Manganese Denntrites

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

893 Aufrufe

Manganese Denntrites

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- math 30-2 course outline
- casio fx-82sx
- The Elementary Mathematical Works of Leonhard Euler
- Euler Notes 99
- Why Engineer Fractals
- NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR AND FRAGILITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTI-STORY CONFINED MASONRY WALLS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS
- Image of the State as a Conceptual Fractal
- Seismic Time Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of The Permo – Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia
- Winkelnkemper, T. Puriﬁcation performance index and separation cost indicator for experimentally
- 2-6-79
- Unit 2 Organizer: Exponents and Logarithms
- 2013-Study of the Aggregation and Adsorption of Asphaltene
- Cao Nanoparticles
- F24 is Composite
- 38687-174580-1-PB barroso
- hassin.pdf
- 10.0000@Www.onepetro.org@Journal Paper@SPWLA 1990 v31n1a2
- 117206140-MTAP-2012-Math4
- 02b RunningTime (Optional)
- mjcazwan

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

363 - 366

the pattern formations in two-dimensional space by

Monte Carlo simulation

M. BAYIRLI*, H. KOCKAR, Z. MERDANa

Department of Physics, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, Balıkesir, Turkey

a

Department of Physics, Science and Literature Faculty, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat, Turkey

The effect of the seed geometry and size on the pattern formation mechanism in two-dimensional space was investigated

by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using the fractal concept and particles density. The patterns obtained from the square seed

has symmetrical main brunches whereas the circle seed patterns pose the denser and higher number of brunches with the

increase of the dimension of the seed, and hence they have both long-range correlations. The critical exponents, α and the

fractal dimensions, Df were computed using the power-law. The results were compared with a model based on the diffusion-

limited aggregation (DLA) obtained by MC. It is seen that the morphology of the patterns is greatly affected by the geometry

and size of the seeds. Therefore, in order to quantify the change of Df with geometry of the seeds, the fractal dimension

function, Df (l) and Df (r) for length of the square and circular seeds were introduced, respectively. The results are expected

to provide an expansion of the DLA model in terms of geometry and size of the seeds.

geometry and stick probability [4, 9].

The structures of aggregates strongly depend on the The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the

dynamics of growth process. A large number of theoretical seed geometry and size on the pattern formation

analysis and computer simulation models have been mechanism. The geometry of the seeds was selected as

carried out to investigate the relationship between square and the circle in shape. The patterns were simulated

geometry and growth mechanism of patterns [1-4]. The by MC technique based on DLA model. It is found that the

Laplacian growth model based on the Diffusion-Limited results of the geometrical parameters lead to an extension

Aggregation (DLA) model that can be simulated by Monte of the DLA models and hence expected to have a wide

Carlo (MC) simulation provides an approach to these range of application in the field of simulation of reel

phenomena. Thus, the DLA presents a prototype of pattern systems. The fractal dimension function, Df (l) for length

formation of diffusive systems, including of the square seed and Df (r) for the circular seeds were

electrodeposition, colloid aggregation, etc. [3-8]. The also introduced, respectively.

parameters of the sticking probability kinetics [4, 6],

surface diffusion [9], and many particle iterations [10]

were added to the DLA model in order to study more 2. Model and simulations

realistic physical systems using the DLA process.

The standard DLA model simulates the growth of a The MC model is used to simulate the patterns grown

pattern by considering the random walks of a particle on around the square and the circular seed based on DLA in

one pixel square lattice containing a seed. If the mobile order to compare the geometrical parameters of critical

particle encounters the seed in the first square seed, it exponents (α) and fractal dimensions (Df). To DLA model,

ceases to sit there. Otherwise it continues to move until it the MC algorithm was as follow: The particle walks on

finds another particle to stick to each other. Successive continuous in lattice and moves a distance of one length

walkers repeat this process. The fractal pattern formation unit for each MC step. A random walker is introduced and

can be produced by MC simulation [2, 4]. moves on the lattice with the equal probability of ¼ of

The crystal pattern is generally presumed to begin walking in each of four directions at each MC step until it

from a single square immobile seed in DLA simulations, reaches the occupied site at which one pixel seed, and it

but it is not always true in reel systems. To our knowledge, sticks with probability one [3, 4]. In the standard DLA

the shape of the geometric structure of the seed has not patterns, to verify the above algorithm, a seed is occupied

been taken into consideration in the DLA model but on a square lattice of one pixel, and the typical simulated

Deepak at al [11] indicated the segregation of crystal pattern is shown in Fig. 1(a). In this study, a series of the

square seed and circular seed lattices were simulated in

364 M. Bayirli, H. Kockar, Z. Merdan

various pixels, respectively. The typical of patterns The length (l) of square seed are arbitrary chosen as

simulated in 40 pixels for the length of the square and the from 1 to 350 lattice units, and the radius (r) of the circle

radius of the circle were presented in Fig. 1(a) and Fig.1 seed are varied from 1 to L/2 in the finite square lattice in

(b), respectively. two-dimensional space. They are shown in Fig.1. In Fig.

1(a), Typical DLA patterns are observed and have five

main brunches and some sub-brunches on them. Fig.1 (b)

3. Results and discussion shows the less main brunches with sub-brunches and

denser structure compared to the DLA pattern. Main

Numerical simulations are performed on the finite brunches are occurred from the corner of the square seed

square lattice (LxL) using MC method based on DLA of 40 pixel but no main brunches at the edge are obtained

model. The length of the particles is chosen as one lattice due to the symmetry of the square lattice. In the case of

unit of one pixel for the standard DLA model, and 40 Fig. 1(c), the number of main and brunches increased with

pixels for the square and circular lattice. The occupied the increase of sub-brunches having the densest structure.

fraction of the aggregates is given by ρ=n/L2, where n is Just as the radius of the circular seed increases, the

the total number of particles. L is chosen to be 400 for all numbers of the main branches increase in the environment

simulated patterns. of the circular seed.

All patterns simulated in this study have long-range

order. The patterns in Fig. 1(b) and Fig. 1(c) have less

number of sub-brunches and long-range deformation

compared to the standard DLA growth in Fig. 1(a) due to

the size of the seeds. The thickness of the branches and

sub-brunches are different. Bigger size of the seed makes

the brunches thicker and also the degrees of the thickness

were also affected by the geometry of seed. To do the

pattern simulation in a much larger-scale as in case of 40

pixel square and circular seed pattern, the number of

branches would be increase and, accordingly the branches

would become relatively thicker for the around circle

deposit seeds.

The geometrical parameters of the simulated patterns

were computed. The static property can be reflected by

fractal dimension (Df). Df of patterns is calculated by the

box-counting method. The method is used to study the

random set in a lattice. The density-density correlation

function, C(r), was used to detect the fractality of the

crystal pattern as defined in [1, 2, 4]. The correlation

function is given by;

1

C (r ) =

N

∑ ρ (r + r ) ρ (r )

'

' '

(1)

r

ρ is the local density. This equation gives the probability

of finding a particle at the position r + r’, if there one at r’.

r is the first particle distance from the selected particle,

and r’ is the distance of the other particles from r. This

equation gives the relationships among the particles in the

patterns.

The C(r) was calculated and plotted against r in the

logarithmic scale as seen in Fig.2. Since the patterns are

fractals, the shape of the straight line was fitted to the data

on logarithmic plot. This indicates that the density-density

correlation function within the patterns decays according

to power law. In all cases, the rapid decreases in C(r) at

high r values are due to the long size of patterns. The

differences in the C(r) are due to the geometry of the

Fig. 1. Typical morphologies of the crystal patterns of seeds. In the circular seed, the slope of the pattern has the

(a) l=1 pixel seed for standard DLA, (b) l=40 pixels for smallest fitted line, and followed by the square seed and

square seed and (c) r=40 pixels for the circular seed. then the standard DLA seed in Fig. 2. The reason for that

The effect of seed geometry and size on the mechanism of the pattern formations in two-dimensional space ... 365

1.85

pattern.

1.80

Fractal dimensions

1.75

1.70

1.65

1.60

Square

log C(r)

1.55

Circular

1

1.50

0 100 200 300 400

DLA

Circle Fig. 3. Df versus the length, l of the square seed and the

radius, r of circular seed. The Df(l) and Df(r) were

1 10 obtained from the fitted line using nonlinear regression.

log (r)

Nevertheless, the approach to the initial parameter

function C(r) as a function of distance r for l = 1for was estimated as the functions of Df(l) and Df(r) using the

Standard DLA seed, l = 40 for square seed, r = 40 for non-linear regression method. The following equations of

circle seed. Df (l) and Df (r) are obtained by fitting data for each

patterns in Fig.3.

D f (l) = D0 + Al μ (2)

obtained from each straight line and summarized in Table

1. The lowest α of 0.236±0.004 was calculated for the and

pattern of circular seed for the radius seed, r=40. Fractal

dimension (Df) corresponds α with Df = α+2. The Df D f (r ) = D0 + Br δ (3)

values were computed for each of the patterns. In the

standard DLA pattern, Df is 1.660±0.004 and is around

1.70 in [2,4]. where µ and δ are the correlation exponents for the Df (l)

and Df (r) are obtained from non-linear regression in Fig. 3

, respectively. A and B are constants, and D0 is defined as

the Df of the standard DLA pattern.

Table 1. Critical exponents for patterns r: radius of the The µ is computed as 0.968±0.194 while the regression

seed, l: length of the square seed. coefficient, R=0.981 for the square seeds. The other

exponent δ is 1.082±0.156 with the regression coefficient,

Seed Length or radius Critical R=0.987. It can be said that µ and δ depend on the

of the seed exponents, α geometry and size of the lattice seeds.

Circular r=40 0.236±0.004

DLA l=1 0.340±0.005

Square l=40 0.392±0.006 6. Conclusions

different geometry and size of the seeds in two-

In order to quantify the change of Df with geometry of dimensional space have been investigated by using a MC

the seeds, the fractal dimension function, Df (l) and Df (r) simulation based on DLA model. The effect of the seed

for length of the square and circular seeds were geometry is studied by simply changing the shape and size

introduced, respectively. They are computed and plotted in of seeds. The patterns obtained from the circular seeds

Fig.3. Just as one expects to reach an asymptotically non- have symmetrical and more main brunches whereas the

fractal patterns, the Df (L) become a finite value 2 as l→L. square seed patterns have the less dense brunches with the

In Fig.3, it can be seen that the Df(l) has slower increase increase of the dimension of the seed. The α and the Df

then the Df(r) since the brunches can only grow in the were computed using the power-law. These results were

corner of pattern of square seed, which has less brunches. compared with the simulated model based on the DLA

obtained by MC simulation. It is seen that the morphology

366 M. Bayirli, H. Kockar, Z. Merdan

of the patterns is greatly affected by the geometry and size [2] T. A. Witten and L. M. Sender, Phys. Rev. Lett.

of the seeds. Therefore, in order to quantify the change of 47 1400 (1981).

Df with geometry and size of the seeds, the fractal [3] P. Jenses, A. L., Barabasi, H. Larralde, S. Havlin and

dimension function, Df (l) and Df (r) for length of the H. E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. B. 50, 15316 (1995).

square and circular seeds were introduced, respectively. [4] T. A. Witten, L.M. Sander, Phys. Rev. B.

The results are expected to provide an expansion of the 27, 5686 (1983).

DLA model in terms of geometry and size of the seeds. [5] D. G. Grier, D. A. Kessler and L. M. Sender, Phys.

Therefore, it is anticipated that this approach would Rev. Lett. 59, 2315 (1987).

generate a wide variety of patterns under reel pattern [6] P. Meakin, Phys Rev. A. 27, 2616 (1983).

conditions. [7] M. Bayirli, Physica A. 353, 1 (2004).

[8] R. F. Xiao, J. I. D. Alexander, F. Rosenberger,

Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988).

Acknowledgements [9] P. Meakin, Phys Rev. A. 153, 1 (1998).

[10] D. N. Bankar, P.M. Gade, A.V. Gade, A. V. Limaye,

This work is partly supported by Balikesir University, A. G. Banpurkar, Phys. Rev. E. 75, 051401 (2007).

Turkey under Grant no BAP 2006/26. [11] J. Nittmann, H. E. Stanley J. Phys. A.

20, L, 981 6 (1987).

References

_________________________

*

[1] P. Meakin, Fractals, Scaling and Growth far from Corresponding author: mbayirli@balikesir.edu.tr,

Equilibrium, Cambridge University Press, mehmetbayirli@yahoo.com

Cambridge, 1998.

- math 30-2 course outlineHochgeladen vonapi-328522531
- casio fx-82sxHochgeladen von18_06_1900
- The Elementary Mathematical Works of Leonhard EulerHochgeladen voneip10
- Euler Notes 99Hochgeladen vonlidcc87
- Why Engineer FractalsHochgeladen vonbuditux
- NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR AND FRAGILITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTI-STORY CONFINED MASONRY WALLS UNDER CYCLIC LOADSHochgeladen vonIAEME Publication
- Image of the State as a Conceptual FractalHochgeladen vonJesse Reichelt
- Seismic Time Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of The Permo – Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi ArabiaHochgeladen vonProfessor Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen Alkhidir
- Winkelnkemper, T. Puriﬁcation performance index and separation cost indicator for experimentallyHochgeladen vonpablo_rk
- 2-6-79Hochgeladen vonKunal Seth
- Unit 2 Organizer: Exponents and LogarithmsHochgeladen vonFrankie Rose III
- 2013-Study of the Aggregation and Adsorption of AsphalteneHochgeladen vonVincent Piscitelli
- Cao NanoparticlesHochgeladen vonBeth Jiménez
- F24 is CompositeHochgeladen vonAlfredo Cano Cancela
- 38687-174580-1-PB barrosoHochgeladen vonmilton74
- hassin.pdfHochgeladen vonMahesh Babu Talupula
- 10.0000@Www.onepetro.org@Journal Paper@SPWLA 1990 v31n1a2Hochgeladen vonAnonymous yjLUF9gDTS
- 117206140-MTAP-2012-Math4Hochgeladen vonAnonymous UFOiJwZ
- 02b RunningTime (Optional)Hochgeladen vonfrankjamison
- mjcazwanHochgeladen vonFatin Damia Muhammad
- Crystal StructureHochgeladen vonAsif Ali
- Improving Your Graphics Using SAS/GRAPH® Annotate FacilityHochgeladen vonfffresh
- Aggregation of TiO2–Graphene Nanocomposites in Aqueous Environment Influence of Environmental Factors and UV IrradiationHochgeladen vonClaramaria Rodriguez
- attentionHochgeladen vonJan Hula
- 167866450-Trial-Kedah-Add-Math-SPM-2013-K2Hochgeladen vonNazurah Kamaruzzaman Kamari
- Correlation Well to Well Lineman Et AlHochgeladen vonJohan
- WAVELET SHRINKAGE ESTIMATION OF CERTAIN POISSON INTENSITY SIGNALS USING CORRECTED THRESHOLDSHochgeladen vonHuongan Nguyen
- lec34Hochgeladen vonRangith Ramalingam
- Chapter 4-1.docHochgeladen vonEng-Mohammed Kayed
- Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Films PreparedHochgeladen vonsggdgd

- Culture Fractals Paper Dec09PDFHochgeladen vonRichard Tabor Greene
- Goden RatioHochgeladen vonTimberly
- Design and Simulation of Sierpinski Carpet Fractal Antenna and Comparision of Different FeedsHochgeladen vonInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Analyzing Urban Sprawl Patterns Through Fractal GeometryHochgeladen vonHoshyar Qadir Rasul
- Fractal Antennas for Wireless Comm System With Source CodeHochgeladen vonShrivishal Tripathi
- Clifford a. Pickover Keys to InfinityHochgeladen vonTim
- Beyond space and time.docHochgeladen vonAhmet Semih Parlak
- lesson19 A Critical History of Computer Graphics and AnimationHochgeladen vonRiccardo Mantelli
- Analysis of Machined Surfaces by Grinding Process Using Machine VisionHochgeladen vonDinesh Kumar
- Fractals and Human BiologyHochgeladen vonkavithanakkiran_3003
- Murrey MathHochgeladen vonCloqui86
- isbn00123.pdfHochgeladen vonLam-ang Magiting
- Vol2No1Page69to73Hochgeladen vonShaku Kumar
- Theraphi team- Conjugate_Fractal Field Plasma Rejuvenation System.pdfHochgeladen vonMichael Przybylski
- Vaughan and Ostwald 2008 Approaching Euclidean LimitsHochgeladen vonRubiiKzz
- Leon Zurawicki (Auth.) - Neuromarketing_ 2010Hochgeladen vonSanaullah Shar
- Fractal Image Compression BarnsleyHochgeladen vonAdditya Putra
- Chaos Complexity and Entropy a Physics Talk for Non-Physicists - Michel BarangerHochgeladen vonIndra Budhi Kurniawan
- Proposed Proof of the Lonely Runner ConjectureHochgeladen vonRichardBehiel
- Founders First E-book June 2007Hochgeladen vonNina Zala
- Artificial StatesHochgeladen vonvidovdan9852
- On Fractal Coloring resHochgeladen vonrevers666
- fractaimHochgeladen vonAiman Latif
- [Martin_Erwig]_Once_Upon_an_Algorithm_How_Stories(b-ok.org).pdfHochgeladen vonJohn Nelson
- Sierpinski Triangular Antenna on a Mushroom-like EBG Metamaterial Ground PlaneHochgeladen vonJournal of Telecommunications
- Kroeger H - Fractal Geometry in Quantum MechanicsHochgeladen vonKopaka Lewa
- Fractal 5Hochgeladen vonSKH
- Capsule Collection - Organised ChaosHochgeladen vonVivien Adrian
- Bio Architecture MRiceHochgeladen vonPatricio Ahumada
- Ergodic Theory of Chaos and Strange Attractor 17 - Egodic TheoryHochgeladen vonEscuela De Arte