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Physics 141B, Spring 2010

Problem Set #1 Solutions


David Strubbe

1. (Kittel 9.3)
~ Fourier component of the lattice potential U (~r) is given by
a) The G
Z
 
1
~
~
U (~r) eiG~r d3 r
U G =
V

(1)

The lattice potential is the sum of the potentials of each atom in the unit
cell:
X
U (~r) =
Ua (~r ~j )
(2)
j

Z X
 
1
~
~
Ua (~r ~j ) eiG~r d3 r
U G =
V
j
Z
X
1
~
=
Ua (~r) eiG(~r+~j ) d3 r
V

j
Z
1 X iG~
~
~
Ua (~r) eiG~r d3 r
e j
=
V

(3)
(4)
(5)

~c =
We are considering G
is 1 = 0, 2 =

2
. From Fig. 1.21, the basis for the
c z
 structure
 hcp
2
1
1
~ c to be zero,
a1 + 3 ~a2 + 2 ~a3 . To see if symmetry forces U G
3~


P ~
c
we evaluate the prefactor j eiGc ~j . In this case, we get 1 + exp i 2
c 2 =
1 1 = 0.


c
~
b) For
 G2c= c z, instead the structure factor is 1 + exp i c 2 = 1 + 1 = 2, so
~ 2c 6= 0.
U G

c) In the nearly-free-electron model, as discussed on p. 167, the gap is related


to the Fourier component of the lattice potential at the zone edge: Eg =
~ . For a simple hexagonal lattice, there is only atom per unit cell, and
U G
 
~ 6= 0 (in any direction),
the structure factor is always 1. Therefore U G
and there is a gap at the zone edge. (Note that we are also satisfying the
condition that there are an even number of electrons per cell.)
 
~ c = 0, so there is no gap in the out-of-plane direction, and
d) For hcp, U G
we must have a metal.

2. (Kittel 9.4)
In two dimensions, for N electrons,
 2
L
A 2
N =2
k
(6)
kF2 =
2
2 F

so kF = 2n, n = N/A. For a lattice constant a, and two electrons per

atom in a square lattice, n = 2/a2 . Thus kF = 2 /a. In terms of the


1 G 0.56G. Therefore the Fermi surface
lattice vector G = 2
a , kF =

will extend out of the first Brillouin zone into the second, but not into the
third. With this information we can make a rough sketch. First we sketch
the surface in the extended-zone scheme, and identify the Brillouin zones
(left). Then we can sketch the surfaces in the first and second Brillouin
zones (right), where they are hole-like and electron-like respectively. To
show the shape of the orbits, we draw some of the periodic repetitions. The
sharp corners have been rounded off and the intersections with the zone edge
made perpendicular, in accordance with Kittels rules of thumb for making
it the nearly free-electron model.

3. (fcc tight-binding)
We can start with equation 9.10:
~k =

eik~m

(7)

The sum is over the nearest neighbors. In the fcc crystal structure, there
are 12 nearest neighbors, with coordinates (from Fig. 1.22) which we can
write in a condensed form as
n
a a  a
a   a a o

~m =
0, ,
, , 0,
, , ,0
(8)
2 2
2
2
2 2
Thus


~k = eiky a/2 eikz a/2 + eikz a/2 eikx a/2 + eikx a/2 eiky a/2
(9)


ky a
ky a
kz a
kz a
kx a
kx a
= 4 cos
cos
+ cos
cos
+ cos
cos
(10)
2
2
2
2
2
2
4. (Kittel 9.7)
a) The de Haas-van Alphen period is given in equation (9.37):
 
2e
1
=

B
hcS

(11)

where S is the area of the extremal orbit of the Fermi surface perpendic~ Within the free-electron model, the surface is
ular to the direction of B.
2
a sphere, and S = kF . From Table 6.1, for K, kF = 0.75 108 cm1 .
Using these numbers, and the value Kittel conveniently gives us 2e
hc =

9.55 107 gauss1 cm2 , we get B1 = 5.4 109 gauss1 .

b) The corresponding area in real space is given by equation (9.28):


A=

c
h
eB

2

(12)

For B = 1 T = 104 gauss, we find A = 8 107 cm2 . The radius of the


orbit is 5 m.