOR

KEEL PLATE

GARBOARD

STRAKE

FLAT

PLATE

KEEL

FOREFOOT

CASTING

CASTING

BAR STEM

(OLDER, RIVETED, CONSTRUCTION)

BULBOUS BOW

into horizontal levels; weather decks also

close the top of the hull and maintain the

ships watertight integrity. Decks add

Figure 1-42. Stems

significant strength and rigidity to the

structure as a whole and limit the extent of

flooding after damage, provided they are or

can be made watertight. Decks may be steel or aluminum plating or wooden planking, and may be covered or sheathed with wood, tile,

linoleum, or other materials. The main deck is the highest continuous watertight deck and is usually the strength deck or upper flange of the

hull girder. Because of the main decks significance to hull strength and watertight integrity, it is used as the reference for numbering other

decks. The outboard strake of main deck plating is normally designated the main deck stringer and is either heavier or reinforced to provide

longitudinal strength. The connection of the deck to the sheer strake is critical to hull strength. Deck to sheer strake connections are often made

by means of a welded T-joint which may be backed up with an angle called the deck stringer angle or gunwale bar. Alternatively, the

connection may be made by means of a riveted gunwale bar, or the sheer strake may be rounded and butt-welded to the deck stringer. The U.S.

Navy uses the following definitions:

1-72

Platform or Platform Deck Deck extending less than the full length of the ship below the lowest complete deck; sometimes

called an orlop deck.

Half-Deck A partial deck above the lowest complete deck and below the main deck.

Forecastle Deck A partial deck above the main deck at the bow.

Poop Deck A partial deck above the main deck at the stern.

Upper Deck A partial deck above the main deck in the midships region, or one extending from the waists to either bow or stern.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Decks above the main deck are called superstructure decks and may be referred to as levels. The term level also refers to nonwatertight

horizontal subdivision, usually by gratings of very deep compartments; for example, the upper level of a machinery space. In merchant ships

and auxiliaries, tween decks are often fitted to provide one or two levels above the hold bottom to allow cargo to be subdivided or carried high

to prevent stiff rolling.

1-10.6 Bulkheads. Bulkheads further subdivide levels or decks into compartments of varying size. Bulkheads may extend through one or several

decks and may be classed as structural, watertight, or joiner (also called partition or screen) bulkheads. Structural bulkheads are those that, by

design, contribute significantly to the ships strength. They stiffen the hull by resisting racking and torsional stresses and distribute vertical loads.

Watertight bulkheads are designed to withstand significant hydrostatic loads and are installed to increase the ships resistance to damage by

containing flooding. Transverse watertight bulkheads extend upward to a specified deck called the bulkhead deck. Bulkheads are strengthened

by angle or bar stiffeners where necessary, or are constructed of corrugated plate. Joiner or partition bulkheads separate and subdivide living,

working, storage or other spaces, but impart no watertight integrity or significant strength to the ships structure. Bulkheads often fit into more

than one class, although all bulkheads act as partitions. In practice, watertight bulkheads are almost always structural, while structural bulkheads

are often watertight.

1-10.7 Other Structural Members. The Stem Assembly (Figure 1-42) forms the bow of the ship. In its original and simplest form, still used

in wooden ships and boats, the stem or stem post consisted of a heavy, rectangular timber which is, in essence, an upward continuation of the

keel to which the side planking was attached. In ships of iron or steel construction, the stem was a rectangular forged bar attached at its base

to the keel, usually through a forefoot casting. This type of bar stem has been largely superseded by the plate stem, built up of curved wrapper

plates, although bar or heavy pipe stems are still commonly used on Great Lakes bulk carriers. The sharper portions of the stem are formed

by welding the side plates to an ordinary stem bar or length of round bar or tube, or by butt-welding the plates together. The entire assembly

is reinforced by a closely spaced network of deep floors, frames, stringers, and horizontal plate breasthooks. Vertical centerline stiffeners are

fitted in stems of large radius and bulbous bows.

Stern Assemblies, seen in Figure 1-43, close

the aft end of the hull and must accommodate propeller shafts and rudder assemblies, as well as resist the dynamic

loads imposed by the rudders. In singlerudder ships, a stern post or frame is fitted

at the aft end of the keel. It is generally

constructed of castings and forgings arranged to allow for the propeller shaft and

rudder stock bosses. The upper part of the

stern which extends past the rudder post is

supported by a special arrangement of

framing. This framing is carried by the

transom consisting of a deep, heavy transom floor in conjunction with a transverse

transom frame and beam. In counter sterns

(also called ordinary, overhanging, or elliptical sterns), which may be found in

older merchant vessels, a system of cant

framing radiates from the center of the transom like the spokes of a wheel. Cruiser

sterns have a system of transverse frames

and longitudinal girders with a number of

cant frames fitted abaft the aftermost transverse frame. Transom sterns are similar to

cruiser sterns, but end in a flat plate, called

the transom, and have no cant frames. In

twin-rudder vessels, the stern post is

omitted and the reinforced stern structure

extends forward of the rudder posts.

SIDE

GIRDER

TRANSOM

FLOOR

FLOORS

STERN

FRAME

CRUISER STERN

RUDDER

TRUNK

CENTER

GIRDER

TRANSOM

PLATE

FRAME

CRUTCH

STIFFENERS

FLOOR

strength and resistance to underwater

damage. The inner bottom plating is laid

over the grillage of floors and longitudinals,

forming spaces often used as tankage for

TRANSOM STERN

bunker fuel or other liquids. The outer

strake of the inner bottom is called the

margin plate, which may extend in a

Figure 1-43. Stern Assemblies.

horizontal line to the side plating, or be

inclined downward near the turn of the

bilge to form the side of the double bottom. The double bottom may or may not be continuous over the length of the ship. Large combatants

such as aircraft carriers and battleships may have more than one inner bottom.

Stanchions or pillars are used to support decks, distribute vertical loads, and stiffen the hull structure between bulkheads.

1-73

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-10.8 Superstructures and Deckhouses. The term superstructure is applied to a portion of a ships structure above the main or upper deck

extending the width of the ship and forming an integral part of the main hull. A deckhouse is a lighter structure, usually not extending the width

of the ship, that is placed on the hull rather than forming a part of it. In practice, the two terms are often confused or used interchangeably.

In naval combatants and passenger liners, deckhouses or superstructures may extend for most of the vessels length; in most other types, they

occupy a small portion of the ships length. These structures generally house accommodation, communications, navigational, or control spaces.

They may house workshops or specialized machinery; in warships, weapons control spaces and weapons mounts are often located on or in the

superstructure or deckhouse. Deckhouses are not normally designed to contribute to overall hull girder strength, but being rigidly attached to

the hull, they carry some stresses. Superstructures, as an integral part of the hull, are normally designed to carry hull stresses.

1-10.9 Damage-resistant Features of Ships. While the entire structure of a ship is designed to resist some damage, certain features are

incorporated into ships specifically to prevent loss of the ship when damaged. Loss may result from flooding or structural failure of the hull

girder. Features enhancing a ships ability to resist damage are described in the following paragraphs.

1-10.9.1 Subdivision. Subdivision, or compartmentation, is a ships primary means of resisting damage. A system of watertight decks,

bulkheads, and an inner bottom limits the spread of flooding, fire, blast effects, weapon fragments, and fumes or gases. Extensive subdivision

is an inconvenience to everyone; production cost is increased, cargo storage is complicated, access and movement around the ship is hampered.

The degree of subdivision is therefore a compromise between safety and other requirements. Factors considered include the following:

Type Ship

Standard of Subdivision

Protection of vital spaces against flooding.

1 compartment

2 compartments

airborne contaminants.

Carriers, such as Hospital Ships

and Troop Transports

to 15% of length between perpendiculars at any

point fore or aft

of the length between perpendiculars

systems.

Tankers over 738 ft in length

length equal to the lesser of 0.495L2/3 or 47.6 ft,

width equal to the lesser of B/5 or 37.74 ft, from the

keel upwards without limit, at any point between

perpendiculars

any point except at an aft machinery room bulkhead

any point between main transverse bulkheads,

except to an aft machinery room

length equal to the lesser of 0.495L2/3 or 47.6 ft,

width of 4.2 ft, from the keel upwards without limit,

between any two main transverse bulkheads

width of 30 in, from the keel upwards without limit,

at any point, including the intersection of a

transverse and longitudinal bulkhead

situations is limiting flooding. Floodwater may be admitted

to the ship by collision, grounding, weapons strike,

firefighting, or other means. However flooding occurs, it

is necessary to limit its extent to minimize the following:

Loss of reserve buoyancy.

Damage to cargo and ship systems.

of flooding until it founders from loss of reserve buoyancy.

Barges carrying moderately hazardous

Withstand flooding from damage described above at

materials

any point, except on a transverse watertight bulkhead

Loss of transverse or longitudinal stability can cause a ship

1

to capsize or plunge, even when a sizable reserve buoyancy

Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet, DDS079-1, Stability and Buoyancy of

U.S. Naval Surface Ships, 1 Aug 75

remains. Offcenter flooding and its serious effects on

2

Title 46, US Code of Federal Regulations (46 CFR), Subchapter S. Requirements have

transverse stability can be avoided by using transverse

been simplified. Additional definitions and exceptions apply. Subdivision requirements

subdivision only. Complete avoidance of longitudinal

for passenger ships are especially diverse.

watertight boundaries is not always possible or advisable,

but most modern ships follow a general pattern of transverse watertight subdivision, at the expense of admitting a larger volume of floodwater.

Some longitudinal subdivision is necessary to reduce free surface effect, especially in tanks. This subdivision normally takes the form of a

centerline bulkhead dividing the inner bottom into port and starboard tanks, or use of wing tanks smaller than the adjacent centerline tanks.

Sills, seen in Figure 1-44, or baffle plates are sometimes used to reduce the free surface effects of rolling or shallow flooding but are ineffective

against unchecked flooding. Transverse watertight bulkheads near the extremities of the ship limit flooding, and prevent the large and dangerous

trims that large amounts of floodwater at the ends of the ship would produce. Additional transverse watertight bulkheads are spaced to permit

the ship to remain afloat after a specific number of adjacent compartments, usually 1, 2, or 3, are flooded. The number of compartments that

can be flooded without causing foundering is the ships standard of subdivision or standard of flooding. For example, the FFG-7 Class frigate

shown in Figure 1-45 can remain afloat if any 3 of its 13 major watertight compartments are floodedit is said to be a 3-compartment ship.

Progressive flooding is defeated by carrying each watertight bulkhead intact from the bottom plating to a height above the expected flooding

water level. Watertight bulkheads are normally carried watertight to a specified deck, called the bulkhead deck. The bulkhead deck on most

designs is the main or weather deck and may be either a continuous or stepped deck. For the FFG-7 Class ship shown in Figure 1-45, the main

deck is the bulkhead deck. Standards of subdivision for Navy and commercial ships are given in Table 1-13.

1-74

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Ships are assigned a minimum freeboard based on the reserve buoyancy required to sustain flooding to their standard of subdivision without

foundering. This freeboard is measured from a margin line that represents the highest allowable waterline in a damaged condition. The margin

line is usually established near the bulkhead deck or a designated freeboard deck. Load lines for cargo ships and tankers or limiting draft marks

for warships are marked at a distance below the margin line corresponding to the required freeboard. If the load line or limiting draft mark is

not immersed before damage, and flooding is equal to or less than the standard of subdivision, the ship will remain afloat at a waterline at or

below the margin line after damage. Salvors may not be able to restore a ships required minimum freeboard; reduced freeboard must be

recognized as a loss of reserve buoyancy and damage resistance. This is particularly important if the casualty is to be towed some distance to

safe haven. In such a case, a salvage engineer may wish to calculate the standard of subdivision for the ship in its actual condition.

1-10.9.3 Likely Damage. Certain features

are incorporated into ships to isolate

common or likely forms of damage.

Because the ends of the ship are more

vulnerable to damage from collision or

grounding, a collision bulkhead is required

at about five percent of the ships length

from the bow, along with an afterpeak

bulkhead near the stern, enclosing the

propeller shaft penetration into the hull. A

second collision bulkhead may be required

in large ships. Watertight double bottoms

are required in some classes of vessels to

provide protection against grounding and

limited protection against underwater

weapons. Machinery spaces are segregated

from the rest of the ship by watertight bulkheads that (1) protect the ship from intense

machinery space fires, and (2) protect vital

equipment located in the machinery spaces

from flooding in other parts of the ship.

Sheer can prevent or delay progressive

flooding through deck openings when trim

is extreme, as shown in Figure 1-46.

Wing tanks, common in tankers, ore

carriers, and large combatants, limit flooding from damage to the sides. The effect

of offcenter flooding can be mitigated by

constructing the wing tanks with volumes

that are small compared to the center tanks

or holds, or by keeping wing tanks filled at

least to the waterline. A system of wing

tanks combined with a double bottom

produces, in effect, a double hull.

1-10.9.4 Structural Damage. Structural

failure is resisted by the use of materials of

consistent and known strength, and by building in reserve strength. Ships scantlings are

selected to result in bending stresses on the

order of 15,000 to 22,000 pounds per square

inch, considerably less than the yield stress

of shipbuilding steels (32,000 psi or greater).

This stress level is often contingent on

specified loading sequences and conditions,

particularly in very large tankers or bulk

carriers. Hull strength is addressed in greater

detail in Paragraph 1-11.

MAIN DECK

(BULKHEAD DECK)

AP

368

328

292

140

100 84 64

32 20

FP

1-10.9.5 Additional Features of Naval Ships. Both naval and merchant ships use the damage-resistant features previously described. Naval ships,

intended to go "in harms way," incorporate additional damage-resistant features in their construction. Naval ships will usually have more extensive

subdivision than merchant vessels, although some naval auxiliaries are built to classification society standards. Combatants are built with a much

greater degree of subdivision and greater reserve of strength than auxiliaries or merchant ships of the same size. Naval vessels often have multiple

machinery spaces segregated by watertight bulkheads, as well as auxiliary machinery spaces located remotely from the main machinery rooms.

Additional vital spaces, such as ship control stations or weapons spaces, are designated and protected by watertight subdivision. In all commissioned

vessels of the U.S. Navy, a damage control (DC) deck is designated. The DC deck, on which damage control equipment and stations are located,

is considered a vital space and is made watertight where feasible. Remote operators for certain vital piping and electrical systems are located on

the DC deck. The damage control deck is located high in the ship and is usually covered; fore and aft access is provided through watertight openings

in the main transverse bulkheads. Doors and nonwatertight fittings in main transverse bulkheads are not permitted below the DC deck. Doors

through transverse bulkheads into shaft alleys are not allowed; no penetrations are allowed through the collision bulkhead. In addition to armored

decks and side armor, large combatants, such as aircraft carriers and battleships, are fitted with underwater defense systems (also called side protective

or torpedo protection systems) consisting of layered wing and bottom tanks. These are alternately empty or liquid-filled to absorb the shock of

underwater explosions. The tank boundaries form a series of barriers that must be breached before major spaces are flooded.

1-75

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11

SHIP STRENGTH

structures, are subject to load-induced stress

and the resulting strains. Simple beam

theory is employed to predict ship

responses to various conditions of loading

by treating assuming the ships structure as

a built-up box girder bearing an distributed

load (weight of the ship and contents) and

supported by a distributed reaction

(buoyancy). Of principal concern are the

compound bending and shear stresses

resulting from the ships loading and wave

action.

Torsional stresses are also

important, and can be severely aggravated

by grounding in large ships. Stresses may

be divided into three groups:

Primary or Structural

Affecting the hull girder.

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Secondary or Local

Affecting major substructures

or definable areas of the hull,

such as a hold or bulkhead.

TERTIARY

affecting small areas of

plating or single stiffeners.

BUOYANCY

and tertiary stresses are illustrated by the

character of the accompanying structural

deflections, as shown in Figure 1-47. The

total stress on any portion of structure is

the sum of primary, secondary and tertiary

stresses that may tend to either reinforce or

cancel one another.

1-11.1.1

Structural Stresses.

The

principal structural stresses are caused by

the following conditions:

1-76

WEIGHT

HOGGING

WEIGHT

Weight and Buoyancy Distribution. Differences in buoyBUOYANCY

ancy and weight distribution

cause longitudinal bending

stresses and accompanying

shear stresses. An excess of

buoyancy in the midships

region with an excess of

weight near the ends of the

ship places the deck in tension and the keel in compression. The resulting convex

deflection is called hog or

SAGGING

hogging.

An excess of

weight in the midships region

and excess buoyancy near the

Figure 1-48. Hull Girder Bending.

ends places the deck in compression and the keel in tension. The concave deflection is called sag, or sagging. Long waves can impose hogging or sagging conditions as shown in Figure

1-48. Bending stresses are resisted by the longitudinal strength members, particularly those of the strength deck, sheer strake and

bottom. Bending stresses are normally greatest in the midships region of an intact ship, while maximum shear stresses occur in

the quarter length regions.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

water pressure, is resisted by

the side and bottom plating

stiffened by a network of

frames, floors, longitudinals,

etc. All weight loads are

ultimately transmitted through

the ship structure to be borne

by water pressure. The differences in weight and water

pressure distribution produce

varying loads as shown in

Figure 1-49.

WATER PRESSURE

alter the water pressure distribution around the ship, as

shown in Figure 1-50. The

unequal pressure distribution

tends to bend side plating and

transverse frames about a

horizontal longitudinal axis.

The transverse distortion is

called racking and is resisted

by shear stresses in the ships

structure. Racking stresses

are highest on the corners of

a ships cross section.

Racking is resisted by transverse bulkheads and frame

ring, particularly the corner

brackets.

Drydocking. Ships supported

by a single line of drydock

keel blocks will hog transversely. A cellular double

bottom stiffens the hull

against such hog, but additional lines of side blocks

are more effective.

Stranding.

Stranding

changes the bending stress

distribution in the hull girder

by altering the buoyancy distribution and introducing concentrated loading along the

bottom. Point loads similar

to those caused by docking

blocks, but naturally much

less predictable, result if the

ship strands on uneven or

rocky ground. Large ships

may sag transversely if

stranded over a narrow width

near the centerline.

WEIGHT LOADS

DEFLECTION

(EXAGGERATED)

DEFLECTION

(EXAGGERATED)

WATER

PRESSURE

WAVE

PROFILE

1-77

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11.1.2 Local Stresses. Secondary and tertiary stresses result from localized loads such as the following:

Panting. Panting is an oscillatory motion of the shell plating, principally near the bow and stern of a ship, caused by uneven water

pressure as the ship passes through waves. The fore-end (and sometimes the after) structure is reinforced with a system of panting

beams, panting stringers, panting frames, breasthooks, and deep floors to withstand panting loads.

Pounding or slamming. Pounding occurs when the bows of a pitching ship clear the water and come down heavily. Pounding

is most severe in full-bowed ships in the bottom structure in the forward quarter length of the ship. In this pounding region,

plating and bottom stiffeners are often heavier and/or more closely spaced than in the rest of the ship.

Local Loads. Local strengthening enables the ship structure to carry loads caused by large local weights, such as machinery or

cargo. Similar measures are used to strengthen structure in way of fittings that transmit high loads, such as padeyes, winch

mounts, and kingpost foundations. The geometry of portions of the hull or fittings may cause stress raisers, requiring local

reinforcement to increase load-carrying capacity. Figure 1-51 shows some forms of local reinforcement.

Vibration. Vibration from engines, propellers, etc., causes stresses in various parts of the ship. Vibration-induced stresses are

resisted by local stiffening of areas in way of vibration sources.

shock effects of airborne, underwater, and

contact explosions can cause severe and not

wholly predictable loads on ship structure.

Warships are constructed with this kind of

loading in mind, and are therefore strengthened to withstand blast and impact loads

over much of their structure. The exact

nature of this strengthening varies from

ship to ship but generally consists of closer

stiffener and bulkhead spacing than would

be found in an equivalent-sized merchant

ship or auxiliary. Weapons effects are

discussed in greater detail in the U.S. Navy

Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 3 (S0300A6-MAN-030).

1-11.2 Longitudinal Bending Stress. The

magnitude of the longitudinal bending

stresses in the hull girder is a function of the

total bending moment, cross-sectional area

distribution. The bending moment is a

function of the shear force distribution along

the ships length, which is in turn a function

of the ships load distribution. The hull is

assumed to be a statically loaded beam that

behaves in accordance with the theory of

flexure (see Paragraph 2-3). The downward

loads on the beam are the weights of the

component parts of the ship and any weights

carried on the ship. Upward loads are the

forces of buoyancy (and ground reaction or

block reaction for stranded, beached, or dry

docked ships).

Bending moment is

calculated by a double integration of the

static load curve.

The steps in the

longitudinal stress calculation are:

1-78

FREE-EDGE STIFFENING

FACE STRAP

PLATE STIFFENING

TRIPPING

BRACKETS

GUSSET

DOUBLER PLATE

MACHINERY

FOUNDATION

BILGE

KEEL

Determine longitudinal

weight and buoyancy

distributions.

Statically balance the ship on

still water or a wave.

Develop the longitudinal load

distribution or curve.

Integrate the shear curve to give bending moments.

Determine which structure in sections of interest is effective.

Determine moment of inertia, section modulus and location of the neutral axis for sections of interest.

Calculate bending and shear stresses in sections of interest.

DEEP

FRAME

S0300-A8-HBK-010

These steps are examined separately in the following paragraphs. Amplifying information can be found in the Naval Ship Engineering Center

Design Data Sheet DDS 100-6, or any good naval architecture text. Examples 1-5, F-3, and F-5 demonstrate longitudinal strength calculations.

1-11.2.1 Load Curve. The load on the hull girder at any point is the difference between the buoyant force and weight at that point. This is

graphically represented by superimposing buoyancy and weight curves. The areas under the curves represent total buoyancy and total weight.

For a floating ship, the two areas must be equal, with their geometric centers in vertical line. Figure 1-61 shows the load curve developed for

Example 1-5. For the shear and bending moment integrations to close properly, the ship must be statically balanced; that is, weight and

buoyancy, as calculated by integration of the respective curves, should be within 0.5 percent, and LCB and LCG should be within one foot of

each other.

It is important to adopt sign conventions for the directions of forces and distances, and carry them through subsequent calculations. The

calculations in this handbook follow the intuitive convention that downward forces (weight) are negative and upward forces (buoyancy) are

positive, resulting in load curves that are predominantly positive over the middle portion for hogging hulls, and predominantly positive at the

ends for sagging hulls.

1-11.2.2 Buoyancy Curve. The magnitude of the buoyant force at any point is a function of the cross-sectional area below the water line and

the water density. The buoyancy curve will therefore follow the curve of areas. Areas of sections are most easily obtained from Bonjeans

Curves, shown in Figure FO-3 and described in Paragraph 1-3.11. Lines drawings, offsets, or general plans can also be used to determine

sectional areas by numerical integration. The still water buoyancy curve is developed by dividing sectional areas by 35 (cubic feet per long

ton of seawater) to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot) and plotting these values as ordinates.

A buoyancy curve based on ordinates taken from Bonjeans Curves will not include appendage buoyancy. If known, appendage buoyancies

can be added to the basic curve as rectangles or trapezoids. When appendage buoyancy is unknown, a simpler and generally adequate solution

is to assume that an appropriate appendage allowance (a fraction of full-load displacement) is distributed over the length of the ship. Final buoyancy ordinates are determined by an appendage allowance adjusted for the ships condition, i.e., the appendage allowance divided by actual displacement. Buoyancy ordinates multiplied by the adjusted appendage allowance plus one give adjusted buoyancy ordinates. Integrating the

adjusted buoyancy ordinates should give a correct total buoyancy equal to total weight. Appendage allowances are discussed in Paragraph

1-4.10.2.

As part of the regression analysis described

in Paragraph 1-7, Porricelli, Boyd, and

Schlieffer developed a method of

approximating the buoyancy curve for

merchant and auxiliary hulls with a series

of trapezoids. The method is reasonably

accurate for full-bodied ships (CB > 0.6).

The ship is first divided into three

segments: the parallel midbody (pmb), the

forebody (fb), and the afterbody (ab). The

forebody and afterbody are then divided

into two sections each.

A uniform

buoyancy distribution is assumed for the

parallel midbody and represented by a

rectangle. Ordinates are plotted at the

forward and after perpendiculars and the

boundaries of the sections of the hull and

connected by straight lines to form the

buoyancy curve. Buoyancy of the parallel

midbody (Bpmb), lengths of sections (Ln, bn)

and heights of ordinates (yn) are calculated

as shown in Figure 1-52.

y3

y3

y4

y2

y5

y1

b5

AP

b4

b3

Lab

L pmb

b2

b1

Lfb

y1 = 0.04y3

Lfb

b2 = Lfb - b1

b3 = Lpmb

y2 = CB y3

Lab

= (1.186 - 1.17CB)L

= L - Lpmb - Lfb

Lpmb B Tm Cm

B pmb =

35

b4 = Lab - b5

b = 0.2L

5

FP

y3 = Bpmb /Lpmb

y4 = CB y3

y5 = 0.08y3

Figure 1-52. Approximate Buoyancy Curve for Full-Bodied Ship.

curves to develop the load curve, the

buoyancy curve is often stepped, that is,

approximated by a series of horizontal segments at a height corresponding to the mean buoyancy ordinate for that segment. The procedure for

stepping a curve is described in Paragraph 1-4.9. It is not necessary for the buoyancy curve to have the same number of segments as the weight

curve, although it is convenient for all of the bounding stations for the curve with fewer segments to coincide with stations on the other curve.

The load curve resulting when the two curves are summed will have the same number of segments as the curve with the most segments.

1-11.2.3 Weight Curve. Weight distribution tables or curves are often difficult to obtain, even though they are developed during the design

of the hull girder. For U.S. Navy ships, a Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections drawing is prepared, showing weight distribution, usually

for full load. A portion of the longitudinal strength drawing for FFG-7 Class ships is reproduced in Figure FO-4. The complete drawing includes section scantlings, similar to Figure 1-58, for a number of stations along the ships length. Format and content of longitudinal strength

drawings for Navy ships are more completely described in Appendix B.

1-79

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Weight distributions for Navy ships are tabulated or drawn for 20 standard ship segments between perpendiculars, plus one segment forward

of the forward perpendicular and one aft of the after perpendicular (22 segments). The segments forward and aft of the perpendiculars extend

from the perpendiculars to the ends of the ship and are not necessarily the same length as the segments between perpendiculars. Segments are

identified by the stations that bound them, numbered from 0 at the forward perpendicular to 20 at the after perpendicular. Weight distribution

is assumed to be uniform within each segment, producing a stepped curve. For cargo ships, tankers, etc., where loading may vary by

compartment, it may be more convenient to segment the ship by compartments. Weight distributions for a number of Navy ships are given in

Appendix B.

The weight curve from a longitudinal strength drawing or other source must be corrected for the ships actual weight distribution, including any

major alterations (SHIPALTS). Often this information is not available and weight change estimates must be made until the weight distribution

sums to the known ship displacement. If detailed weight curves are not available, weight distribution can be estimated by one of the methods

described in Paragraph 1-11.13.

1-11.2.4 Shear and Bending Moment Curves. A fundamental principle of beam theory is that at any point in an elastic beam:

P =

dS

dx

d 2M

dx 2

where:

P

S

M

=

=

=

load

shear

bending moment

the vertical forces to one side of the

section; the shear curve is therefore

developed by integrating the load curve (the

sum of the weight and buoyancy curves)

along its length, starting from either end of

the ship. The total positive area under the

shear curve should equal the total negative

area for static equilibrium. Shear is zero at

the ends of the ship; for most ships, shear

will be maximum near the quarter-lengths

and change signs near midships.

W >B

SAGGING SHIP

B >W

1-80

When P is 0, S is a maximum or

minimum and M is at an

inflection point.

LOAD, P

AP

FP

SHEAR, S

of force moments about the section. The

bending moment curve is developed by

integrating the shear curve along its length.

Bending moment is zero at the ends of the

ship, and is maximum where shear changes

sign. The load and shear curves cannot be

defined mathematically, so graphical or

numerical methods are used to perform the

integrations, as shown in Paragraph 1-4 and

Appendix F. Several important relationships between the load, shear and bending

moment curves, illustrated in Figure 1-53,

act as checks on the completed curves:

B >W

S = 0, M AT

LOCAL MAX

P AT MAX,

S AT INFLECTION

MOMENT, M

P = 0, S = LOCAL

MAX/MIN, M AT

INFLECTION

AP

FP

B >W

B >W

HOGGING SHIP

When P is a maximum, S is at an

inflection point.

When S is 0, M is a maximum or minimum.

W >B

Figure 1-53. Load, Shear, Bending Moment Curve Relations and Conventions.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The load and shear curves can be integrated from either end. Each integration should close to zero at the end opposite the beginning. Small

errors in closing are unavoidable if the areas under the weight and buoyancy curve are not precisely equal, and LCG and LCB are not coincident.

It is sometimes useful to integrate each curve twice, once in each direction, and compare the results. If the integrations close to zero, integrating

in the opposite direction will reverse the sign of the ordinate at each station, but will not change the magnitude. If the integrations do not close

precisely, integrating in the opposite direction will change the magnitude of the shear and moment ordinates at each station, and is a means of

estimating the error range of the calculated values. If the shear curve does not close, the sections of maximum shear and bending moment will

also shift somewhat when integrating in the opposite direction. For small errors in closing, the magnitude of the shear and bending moment

ordinates in the middle portion of the curve will be fairly reliable, but the ordinates near the ends of the ship should not be trusted.

A useful convention is to integrate the load curve from left to right (from aft forward) to develop the shear curve, and the shear curve from right

to left (from forward aft) to develop the moment curve. Following this convention, along with taking downward forces as negative, will result

in shear and moment curves with the features shown in Figure 1-53:

(1) Positive shear on the left side of the plot (aft).

(2) Negative shear on the right side of the plot (forward).

(3) Negative (convex downwards) bending moment.

(1) Negative shear on the left side of the plot (aft).

(2) Positive shear on the right side of the plot (forward).

(3) Positive (convex upwards) bending moment.

This convention is useful because the bending moment curves superficially resemble a sagging or hogging hull, as appropriate. Other

conventions may be encountered in ship design data. Shear curves that are the mirror image of the convention described above are common

and result when both shear and moment integrations are run in the same direction. U.S. Navy longitudinal strength drawings disregard the sign

of bending moments and shear forces and show all curves above the axis to save space. Example 1-5 calculates still water bending moment

and shear curves for an FFG-7 hull; the curves are illustrated in Figures 1-62.

1-11.3 Variations in Loading. Any change in weight or buoyancy distribution will alter the load curve.

1-11.3.1 Changes in Weight Distribution. Changes in weight distribution generally result from deliberate actions, such as taking on or

discharging cargo, ballasting, launching or recovering aircraft and boats, use of fuels or other consumables, or shifting weights. Weight

distribution can also be changed in a casualty by:

Flooding.

Spilled cargo.

Weight additions or removals change total weight, and therefore affect total buoyancy and buoyancy distribution. Weight shifts that significantly

alter trim also affect the buoyancy distribution.

Buoyancy distribution can change without an accompanying change in weight distribution. Such changes result from:

Waves.

Grounding.

Drydocking.

1-81

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11.3.2

Wave-induced Buoyancy

Distribution. In all but the stillest water,

buoyancy distribution changes constantly in

proportion to the variations in draft along

the ships length as successive wave trains

pass. A wave-induced buoyancy curve is

developed by superimposing a wave profile,

or series of profiles, on the ship profile,

instead of using a horizontal waterline, to

determine drafts at stations. An infinite

number of waves are possible; in practice,

it is usually sufficient to examine only

worst-case situations. Maximum midships

bending moments result from the two

situations shown in Figure 1-48. Ships are

designed to carry the stresses imposed by

these conditions, based on a trochoidal or

sinusoidal wave form with length equal to

the ships length (L). Standard wave

heights were formerly taken as L/20, and

then 1.1

L as ship size increased, but with

steady increases in ship length, these

formulae yield unrealistically large waves.

More recent ABS construction rules specify

different formulae for different ranges of

length, although Navy design practice still

uses the 1.1

L wave. Although artificial,

these assumed conditions have proven

adequate for design work; they are used

here to illustrate the procedures for

analyzing wave-induced stresses in ships.

The salvage engineer who finds it necessary

to evaluate the strength of a casualty

exposed to wave action should base his

worst cases on observed or expected waves

and the actual loading and structural

condition of the casualty.

Total bending moment is sometimes spoken

of as the sum of a still water bending

moment and a wave-induced bending

moment. The total bending moment is

simply the bending moment resulting from

the load distribution at that instant. The

bending moment can be evaluated by

adding to or subtracting from the still water

buoyancy curve or by starting from scratch

by superimposing a wave profile over the

Bonjeans curves to develop the buoyancy

curve, as shown in Figure 1-54. As before,

the area under the buoyancy curve must

equal the area under the weight curve.

STILL WATERLINE

DECREASED BUOYANCY

WAVE PROFILE

INCREASED BUOYANCY

SECTIONAL AREAS

WAVE PROFILE

BONJEANS CURVES

Figure 1-54. Wave-Induced Buoyancy.

R

h

L

r2

2R

EQUAL AREAS

LINE OF

CENTERS

r2

2R

STILL

WATERLINE

INITIAL PLACEMENT OF WAVE ON HULL PROFILE

integrations close, the ship must be

statically balanced on the wave; that is, the waterline must be adjusted until weight equals buoyancy and the center of buoyancy is in vertical

line with the center of gravity. When using Bonjeans Curves in the profile format, this is most easily accomplished by plotting the wave profile

to the same vertical and horizontal scales as the Bonjeans Curves on a piece of tracing paper. The wave profile is laid over the Bonjeans

Curves, with either the crest or trough at the midship station, as appropriate. Section areas are picked off as ordinates to a trial buoyancy curve,

which is integrated to determine buoyancy and LCB. If the first guess does not match buoyancy and weight within limits, successive calculations

are made, moving the wave up and down and trimming it until a position is found where buoyancy is within one percent of weight, and LCB

is within one foot of LCG. When the final position of the ship on the wave is determined, the section areas are converted to unit buoyancies

to plot a precise buoyancy curve that is used to determine the mean unit buoyancy over each segment of the ships length. Buoyancy and weight

curves are then summed to calculate the load curve; shear and bending moment integrations are conducted as for the still water condition. When

the rosette format Bonjeans Curves are used, drafts at each station must be determined by interpolation so the section areas can be read from

the curves. Alternatively, rosette format curves can be traced onto a profile of the ship. The horizontal scale of the ship profile (not the same

as the Bonjeans Curve area scale) is not critical, but should not be more than twice the vertical scale; if the horizontal scale is too great, portions

of the wave profile will be steep enough that small errors in plotting will cause significant errors in reading sectional areas.

1-82

S0300-A8-HBK-010

A trochoid is the curve traced by a point inside a circle as the circle rolls along a horizontal line, as shown in Figure 1-55. Coordinates for the

trochoidal wave form are developed from the relationships:

x = L

y = h

sin

+ h

360

2

1

cos

2

The relationships are not linear, so there is no fixed interval that will match the x interval to station spacing; x and y coordinates are

determined for values of from 0 to 360 at convenient increments, such as 30 degrees. Because the ordinates to the trochoidal wave do not

fall on Bonjeans stations, it is important to plot the curve carefully to minimize error. The area under a sagging trochoid is less than the length

multiplied by half the height, so the line of centers (see Figure 1-55) must be placed above the still water line for buoyancy to equal ships

weight (for a hogging wave, the line is placed below the still waterline). The area under a trochoid is equal to that of a rectangle with the same

length and an upper boundary formed by a line r2/2R below the line of centers. Since the circle describing the trochoid makes one revolution

in the ships length, L = 2R, and 2R = L/. For an L/20 wave, r = L/40, and:

r

2R

L 2

40

L

L2

1,600 L

L

1,600

= 0.00196 L

L

wave

20

As an initial estimate, the line of centers of the trochoidal wave should be placed 0.00196L above the still waterline.

If r is expressed as 0.55

L, L will cancel out of the ratio, giving no solution. For a 1.1

L wave, r is expressed as h/2, and:

2

r

2R

h 2

2

L

h 2

4L

0.785 h 2

L

1.1 L wave

For manual calculations, it is often simpler to use sinusoidal waves (y = Lsin), as they are not horizontal-scale dependent. The full wave form

is developed in 180 degrees, and ordinates calculated at even increments of are plotted at evenly spaced stations. If increments of are set

equal to 180 divided by the number of segments, the wave ordinate stations correspond to the Bonjeans curve stations, simplifying determination

of section areas. Sinusoidal waves are somewhat steeper than trochoidal waves. For fine-lined ships, maximum hogging moments will be lower

and maximum sagging moments higher than moments based on trochoidal waves of the same length and height. For full-bodied ships, both

hogging and sagging moments will be higher when based on sinusoidal waves. For a ship with block coefficient of 0.46, the standard 1.1

L

sine wave bending moment is 6 percent less than trochoidal for hogging and 2 percent higher for sagging. For a block coefficient of 1.0, the

standard sine wave bending moment is 11 percent higher for hogging and 9 percent higher for sagging.

1-11.4 Curve Scales. It is sometimes convenient to draw the load, shear, and bending moment curves on the same plan. To standardize

drawing size and simplify manual integration, the U. S. Navy has adopted the following scaling criteria for longitudinal strength drawings like

that shown in Figure FO-4.

Base length for all curves is 20 units. Base length corresponds to the length between perpendiculars, so the horizontal scale is

one unit = L/20 feet.

The mean heights of the weight and buoyancy curves are three units for the full load condition. Vertical scale for weight,

buoyancy, and load curves is one unit = W/3L tons per foot of length.

One square unit of area under the weight, buoyancy, or load curves represents L/20 W/3L = W/60 tons.

The shear curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents two square units of area under the load curve; the vertical shear

scale is one unit = W/30 tons.

One square unit of area under the shear curve represents L/20 W/30 = WL/600 foot-tons.

The bending moment curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents three square units under the shear curve; the vertical

moment scale is one unit = WL/200 foot-tons.

1-83

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Navy drawings use one inch as the base unit, but any convenient unit or multiple can be used. When there is no requirement to plot curves

on the same plan, it is more convenient to make all the integration calculations in the base units without scale conversions.

1-11.5 Section Modulus. From beam

theory, the bending stress () at any point

is given by:

My

=

I

LONGITUDINAL BULKHEAD

BELOW

DECK

OPENING

where:

1:4 SLOPE

section in question

vertical distance from the

neutral axis to the fiber

(element) in question

moment of inertia of the

section in question about the

neutral axis

PLAN VIEW

SHADOW

IN DECK

SHADOW

IN DECK

DECK OPENING

tensile and compressive stresses will occur

in the beam elements furthest from the

neutral axis. The distance from the neutral

axis to the outer fibers is designated c. The

term I/c is sometimes calculated separately

and called the section modulus (Z or SM).

Substituting:

max =

Mc

M

=

I

Z

EFFECTIVE

BULKHEAD

1:4 SLOPE

SHADOW IN

BULKHEAD

STRENGTH DECKS

BRACKET

NONSTRENGTH DECK

TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD

pressed in foot-tons, moment of inertia in

in2-ft2, and distances from the neutral axis

Figure 1-56. Ineffective Shadow Zones at Discontinuities.

in feet, the calculation yields bending stress

in long tons per square inch. It is best to

convert tons per square inch to pounds per square inch for comparison with material strengths (normally tabulated in psi) and to avoid confusion

between long, short, and metric tons.

1-11.5.1 Effective Structure. Calculating the moment of inertia for a simple girder is straightforward; the relatively complex cross section

of a ship is another matter. Judgement must be used to determine which elements of the ships structure effectively contribute to longitudinal

strength. Elements that are subject to buckling, tripping and other forms of load shirking, or that are inadequately joined to the overall structure,

cannot be assumed to contribute to longitudinal strength. As load shirking by panels with a width-to-thickness ratio greater than 70 is likely,

contribution of unsupported plating panels should be limited to 70 times the thickness. Material not structurally continuous for at least 40 percent

of the length of the ship about the section being examined is assumed to be ineffective.

Only the net cross-sectional area of longitudinally continuous components of longitudinal strength members, excluding openings and ineffective

shadow areas forward and aft of openings or other discontinuities, are included when calculating the moment of inertia. The shadow area of

an opening is the area forward and aft of the opening between converging lines drawn tangent to the radiused corners at a slope of one transverse

unit to four longitudinal units, as shown in Figure 1-56. All structures, including longitudinal framing and other connected structures within

this area, are considered ineffective. For openings caused by damage or with sharp corners, lines bounding shadow areas should be drawn

tangent to points outside the area of wrinkled or upset plating, or at a distance equal to 30 times the plating thickness from the edge of the

opening, whichever is greater. Shadow areas adjacent to discontinuities such as the ends of longitudinal bulkheads, strength decks, and inner

bottoms, are bounded by lines with a 1:4 slope, as shown in Figure 1-56.

1-84

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11.5.2 Calculating Section Modulus. After the elements to be included have been selected, moment of inertia, I, is calculated by summing

second moments of area (ay2) of individual elements about an arbitrary axis. It is most convenient to sum moments about the keel (some

authorities prefer to use an assumed neutral axis). Moments of inertia (i) of elements with significant vertical dimensions are added to the

summed second moments of elemental areas. Moment of inertia about the keel (IK) is then:

(ay 2)

IK =

(i)

where:

IK

a

y

ay2

i

=

=

=

=

=

area of individual section element, in2

height of centroid of section element above the keel, ft

second moment of area of individual section element, in2-ft

moment of inertia of individual section elements, in2-ft2

Measuring areas in square inches and vertical distances from the axis in feet gives second moments of area (moments of inertia) in in2-ft2, rather

than the in4, ft4, cm4, etc., customarily used in other branches of engineering. Moment of inertia of a rectangle is equal to bh3/12, where h is

the height and b the breadth of the rectangle:

i =

bh 3

(bh) h 2

=

12

12

in feet, the units of moments of inertia of

individual elements are consistent with the

units of ay2.

Individual moments of inertia for inclined

or curved plates with significant vertical

dimensions are determined by calculating

the square of the radius of gyration (k) as

shown in Figure 1-57. Moment of inertia

can then be calculated from the definition

of radius of gyration.

i

h2

12

133.33

144

402

12

REFERENCE AXIS

y

y

h

g

ak2

square inches, and k in feet. If the

inclined flat-plate section shown in

Figure 1-58 is 5 8-inch thick, 54 inches

wide, and inclined so that h is 40 inches,

then:

k2 =

ah 2

12

= 133.33 in2

h

h2

k2 = 12

i = ak2

= 0.926 ft2

8

Since the neutral axis of the ships section passes through the centroid of the section, height of the neutral axis above the keel is found by

dividing the first moment of areas by the sum of areas of the section. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is found by the parallel axis

theorem:

INA = IK Ad 2

where:

INA

IK

A

d

=

=

=

=

moment of inertia about the keel, in2-ft2 = (ay2) + (i)

total area of individual section elements, in2 = (a)

height of the neutral axis above the keel, ft = (ay2)/(a)

1-85

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Once INA and height of the neutral axis are known, section modulus (INA/c) is easily calculated. The neutral axis is not usually equidistant from

the top and bottom flanges of the hull girder (strength deck and keel), so each flange has its own value for c and therefore Z. The summations

required to find height of the neutral axis and moment of inertia can be methodically performed in a tabular format. Table 1-14 is a sample

section modulus calculation for the ship section shown in Figure 1-58.

In an intact ship of uniform cross section, maximum bending stress occurs at the location of maximum bending moment. A vessels cross section

is not normally uniform throughout its length, but the scantlings at each section are selected by the designer to keep bending stresses within

acceptable limits based on the anticipated bending moment.

5 x 4 x 6.00#T

5 x 5 3/4 x 13.0#T

CL

20.5

2 7-1/2" x

.500 PL HY-80

SHELL

DOUBLER

5.75

15.3#

2 6"x0.75"

PL HY-80

SHELL

DOUBLER

30

SHADOW

25.5#

PL

HY-80

L 20

30.0 ABV BL

L 19

6 x 6 1/2 x 13.0#T

25

L 18

5 x 4 x 6.00#T

7.65#

"E"-20.4 PL

HY-80#

L 17

4 x 4 x 5.00#T

20

SHADOW

SHADOW

L 16

10.2# PL

21.0 ABV BL

L 15

FEET

6 x 4 x 7#T

L 14

15

6 x 4 x 8.00#T

L 13

"D"-12.75# PL

L 12

6 x 6 1/2 x 13.0#T

L 11

7 x 6 3/4 x 15#T

10

L 10

18 x 7 1/2 x 50#I-T

L9

8 x 7 x 22.5#T

L8

5

9 x 7 1/2 x 25#T

L6

25 x 13 x 162#

I-T CVK

0

L5

L3

L1

35.7#

"C"-15.3# PL HY-80

L7

L4

L2

PL F.K.

"B"-20.4# PL

2 9" x 0.75 PL M.S.

SHELL DOUBLER

"A"-38.25# PL HY80

CUTS

NOTE:

I - T SHAPES ARE FORMED FROM W SHAPES BY

CUTTING LOWER FLANGE FROM WEB, USUALLY

WITH TWO VERTICAL CUTS

1-86

BL

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Component

Mn Dk Grdrs, Outbd (4) - T

2nd Dk Girders, (10) - T

Mn Dk Plating, Inbd, less shadow zones

Mn Dk Plating, Outbd

2nd Dk Plating, Inbd, less shadow zones

2nd Dk Pltg, Outbd

"E" Strake

"D" Strake

"C" Strake

"B" Strake

"A" Strake

"E" Doubler, upper

"E" Doubler, lower

"A" Doubler

Side Stringers

L20 - T

L19 - T

L18 - T

L17 - T

L16 - T

L15 - T

L14 - T

L13 - T

L12 - T

L11 - T

L10 - T

L9 - T

L8 - T

Bottom Longitudinals

L7 - T

L6 - T

L5 - I - T

L4 - T

L3 - T

L2 - T

L1 - T

CVK (1/2) I - T

Flat Keel (1/2)

Totals

Dimensions

5 4 6#

5 5.75 13#

4 4 5#

(246 - 75) 0.375

84 .625

(225 - 90) .25

51 .25

93 .3125

162 .3125

84 .375

93.25 .5

96 .75

31.5 .5

30 .75

33 .75

6

6

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6 13#

6 13#

4 6#

4 6#

4 7#

4 7#

4 8#

4 8#

6.5 13#

6.5 13#

6.5 13#

6.5 13#

6.5 13#

7 6.75 15#

7 6.75 15#

18 7.5 50#

8 7 22.5#

8 7 22.5#

9 7.5 25#

9 7.5 25#

25 13 162#

14 .875

y

(ft)

ay

(in2 ft)

ay2

(in2 ft2)

12.39

15.24

14.80

64.13

52.50

25.31

12.75

29.06

50.63

31.50

46.63

72.00

15.75

22.50

24.75

29.613

26.613

20.746

30.000

30.000

21.000

21.000

17.875

16.500

7.000

3.000

0.875

28.000

26.500

0.500

366.91

405.58

307.04

1923.75

1575.00

531.56

267.75

519.49

835.31

220.50

139.88

63.00

441.00

596.25

12.38

10865.16

10793.76

6369.87

57712.50

47250.00

11162.81

5622.00

9285.92

13782.66

1543.50

419.63

55.13

12348.00

15800.63

6.19

3.82

3.82

1.77

1.77

2.08

2.08

2.36

2.36

3.82

3.82

3.82

3.82

3.82

28.000

26.500

24.500

22.750

19.250

17.500

16.000

14.750

12.500

11.750

9.000

7.500

6.250

106.96

101.25

43.37

40.27

40.04

36.40

37.76

34.81

47.75

44.89

34.38

28.65

23.88

2994.88

2682.60

1062.44

916.09

790.77

637.00

604.16

513.45

596.88

527.40

309.42

214.88

149.22

4.42

4.42

10.60

6.63

6.63

7.33

7.33

16.38

6.13

598.95

5.500

4.500

4.25

2.750

2.000

1.500

1.000

1.500

0.073

24.31

19.89

45.05

18.23

13.26

11.00

7.33

24.57

0.45

8989.85

133.70

89.51

191.46

50.14

26.52

16.49

7.33

36.85

0.03

215549.69

a

(in2)

(ay)/a

8,985.85/598.95

IK for half-section =

INA for half-section =

(ay 2) + i

IK - Ad 2

=

=

215,549.69 + 971.75

=

216,521.44 - (598.95 15.012) =

81,577.95 in2 ft2

2(81,577.95)

Depth - d

INA/c t

d

INA/c b

=

=

=

=

30 - 15.01

163,155.90/14.99

15.01 ft

163,155.90/15.01

=

=

14.99 ft

10,884.32 in2 ft

10,869.81 in2 ft

cDK

ZDK

cK

ZK

=

=

=

=

h or k*

(ft)

i = ah2/12

or ak2*

(in2 ft2)

7.75

12.50

1.88*

0.42*

0.26*

2.63

2.50

145.45

659.18

111.33*

8.23*

4.87*

9.04

11.72

1.33*

18.75*

2.08

3.18

971.75

15.01 ft

Notes: Areas and centroids for T-shapes taken from AISC Manual for Steel Construction, 8th Edition.

i of vertical web only

1-87

S0300-A8-HBK-010

AXIS WHERE STRESS IS DESIRED

B

MAX

NEUTRAL

AXIS

VERTICAL SHEAR

HORIZONTAL SHEAR

CROSS-SECTION

SHEAR STRESS

DISTRIBUTION

EFFECTIVE LONGITUDINAL BULKHEADS

I NA = MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT NEUTRAL AXIS

S = SHEAR ON SECTION

= ISQb

NA

SQ

MAX = I MAX

NAb

1-11.6 Shear Stress. Shear stresses result from vertical shear, caused by the uneven force distribution along the ships length, and horizontal

shear, caused by longitudinal bending and racking, as shown in Figure 1-59. The shear force is distributed over the section, each element

contributing to the total. Shear stress distribution can be modeled by the theory of thin-walled sections, as explained in the Society of Naval

Architects and Marine Engineers Principles of Naval Architecture, but this method requires the evaluation of indefinite line integrals, and may

be too tedious for field calculations. For salvage calculations, shear stress, , along any horizontal axis BB can be adequately approximated by

the expression:

SQ

=

INA b

where:

S

Q

a

y

INA

b

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

shear stress

shear at the section in question

first moment of area about the neutral axis of the area of effective structure above axis BB

ay

area of individual structural element

vertical distance of individual structural elements from neutral axis

moment of inertia of the section about the neutral axis

total width of material resisting shear along axis BB, in

Moment of inertia is obtained as part of the section modulus calculation. The first moment of area, Q, is determined by summing the products

of areas and their distances from the neutral axis in the same manner that ay about the keel is determined in the section modulus calculation.

The material width, b, is normally twice the shell-plating thickness (to account for both sides), plus the thickness of effective longitudinal

bulkheads, i.e., those that extend from the strength deck to the bottom of the ship and are firmly anchored at both top and bottom. Consistent

units must be used, along with appropriate conversion factors. If moment of inertia and first moment of area are in the customary units of in2-ft2

and in2-ft, a conversion factor of 12 must be applied to obtain stress in units of force per square inch:

=

1-88

SQ

12 INA b

S0300-A8-HBK-010

SHEAR

STRESSES

SHEAR

ELEMENT

TRANSVERSE

FRAMES

SHEAR

FORCE, S

LONGITUDINALS

SHEAR STRESSES

Shear is normally determined in long tons, giving shear stress in long tons per square inch; shear stress, like bending stress, is converted to

pounds per square inch by multiplying by 2,240 pounds per long ton.

Shear stresses act in pairs, are equal on all four faces of a plane element, and are maximum on planes parallel and perpendicular to the shear

force, as shown in Figure 1-60. Because the paired stresses tend to change the angle between faces of an element and lengthen the diagonal,

shear yield in plating panels is evidenced by diagonal wrinkles.

The form of the expression implies that shear stress in any section is zero at the deck and keel and maximum at the neutral axis, where Q is

maximum:

SQmax

max =

12INAb

where:

Qmax = first moment of the area above neutral axis about the neutral axis

Although shear stress in the deck is very low, and may approach zero near the centerline, shear stress is not usually zero at the deck edge; the

expression does estimate shear stress in the middle portion of the side shell (where it is normally of greatest concern) accurately.

1-89

S0300-A8-HBK-010

EXAMPLE 1-5

STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT CALCULATION

This example illustrates the detailed still water strength calculations for an

FFG-7 Class ship, including steps to reconcile inconsistent data, and to

balance weight and buoyancy. Examples 4-5 through 4-12 in the U.S. Navy

Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) illustrate simplified

calculations for a simple barge.

For an FFG-7 Class ship in the 1/3 Consumed Stores loading condition,

calculate:

Deck and keel bending stresses for stations 3 through 17

Maximum shear stress

From the Damage Control Book (DC Book) loading summary (Appendix F):

1/3 Consumed Stores, Sequence 6 Fuel/Ballast:

Tf

Ta

TLCF

W

LCG

LCB

MT1

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

14' 8"

15' 8"

15.23' (LCF 23.79 ft abaft midships)

3748.15 tons

5.53 ft abaft midships

3.06 ft abaft midships

769.01 ft-tons

Tank

Clean Ballast:

5-34-0-W

5-116-0-W

5-328-1-W

5-328-2-W

Oily Ballast:

5-100-3-F

5-100-4-F

5-250-1-F

5-250-2-F

tons

lcg fm Comments

midships

ft

32.04

53.56

19.62

19.62

161.8

80.0

-141.1

-141.1

9.47

9.47

9.9

9.9

92.3

92.3

-59.8

-59.8

Weight

5-132-0-F

5-164-0-F

5-170-0-F

4-170-0-W

Total

19.21

44.00

16.31

11.84

68.4

36.9

29.0

29.7

Waste Oil Retention Tank

Oily Waste Water Holding Tank

Sewage Collection, Holding and Transfer

(CHT) Tank

254.94 tons

=

=

=

=

for departure full load. Listed weights

are differences between weights of equal

volumes of fuel and seawater

W

LCB

LCF

MT1"

as empty for full load

3,750 tons

3.1 ft abaft midships

23.8 ft abaft midships

770 ft-tons

displacement and the full-load departure displacement from the DC Book is:

3,969.89 - 3,951.79 = 18.1 tons

W = 4,224.83 tons

additional data. It is not necessary to constuct a corrected full-load curve

that would then be corrected for the actual loading condition. The two

corrections can be made simultaneously.

Scale Factors:

b. Initial Weight Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3,748.15 tons)

Length

1 in.

Weight Ordinates 1 in.

Weight Area

1 in2

Shear Ordinates 1 in.

Shear Area

1 in2

Moment Ordinates 1 in.

a.

=

=

=

=

=

=

408/20

4,224.83/3L

4,224.83/60

4,224.83/30

4,224.83(408)/600

4,224.83(408)/200

=

=

=

=

=

=

20.4 ft

3.45 tons/ft

70.41 tons

140.83 tons

2,872.88 ft-tons

8,618.65 ft-tons

The data from the DC Book and Curves of Form are in good agreement.

However, at equilibrium, LCB and LCG must be aligned vertically. The

Curves of Form give LCB for the ship with 0 trim. Assuming the same to be

true for the DC Book, the initial trim arm (BGL) is 2.47 feet (5.53 - 3.06).

The resulting trim would be:

This is consistent with the tabulated drafts. In constructing the weight and

buoyancy curves, it will be assumed that the actual centers of gravity and

buoyancy are on a vertical line 5.53 feet aft of midships.

There is a discrepancy of 273 tons between the full-load weights as given

by the DC Book (3,951.79 tons) and the longitudinal strength drawing

(4,224.83 tons). This discrepancy must be resolved as completely as

possible before proceeding. The longitudinal strength drawing is prepared

for the most extreme loading conditions. It is therefore likely that items of

weight were included that are not included in the operating full-load

departure condition described in the DC Book. The most probable items

that would be included for the longitudinal strength drawing but deleted from

the operational full load are saltwater ballast and waste-holding tanks that

would be presumed empty for the departure condition. An examination of

the full-load condition and tank capacity tables from the DC Book reveals the

following potential weights.

1-90

The weight curve is created by deducting the weight differences between the

full-load condition and the actual condition from the full-load curve at their

locations. The corrections to the full-load curve described in Paragraph a.

above are deducted at the same time. Examination of the DC Book loading

summaries for the full load and 1/3 consumed stores conditions reveals the

following weight differences:

Item

Full Load

Weight

tons

1/3 Consumed

Weight

tons

Difference

tons

lcg from

Midships

ft

Dry provisions

Frozen

Chill

Clothing, Small Stores

Ship Stores

General Stores

13.95

4.84

4.79

0.31

3.49

9.29

3.23

3.19

0.21

2.33

4.66

1.61

1.60

0.10

1.16

9.0 fwd

20.0 fwd

20.0 fwd

145.5 fwd

4.0 fwd

Deck Gear

Flammable Liq & Paints

Bosun Storeroom

Medical Stores

Misc Storerooms

2.37

3.77

4.13

1.00

7.46

1.58

2.51

2.75

0.67

4.98

0.79

1.26

1.38

0.33

2.48

81.3 fwd

115.5 fwd

137.1 fwd

-176.0 aft

-68.5 aft

8.73

7.88

7.88

8.71

2.37

2.37

0.02

5.51

5.51

-94.4 aft

115.8 fwd

115.8 fwd

Potable Water

5-292-3-W

5-308-1-W

5-308-2-W

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Segment

Item

Full Load

Weight

tons

Weight

tons

tons

lcg from

Midships

ft

Lubricating Oil

3-272-2-F

3-278-2-F

3-286-2-F

3-208-4-F

3-236-1-F

3-236-2-F

3-292-8-F

3.50

4.00

2.75

0.95

1.05

1.05

0.92

2.35

2.68

1.84

0.63

0.70

0.70

0.61

1.15

1.32

0.91

0.32

0.35

0.35

0.31

-70.7 aft

-77.9 aft

-85.0 aft

-6.0 aft

-33.9 aft

-33.9 aft

-89.3 aft

32.12

32.12

65.69

28.43

33.60

33.60

0.00

0.00

63.60

22.21

0.00

0.00

32.12

32.12

2.09

6.22

33.60

33.60

92.3 fwd

92.3 fwd

75.5 fwd

51.8 fwd

-59.8 aft

-59.8 aft

46.47

2.54

1.21

1.33

23.18

0.53

0.25

0.28

23.29

2.01

0.96

1.05

-4.0 aft

-40.9 aft

-89.3 aft

1.7 fwd

29.81

8.54

21.27

5-100-3-F

5-100-4-F

5-116-1-F

5-140-1-F

5-250-1-F

5-250-1-F

Fuel Oil, Service

5-204-2-F

3-240-2-F

3-292-6-F

5-201-3-F

-1.4-0

0-1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-6

6-7

7-8

8-9

9-10

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

18-19

19-20

20-20.6

5-132-0-F

5-170-0-F

5-164-0-F

Total:

0.00

0.00

0.00

9.61

4.08

2.12

-9.61

-4.08

-2.12

68.4 fwd

29.0 fwd

37.0 fwd

The ordinates for the weight curve are calculated by consolidating the

differences by weight segments, distributing the weight difference over the

length of the segment, and dividing the distributed weight difference by the

scale factor (3.45). The new weight curve ordinates are calculated in the

following table:

-1.4-0

0-1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-6

6-7

7-8

8-9

9-10

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

18-19

19-20

20-20.6

0.21

0.62

1.37

1.59

2.93

3.12

3.11

3.56

2.86

2.01

3.76

3.76

3.49

1.99

4.21

3.55

2.57

2.40

1.88

2.35

1.95

0.29

lcg from FP

Moment

at midordinate lcg area

in.

in2

-0.70

0.50

1.50

2.50

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.50

8.50

9.50

10.50

11.50

12.50

13.50

14.50

15.50

16.50

17.50

18.50

19.50

20.30

-0.15

0.31

2.06

3.98

10.26

14.04

17.11

23.14

21.45

17.08

35.72

39.48

40.14

24.88

56.84

51.48

39.84

39.60

32.90

43.48

38.03

5.97

53.58

557.59

LCG of the curve is more than one foot from the known LCG (5.53 ft aft of

midships), so the curve must be adjusted to move the LCG forward. The

initial buoyancy curve is developed for comparison before correcting the

weight curve.

c. Initial Buoyancy Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3,748.15

tons)

203.64

Segment

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.60

Area

yl

in2

W

= area scale factor = 53.58(70.41) = 3772.85 tons

centroid = moment/area = 557.59/53.58 = 10.41 in fm FP

LCG

= centroid scale factor = 10.41(20.4) = 212.28 ft fm FP

= 212.28 - 204 = 8.28 ft aft of midships

-150.9 aft

Miscellaneous Tanks

0.15

0.62

1.37

1.59

2.93

3.12

3.11

3.56

2.86

2.01

3.76

3.76

3.49

1.99

4.21

3.55

2.57

2.40

1.88

2.35

1.95

0.49

Length

l

in.

Totals

JP-5

5-344-0-J

Ordinate

y

in.

Old

Weight

Dist Load Ordinate New Ordinate

Ordinate Difference wt diff/20.4 Difference Old ord - diff

dl/3.45

in.

tons

tons/ft

in.

in.

0.15

0.62

1.37

2.05

2.95

3.29

4.29

4.50

2.95

2.95

3.90

4.10

3.50

3.25

4.28

3.58

2.57

2.96

2.18

2.35

1.95

0.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

-32.14

-1.38

-12.28

-83.18

-66.04

-6.22

-65.95

-10.08

-23.61

-0.70

-89.01

-4.95

-2.20

0.00

-39.24

-21.27

-0.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-1.58

-0.07

-0.60

-4.08

-3.24

-0.30

-3.23

-0.49

-1.16

-0.03

-4.36

-0.24

-0.11

0.00

-1.92

-1.04

-0.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.46

-0.02

-0.17

-1.18

-0.94

-0.09

-0.94

-0.14

-0.34

-0.01

-1.26

-0.07

-0.03

0.00

-0.56

-0.30

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.15

0.62

1.37

1.59

2.93

3.12

3.11

3.56

2.86

2.01

3.76

3.76

3.49

1.99

4.21

3.55

2.57

2.40

1.88

2.35

1.95

0.49

(weight) and longitudinal position of the centroid (center of gravity). The

integration is carried out in a tabular format:

for each station from the Bonjeans Curves (FO-3), dividing the area by 35

to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot), and dividing the unit buoyancy

by the scale factor (3.45). Drafts at each station are calculated assuming

no hog or sag. Before calculating ordinates from the section areas, the area

curve is integrated to compare total buoyancy and LCB with total weight and

LCG from the weight curve. The integration is performed by Simpsons rule

on 21 stations:

Station Draft

T

ft

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

14.67

14.72

14.77

14.82

14.87

14.92

14.97

15.02

15.07

15.12

15.17

15.22

15.27

15.32

15.37

15.42

15.47

15.52

15.57

15.62

15.67

Sums

Ordinate

Multiplier

(Section Area)

y

m

ft2

2

55

131

205

270

326

379

428

471

499

515

519

500

470

418

357

285

215

153

95

41

1

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

1

18,963

h

V

W

LCB

=

=

=

=

=

f(V)

Lever

f(M)

ym

ft3

s

ft

s (V)

ft4

2

220

262

820

540

1,304

758

1,712

942

1,996

1,030

2,076

1,000

1,880

836

1,428

570

860

306

380

41

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0

220

524

2,460

2,160

6,520

4,548

1,1984

7,536

1,7964

10,300

22,836

12,000

24,440

11,704

21,420

9,120

14,620

5,508

7,220

820

193,904

20.4

(h/3) (V) = (20.4/3)(18,963) = 128,948.4 ft3

V/35 = 128,948.4/35 = 3684.24 tons

h(M)/(V) = 20.4(193,904)/(18,963) = 208.6 ft fm FP

208.6 - 204 = 4.6 ft aft of midships

1-91

S0300-A8-HBK-010

The weight and buoyancy curves disagree by 88.61 tons on total area. This

error is undesirable, but probably tolerable. The 3.68-foot separation

between the centers of gravity and buoyancy is excessive and must be

corrected. The ordinates of both curves must be adjusted to bring the

centers of gravity and buoyancy to within one foot of each other and within

one foot of the point 5.53 feet abaft midships.

Total buoyancy is corrected first by gradually increasing the area curve

ordinates until the buoyancy (area under the curve divided by 35) equals

total weight. There is a greater probability of error in reading the section

areas for the middle stations because the Bonjeans Curves for the middle

stations slope more gently than those near the ends. The corrections are

therefore weighted towards the center of the curve. LCB is then moved aft

by transferring a strip of uniform thickness from the forward half of the curve

to the aft half. The thickness of the strip is determined by trial and error.

After several iterations, the following section areas were determined:

Station

Ordinate Multiplier

(Section Area)

y

m

ft2

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0

54

134

204

274

329

379

430

475

510

524

524

509

479

429

369

299

229

167

109

59

Sums

h

V

W

LCB

1

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

1

f(V)

Lever

f(M)

ym

ft3

s

ft

s (V)

ft4

0

216

268

816

548

1,316

758

1,720

950

2,040

1,048

2,096

1,018

1,916

858

1,476

598

916

334

436

59

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

19,387

=

=

=

=

=

0

216

536

2,448

2,192

6,580

4,548

12,040

7,600

18,360

10,480

23,056

12,216

24,908

12,012

22,140

9,568

15,572

6,012

8,284

1,180

199,948

20.4

(h/3) (V) = (20.4/3)(19,387) = 131,831.6 ft3

V/35 = 131,831.6/35 = 3,766.62 tons

h(M)/(V) = 20.4(199,948)/(19,387) = 210.4 ft fm FP

210.4 - 204 = 6.4 ft abaft midships

Now that the total buoyancy and location of LCB are both acceptably near

the known values, the buoyancy curve ordinates are calculated:

Station

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1-92

Section

Area

ft2

0

54

134

204

274

329

379

430

475

510

524

524

509

479

429

369

299

229

167

109

59

Unit Buoyancy

B = A/35

tons/ft

0.00

1.54

3.83

5.83

7.83

9.40

10.83

12.29

13.57

14.57

14.97

14.97

14.54

13.69

12.26

10.54

8.54

6.54

4.77

3.11

1.69

Ordinate

B/3.45

in.

0.00

0.45

1.11

1.69

2.27

2.72

3.14

3.56

3.93

4.22

4.34

4.34

4.22

3.97

3.55

3.06

2.48

1.90

1.38

0.90

0.49

uniform thickness from segments in the after half of the curve to the

corresponding segments in the forward half, and by reducing some

ordinates in the after half to lower total weight slightly. The thickness of the

strips are determined by trial and error. After several iterations, ordinates

were determined and integrated as follows:

Segment

-1.4-0

0-1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-6

6-7

7-8

8-9

9-10

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

18-19

19-20

20-20.6

Ordinate

y

Length

l

Area

yl

in.

in.

in2

0.15

0.66

1.41

1.63

2.97

3.16

3.15

3.60

2.90

2.05

3.80

3.72

3.45

1.95

4.17

3.51

2.53

2.36

1.82

2.29

1.86

0.49

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.60

0.21

0.66

1.41

1.63

2.97

3.16

3.15

3.60

2.90

2.05

3.80

3.72

3.45

1.95

4.17

3.51

2.53

2.36

1.82

2.29

1.86

0.29

Totals

53.49

at

lcg Area

Midordinate

in.

in2

-0.70

0.50

1.50

2.50

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.50

8.50

9.50

10.50

11.50

12.50

13.50

14.50

15.50

16.50

17.50

18.50

19.50

20.30

-0.15

0.33

2.12

4.08

10.40

14.22

17.33

23.40

21.75

17.42

36.10

39.06

39.68

24.38

56.30

50.90

39.22

38.94

31.85

42.37

36.27

5.97

551.90

W

= area scale factor = 53.49(70.41) = 3766.51 tons

centroid = moment/area = 551.90/53.49 = 10.32 in fm FP

LCG

= centroid scale factor = 10.32(20.4) = 210.53 ft fm FP

= 210.53 - 204 = 6.53 ft aft of midships

The adjusted weight and buoyancy curves are shown in Figure 1-61.

e. Shear and Bending Moment Curves

Ordinates to the load shear and bending moment curves are determined by

a continuous tabular calculation. Curve segments are identified by the

bounding stations in the first column. The weight ordinates are written in the

second column. The mean buoyancy ordinates for each segment are

written in the third column. The load ordinate in the fourth column is found

by subtracting the weight ordinate (column 2) from the mean buoyancy

ordinate (column 3). The load curve is integrated along its length by

keeping a running total of the area under the load curve in the fifth column.

In keeping with the convention of integrating the load curve from left to right,

the area total is run from bottom to top in this table. The area for each

segment is the ordinate multiplied by the segment length (1 inch for all but

the two end segments). The area total is the area up to the forward station

of the segment. The shear ordinates in the sixth column are determined by

dividing the areas in column 5 by two. The shear curve defined by these

ordinates is shown in Figure 1-62.

The shear ordinates are carried into the following table and written in the

second column, next to the appropriate station (column 1). It is necessary

to interpolate the x intercept (station 10.41) to properly integrate the curve

and to determine the section of maximum bending moment. The mean

shear ordinate for each segment is written in the third column. The shear

curve is integrated along its length from forward aft (top to bottom); the

running total is written in the fourth column. The shear areas are divided by

3 and written in the fifth column as the moment ordinates. The resulting

bending moment curve is shown in Figure 1-62. Bending moments for use

in the bending stress calculations are determined by multiplying the moment

ordinate by the scale factor, 8,618.65 ft-tons/in.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Load Cum. Area Shear

Ordinate Buoyancy Ordinate under Ordinate

w

Ordinate b - w

Load Area/2

in.

b

in.

Curve

in.

in.

in2

-1.4-0

0.15

0.00

-0.15

-0.02 -0.012

0-1

0.66

0.23

-0.43

0.19

0.093

1-2

1.41

0.78

-0.63

0.62

0.308

2-3

1.63

1.40

-0.23

1.25

0.623

3-4

2.97

1.98

-0.99

1.48

0.738

4-5

3.16

2.49

-0.67

2.47

1.233

5-6

3.15

2.93

-0.22

3.14

1.568

6-7

3.60

3.35

-0.25

3.36

1.678

7-8

2.90

3.75

0.85

3.61

1.803

8-9

2.05

4.07

2.02

2.76

1.378

9-10

3.80

4.28

0.48

0.74

0.368

10-11

3.72

4.34

0.62

0.26

0.128

11-12

3.45

4.28

0.83

-0.36 -0.182

12-13

1.95

4.09

2.14

-1.19 -0.597

13-14

4.17

3.76

-0.41

-3.33 -1.667

14-15

3.51

3.31

-0.20

-2.92 -1.462

15-16

2.53

2.77

0.24

-2.72 -1.362

16-17

2.36

2.19

-0.17

-2.96 -1.482

17-18

1.82

1.64

-0.18

-2.79 -1.397

18-19

2.29

1.14

-1.15

-2.61 -1.307

19-20

1.86

0.69

-1.17

-1.46 -0.732

20-20.6 0.49

0.00

-0.49

-0.29 -0.147

1

2

3

4

Shear Mean

Area

Station Ordinate Shear under

Ordinate Shear

Curve

in.

in.

in2

-1.4 -0.120

0

0.41

0

0.093

0.57

0.62

1

0.308

1.19

0.47

2

0.623

1.65

0.68

3

0.738

2.33

0.99

4

1.233

3.32

1.40

5

1.568

4.72

1.62

6

1.678

6.34

1.74

7

1.803

8.08

1.59

8

1.378

9.67

0.87

9

0.368

10.55

0.18

10

0.128

10.73

0.06

10.4 0.000

10.76

-0.09

11

-0.182

10.70

-0.39

12

-0.597

10.31

-1.13

13

-1.667

9.18

-1.56

14

-1.462

7.62

-1.41

15

-1.362

6.20

-1.42

16

-1.482

4.78

-1.44

17

-1.397

3.34

-1.35

18

-1.307

1.99

-1.02

19

-0.732

0.97

-0.44

20

-0.147

0.53

-0.07

20.6 0.000

0.46

5

6

Moment Moment

Ordinate Mom. Ord

Shear x 8618.65

Area/3

in.

ft-tons

0.00

0

0.19

0.40

0.55

0.78

1.11

1.57

2.11

2.69

3.22

3.52

3.58

3.59

3.57

3.44

3.06

2.54

2.07

1.59

1.11

0.66

0.32

0.18

0.15

1,629

3,407

4,745

6,700

9,531

13,554

18,217

23,217

27,787

30,295

30,823

30,899

30,744

29,625

26,373

21,879

17,822

13,737

9,601

5,717

2,788

1,526

1,314

5

4

5

4

BUOYANCY

3

SCALE IN INCHES

2

WEIGHT

LOAD

-1

-1

AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

1 FP

STATIONS

Figure 1-61. Buoyancy, Weight, and Load Curves for FFG-7.

10.4

5

4

5

4

MOMENT

3

SCALE IN INCHES

SHEAR

3

2

-1

LOAD

-2

-1

-2

-3

-3

-4

-4

-5

-5

AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

1 FP

STATIONS

Figure 1-62. Still Water Load, Shear, and Bending Moment Curves for FFG-7.

f. Bending Stresses

Bending stresses are calculated using the tabulated moments of inertia from

the Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections Drawing (FO-4):

Station Moment

M

ft-tons

INA

2

in -ft

ckeel

ft

deck

Mc/I

tons/in2

15.09

15.68

14.18

15.32

15.37

15.53

15.36

14.62

14.90

14.16

14.27

15.00

12.87

11.70

10.12

9.46

0.91

1.32

1.88

2.04

2.74

3.12

2.92

2.64

2.85

2.60

2.70

2.92

2.56

2.33

2.01

1.59

20.58

18.84

19.27

17.23

16.38

15.59

15.21

15.45

15.02

15.51

15.10

14.27

15.29

14.83

14.32

13.07

cdeck

2

ft

keel

Mc/I

tons/in2

Since the ship is hogging, the deck is in tension and the keel in

compression. All weight and buoyancy forces were given in long tons, so

the stresses are in long tons per square inch. Stresses are converted to psi

by multiplying by 2,240. Deck and keel bending stresses are plotted in

Figure 1-63 (Page 1-94). Note that the maximum bending stresses do not

occur at the section of maximum bending moment.

g. Maximum Shear Stress

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

10.4

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

6,700

9,531

13,554

18,217

23,217

27,787

30,295

30,823

30,899

30,744

29,625

26,373

21,879

17,822

13,737

9,601

110,681

112,994

102,384

136,770

130,123

138,267

159,477

170,416

161,280

167,165

156,553

135,444

110,066

89,467

69,084

57,188

1.25

1.59

2.55

2.29

2.92

3.13

2.89

2.79

2.88

2.85

2.86

2.78

3.04

2.95

2.85

2.19

S(Q)

12 INA b

Shear stress is a function of shear force (S), moment of inertia (I), and plating thickness (b), and is maximum at the neutral axis for any section. Maximum shear occurs at station 7. Moments of inertia for adjacent stations and

other stations of high shear are equal to or greater than that for station 7.

Side-plating thickness at the neutral axis is constant between stations 3 and

17 (information taken from the section drawings of the Longitudinal Strength

and Inertia Sections drawing - not reproduced in this handbook). Maximum

shear stress can therefore be assumed to occur at or near station 7 at the

neutral axis. The first moment of area about the neutral axis and shear

stress for station 7 are calculated in a tabular format as shown on the

following page.

1-93

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Mn Dk Girders

5 x 4 x 6#

(12)

2nd Dk

4 x 4 x 5#

Girders (11)

Mn Dk Plating,

192 x .25

Inbd

Mn Dk Plating,

84 x .375

Outbd

2nd Dk

202.5 x .1875

Plating, Inbd

2nd Dk Pltg,

52.5 x .25

Outbd

"D" Strake

105 x .375

"C" Strake

above N.A.

84 x .3125

(16.33')

"D" Doubler

30 x .75

Side Stringers

L20

6 x 4 x 7#

L19

6 x 4 x 7#

L18

5 x 4 x 6#

L17

5 x 4 x 6#

L16

6 x 4 x 7#

L15

6 x 4 x 7#

L14

6 x 4 x 8#

Totals

y

ft

ay

in2ft

10.66 6.062 64.61

48.00 15.370 737.76

31.50 15.370 484.16

STRESS, TONS/IN2

a

in2

Dimensions

in.

17

b

S

16

14

13

12

22.50 11.750 264.38

1.67

1.67

1.33

1.33

1.67

1.67

1.96

270.5

13.625

11.750

9.875

8.125

4.625

2.875

1.250

22.77

19.64

13.11

10.79

7.73

4.80

2.45

2856.2

16

If a ship is inclined, as shown in Figure 164, the depth of sections is increased and

bending stresses at the "corners" may be

increased. For a ship heeled to an angle ,

the new axis of bending is parallel to the

water line. The bending moment, M, can

be resolved into Mcos about the old

(horizontal) neutral axis and Msin about

the centerline of the ship. Each component

produces stress as if it acted independently,

and the total stress at some point P, with

coordinates (x,y), is:

My cos

INA

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

11

10

9

STATIONS

MAIN DECK

=

=

INA =

ICL =

1-94

Mx sin

ICL

15

14

13

12

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

11

10

9

STATIONS

KEEL

distance from the old

neutral axis to the point in

question

distance from the centerline to the point in

question

moment of inertia about the old neutral axis

moment of inertia about the centerline

Y

X

N

NEU

T

AXI RAL

S

HORIZONTAL

D

OL RAL

T

U

NE AXIS

where:

t

y

10.4

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

ay = 2,856.2 in2-ft

2(2,856.2) = 5,712.4 in2-ft

=

130,123 (from Longitudinal Strength

and Inertia Sections drawing)

=

2 plate thickness @ NA = 0.625 in.

=

1.803 x 140.83 = 255.61 tons

=

S(Q)/12INAb = 1.5 tons/in2

=

1.5 2,240 = 3,360 psi

t =

15

17

Qhalf-section =

Qwhole section =

INA

10.4

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

STRESS, TONS/IN2

Component

CL

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Since the section is not symmetrical about its new bending axis, the neutral axis is not parallel to the waterline (horizontal) but is inclined to

it by some angle , as shown in Figure 1-64. The angle, , between the new neutral axis and the horizontal can be found from:

INA

ICL

tan = tan

If the point farthest from the neutral axis has coordinates (x1, y1) referenced to the centerline and the old neutral (horizontal) axis, maximum

bending stress in the section is:

max =

My1 cos

Mx1 sin

INA

ICL

Tabulated section moments of inertia about the centerline are not normally available to the salvage engineer, and must be calculated. Calculating

ICL is somewhat simpler and shorter than calculating INA because the incremental second moments are taken about a known axis (the centerline).

There is therefore no need to sum first moments about an arbitrary axis to locate the neutral axis. For intact sections, only the incremental

second moments of area for one side need be summed; the moment of inertia is twice the sum for one side. Distances from the centerline are

scaled from section drawings.

Maximum bending stresses in an inclined ship may be 20 percent greater than when the ship is upright.

1-11.8 Combined Stresses. The bending (tensile or compressive) and shear stresses in a ship or other beam combine to form the principal

stress at any point. It can be shown that:

s (s ) = 2

where:

s

=

=

=

simple tensile or compressive stress at the point in question

shear stress at the point in question

This relationship does not solve for s so iterative or trial and error methods are used to determine principal stress.

The presence of shear in the hull girder distorts the sections so that the conditions on which simple beam theory are based are not strictly

fulfilled (see Chapter 2 for an explanation of basic beam theory). This alters bending stress distribution across the section from that predicted

by beam theory. Analysis of this problem is beyond the scope of this book, but the general effect is to increase bending stress at the corners

of the section, i.e., the deck edges and the bilge, and reduce bending stresses at the center of the deck and bottom. This effect is appreciable

only when the ratio of length to depth is small.

1-11.9 Acceptable Stress Levels. The stress that any material can withstand without failure is a function of the properties of that material and

the definition of failure. Fracture is an obvious and final form of failure. Permanent or plastic deformation, or unacceptable extents of deflection

or elastic deformation can also be considered failure.

1-11.9.1 Failure Definition. In many engineered systems, deflection or deformation of a component in excess of certain limits interferes with

the operation of the mechanism and is considered failure. Plastic deformation is often considered failure because of the discontinuous behavior

of the material as it yields. Plastic behavior may be acceptable in components subjected to in-line, tensile loading where elongation will not

cause interference with any other components. The deformation may render the component unsuitable for continued use, but many salvage

evolutions are one-time events. Plastic behavior or excessive deflection/deformation should be carefully examined, as such deformation in

components can alter stress levels in other components in unforeseen or unpredictable ways. Plastic failure in ship hulls is unacceptable because

it unpredictably alters load responses.

Failure of a given component must be defined accurately, so that limiting stress values for that component can be set. The limiting stress values

define limiting loads for components; the degree of load sharing among components will define system load limits.

1-11.9.2 Factors of Safety. Use of an appropriate factor of safety keeps stresses well below the failure point and allows for manufacturing

defects and inconsistencies in loading. Safety factors are specified by various regulatory agencies, depending on intended use of systems and

components. In salvage it is not always possible to use a standard safety factor, so reduced factors of safety must often be accepted. This does

not mean that salvors can disregard safety factors. Each situation must be examined to determine acceptable stresses and loads. A reduced

safety factor represents an increased chance of failure. The consequences of failure must be considered and precautions taken.

1-95

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11.9.3 Common Materials. The most commonly used shipbuilding materials are:

Aluminum.

Wood.

In addition to encountering these as components of a ship, the salvor may use any of them in on-site repairs or fabrication of salvage systems,

along with concrete or other materials. The ultimate or yield stresses of many materials vary depending on whether tensile, compressive or shear

stress is experienced. This is an important factor in salvage operations, where components may be loaded in ways other than those anticipated

by the designer. The mechanical properties of commonly used materials are given in Appendix E.

Steel, in the form of rolled plate, rolled or forged structural shapes, or complex castings, is the most commonly used shipbuilding material.

Shipbuilding steel meeting ABS and Navy specifications has a yield stress of not less than 32,000 psi and an ultimate stress of 58,000 -70,000

psi. In the United States, structural shapes and plates for general use are usually manufactured to American Society for Testing of Materials

(ASTM) Standard A36, requiring a tensile yield strength of not less than 36,000 psi. Unless otherwise specified, mild steel can be assumed to

have a yield strength of about 30,000 psi, although some alloys have yield strengths as low as 20,000 psi.

Plating thickness is often specified by weight per square foot. Steel weighs approximately 490 pounds per cubic foot, so a 40.8-pound plate

is approximately 1-inch thick. Iron weighs 480 pounds per cubic foot, so 1-inch iron plate weighs exactly 40 pounds per square foot. In

common usage, the decimal fraction is often dropped when naming steel plate; 1-inch steel plate is called 40-pound plate, quarter-inch steel plate

is called 10-pound plate, etc. This practice can sometimes lead to confusionsteel plate and shapes are sometimes fabricated to dimensions

specified by weight per area or linear dimension. The thickness of plate so manufactured will be slightly less than assumed by dividing the

weight by 40. Table E-15 correlates steel-plate thickness to weight per square foot.

Major load-bearing members, such as sheer and garboard strakes, main deck stringers and bottom girders, etc., and submarine pressure hulls

are frequently fabricated of high-stength steels. High-strength steels are designated by an "HY" (high yield), "HSLA" (high-strength, low-alloy)

or number, i.e., HY80, HSLA80, HY100, HY140, etc.; the number specifying the nominal yield stress in thousands of pounds per square inch.

High-strength steels are difficult to weld and cut. Intermediate-strength steels, with yield stresses in the 35,000 - 45,000 psi range, are often

used for the major strength members of larger merchant hulls to provide the required strength with lighter scantlings. These steels have been

called high-tensile (HTS) or higher strength steels by classification societies to avoid confusion with truly high-strength steels.

Corrosion-resistant steels (CRES), sometimes called stainless steels, are used extensively where corrosion or appearance are important factors.

Strength and other properties vary widely, depending on composition. Because of their resistance to oxidation, corrosion-resistant steels are

considered nonferrous metals, and are difficult to cut with oxygen-fuel or oxygen-arc cutting equipment. Low magnetic signature alloys are

sometimes used on mine countermeasures ships.

Cast iron is used occasionally for complex shapes not subject to tensile loads. Wrought iron is more malleable and corrosion-resistant than mild

steel, and nearly as strong. Wrought iron is no longer produced in the United States, but was formerly used in place of steel in ship

construction, and may be encountered in older ships. Wrought iron stud-link chain is found occasionally.

Aluminum is used extensively in small ships, boats, and landing craft. The yield stress of pure aluminum is about 5,000 psi, but some alloys

have yield stresses as high as 78,000 psi. Aluminum alloys used in shipbuilding have yield stresses in the range of 12,000 - 20,000 psi. Because

of aluminums low density, aluminum alloy members are lighter, but bulkier, than steel members of the same strength; aluminum is often used

in superstructures to reduce topside weight.

Wood is used in the construction of mine countermeasures ships and small craft. The hardness and density of wood vary with species and water

content. Green wood contains varying amounts of water as sap; wood absorbs water in humid climates or when immersed. The strength

characteristics of wood vary with species and type of stress; all species are much stronger against normal stresses than against shear; most are

stronger in tension than in compression.

Glass Reinforced Plastic is used in the hulls of small craft and some mine countermeasures ships, in piping systems, as sheathing over wooden

hulls and in joiner bulkheads. It is also frequently used as a patching material for other materials. Strength varies depending on the orientation

of the glass fibers and plastic resins used.

Copper and its alloys, such as brass, bronze, monel, and copper-nickels, are used in piping systems, propellers, and fittings where corrosion

resistance or low magnetic signature are required. Although certain copper alloys are very strong, they are seldom used as structural members

or fittings, except on mine countermeasures ships, because of their high cost.

1-96

S0300-A8-HBK-010

girder deflection is a function of the fourth

integral of the load curve with respect to

ship length, and girder stiffness, indicated

by the product of moment of inertia (I) and

modulus of elasticity (E). Deflection is

determined by double integration of the

curve of bending moment divided by EI.

Since I, and sometimes E vary along a

ships length, M/EI is calculated at several

stations to construct an M/EI curve. The

curve is integrated from left to right to

determine the ordinates to the first integral

curve, which is again integrated from left to

right to determine ordinates to the second

integral curve. A straight line is drawn

between the ends of the second integral

curve, as shown in Figure 1-65. The

vertical separation between the straight line

and the second integral curve at any station

is the deflection at that station. As shown

in Figure 1-65, the straight line in the

deflection plot corresponds to a straight line

connecting forward and after drafts in a

floating ship, i.e., deflection is assumed

zero at the fore and after perpendiculars.

SECOND

INTEGRAL

DEFLECTION AT B

FIRST

INTEGRAL

AP

xB

FP

__

M

EI

DEFLECTION AT B

damaged casualty is readily observable; a

salvage engineer does not usually calculate

hull deflection unless unusually extreme

loadings are contemplated and the degree of

hull deflection may affect salvage work or

conditions. Observed deflection is a rough

indicator of hull stress; a first estimate of

stress can be obtained by comparing a

casualtys deflection with the stress

corresponding to similar deflections in ships

of similar form and size. Table 1-15 gives

stresses and deflections calculated for four

different ships in various conditions.

1-11.11

Approximate Strength Calculations. Lack of detailed ship data or

time for rigorous calculations may

necessitate the approximation of all or part

of the strength calculations. The following

paragraphs describe methods to estimate

weight distribution, section properties, and

still water or wave bending moment.

1-11.12 Weight Curve Approximations.

There are a number of empirically derived

approximations for weight distribution,

none of which is equally applicable to all

ship types. The station coefficient method,

presented below, is probably the most

accurate, but is applicable to only three

ship types at present. Less accurate, but

more generally applicable methods are

presented in the following paragraphs.

Ship Type:

VLCC

CONTAINER SHIP

(1400 TEU)

0.56

0.87

0.49

650

1050

673

47

97.5

175.9

105.7

30

50

90.5

66.5

FFG-7

T-AO 187

CB

046

LBP, ft

408

Beam, ft

Depth, ft

Characteristics:

Deflection conditions:

Full Load

Maximum stress, ksi

5.6

-3.4

15.6

-4.3

2.4

2.5

6.2

-1.1

5.5

-11.1

13.0

10.3

2.3

5.9

5.3

8.1

17.8

-18.7

29.3

23.4

7.2

10.6

17.7

11.2

Ballast

10.6

14.0

17.7

11.0

-20.3

-27.2

-42.3

-20.4

From Hull Deflection Versus Bending Moment Study for Supervisor of Salvage, U.S. Navy, Herbert Engineering

Corporation, 5 March 1991

1-97

S0300-A8-HBK-010

ship with engine room

and accommodations

three-quarters aft of the

forward perpendicular.

Container ship with

forward and aft accommodations.

Tanker with engine room

and accommodations aft.

divided into 20 basic segments. The breakbulk cargo ship has a segment forward of the

forward perpendicular and the tanker and

container ship each have segments aft of the

aft perpendicular. Station coefficients (CSN)

from Table 1-16 for the appropriate ship type

are used to determine the weight ordinate

(OSN) for each half segment:

OSN = CSN W1s

CSN

Station

A

CSN

Station

C

AFT

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.022542

0.021834

0.021352

0.022349

0.021834

0.021352

0.020387

0.017493

0.016496

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.024942

0.023199

0.022668

0.021606

0.021114

0.020052

0.019522

0.018991

0.01793

0.017399

0.016338

AFT

20.5-21

20-20.615

20-20.5

19.5-20

19-19.5

18.5-19

18-18.5

17.5-18

17-17.5

16.5-17

16-16.5

15.5-16

15-15.5

14.5-15

14-14.5

13.5-14

13-13.5

12.5-13

12-12.5

11.5-12

11-11.5

10.5-11

0.006303

10-10.5

0.023068

9.5-10

0.023068

0.012377

0.010676

9-9.5

0.023068

0.014333

0.015049

0.01793

8.5-9

0.023068

0.022157

0.017975

0.021114

8-8.5

0.023068

0.020875

0.020387

0.034267

7.5-8

0.023068

0.020875

0.022831

0.038513

7-7.5

0.023068

0.020875

0.02476

0.039536

6.5-7

0.023068

0.021516

0.028169

0.034267

6-6.5

0.022157

0.022157

0.029616

0.025321

5.5-6

0.021516

0.023472

0.025243

0.025321

5-5.5

0.020875

0.032612

0.025243

0.025321

4.5-5

0.020201

0.033252

0.038845

0.024942

4-4.5

0.019560

0.041076

0.038845

0.024942

3.5-4

0.018919

0.053453

0.040774

0.024942

3-3.5

0.018245

0.055409

0.042736

0.024942

2.5-3

0.017604

0.052172

0.043701

0.024942

2-2.5

0.016963

0.028025

0.022542

0.024942

1.5-2

0.016289

0.023068

0.022542

0.024942

1-1.5

0.015142

0.023068

0.022542

0.024942

0.5-1

0.014333

0.023068

0.022542

0.024942

0-0.5

0.013692

0.023068

0.022542

0.024942

-0.55-0

0.013051

FWD

FWD

Ship A Breakbulk cargo ship - engine room and accommodations three-quarters aft from

Ship B Container ship with forward and aft accommodations

Ship C Tanker with engineroom aft

0.015807

FP

Osn

This method was developed as part of the

Pouricelli-Boyd-Schleiffer regression

analysis discussed in Paragraph 1-7 and

provides a means to approximate lightship

weight distribution of three types of

merchant hulls:

where:

Wls = lightship weight

calculated or estimated by

deducting weights of

machinery, propellers, and

superstructure from the

lightship weight, or by the

methods described below.

The bare hull weight distribution is estimated by

one of the methods described in the following

paragraphs.

The deducted items are

added at their locations to

complete the lightship

weight curve.

FP

Osn

types other than the three mentioned above,

the lightship weight curve is approximated

in three steps:

AP

THREE-QUARTERS AFT FROM FP

AP

FP

Osn

in Figure 1-66 to develop the lightship

weight curve. Variable weights (cargo,

flooding, etc.) are added as rectangles or

trapezoids at the appropriate station for the

ships actual load condition.

AP

FP

Figure 1-66. Station Coefficient Weight Curves.

1-98

S0300-A8-HBK-010

the ship has been estimated, the variable

weights of fuel, stores, cargo, boats,

aircraft, ballast, ammunition, crew and

effects, etc., are added by superimposing

rectangles or trapezoids on the curve at

their locations.

280

260

240

220

can be estimated by the two relationships

shown below:

WH L (B

or,

2D) k2

where:

WH =

L =

B

D

k1

=

=

=

=

=

length between perpendiculars, feet

molded beam, feet

molded depth, feet

weight coefficient

0.0027 for welded construction

0.0030 for riveted construction

W H L B D k 1,

200

DIRECT DRIVE DIESEL

NUCLEAR

STEAM TURBINE

REHEAT STEAM TURBINE

GEARED DIESEL

COMBINED DIESEL AND

GAS TURBINE

GAS TURBINE

REGENERATIVE

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

k2

=

=

=

weight coefficient

0.0433 for welded construction

0.0558 for riveted construction

20

4

10

12

14

18

22

26

30

34

38

42

COMPILED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, INCLUDING SHIPS AND SHIPBUILDING OF TOMORROW,

SCHNKNECKT, LSCH, SCHELZEL & OBENHAUS, 1983; SHIP DESIGN AND CONSTUCTION,

TAGGART, 1980; MARINE ENGINEERING, HARRINGTON, 1955 AND MANUFACTURERS DATA

sometimes be obtained from the ships

information book (SIB), operating and

Figure 1-67. Machinery Weight.

technical manuals, or manufacturers data.

Machinery weight for commercial vessels

can be estimated very approximately by use of the "power density" factors taken from Figure 1-67.

There is no standard definition of what is included in the term machinery weight, so figures given in ships data must be investigated to

determine what items are included. Values taken from the curves in Figure 1-67 include the weight of main propulsion units, shafting, bearings,

propellers, boilers, stacks, condensers, generators, switchboards, and pumps; all piping, floors, ladders and gratings in the machinery spaces;

water in boilers, engines, and piping; and refrigerating and steam heating systems for a normal vessel. Weights of steering gear, deck machinery,

and piping outside the machinery spaces are not included. Machinery weights are subject to variation, depending on the ship type and service.

In ship types that require particularly rugged or reliable machinery, machinery weight will be about 10 percent higher than the values from Figure

1-67. Different makes of diesel engine of the same horsepower will

vary in weight by as much as 50 percent. Total machinery weight in

Table 1-17. Machinery Weights for Combatants.

specialized vessels will include items not fitted on ordinary ships, or

larger numbers of common items. Examples are the refrigeration plant

on a refrigerated cargo ship, additional pumps and generators on

salvage and service vessels, dredge machinery, etc.

BB, CV

50-60 pounds/SHP

Because of their high speed and correspondingly powerful machinery,

the weight of machinery of naval combatants is a large portion of the

total weight of the ship. Emphasis on machinery weight savings during

design results in lower weight per horsepower than in the average

commercial vessel. Machinery dry weight for different types of

combatants can be taken from Table 1-17.

CG, CL, CA

DD, FF

DD, FF, CG (gas turbine)

35-40 pounds/SHP

27-30 pounds/SHP

20-25 pounds/SHP

1-99

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Table 1-18 gives weights of bronze propellers as a function of shaft horsepower and rpm. Table 1-19 gives summarized weight lists for different

types of ships to illustrate general trends in weight distribution. Additional weight summaries are included in Appendix B.

Table 1-18. Weights of Bronze Propellers (lbs).

SHP

100

120

140

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

3,415

6,545

12,080

17,410

24,905

55,100

62,155

2,775

5,270

9,830

14,105

20,495

35,705

50,030

2,315

4,475

8,265

11,680

17,190

29,315

40,335

50,910

Shaft RPM

160

2,030

3,880

7,140

10,360

14,545

24,245

32,400

40,115

180

200

250

300

350

1,785

3,460

6,350

1,585

3,150

5,730

1,255

2,445

4,630

970

1,915

3,670

750

1,520

2,975

From Ships and Marine Engineers, Volume IV, The Design of Merchant Ships, Schokker, Newerburg, Bossnack, and Burghgracf, The Technical Publishing

Company H. Stam, 1953

Ship Type

Steel

Outfit

Machinery10

Fixed Ballast

5,115

2,586

1,039

---

5,011

2,230

867

---

Combination

Passenger/

Reefer

Container

Ship2

5,482

3,959

982

---

Lightship

8,746

8,108

10,4235

Item

Mariner

With Added General

Features, Cargo Ship1

1962

Container

Ship3

BargeBargecarrying

carrying

ship

Ship

(LASH)4 (SEABEE)5

Tanker6

Ore Carrier7

Small

Freighter8

Passenger Container

Ship

Vessel9

10,282

2,525

1,911

---

9,588

2,937

1,105

---

12,983

2,979

1,421

---

11,519

1,844

831

---

12,137

1,600

980

---

2,248

574

398

---

11,850

6,875

2,525

---

4,557

1,739

837

3,329

14,718

13,630

17,383

14,194

14,717

3,220

21,250

10,452

From Ship Design and Construction, Amelio M. DArcangelo; Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1969 and Princples of Naval Architecture,

Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Second Edition, 1967 and Third Edition, 1988

Notes:

1

573 LOA, machinery and house 3 4 aft, 6 holds, 2 tween decks, 24,000 SHP, 23 Kts.

2

574 LOA, machinery and house midships, 19,800 SHP, 20 Kts.

3

752 LOA, machinery 3 4 aft, house forward, 1,920 TEU, 60,000 SHP, twin screw, 27 Kts.

4

820 LOA, machinery 3 4 aft, house forward, 79 LASH barges, 32,000 SHP, 27.5 Kts.

5

824 LOA, machinery 3 4 aft, house forward, 38 SEABEE barges, 36,000 SHP, 20 Kts.

6

810 LOA, machinery and house aft, single bottom, 5 center and 8 wing tanks, 19,000 SHP, 17 Kts.

7

765 LOA, machinery and house aft, 7 holds, 19,000 SHP, 16.5 Kts.

8

390 LPB, two deck, three-island design, 3,150 SHP, 13 Kts.

9

661 LPB, ten deck, 1,200 passenger, 650 crew, 30,000 SHP, 20 Kts.

10

Steam turbine plants in all cases, single screw unless otherwise noted.

Type of Ship

Tanker

Full-bodied cargo ships w/o erections

Fine-lined cargo ships w/o erections

Full-bodied cargo ships with erections

Prohaskas ordinates

a&c

b

0.75WH / L

1.125WH / L

0.65WH / L

1.175WH / L

0.60WH / L

1.20WH / L

0.55WH / L

1.225WH / L

L = Length overall, ft

1-100

Type of Ship

Fine-lined cargo ships with erections

Small passenger ships

Large passenger ships

Prohaskas ordinates

a&c

b

0.45WH / L

1.275WH / L

0.40WH / L

1.30WH / L

0.30WH / L

1.35WH / L

S0300-A8-HBK-010

weight distribution for ships with parallel

midbody can be approximated by a line

diagram, commonly called a coffin

diagram, consisting of a rectangle over the

length of the midbody and trapezoids at the

bow and stern.

Three hull weight

distribution methods are based on the coffin

diagram. The Biles and Prohaska methods

each divide the length overall into three

equal segments as shown in Figure 1-68. A

third method, that may be termed the

general parallel midbody method, divides

the length into three segments based on the

observed length of the parallel midbody.

L/3

L/3

L/3

AP

FP

BILES METHOD ORDINATES

W

a = 0.566 __H

L

W

b = 1.195 __H

L

and passenger vessels are shown in the

Figure 1-68, Prohaska method ordinates for

different ship types are given in Table 1-20.

W

c = 0.653 __H

L

WHERE WH = HULL WEIGHT (LESS MACHINERY)

0.0056L abaft midships. Small adjustments

can be made to the end ordinates so that

the centroid of the diagram corresponds to

the longitudinal position of the center of

gravity of the hull. LCG of the bare hull is

not at the same location as the light ship

LCG. The position of the centroid of the

coffin diagram must be chosen so that LCG

will shift to a known or estimated position

as weights are added, corresponding to the

condition where LCG is known.

__

7 L

9

lengthening the other by an equal amount,

a triangle is transferred from one trapezoid

to the other, as shown by the dotted lines in

Figure 1-69. The centroid of each triangle

lies one-third of its length from its base:

1 L

=

3 3

x

G

L/3

L

9

G1

L/3

L/3

AP

FP

54(WH )GG1

x = ____________

7L2

where L is the length of the diagram, corresponding to length overall (LOA) of the ship.

The shift of the centroid of the total area is

therefore (7/9)L. If the base of the triangle

is taken as x, and its height as L/3, then,

1 L

Area of triangle = x =

2 3

xL 7L

Moment of the shift = =

6 9

xL

6

7xL 2

54

The shift of the centroid of the diagram, representing the LCG of the hull is thus:

L2

7

Shift of LCG = ( x )

WH

54

where WH is the bare hull weight. The triangle base, x, required to give the desired shift of LCG is:

x =

7L 2

1-101

S0300-A8-HBK-010

beginning and end points and length of the

parallel midbody are determined by

inspection. The middle ordinate (b) is

defined as shown in Figure 1-70. The end

ordinates are chosen so that the centroid of

the entire diagram corresponds to the bare

hull LCG. Figure 1-71 shows how to select

end ordinates for a trapezoid to place the

center of the trapezoid in a desired location.

the centroid of the area under the parabolic

curve. A second line is drawn from the

base of the parabola at its midlength to

intersect the first line at a distance from the

midships ordinate equal to twice the desired

shift in LCG. This line is extended beyond

the contour of the parabola.

The

intersection of this line with a horizontal

line drawn from the center of the parabolic

curve defines one point on the new curve.

Parallel lines drawn at other ordinates

define other points on the new curve, as

shown in Figure 1-72.

For ships without parallel midbody, a bare

hull weight curve can also be generated by

assuming that two-thirds of the hull weight

follows the still water buoyancy curve and

distributing the remaining one-third in the

form of a trapezoid so arranged that the

center of gravity lies above the center of

buoyancy, as shown in Figure 1-73. This

method has been found to yield close

approximations to the hull weight

distribution for large warships.

b

l

1.3

W

__H

L

W = Hull Weight

b = b1 x

OR PARALLEL MIDDLE BODY

b1

1-11.12.4

Ships Without Parallel

Midbody. An approximate weight curve

for ships without parallel midbody can be

constructed as a parabola over a rectangle,

with the area under each representing half

the bare hull weight (Cole, reproduced in

Applied Naval Architecture, R. MunroSmith, 1967).

The ordinate for the

rectangle is WH/2L; the maximum

(midships) ordinate for the parabola is

3WH/4L, as shown in Figure 1-72. LCG of

this figure is amidships. Correction for

LCG lying forward or aft of midships is

made by swinging the parabola.

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

l

__

L

FROM PRINCIPLES OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, SNAME, 2ND EDITION, 1967.

x = LONGITUDINAL DISTANCE FROM THE SMALLER

END OF THE TRAPEZOID TO ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY

a = AREA OF THE TRAPEZOID

= TONS FOR WEIGHT AND LOAD CURVES

b1, b2 = END ORDINATES

b1

b2

Nonstandard Waves.

The salvage

engineer must often assess the ability of a

damaged casualty to withstand wave

l

bending loads, either during the salvage

operation or during transit to a repair

__ ( 3x

__ -1)

__ ); b = 2a

__ (2 - 3x

b1 = 2a

2

l

l

l

l

facility. Because of the tedious nature of

the calculations, the usual first task is to

determine the stresses imposed by a

Figure 1-71. Centroid of a Trapezoid.

standard L/20 or 1.1

L wave with length

equal to ships length. If the ship can carry

loads imposed by a standard wave, no further calculations need be performed in most cases. If, however, the stresses imposed by the standard

wave are excessive, calculations must be performed for trial wave heights and lengths until the maximum acceptable wave is determined, unless

bending moment caused by waves with differing length and height can be correlated to those caused by the standard wave.

1-102

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Corporation of five hull forms with block

coefficients ranging from 0.46 to 1.0

developed factors that relate nonstandard

wave bending moments to normalized

standard bending moment. The factors are

functions of block coefficient, wavelength,

and wave height.

ORIGINAL

CURVE

CORRECTED

CURVE

WBM =

35

B

h

=

=

X = DESIRED SHIFT

OF LCG

FROM APPLIED NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, R. MUNRO-SMITH, 1967.

PARALLEL TO

STILL WATER

BUOYANCY CURVE

2/ W

3 H

1/ W

3 H

with block coefficient to get an estimate of

the standard bending moment (waveheight

= 1.1

L, wavelength = L).

AP

FP

FROM BASIC SHIP THEORY, RAWSON AND TUPPER 3RD EDITION, 1983.

Figure 1-73. Alternate Weight Distribution for Ships Without Parallel Midbody.

0.015

0.01

HOG

normalized wave

bending moment,

dimensionless

wave bending moment,

ft-lton

standard seawater

specific gravity, ft3/lton

length between

perpendiculars, ft

beam, ft

wave height, ft = 1.1

L

WH

2L

0.005

0

-0.005

SAG

NBM =

3WH

4L

a=

BASE LINE

where:

b=

2

b

5

maximum and standard hogging and

sagging moments as a function of block

coefficient. All curves are based on 1.1

L

trochoidal waves. The normalized bending

moment is given by:

WBM 35

L 2Bh

WH

L

2X

ships, maximum wave bending moment

occurs at wavelengths slightly less than the

ships length (approximately 0.75L), and

may be as much as 15 percent higher than

bending moment for the standard wave.

Figure 1-74 shows the relationship between

wavelength and bending moment for an

FFG-7 Class ship (CB = 0.46) for a 1.1

L

wave height. Figure 1-75 (Page 1-104)

shows the relationship between standard

wave bending moment and maximum wave

bending moment as a function of block

coefficient.

NBM =

a + b = 1.25

-0.01

-0.015

-0.02

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

LOCATION FROM FP (X/LBP)

0.3

0.2

0.1

L = 1.0 LBP

L = .50 LBP

L = 1.0 LBP

L = .50 LBP

L = .75 LBP

L = .25 LBP

L = .75 LBP

L = .25 LBP

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

1-103

S0300-A8-HBK-010

approximation of determining maximum

bending moment has been developed by J.

M. Murray, former Chief Ship Surveyor to

Lloyds Register of Shipping. Murrays

method computes still water bending

moment by taking moments of weight and

buoyancy about midships. Wave bending

moment is calculated by use of empirical

coefficients. The sum of the two gives

total bending moment at midships, which

can be taken as the maximum bending

moment in most cases. The method is

reasonably accurate for ships floating at a

trim of less than one percent of their

length.

1-11.14.1 Still Water Bending Moment.

Still water bending moment (SWBM) is

given by:

SWBM = MW

where:

MW

1.14

MOMENT RATIO

1.12

1.1

1.08

1.06

1.04

1.02

1

0.4

0.5

HOG

0.6

0.7

0.8

BLOCK COEFFICIENT

0.9

1

SAG

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient.

0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

mean moment of

weight

-0.02

Mwf + Mwa

-0.025

= __________

0.8

0.9

1

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

2

BLOCK COEFFICIENT

MAX. HOG

MAX. SAG

Mwf

= moment of weight

STD. HOG

STD. SAG

forward of midships,

ft-lton or m-tonne

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

= Wf(LCGf)

Mwa = moment of weight aft of

midships, ft-lton or mFigure 1-76. Normalized Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient.

tonne

= Wf, a(LCGfa)

Wf, a = weight of the forebody or afterbody, lton or m-tonne

LCGf, a = LCG of the forebody or afterbody, measured from midships, ft or m

Mbf + Mba

MB

= mean moment of buoyancy = _________

2

Mbf

= moment of buoyancy forward of midships, ft-lton or m-tonne

= B f (LCBf )

Mba

= moment of buoyancy aft of midships, ft-lton or m-tonne

= Ba(LCBa)

Bf,a

= buoyancy of the forebody or afterbody, lton or m-tonne

LCBf, a = LCB of the forebody or afterbody, measured from midships, ft or m

1-104

MB

1.16

entered with wavelength expressed as a

function of ship length to determine the

ratio between wave bending moment for the

wavelength and the standard wave bending

moment. The ratio is then applied to wave

bending moment determined from Figure 176 or by rigorous calculation to estimate

wave bending moment for the nonstandard

wavelength. Figure 1-79 (Page 1-106)

gives normalized bending moments for

wavelengths equal to L with nonstandard

waveheight.

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1.25

1

0.75

0.5

HOG

0.25

0

0.25

SAG

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

2

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

WAVELENGTH / LBP

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

Figure 1-77. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment, CB = 0.46.

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

HOG

0.2

0

0.2

SAG

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

2

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

WAVELENGTH / LBP

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

Figure 1-78. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment, CB = 1.0.

1-105

S0300-A8-HBK-010

Since total weight and buoyancy moments are mean moments, they are numerically equal to the product of the mean weight or buoyancy and

the mean lever arm:

MW =

MB =

Mwf + Mwa

2

Mbf + Mba

2

W + Wa

= f

LCGm

2

B + Ba

= f

LCBm

2

where:

LCBm

midships of the centers

of gravity of the fore and

after bodies

= mean distance from

midships of the centers

of buoyancy of the

fore and after bodies

and after bodies is equal to the total weight,

which is equal to displacement, which is

similarly equal to the sum of the

buoyancies of the fore and after bodies, still

water bending moment can be expressed:

SWBM =

(LCGm

2

LCBm)

0.025

0.02

NORMALIZED BENDING MOMENT

LCGm =

0.015

0.01

0.005

HOG

0

SAG

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

-0.02

-0.025

-1

greater than the mean of the centers of

buoyancy, the weight levers are longer than

the buoyancy levers, and the net moment is

hogging, as shown in Figure 1-80. If the

mean of buoyancy centers is greater, the

net moment is negative, and sagging.

Forward and after weight moments are determined by summing the moments of

individual weights. Weights and centers of

variable weights can be obtained from ships

officers or estimated with reasonable accuracy. Machinery weight can be approximated from the factors given in Paragraph

1-11.12.2; machinery lcg is determined by

inspection. Hull weight can be estimated as

described in Paragraph 1-11.12.2. The mean

distance from midships of the centers of

gravity of the forward and after bodies of the

hull can be expressed as a portion of length

between perpendiculars:

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Cb = 0.46

Cb = 0.58

Cb = 0.78

Cb = 0.84

Cb = 1.0

FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR

OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991

LCGm

GF

BA

BF

GF

LCBm

MEAN DISTANCE TO FORE AND AFT LCGs GREATER

THAN MEAN DISTANCE TO LCBs - HOGGING

mean lcg = aL

where:

BA

=

=

=

=

an empirical coefficient

0.223 for a cargo ship with

forecastle and poop; deckhouse and machinery

amidships

0.24 for a tanker with forecastle, bridge, and poop

0.233 for a cargo ship with

machinery aft

GA

GF

BF

THAN DISTANCE TO LCGs - SAGGING

Figure 1-80. Determination of Still Water Bending Moment by Murrays Method.

Values of a for different configurations can be estimated from those given above. For example, 0.225 might be used for a cargo ship with

machinery slightly aft of midships.

1-106

S0300-A8-HBK-010

MB =

cL

2

Draft

0.06L

0.05L

0.04L

0.03L

where:

cL

L

c

=

=

=

=

mean position of LCB, ft or m

length between perpendiculars, ft or m

empirical coefficient based on block coefficient and

draft from Table 1-21

c

0.179CB + 0.063

0.189CB + 0.052

0.199CB + 0.041

0.209CB + 0.030

EXAMPLE 1-6

CALCULATION OF STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT BY MURRAYS METHOD

Calculate the still water bending moment for a cargo ship with machinery

and accommodations three-quarters aft with the following characteristics:

length between perpendiculars

570 feet

beam

80 feet

molded depth

55 feet

full load draft

35 feet

block coefficient

0.71

displacement

32,400 lton

deadweight

23,800 lton

hull weight

6,250 lton

weight of propulsion machinery 1,200 lton

center of machinery room

145 ft aft of midships

Variable Weight Distribution:

Weight

lton

item

Cargo: Hold 1

Hold 2

Hold 3

Hold 4

Hold 5

Oil fuel in deep tank

Oil fuel in double bottom tanks

Feed water

Potable water

Crew & effects, stores

3000

4200

6100

6800

3700

370

435

20

250

75

lcg from

midships

ft

231 F

142 F

60 F

95 A

250 A

200 F

85 A

170 A

122 A

165 A

Calculation:

Mean distance from midships of centers of buoyancy

The load draft of 35 ft is approximately 0.06L, CB = 0.71,

item

Weight

lton

Hold 4

Hold 5

O.F. (double bottom)

Feed water

Potable water

Machinery

Crew & effects, stores

Total:

lcg from

midships

ft

95 A

250 A

85 A

170 A

122 A

147 A

165 A

6,800

3,700

435

20

250

1,200

75

12,480

item

weight

lton

Hold 1

3,000

Hold 2

4,200

Hold 3

6,100

O.F. (deep tank)

370

Total:

13,670

ft

231 F

142 F

60 F

200 F

item

hull

after body

fore body

Total:

weight

lton

6,250

12,480

13,670

32,400

Moment

ft-lton

646,000

925,000

36,975

3,400

30,500

176,400

12,370

1,830,645

moment

ft-lton

693,000

596,400

366,000

74,000

1,729,400

moment

ft-lton

819,375

1,830,645

1,729,400

4,379,420

LCGm

= 4,379,420/32,400 = 135.2 ft

Still water bending moment:

Hull weight moment = WHaL (take a to be 0.23)

= 6,250(0.23)(570) = 819,375 ft-lton

= (32,400/2)(135.2 - 108.3)

= 435,780 ft-lton

1-107

S0300-A8-HBK-010

for a standard wave with length equal to the ships length,

can be estimated as:

WBM =

bL 3B

1,000,000

2.2 b L 2.5 B

100,000

L

20

b

Block Coefficient

CB

Hogging

(wave crest at midships)

Sagging

(wave trough at midships)

25.00

24.25

23.55

22.85

22.10

21.35

20.65

19.90

19.20

18.45

17.75

28.00

27.25

26.50

25.70

24.90

24.10

23.35

22.60

21.80

21.05

20.30

where:

WBM

L

B

b

=

=

=

=

0.80

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.70

0.68

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

length between perpendiculars, ft

beam, ft

empirical coefficient based on block

coefficient and wave position, from Table

1-22

better information, empirical relationships and construction

standards can be used to estimate section modulus or moment

of inertia. The following design rules are taken from Applied

Naval Architecture, R. Munro-Smith, 1967.

A first approximation of the midships section moment of

inertia can be made from:

I =

cBD3

where:

I

B

D

c

=

=

=

=

molded beam, ft or m

depth to strength deck, ft or m

empirical coefficient, ranging from 0.14 to 0.16

0.18 for cargo ships

0.22 for large tankers

0.175 to 0.21 for small tankers

An estimate for section modulus and/or moment of inertia can be made by reference to preliminary design expressions for maximum shear force

and bending moment, and assuming the ship was built to withstand that force and moment.

12

Mmax

L

C

Smax

LBTCD

35

L

C

L 2BTCB

35C

where:

Smax = maximum shear, lton

= displacement, lton

Mmax = maximum bending moment, ft-lton

L

= length between perpendiculars, ft

= block coefficient

CB

C

= a constant, generally ranging from 20 to 40

35 for most auxiliaries, merchant ships, and vessels with large longitudinal prismatic coefficient Mmax = LBT/1600 (CB taken

as 0.75)

20 for destroyers, and vessels with small longitudinal prismatic coefficient Mmax = LBT/1490 (CB taken as 0.47)

These relationships give a good approximation for the full-load condition on a standard hogging wave. For most merchant ships, hogging

moments are greater than sagging moments.

1-108

S0300-A8-HBK-010

1-11.16 By Rule Section Modulus. Classification society rules set minimum standards for midships section modulus. Midships section

modulus of an in class ship will not be lower than the minimum standard, and is unlikely to be much higher. Bending stresses in the midships

region can be roughly estimated without determining section modulus rigorously, provided the following are true:

The ship was built to classification society standards or other specifications requiring minimum section modulus, and is currently

in class.

The ship has not suffered damage that will reduce section modulus in the sections where stresses are to be determined.

A summary of section modulus requirements established by the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is given in Appendic C.

1-11.17 Strength Considerations in Salvage Operations. A ship is designed and constructed to withstand expected shear forces and bending

moments. In an intact floating ship, maximum bending moment occurs in the midships region and maximum shear near the quarter-length points.

These sections are designed to ensure that stresses remain below acceptable limits. Three conditions common to salvage operations may require

that the stress levels be examined at other points:

The ship may be loaded in ways not foreseen by the designer. Because of flooding, grounding or other unusual conditions of

loading, maximum bending moment can occur at some section other than midships. Similarly, maximum shear may be at some

point other than at the quarters.

Damage can alter the stress distribution at a section so that maximum stress can occur in some section other than where maximum

bending moment or shear occurs. Damage, even over a short distance, disrupts the continuity of longitudinal members and reduces

the section modulus for some distance on either side of the damaged section.

Local damage or distortion can render plating and stiffeners more susceptible to tripping, buckling, or other forms of load shirking,

thereby reducing effective moment of inertia.

curves of a casualty must be carefully

examined:

wherever shear or bending

moment are maximum or the

effective moment of inertia is

reduced.

The effects of salvage actions

on load, shear and bending

moment should be examined

before taking the action.

Accesses should not be cut in

locations that will reduce the

section modulus or strength

member continuity.

and plot the maximum acceptable shear and

bending moments along the length of the

ship. The bending moments and shear

resulting from planned actions can be

compared with the allowable limits to

determine if the planned action is safe.

Figure 1-81 shows maximum acceptable

bending moments for an FFG-7 Class ship.

2

MAXIMUM MOMENT, KEEL

17

16

15

14

13

13

12

11

10

STATIONS

MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENTS BASED ON ASSUMED

MATERIAL YIELD OF 32,000 PSI WITHOUT SAFETY FACTOR