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Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Solutions Manual to accompany

CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER


Fourth Edition
William Kays
Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Stanford University
Michael Crawford
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Texas at Austin
Bernhard Weigand
Professor and Head, Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics
University of Stuttgart

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

An Introductory Note
Some of the problems in the text are brief exercises leading to single numerical or
algebraic results, but the great majority are much more extensive investigations, some
approaching the magnitude of term projects. In the latter cases, there is usually no simple
answer. Student initiative is encouraged and this leads to results that may differ
numerically or may involve results not asked for in the problem statement. In any case,
the authors place more value on a written discussion at the end of the student's papers,
and on the development of the analysis, than on numerical results.
It is not practicable to provide a "solutions manual" containing examples of
complete papers for assignments of this kind. The authors have chosen rather to provide,
in a somewhat abbreviated form, some of the key results for these problems. In some
cases rather than give numerical results, a brief discussion of how to attack the problem is
provided. Only a small fraction of the problems can be used in any one course, and it is
hoped that instructors will find a sufficient number of problems to satisfy a variety of
needs, including differing tastes and interests, and differing teaching styles.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 4
4-1

Let x1 = x, x2 = y, u1 = u, and u2 = v in Eq. (4-17). Then


Equation, x - direction

P 2u
=
x x 2

Equation, y - direction

P
=0
y

Thus, P = P(x) and

P dP
=
. The equation becomes
x dx
2
dP
du
=
2
dx
dy

4-2 Consider the continuity equation (4-5) in cylindrical coordinates with V defined
in Appendix D,
V =

1
1 V Vx
+
=0
(rVr ) +
x
r r
r

where Vr = v r ; V = v ; and Vx = u . Let r = R + y and x = R, where R is the radius of

the inner surface. Note that x = 0 (no axial flow). Thus


R

v
v r
v
+ y r + vr + R
=0
y
y
x

For vr small and y  R , the middle two terms in the equation are negligible compared to
the first and last terms. Thus the equation becomes identical to (4-7) in Cartesian
coordinates. (Actually these are curvilinear coordinates with y  R ). Using similar
arguments, the applicable momentum equation is (4-11), with the convective acceleration
terms neglected. The applicable energy equation is (4-38).
4-3 The appropriate set of coordinates is the fixed, non-rotating cylindrical system with
r, the radial direction; , the circumferential direction; and x, the axial direction above the
disk. In the governing equations, all three velocity components will appear, but
derivatives with respect to will be zero due to rotational symmetry.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

The flow over a rotating disk is boundary layer in character, but the complete
Navier-Stokes equations can be solved in exact form (see Schlichting, ref. 2, page 93).
The applicable energy equation is (4-35) with the conduction gradient in the r-direction
neglected. (See Schlichting, page 296, for references to heat transfer solutions.)
4-4 The applicable energy equation is (4-31). Assume no mass diffusion. Use the
definition of enthalpy, i = e + P/, and let be constant, yielding

De
k T = S
Dt

For no fluid motion, the substantial derivative reduces to

e
k T = S
t

This is the classic heat conduction equation for a solid where the thermal equation of
state is de = cdT . For steady conduction and constant properties, the Poisson form of the
conduction equation is obtained, and when S is equal to zero, the Laplace equation is
obtained.
2
T =

S
k

4-5 Eq. (4-1) can be considered a continuity equation for the j - component of a
mixture, but the creation term must be added, resulting in
Gtot , j , x
x

G tot , j , y
= m j
y

Now substitute G tot , j = G diff , j + G conv , j , where G conv , j = m j G and G diff , j = j m j .


(Recall that G is the total mass flux vector.) Ignore Gdiff,j,x as a boundary layer
approximation and substitute into the continuity equation.
m j
m j m j
G x G y
+ Gx
+Gy

+
mj
j
= mj

x
y
y
y

x
y

4-6 For conservation of mass, the terms for mass flow rates (inflow on the radial face
and the axial face) are

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Gr = vr ; Ar = r d dx

m r = Gr Ar
m x = Gx Ax

Gx = u; Ax = r d dr

Application of the procedure leading up to equation (4-2), assuming steady flow,


yields

(u ) 1
+
(r vr ) = 0
x
r r

Note the appearance of r comes from dividing through the equation by the differential
volume, ( r d dx ). For constant properties, Eq. (4-9) is found.
u 1
+
(rvr ) = 0
x r r

For x-momentum , the x-momentum flow rates, inflow on the radial face and the
axial face, and the x-forces are
M r = um r = u ( Gr Ar )
M x = um x = u ( Gx Ax )

and
Fx = x Ax rx Ar

x P

rx =

u
y

Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. (4-10) and (4-11), assuming steady
flow and constant properties yields

u
u
dP
1 u
+ vr
=
+
r
dx
r r r
x
r

For energy , the energy flow rates, inflow on the radial face and on the axial face,
and the corresponding heat and work rates are

( ) ( )
= ( i + u ) m = ( i + u ) G A

1
1
E r = i + u 2 m r = i + u 2 Gr Ar
2

E x

and
qr = kAr

T
r

1
2

1
2

q x = kAx

T
x

Wshear ,r = u rx Ar

Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. (4-27) and (4-28), assuming steady
flow, no mass diffusion, and constant properties yields

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

i
i 1 T
dP
u
u + v r
=0
kr
u
x
r r r r
dx
r
and for ideal gases and incompressible liquids, using the approximations similar to the
development leading to Eq. (4-38), but retaining the pressure gradient term the enthalpy
equation reduces to
2

T
T
1 T Pr u
1 dP
u
+ vr
r
=0

x
y
r r r c r c dx

4-7 These steps are basically the redevelopment of the formulation leading up to Eq.
(4-39).

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 5
5-1 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the velocity
becomes the inviscid core velocity of the developing flow. Typical terms would be
R

2
M x = 2 R y u rdr

M y = ( R y )2 xv y yu y

and

Normal stress = P R 2 rdr

R y

s 2 R x;

Shear stress :

y 2 ( R y ) x

Now follow the procedure on pages 42-43,


s =

1 d R
2
ucore d R urdr ( u ) y 1 y ducore

u
rdr

core
R dx R y

R dx R y
2 R dx

5-2 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the
enthalpy is the core enthalpy. Neglect the kinetic energy term, and note that there is no
wall transpiration. Typical terms would be
R
E conv , x = 2 u ( i icore ) rdr
R y

qs = 2 R xq s
Now follow the procedure on pages 47-48,
qs =

1 d R
( i icore ) rdr
R dx R y

5-3 Assume: Fick's Law holds; steady flow; concentration boundary layer momentum
boundary layer thickness; y-direction gradients >> x-direction gradients; G at y = 0 is in
y-direction. Let mj,s be the mass concentration of j at the wall. For the j-component,
typical terms are
y

Inflow of j =

G m dy + G
x

y ,s

dm x

dy

m j , s x j

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Rate of creation of j =

m j xdy

The conservation principle that Outflow - Inflow + Increase in Storage = Rate of Creation
for specie j is used to obtain the integral equation. Continuity Eq. (5-1) is used and
m j , y = m j , . Then,
j

( )
mj
y

=
s

y
d y
u ( m j m j , ) dy svs ( m j , s m j , ) m j dy

dx 0

5-4 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (5-8) and
Eq. (5-21).

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 6
6-1 Note that Eqs. (6-9) and (4-17) are both unsteady forms of the Navier-Stokes
equations written in index notation, although (6-9) is for compressible flow with variable
viscosity, whereas (4-17) is for constant density flow with constant viscosity. Their
forms differ in the convection term and in the stress (or diffusion) term. The form of the
convective term in (6-9) is called the conservative form. Chain-rule differentiate the
convective term of (6-9) and subtract from it (6-8) to modify the convection term, then
assume constant density for the time term. This recovers the left hand side of (4-17).
Now, substitute the stress tensor, (6-6) into (6-9) and substitute (6-3) for the strain-rate
tensor. Assume constant viscosity and constant density. For constant density flow, the
second coefficient of viscosity (the dilatation term) is eliminated. The second term in the
strain rate tensor also disappears from the conservation of mass (assuming constant
density), and the result is the right hand side of (4-17).
6-2 Note that Eq. (6-11) is a stagnation enthalpy equation, whereas (4-32) is a static
enthalpy equation. Multiply Eq. (6-10) by u and subtract it from (6-11). Note that you
will first have to chain-rule the viscous work term in (6-11) to obtain the unsteady static
enthalpy equation. Now, substitute (6-6) along with the strain-rate tensor (6-3) into the
static enthalpy equation. The result is (4-32).
6-3

We combine the definition of stagnation enthalpy following Eq. (6-11),

i* = e +

+ 12 ui ui = i + 12 ui ui

and the two Reynolds decompositions given by Eq. (6-15)


i* = i * + i*,

i = i + i

Combining these, along with the Reynolds decomposition for ui yields

i* = i + 12 ui ui = i + i + 12 ( ui + ui )( ui + ui )
Now, expand the velocity term

i* = i + i + 12 ( u u ) + ( ui u ) + 12 ( uui )
and collect the time-averaged terms and the fluctuating terms. The result is (6-16),
similar to what is found in Ref. 1.
6-4

These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-21).

10

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

6-5 The first step is to chain-rule the conservative form of the convective term that
appears in Eq. (6-26) and apply the conservation of mass equation (6-22). Then apply
the index notation rule that repeated subscripts sum, j = 1, 2. Note there will not be third
term (j = 3 ) because of the two-dimensional boundary layer assumption (w = 0). The
pressure gradient becomes an ordinary derivative. The diffusion operator changes under
the boundary layer assumptions to

( )
( )

x j
y
In the viscous stress tensor, ji , only one term will be present, due to the boundary
layer approximation and the constant density assumption. This also applies to the
Reynolds stress term. The result is:

ji

) (

uj ui yx v u

This stress is (= yx ) in Eq. (6-27). Now divide through by the density, and the
constant density assumption allows the density to be moved into the diffusion term;
becomes , and the density is removed from the Reynolds stress. Note Eq. (6-28)
remains valid for variable viscosity, but not for variable density.
6-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-31),
followed by the formulation leading to Eq. (6-34). Eq. (6-34) is valid for either an ideal
gas or an incompressible liquid (both obeying de = c dT), and it is valid for variable
thermal conductivity, but not for variable density.
6-7

These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-38).

6-8

The structure of the equations follow the format of Eq. (6-39)

convection ( ) = diffusion ( ) source ( )


where is the dependent variable. Rewriting momentum equation (4-10) in this form
yields

u
u u dP
+ v
=
x
y y y dx

The energy equation (4-39) needs to first be rewritten in variable-property form similar to
Eq. (4-37), and then formulated like the momentum equation.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

11

T
T T
+v
=

x
y y y

Then, a form similar to Eq. (6-28) results by including the Reynolds stress term,
u

1 dP
u
u u
+v
=
uv
x
y y y
dx

A similar form to Eq. (6-34) results by including the Reynolds heat flux term.
u

T
T
T
+v
=
v T
x
y y y

Note that both the momentum equation and energy equations have a convective term and
a diffusive term, but only the momentum equation has a source term. An equivalent
energy source term would be a viscous dissipation term, which could be added.

12

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 7
7-1 Let the plate spacing of the channel be a and measure y from the plate surface
Reformulate the integral equation (5-4) for a non-axisymmetric geometry (eliminate R)
and no transpiration into the boundary layer at the surface ( v s = 0 ),

s =

d
dx

( u dy ) u
y

core

d
dx

( u dy ) + u
y

core

ducore
dy
dx

where core symbol replaces the symbol. For a velocity profile, consider first the
2

y y
parabola,
= a + b + c . Three boundary conditions are needed to determine
ucore

a, b, c. The first will be the boundary condition of no-slip, u ( y = 0) = 0 . The other two
come by applying boundary conditions at the edge of the developing boundary layer
within the channel, i.e. the flow between the surface ( y = 0 ) and the core flow ( y = ).
Thus, u ( y = ) = ucore and du dy at ( y = ) = 0 . The resulting profile is
u

u
ucore

y y
= 2

The velocity profile is substituted into the integrals of the integral equation. The wall
shear stress must also be evaluated, following the idea of Eq. (7-9), and using Eq. (3-1).
The resulting momentum integral equation becomes
du 2 2 d
u 3
2 core = ucore core + ucore

dx 15
dx
5

Now, conservation of mass (continuity) must be applied to the channel, assuming


constant density,

m
a

Va =
a = constant = 20 udy + 2ucore ( x )
2

Ac

and, by substituting the parabolic profile into the integral,


ucore =

V
2
1

3 a

and

ducore
V
d
=
2
dx
3 2 dx
a 1

2 3 a

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

13

This provides the relationship between the mass-averaged velocity of the channel, V, and
the local core velocity. Note that this equation shows how the effect of the no-slip
condition (leading to the velocity profile) causes the core velocity to increase, eventually
becoming centerline velocity ucore = u ( y = a 2) = 1.5V for laminar, constant-density flow
in a parallel-planes channel.
Now comes lots of algebra and plenty of chances to make mistakes. Substituting for the
core velocity (and its derivative into the momentum integral equation leads to

2
3
3a + 7 d
30 = aV
2
2
3
dx
a

2

Note, here one can separate variables and integrate. Hint: the integrand can be split into
two integrals of the form
I1 =

I2 =

1

d = 2 ln ( + ) +
2

+ 0
( + )

2
1
2
=
+

ln

(
)
(
)
2
3
+ 0
( + )

The lower limit of integration will be ( x = 0 ) = 0 and the upper limit will be

( x = x fd ) = a 2 , and the result is

2 x fd
aV

= 0.10376748 ( a 2 )

Now reformulate the expression in terms of the hydraulic diameter Reynolds number (Eq.
7-17), where Dh = 2 plate spacing = 2a , leading to
x fd
Dh

= 16 ( 0.10376748 ) Re Dh =

Re Dh
154

This result, ( x Dh ) Re Dh = 0.0065 , is quite small compared to the published solution for

a circular pipe, Eq. (7-23), ( x Dh ) Re Dh = 0.05

14

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note, had we assumed a sinusoidal shape for the velocity profile (often considered in
viscous fluid mechanics texts, along with the parabolic-profile boundary conditions,
u
ucore

y
= sin

and the result would be similar (within 5%).


7-2 This problem can be solved two ways. The first method involves partially
integrating the differential momentum equation over the flow cross-section. Reformulate
Eq. (4-11) into its conservative form by combining it with the continuity equation (4-8),
and by recasting the shear stress term back into its stress form

( uu ) ( vr u )
dP 1
+
=
+
( r rx )
x
r
dx r r
Then, integrate the momentum equation in a manner similar to how we formulate an
integral equation in Chapter 5, namely differential in the flow direction (x) and integrally
in the cross-flow direction, from the surface to the centerline of the channel (or over the
flow cross-section.
( uu )
( v u )
1
dP

dAc dx +
dAc dx =
dAc dx + ( r rx ) dAc dx
r r
x
dx

where dAc would be ( 2 rdr ) for a circular pipe. Now recognize that the cross-stream
convective term is zero at the surface and at the channel (or pipe) centerline, reducing the
equation to
x2

( uu ) dA
x1

x2

= P ( x2 ) P ( x1 ) Ac + rx dx
x1

The second method is the control volume formulation, similar to that used in Chapter 5
for the momentum integral equation (pp 41-43),
M x + x M x = ( s dAs ) + ( PAc ) x ( PAc ) x + x

or
dM x = d

( udm ) = d ( u dA ) = dA d ( PA )
2

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

15

where for a circular pipe dAs = Ddx and Ac is the flow cross-sectional area. Note the
similarity to Eq. (7-10) when the flow is assumed to be fully-developed flow, and dMx=0.
Now redefine s in terms of the definition of cf from Eq. (7-13) and integrate between
two flow locations 1 and 2 representing the flow distance from x1 =0 (the entry
location) to some arbitrary x-location, x2,

u 2 dAc = s Ddx ( PAc )2 ( PAc )1


1

u dA
2

2
1

V 2 Ac = c f V 2 Ddx ( PAc )2 ( PAc )1


1
2

where the wall shear stress has been replaced by the local friction coefficient from Eq. (713). Rearranging, assuming constant density, and dividing through by the dynamic
pressure term yields Eq. (7-19),

( P2 P1 ) =
1
V 2
2

2 u
= c f ,m
+ dAc 2
1
( Dh 4 ) Ac V
V 2
2
x

where Dh is the hydraulic diameter (Dh=D for a circular pipe). Note the introduction of
the mean friction coefficient from Eq. (7-20).
For the case where x1 and x2 are both beyond the fully-developed location, the
momentum equation can be written as
2

 ) = dA d ( PA )
d ( mV
1

Integration, use of the continuity equation (7-3) and rearranging leads to


1

1
1 m 2 As

( P2 P1 ) Ac
m 2
c

f ,m
2

A
A
A
2
c
1 c
2 c

1
dAs is the average density over the flow distance from x1 to x2. Further
As
rearrangement leads to

where =

( P2 P1 ) = P =

1
m 2
1 As
1
c
+

f ,m
Ac
2 Ac2
2 1

16

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Here one can see the effect of density variation on the flow, while neglecting the extra
pressure drop in the entry region due to acceleration. Note that a change in density will
lead to a change in Reynolds number.
7-3 For fully-developed flow in a circular tube, the velocity profile is given by Eq. (78), where the mean velocity is given by Eq. (7-7). The momentum flow through a flow
area is defined by the product of the mass flow rate through the cross-sectional area and
the velocity component normal to that area,
2

rs

M x = udm = u 2 rdr =
2

rs

r 2
4
2V 1 2 rdr = V 2 rs2
3
rs 2

and the mass flow rate is given by

r 2
rs
rs


m = dm = u 2 rdr = 2V 1 2 rdr = V rs2
0
0
rs 2
When we talk about 1-dimensional flow, such as in the subjects of thermodynamics or
compressible flow, we assume there is a characteristic velocity that represents the flow
cross-sectional area, defined from the continuity equation,

V=

m
Ac

where the density is assumed constant over the cross-section. If the velocity is uniform
over the cross-sectional area, u ( r ) = V , then

M x = udm = Vm = V V rs2 = V 2 rs2


Comparing these two results, we find that the actual momentum flow rate differs from the
one-dimensional flow rate by a factor of 4/3. Or, when u(r) exists, then at a given xlocation

M x = udm = u 2 dAc M x Vm


Therefore, if we assumed a 1-dimensional flow approach we could not obtain the last
term of Eq. (7-19), which represents the contribution to the pressure drop due to flow
acceleration (kinetic energy change) as the profile changes shape from x1 to x2.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
7-4

17

For the 2 tubes in parallel between the two tanks, the theory will be

m 1 + m 2 = 0.00013 kg / s
P1 = P2 =

1
2

V 2 c f ,app
m

VD
Re D =
=

D
Ac

4 x m 2
4x
c
=
2 f , app
D 2 Ac
D

4m
D

The procedural steps will be:


(a) arbitrarily select a mass flow rate for the larger tube
(b) compute the Re for each tube
(c) compute the parameter x + = ( x D ) Re for each tube
(d) using Figure 7-7, find the value of c f ,app for each tube
(e) compute the pressure drop for each tube
(f) iterate the mass flow of the larger tube until the pressure drops balance
Answers:
(a) mass flow rate for the larger tube is about 89% of the total mass flow
(b) Re for the larger and smaller tubes will be about 820 and 200 respectively
(c) pressure drop is about 15.2 Pa (for each tube)
note: for both flows Re ( x D ) < 6 or x + > 0.17 so the flow is fully-developed
therefore, Figure 7-7 is not needed, and c f ,app Re = 17.5 is ok to use
7-5 Note, this problem requires D to be replaced by Dh, the hydraulic diameter. Note
also, we can use Eq. (7-21) for the pressure drop. For this problem, the assumption of
fully-developed flow is made, and Figure 7-4 can be used to determine ( c f Re ) for these

rectangular heat exchanger passages.

* =
Dh =

Re Dh

b
1 cm
=
=5
a 0.2 cm

= 0.2

(c

Re ) = 19.1

4 ( ab )
4 Ac
4a
=
=
= 1.67a
a
perimeter 2a + 2b 2 + 2
b
m D
VDh Ac h m (1.67a ) 1.67 m
=
=
=
=

b
( a b)

18

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

The pressure-drop for a passage becomes


P =

1
2

V 2 c f ,app

4 x m 2
4x
c
=
2 f , app
D 2 Ac
D

m 2 c f Re Dh

=
2
2 Ac Re Dh

4 x m 2 c f Re D ( 0.717 ) x
h

=
D
a 3b

Thus, for two parallel passages having the same pressure drop,
P =

m 12 c f Re Dh ( 0.717 ) x m 22 c f Re Dh ( 0.717 ) x

= 3

b
b
a13
a2

or
m 2 a2
=
m 1 a1

1.1a
=

0.9a

= 1.35

A 10 percent oversize of one partition and a 10 percent undersize of an adjacent partition


results in a 35 percent difference in the mass flow rates, the higher flow rate in the larger
passage.
7-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (7-12).
Define a control volume, such as in Fig. 7-2, assuming fully-developed flow. Identify all
of the forces on the control volume surface (pressure and axial shear stress, rx ). Note
that there will be no momentum flux difference into and out of the control volume
because of the fully-developed assumption. Applying the momentum theorem Eq. (2-4)
leads to the Eq. (7-10). Applying this for r=rs gives Eq. (7-11). Forming the ratio of Eq.
(7-10) to Eq. (7-11) gives Eq. (7-12). This is a very important result for internal flows,
because it applies to both laminar and turbulent pipe flow. An alternative solution is to
derive the velocity profile for pipe flow, Eq. (7-8) and then form the shear stress for an
arbitrary r location and at r=rs, Eq. (7-9). Then forming the ratio of these shear stresses
yields Eq. (7-12).
7-7 For the parallel-planes geometry y is measured from the centerline and the channel
is of width a. Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. The
appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-10),

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

19

dP u
u
u
+ v
=
+
dx y y
x
y

and for fully-developed flow, u x = 0 and v=0, reducing the momentum equation to an
ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions
dP d du
=

dx dy dy
with boundary conditions of velocity profile symmetry at the channel centerline, and noslip at the channel surfaces.
du
dy

=0

and

u y = a 2 = 0

y =0

Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction, we can separate
variables and integrate, and apply the boundary conditions, leading to the parallel-planes
channel velocity profile,
u=

h2
y 2 dP

1
4

2
a 2 dx

Note the similarity to Eq. (7-2) for the circular pipe, namely a parabolic profile shape.
Next, we create the mean velocity, following Eq. (7-5) for constant density,
V=

1
Ac

Ac

u dAc =

+a 2
1
a 2 dP
udy
=

12 dx
( a 1) a 2

Where the cross-sectional area is per unit depth. Again, note the similarity to Eq. (7-7)
for the circular pipe.
Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields
u 3
y2
= 1 4 2
V 2
a

Now evaluate the surface friction, following Eq. (7-9),

20

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

y =h

=s =

6V
a

Compare this result to Eq. (7-9) for the circular pipe. Now follow the procedure of Eq.
(7-13) to form the friction coefficient, considering the absolute value of the shear stress
to preserve the fact that the surface shear is in the direction opposite of the flow.

s =

6 V
V 2
= cf
a
2

or

cf =

12
24
=
Va Re Dh

where the hydraulic diameter in the Reynolds number is twice the plate spacing.
Comparing the result to Fig. 7-4 for * = b a (the parallel plate case where b  a ,

shows ( c f Re ) = 24 . Note that the infinity symbol in Fig. 7-4 implies

hydrodynamically fully developed flow. In Fig. 7-5, the radius ratio r * 1 is the
limiting geometry of the annulus when the inner and outer radii are almost the same,
creating a parallel-planes geometry. Note this is the geometry of journal bearings.
7-8 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe, ri is
the radius of the inner pipe, ro is the radius of the outer pipe, and r* is the radius ratio,
r * = ri ro . Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. The
appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-11),

u
u
dP 1 u
+ v r
=
+
r

dx r r r
x
r

and for fully-developed flow, u x = 0 and vr=0, reducing the momentum equation to
an ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions
dP 1 d du
=
r
dx r dr
dr
with boundary conditions of no-slip at the channel surfaces.
u r =r = 0
i

and

u r =r = 0
o

Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction, we can separate
variables and integrate, and apply the boundary conditions, leading to the annular channel
velocity profile,

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

21

2
r dP
ro2 r
1 + Bln
u=

4 ro
ro dx

where

(r
B=

*2

ln ( r

Note the approximate similarity to Eq. (7-2) for the circular pipe However, it is
somewhat parabolic but it has an extra logarithmic term. For flow in the annular space
between two concentric pipes, there will be a peak in the velocity profile, and it is located
at rm (compared to the centerline for the pipe and parallel-planes channel).
Next, we create the mean velocity, following Eq. (7-5) for constant density,
V=

1
Ac

Ac

u dAc =

ro
ro2 dP
1
2
M
u
rdr

8 dx
( ro2 i2 ) ri

where M = 1 + r * B .
Again, note the approximate similarity to Eq. (7-7) for the circular pipe.
Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields an equation similar in
form to Eq. (8-26),
2
r
r
u
2
1 + Bln
=
V M
ro
ro

We can also derive the maximum velocity for the profile by setting
u
r

=0
r = rm

where
1 r *2
rm
=
r =

*
ro
2 ln(1/ r )
*
m

leading to

12

22

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

*
*
*
umax 2 1 rm + 2rm ln ( rm )
=
2
2
V
1 + r * 2rm*
2

Now evaluate the surface friction for each surface, following Eq. (7-9), but with sign
convention that reflects the profile behavior for annular flow.

i =
o = +

u
r
u
r

2 V 2r * B
+

M ro
ri

2 V 2 B
+
M ro ro

r = ri

r = ro

and formulate an area-weighted average of the friction coefficient, based on the inner
surface, Ai, and the outer surface, Ao, described on p. 71

i Ai + o Ao
cf =

Ai + Ao
V 2 2

( ri i + ro o ) = 4V
=
( ri + ro ) V 2 2 M

( 2r

*2

B2+B

( ri + ro ) V

Define the hydraulic diameter for the annulus, following Eq. (7-17), Dh = 2 ( ro ri ) , and
transform the friction coefficient,
2
16
1 r* )
12 M (
=
cf =
Re Dh
Vh

The result can be directly compared to Fig. 7-5.


7-9 The data file for this problem is 7.9.dat.txt and the output file is 7.9.out.txt.
TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F, and the users manual for all internal laminar
flows is s30.man, which should be helpful to the new user. If you set up problem 7-9
following the instructions described in its problem statement, you should have a data set
similar to the s30.dat.txt file.
### 'title of data set'
7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
4
2
1
1
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp

ktme
0

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###
###
###
###

###
###

###
###
###
###
###
###

101325.0
1.17700 1.838E-05
00.00
1005.00
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
prc(4)
prc(5)
0.707
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)
6
0
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)
6
1
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000000
0.0350
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.0350000
0.0350
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.3500000
0.0350
0.2500
0.0000
0.0000
3.5000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
6.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
12.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
xstart
xend
deltax
fra
enfra
0.0000000 12.000000
0.000
0.000 0.000E+00
kout
kspace
kdx
kent
8
50
1
0
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
0
0
20
0
k7
k8
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
0
0
0
0
0
axx
bxx
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
reyn
tref
tuapp
epsapp
twall
5.000E-04
0.0900
1000.00
300.0
0.0
0.00
300.0

Note, for the circular pipe geometry , the variable rw(m) is the wall radius.
Here is the 7.9.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
Laminar flow in a circular pipe benchmark test
cf,theo = 16.0/re,dh
nu,theo = 3.66, based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp
re,dh = 1.0000E+03
prm =
.707
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250

xplus
.00003
.00025
.00050
.00101
.00292
.00877

cf*re
137.95
55.81
43.41
34.33
25.29
19.78

uclr
1.037
1.104
1.144
1.200
1.330
1.556

xstar
.00004
.00035
.00071
.00143
.00413
.01240

nu
58.044
20.308
14.883
10.968
7.147
4.897

th,cl tm/ts ts
1.018 .968 3.100E+02
1.057 .969 3.100E+02
1.083 .970 3.100E+02
1.123 .971 3.100E+02
1.232 .974 3.100E+02
1.475 .978 3.100E+02

qflux
2.128E+02
7.170E+01
5.129E+01
3.645E+01
2.166E+01
1.229E+01

23

24

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

300
350
400
450
500
550
600
634

.01842
.03303
.05500
.08000
.10471
.12971
.15471
.17143

17.59
16.57
16.13
16.03
16.00
16.00
16.00
16.00

1.768
1.911
1.976
1.993
1.996
1.997
1.997
1.997

.02605
.04672
.07779
.11315
.14811
.18347
.21883
.24247

4.074
3.763
3.675
3.660
3.658
3.658
3.658
3.658

1.691
1.782
1.799
1.799
1.798
1.798
1.798
1.798

.983
.988
.992
.995
.997
.998
.999
.999

3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02

8.051E+00
5.402E+00
3.335E+00
1.983E+00
1.192E+00
7.121E-01
4.256E-01
3.017E-01

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
xplus

x Dh
Re Dh

inverse of denominator in Fig.7-7

cf2* re

c f Re

numerator in Fig.7-7

uclr

ucl V

ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that
7.9.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary
condition.
The three friction factor variations in the entry region that are depicted in Fig. 7-7 can be
verified with TEXSTAN. The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction
factor, cf . To obtain the mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be
integrated with respect to x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will
need to use more output points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by
increasing the kspace variable.
To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given
by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the
pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to
obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.9a.out.txt output file for
kout = 4,
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.9a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00
====================================================

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
634

x/d,h
2.500E-02
2.500E-01
5.000E-01
1.011E+00
2.918E+00
8.767E+00
1.842E+01
3.303E+01
5.500E+01
8.000E+01
1.047E+02
1.297E+02
1.547E+02
1.714E+02

uclr
1.037E+00
1.104E+00
1.144E+00
1.200E+00
1.330E+00
1.556E+00
1.768E+00
1.911E+00
1.976E+00
1.993E+00
1.996E+00
1.997E+00
1.997E+00
1.997E+00

delp
2.145E-03
6.356E-03
8.982E-03
1.296E-02
2.280E-02
4.227E-02
6.629E-02
9.741E-02
1.405E-01
1.877E-01
2.341E-01
2.810E-01
3.279E-01
3.592E-01

cf2(I)
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

cf2(E)
6.898E-02
2.790E-02
2.171E-02
1.717E-02
1.265E-02
9.891E-03
8.796E-03
8.283E-03
8.067E-03
8.013E-03
8.002E-03
8.000E-03
7.999E-03
7.999E-03

nu(I)
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

25

nu(E)
5.804E+01
2.031E+01
1.488E+01
1.097E+01
7.147E+00
4.897E+00
4.074E+00
3.763E+00
3.675E+00
3.660E+00
3.658E+00
3.658E+00
3.658E+00
3.658E+00

In this modified output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook
variables
x/d,h

x Dh

x normalized by the hydraulic diameter

uclr

ucl V

ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity

delp

see Eq. (7-21)

cf2(E)

(c

2)

rs

local friction coefficient divided by 2, see Eq. (7-13)

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region for comparison
with Fig. 7-6, reset kout=4 and set k10=10. The output profile will then contain profiles
at each x(m) station. The variables in the output will include
y(i)

radial location of the profile point

u(i)

u (r )

axial velocity

y/y(E)

r rs

non-dimensional radius

u/umean

uV

ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity

Note: the x(m) distribution for internal flows is a bit tricky, because of how TEXSTAN is
finite-differenced (or finite-volumed) for internal flows compared to external boundary
layer flows. With external flows, the numerical mesh extends from the surface to the free
stream and automatically expands to preserve the requirement that all dependent variable
profiles have zero gradient at the free stream (in the absence of flow-direction surface
curvature, which TEXSTAN does not have programmed into its differential equations).
TEXSTANs integration stepsize is proportional to the boundary layer thickness, so as
the boundary layer grows, the stepsize automatically increases. The controlling input
variable is deltax.
For internal flows, the numerical mesh is required to extend from surface to centerline (or
surface to surface). For entry flows, the developing shear layer (boundary layer) is a very
small part of this mesh, and therefore TEXSTAN must take very small flow-direction
integration steps. Making the stepsize proportional to the boundary layer thickness is not

26

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

convenient. Therefore, internal entry flows require a different stepsize mechanism.


Instead of using deltax, we set the flag kdx=1, and input deltax using the array aux1(m).
This is why the user sees a peculiar x(m) distribution, and the accompanying aux1(m)
values.
###

x(m)
0.0000000
0.0350000
0.3500000
3.5000000
6.0000000
12.0000000

rw(m)
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350

aux1(m)
0.0100
0.0100
0.2500
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

aux2(m)
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

aux3(m)
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

If you take these x(m) values and convert them to x + = ( x Dh ) Re Dh , you will find the
stepsize is controlled to match the logarithmic change of friction in the entry region, as
depicted by Fig. 7-7. The user needs to be careful when changing the input data set to
preserve how the integration stepsize changes. This is also discussed in some detail in
the s30.man.
Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the
velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ucl/V 2. This ratio is a measure of
fully-developed flow.
7-10 The data file for this problem is 7.10.dat.txt and the output file is 7.10.out.txt. If
you set up problem 7-10 following the instructions described in its problem statement,
you should have a data set similar to the s50.dat.txt file.
### 'title of data set'
7.10.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
ktme
5
2
1
1
0
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp
101325.0
1.17700 1.838E-05
00.00
1005.00
###
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
prc(4)
prc(5)
0.707
###
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)
5
0
###
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)
5
1
###
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000000
0.0175
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.0350000
0.0175
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.3500000
0.0175
0.2500
0.0000
0.0000
3.5000000
0.0175
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
6.0000000
0.0175
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
###
ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
###
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###
###
###
###
###
###

0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
xstart
xend
deltax
fra
enfra
0.0000000 6.000000
0.000
0.000 0.000E+00
kout
kspace
kdx
kent
8
50
1
0
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
0
0
20
0
k7
k8
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
0
0
0
0
0
axx
bxx
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
reyn
tref
tuapp
epsapp
twall
5.000E-04
0.0900
1000.00
300.0
0.0
0.00
300.0

Note, for the parallel-planes geometry and the assumption of symmetry (kgeom=5), the
variable rw(m) is half the plate spacing (centerline to surface).
Here is the 7.10.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.10.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
Laminar flow between parallel plates benchmark
cf,theo = 24.0/re,dh
nu,theo = 7.54, based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp
re,dh = 1.0000E+03
prm =
.707
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
920

xplus
.00001
.00013
.00025
.00038
.00050
.00068
.00102
.00168
.00296
.00544
.00901
.01341
.01881
.02547
.03367
.04376
.05575
.06825
.08075
.08571

cf*re
192.13
76.33
59.05
51.31
46.68
42.47
37.69
33.05
29.12
26.21
24.75
24.20
24.03
24.00
23.99
23.99
23.99
23.99
23.99
23.99

uclr
1.026
1.075
1.104
1.126
1.144
1.166
1.202
1.257
1.335
1.422
1.473
1.493
1.498
1.499
1.499
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

xstar
.00002
.00018
.00035
.00053
.00071
.00096
.00144
.00238
.00419
.00770
.01275
.01896
.02661
.03603
.04762
.06190
.07885
.09653
.11422
.12124

nu
82.643
29.395
21.782
18.400
16.386
14.570
12.527
10.578
8.993
7.964
7.607
7.541
7.537
7.538
7.538
7.538
7.538
7.538
7.538
7.538

th,cl tm/ts ts
1.013 .968 3.100E+02
1.041 .969 3.100E+02
1.059 .970 3.100E+02
1.074 .970 3.100E+02
1.087 .970 3.100E+02
1.104 .971 3.100E+02
1.133 .972 3.100E+02
1.182 .973 3.100E+02
1.250 .975 3.100E+02
1.306 .977 3.100E+02
1.321 .981 3.100E+02
1.321 .984 3.100E+02
1.319 .987 3.100E+02
1.319 .990 3.100E+02
1.319 .993 3.100E+02
1.319 .996 3.100E+02
1.319 .997 3.100E+02
1.319 .998 3.100E+02
1.319 .999 3.100E+02
1.319 .999 3.100E+02

qflux
3.046E+02
1.054E+02
7.676E+01
6.394E+01
5.625E+01
4.925E+01
4.126E+01
3.338E+01
2.646E+01
2.084E+01
1.703E+01
1.399E+01
1.111E+01
8.372E+00
5.910E+00
3.850E+00
2.315E+00
1.362E+00
8.015E-01
6.493E-01

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

27

28

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

xplus

x Dh
Re Dh

cf * re

c f Re Dh

uclr

ucl V

ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that
7.10.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary
condition on each surface (thermal symmetry).
The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN.
The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor, cf . To obtain the
mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to
x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will need to use more output
points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace
variable.
To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given
by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the
pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to
obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.10a.out.txt output file
for kout = 4,
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.10a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

x/d,h
1.250E-02
1.250E-01
2.500E-01
3.750E-01
5.000E-01
6.761E-01
1.018E+00
1.680E+00
2.964E+00
5.443E+00
9.012E+00

uclr
1.026E+00
1.075E+00
1.104E+00
1.126E+00
1.144E+00
1.166E+00
1.202E+00
1.257E+00
1.335E+00
1.422E+00
1.473E+00

delp
1.518E-03
4.505E-03
6.359E-03
7.799E-03
9.026E-03
1.055E-02
1.307E-02
1.707E-02
2.328E-02
3.290E-02
4.447E-02

cf2(I)
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

cf2(E)
9.607E-02
3.816E-02
2.953E-02
2.566E-02
2.334E-02
2.123E-02
1.884E-02
1.653E-02
1.456E-02
1.311E-02
1.237E-02

nu(I)
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

nu(E)
8.264E+01
2.940E+01
2.178E+01
1.840E+01
1.639E+01
1.457E+01
1.253E+01
1.058E+01
8.993E+00
7.964E+00
7.607E+00

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
920

1.341E+01
1.881E+01
2.547E+01
3.367E+01
4.376E+01
5.575E+01
6.825E+01
8.075E+01
8.571E+01

1.493E+00
1.498E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.500E+00
1.500E+00
1.500E+00
1.500E+00
1.500E+00

5.746E-02
7.290E-02
9.173E-02
1.149E-01
1.434E-01
1.771E-01
2.123E-01
2.474E-01
2.614E-01

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

1.210E-02
1.202E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

29

7.541E+00
7.537E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00
7.538E+00

In this output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
x/d,h

x Dh

uclr

ucl V

ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity

delp

see Eq. (7-21)

cf2(E)

(c

2)

rs

local friction coefficient divided by 2, see Eq. (7-13)

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4
and set k10=11. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The
variables in the output will include
y(i)

location of the profile point

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

y/y(E)

y ycl

ratio y -location to centerline

u/umean

uV

ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity

Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in
the solution to problem 7-9. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this
data set.
Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the
velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ucl/V 1.5. This ratio is a measure of
fully-developed flow.
7-11 The data file for this problem is 7.11.dat.txt and the output file is 7.11.out.txt. If
you set up problem 7-11 following the instructions described in its problem statement,
you should have a data set similar to the s60.dat.txt file..
### 'title of data set'
7.11.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
7
2
1
1
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp

ktme
0

30

###
###
###
###

###
###

###
###
###
###
###
###

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
101325.0
1.17700
prc(1)
prc(2)
0.707
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1)
5
1
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1)
5
1
x(m)
rw(m)
0.0000000
0.0350
0.0350000
0.0350
0.3500000
0.0350
3.5000000
0.0350
6.0000000
0.0350
ubI(m)
am(I,m)
ubE(m)
am(E,m)
0.00
0.0
0.00
0.000
0.00
0.0
0.00
0.000
0.00
0.0
0.00
0.000
0.00
0.0
0.00
0.000
0.00
0.0
0.00
0.000
xstart
xend
0.0000000 6.000000
kout
kspace
8
50
k1
k2
0
0
k7
k8
0
0
axx
bxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
5.000E-04
0.0900

1.838E-05
prc(3)

00.00
prc(4)

1005.00
prc(5)

jbc(I,2)

jbc(I,3)

jbc(I,4)

jbc(I,5)

jbc(E,2)

jbc(E,3)

jbc(E,4)

jbc(E,5)

aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0100
0.0350
0.0000
0.0100
0.0350
0.0000
0.2500
0.0350
0.0000
1.0000
0.0350
0.0000
1.0000
0.0350
0.0000
fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
310.0
deltax
fra
enfra
0.000
0.000 0.000E+00
kdx
kent
1
0
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
20
0
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
0
0
0
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
reyn
tref
tuapp
epsapp
twall
1000.00
300.0
0.0
0.00
300.0

Note, for the annulus geometry and the assumption , the variable rw(m) is the inner
radius and aux2(m) is the annular separation (the outer radius will be the sum of rw(m)
and aux2(m), leading to r* = ro ri = ( 0.035 + 0.035 ) 0.035 = 0.5 ).
Here is the 7.11.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.11.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
Laminar flow in an annulus, r* = 0.5, benchmark
for annulus with radius ratio r*=0.5:
cf,theo = 27.719/re,dh (I) and 21.859/re,dh (E)
nu,theo = 9.441 (I) and 6.401 (E) w/ const wall temp
re,dh = 1.0000E+03
prm =
.707
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200

xplus cf*re(I) cf*re(E)


.00001 195.053 190.656
.00013
79.117
74.899
.00025
61.864
57.609
.00038
54.143
49.853
.00050
49.525
45.202

xstar
.00002
.00018
.00035
.00053
.00071

nu(I)
84.019
30.705
23.092
19.713
17.704

nu(E)
81.949
28.723
21.104
17.715
15.695

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
920

.00068
.00102
.00168
.00296
.00544
.00901
.01341
.01881
.02547
.03367
.04376
.05575
.06825
.08075
.08571

45.341
40.608
36.045
32.241
29.521
28.251
27.827
27.723
27.708
27.708
27.708
27.708
27.708
27.709
27.708

40.975
36.166
31.475
27.465
24.429
22.822
22.158
21.929
21.868
21.855
21.854
21.853
21.853
21.853
21.853

.00096
.00144
.00238
.00419
.00770
.01275
.01896
.02661
.03603
.04762
.06190
.07885
.09653
.11422
.12124

15.895
13.868
11.951
10.431
9.530
9.328
9.368
9.413
9.431
9.436
9.437
9.437
9.437
9.437
9.437

31

13.872
11.814
9.837
8.202
7.076
6.604
6.458
6.415
6.403
6.400
6.399
6.399
6.399
6.399
6.399

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
xplus

x Dh
Re Dh

cf * re(I)

c f Re Dh

I-surface is located at ri

cf * re(E)

c f Re Dh

E-surface is located at ro

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that
7.11.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary
condition on each surface.
The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN.
The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor, cf . To obtain the
mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to
x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will need to use more output
points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace
variable.
To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given
by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the
pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to
obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.11a.txt output file for
kout = 4,
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.11a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05

at x= 0.0000E+00

32

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
920

x/d,h
1.250E-02
1.250E-01
2.500E-01
3.750E-01
5.000E-01
6.761E-01
1.018E+00
1.680E+00
2.964E+00
5.443E+00
9.012E+00
1.341E+01
1.881E+01
2.547E+01
3.367E+01
4.376E+01
5.575E+01
6.825E+01
8.075E+01
8.571E+01

uclr
1.026E+00
1.075E+00
1.104E+00
1.126E+00
1.144E+00
1.166E+00
1.202E+00
1.257E+00
1.335E+00
1.423E+00
1.477E+00
1.498E+00
1.505E+00
1.506E+00
1.507E+00
1.507E+00
1.507E+00
1.507E+00
1.507E+00
1.507E+00

delp
1.518E-03
4.506E-03
6.361E-03
7.801E-03
9.029E-03
1.056E-02
1.308E-02
1.708E-02
2.330E-02
3.293E-02
4.451E-02
5.748E-02
7.284E-02
9.155E-02
1.145E-01
1.428E-01
1.763E-01
2.111E-01
2.460E-01
2.598E-01

cf2(I)
9.753E-02
3.956E-02
3.093E-02
2.707E-02
2.476E-02
2.267E-02
2.030E-02
1.802E-02
1.612E-02
1.476E-02
1.413E-02
1.391E-02
1.386E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02
1.385E-02

cf2(E)
9.533E-02
3.745E-02
2.880E-02
2.493E-02
2.260E-02
2.049E-02
1.808E-02
1.574E-02
1.373E-02
1.221E-02
1.141E-02
1.108E-02
1.096E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02
1.093E-02

nu(I)
8.402E+01
3.070E+01
2.309E+01
1.971E+01
1.770E+01
1.590E+01
1.387E+01
1.195E+01
1.043E+01
9.530E+00
9.328E+00
9.368E+00
9.413E+00
9.431E+00
9.436E+00
9.437E+00
9.437E+00
9.437E+00
9.437E+00
9.437E+00

nu(E)
8.195E+01
2.872E+01
2.110E+01
1.772E+01
1.570E+01
1.387E+01
1.181E+01
9.837E+00
8.202E+00
7.076E+00
6.604E+00
6.458E+00
6.415E+00
6.403E+00
6.400E+00
6.399E+00
6.399E+00
6.399E+00
6.399E+00
6.399E+00

In this modified output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook
variables
x/d,h

x Dh
meaningless variable for flow in annulus

uclr
delp
cf2(I)
cf2(E)

(c
(c

see Eq. (7-21)

2)

2)

at ri , local friction coefficient divided by 2, see Eq. (7-13)

ri

at ro , local friction coefficient divided by 2, see Eq. (7-13)

ro

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4
and set k10=11. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The
variables in the output will include
y(i)

location of the profile point

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

y/y(E)

y ycl

ratio y -location to centerline

u/umean

uV

ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity

Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in
the solution to problem 7-9. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this
data set.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

33

Correction: the request to plot the ratio ucl/V is not meaningful for the annulus problem.
The student can find the maximum velocity within the annulus and plot this ratio as a
measure of fully-developed flow. See the solution to problem 7-8 for the theoretical
value for this maximum velocity and its location.

34

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 8 INCOMPLETE
8-1 Let the plate spacing be a. This solution is derived based on the origin y = 0
located on the channel centerline. Let the heat flux into the 1-surface be q1 and its
corresponding surface temperature be T1, and let the heat flux into the 2-surface be q2 .
and its corresponding surface temperature be T2. Note that we have implied a sign
convention such that a positive heat flux is in the +y direction (into the fluid from surface
1 or out of the fluid from surface 2) and a negative heat flux is in the y direction (out of
the fluid from surface 1 or into the fluid from surface 2).

Assume steady laminar flow with constant properties. For this coordinate system, the
velocity profile has been derived in problem 7-7,
u 3
y2
= 1 4 2
V 2
a

Now consider the energy equation, neglecting viscous dissipation, and assuming constant
properties for an ideal gas and steady state. Equation (4-39 is
T
T
2T
u
+v
= 2
x
y
y

For thermally fully-developed flow, v=0 and from Eq. (8-7) T x = dTm dx and the
energy equation becomes
2T u dTm 3V dTm
y2
=
=
1 4 2
y 2 dx 2 dx
a

which integrates to yield


T ( y) =

3V dTm y 2 y 4

+ C1 y + C2
2 dx 2 3a 2

Now, carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow, similar
to that depicted in Fig. 8-3 for a curricular pipe,

dTm q1 + q2

=
dx a Vc
To obtain a solution for the Nusselt numbers on each surface, the solution, the most
straightforward approach is to apply a superposition idea because the two boundary
conditions are both Neumann or Type 2 from a differential equation point of view. That
is, only C1 can be resolved. Split the solution into the linear sum of two problems,

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

T = t1 + t2

35

Tm = tm ,1 + tm ,2

and

where
dt1
dx

y =+ a 2

dt2
dx

y = a 2

=0

and

t1

=0

and

t2

y = a 2

y =+ a 2

= ts ,1
= ts ,2

Now solve for t1 and t2,


t1 = t1, s +

3V dtm,1 y 2 y 4 1
13 2
2 ay a
2 dx 2 3a 3
48

t2 = t2, s +

3V dtm ,2 y 2 y 4 1
13 2
2 + ay a
2 dx 2 3a 3
48

Now compute the mass-averaged fluid temperatures for these two solutions following Eq.
(8-5),
tm ,1 =

+a 2 3

1
3V dtm ,1 y 2 y 4 1
13
y2
1
4
V
t

+
2 ay a 2 ( dy 1)

1, s
2

2 dx 2 3a 3
48
V ( a 1) a 2 2
a

= t1, s

52 V dtm,1 2
a
140 dx

Now, carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow, with
heating only on surface 1,
dtm ,1
q1

=
dx a Vc
Substitution of this into the formulation for tm,1 yields
tm ,1 = t1, s
Carrying out the same procedure for tm,2 yields

26 q1a
70 k

36

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

tm ,2 = t2, s

26 q2a
70 k

and thus the superposition formulations become


y 2 y 4 13 2
3
1



T = t1, s + t2, s +
( q1 + q2 ) 2 a ( q1 q2 ) ay
2ka
3
2 3a 48
Tm = t1, s + t2, s

26 a
( q1 + q2 )
70 k

Now evaluate the surface temperatures in terms of the superposition temperatures,


Ts ,1 = T

y = a 2

Ts ,2 = T

y =+ a 2

a
q2
2k
a
= ts ,1 + ts ,2 q1
2k

= ts ,1 + ts ,2

Finally, we formulate the Nusselt numbers for each surface. For surface 1,
Nu1 =

h1 Dh
2a
4q1
1
q1
=
=
=
k
(Ts,1 Tm ) k 26 q1 9 q2 13 9 q2
35
35
70 140 q1
5.385
1 0.346

q2
q1

and for surface 2, following the same idea

Nu 2 =

h2 Dh
5.385
=
q
k
1 0.346 1
q2

For this problem, where the heating on surface 2 is two times (2x) the heating on surface
1,
Nu1 = 17.5

and

Nu 2 = 6.51

and for the case where the heating on surface 2 is five times (5x) the heating on surface 1,
Nu1 = 7.37

and

Nu 2 = 5.79

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

37

To verify the solution, compare to the development on page 94, and Table 8-1. For
parallel planes, r* = 1 and both influence coefficients are 0.346. When the heat flux ratio
q2 q1 = 26 9 2.9 , Nu1 becomes infinite, indicating that (Ts,1-Tm) has become zero, and
for larger heat flux ratios the mean temperature exceeds the surface-1 temperature. Note
that a flux-flux boundary condition problem does not have a unique temperature level,
but rather it is set by a thermal boundary condition on the other side of one of the
surfaces.

The solution for this problem can also be carried out without strictly considering linear
superposition.
This solution can be verified with TEXSTAN. First, we need to review how TEXSTAN
is set up for heat transfer with regard to sign convention. TEXSTAN is programmed
such that positive heat flux is into the fluid from both the I-surface and from the Esurface surface for planar geometries (kgeom=5 or =6) and for annular geometries
(kgeom=7 where the I-surface is ri and the E-surface is ro). For planar geometries +y is
defined from the I-surface, and for annular geometries, +r is defined from the I-surface.
For the I-surface, the rate equations for conduction (Fouriers law) and for convection
(Newtons law of cooling) are
qs = k

T
y

I surface

= h (Ts Tm ) I surface and Nu I surface =

hDh
k

I surface

TEXSTAN output file ftn83.txt can be used to confirm h, Ts, Tm, and Nu values for the Isurface, and the output file out.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature
profiles T(y) to confirm the wall heat flux calculation. So, when the heat flux boundary
condition is specified by the user as a positive number, the heat will be into the fluid, and
we will expect Ts>Tm, dT dy < 0 , and a positive Nu value.
For the E-surface, the rate equations for conduction (Fouriers law) and for convection
(Newtons law of cooling) are
qs = + k

T
y

E surface

= h (Ts Tm ) E surface and Nu E surface =

hDh
k

E surface

Note the change in sign convention to match the TEXSTAN requirement that positive
heat flux is into the fluid (similar to first-law thermodynamic ideas). TEXSTAN output
file ftn84.txt can be used to confirm h, Ts, Tm, and Nu values for the E-surface, and the
output file out.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature profiles T(y) to confirm
the wall heat flux calculation. So, when the heat flux boundary condition is specified by
the user as a positive number, the heat will be into the fluid, and we will expect Ts>Tm,
dT dy > 0 , and a positive Nu value.

38

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

To verify the solution to problem 8.1 with TEXSTAN, choose 8.1-two.dat.txt. If you set
up the input data set following the instructions described in its problem statement, you
should have a data set similar to the s516.dat.txt file (with the flux level for the E-surface
changed). The input file is:
### 'title of data set'
8.1-two.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
6
2
1
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
101325.0
1.17700 1.838E-05
###
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
0.707
###
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2)
6
2
###
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2)
6
2
###
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
0.0000000
0.0350
0.0100
0.0350000
0.0350
0.0100
0.3500000
0.0350
0.2500
3.5000000
0.0350
1.0000
6.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
9.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
###
ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m)
###
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m)
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
0.00
0.0
20.0
0.00
0.000
40.0
###
xstart
xend
deltax
0.0000000 9.000000
0.000
###
kout
kspace
kdx
4
50
1
###
k1
k2
k3
0
0
0
###
k7
k8
k9
0
0
0
###
axx
bxx
cxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
###
dyi
rate
reyn
5.000E-04
0.0900
1000.00

plates - based on s516.dat data set


mode
ktmu
ktmtr
ktme
1
0
0
0
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)

amolwt
00.00
prc(4)

gam/cp
1005.00
prc(5)

jbc(I,3)

jbc(I,4)

jbc(I,5)

jbc(E,3)

jbc(E,4)

jbc(E,5)

aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

fra
enfra
0.000 0.000E+00
kent
0
k4
k5
k6
0
20
0
k10
k11
k12
0
0
0
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
tref
tuapp
epsapp
twall
300.0
0.0
0.00
300.0

Note we arbitrarily chose the lower surface heat flux to be q y = a 2 = +20 W/m 2 , so the
problem statement of a 2x heating for the upper surface requires q y =+ a 2 = +40 W/m 2 .
This low level of heat flux gives realistic temperature differences for the constantproperty assumption, even though setting kfluid=1 forces TEXSTAN to compute constant
properties, regardless of level of heat flux (just as setting jsor(1)=1 suppresses viscous
dissipation effects regardless of fluid flow velocity). The overall fluid temperature level
of this problem is determined by choosing the temperature at the entrance to the channel,

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

39

and for a flat entrance profile (kstart=1), the variables twall=tref=300K were arbitrarily
chosen.
Here is the 8.1-two.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 8.1-two.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel plates - based on s516.dat data set
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

x/d,h
1.250E-02
1.250E-01
2.500E-01
3.750E-01
5.000E-01
6.761E-01
1.018E+00
1.680E+00
2.964E+00
5.443E+00
9.012E+00
1.341E+01
1.881E+01
2.547E+01
3.367E+01
4.376E+01
5.575E+01
6.825E+01
8.075E+01
9.321E+01
1.057E+02
1.182E+02
1.286E+02

uclr
1.026E+00
1.075E+00
1.104E+00
1.126E+00
1.144E+00
1.166E+00
1.202E+00
1.257E+00
1.335E+00
1.422E+00
1.473E+00
1.492E+00
1.498E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00

delp
1.518E-03
4.505E-03
6.359E-03
7.799E-03
9.026E-03
1.055E-02
1.307E-02
1.707E-02
2.328E-02
3.290E-02
4.447E-02
5.746E-02
7.290E-02
9.173E-02
1.149E-01
1.434E-01
1.771E-01
2.123E-01
2.474E-01
2.824E-01
3.176E-01
3.527E-01
3.818E-01

cf2(I)
9.607E-02
3.816E-02
2.953E-02
2.566E-02
2.334E-02
2.123E-02
1.884E-02
1.653E-02
1.456E-02
1.311E-02
1.237E-02
1.210E-02
1.202E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

cf2(E)
9.607E-02
3.816E-02
2.953E-02
2.566E-02
2.334E-02
2.123E-02
1.884E-02
1.653E-02
1.456E-02
1.311E-02
1.237E-02
1.210E-02
1.202E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

nu(I)
1.227E+02
4.062E+01
2.990E+01
2.518E+01
2.239E+01
1.989E+01
1.708E+01
1.443E+01
1.233E+01
1.110E+01
1.107E+01
1.188E+01
1.315E+01
1.455E+01
1.578E+01
1.665E+01
1.714E+01
1.735E+01
1.743E+01
1.746E+01
1.748E+01
1.748E+01
1.748E+01

nu(E)
1.219E+02
3.976E+01
2.898E+01
2.421E+01
2.137E+01
1.881E+01
1.591E+01
1.309E+01
1.067E+01
8.837E+00
7.812E+00
7.278E+00
6.966E+00
6.769E+00
6.645E+00
6.572E+00
6.535E+00
6.520E+00
6.514E+00
6.512E+00
6.511E+00
6.511E+00
6.511E+00

In this output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
x/d,h

x Dh

nu(I)

Nu y = a 2

local Nusselt number, above Eq. (8-28)

nu(E)

Nu y =+ a 2

local Nusselt number, above Eq. (8-28)

The corresponding fluid mechanic variables are defined in the problem solutions for
Chapter 7. Note that the solution starts from the entry to the channel (kstart=1),
calculating the thermal entry region, and from observing the output, the flow becomes

40

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

thermally fully developed within about 95% at about


x D, h 44 or x D, h Re Dh = 0.044 .
To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for
problem 8.1 y= -a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn83.txt (for the I-surface),
x D, h 44 and beyond, is
intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

4.3761578E+01
5.5750050E+01
6.8250049E+01
8.0749990E+01
9.3214265E+01
1.0571426E+02
1.1821422E+02
1.2857137E+02

6.2150E+00
6.3980E+00
6.4761E+00
6.5066E+00
6.5184E+00
6.5230E+00
6.5247E+00
6.5253E+00

2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01

3.1990E+02
3.2535E+02
3.3104E+02
3.3672E+02
3.4239E+02
3.4807E+02
3.5376E+02
3.5847E+02

3.2312E+02
3.2848E+02
3.3412E+02
3.3979E+02
3.4546E+02
3.5114E+02
3.5682E+02
3.6153E+02

For these ftn files, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook
variables

qflux

h
qs

heat transfer coefficient


surface heat flux

tmean

Tm

mean fluid temperature

twall

Ts

surface temperature

htc

To confirm the temperature gradient, however, we need to re-run 8.1.dat.txt after


resetting set k10=11 (the dimensional profiles option). The output file (8.1-two.out.txt)
will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables in the output include
y(i)

location of the profile point

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

f(1,i)

T ( y)

temperature (for kfluid =1)

For the I-surface, from the ftn83.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Be careful, this does not imply
a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.1two.out.txt. Here we find dT dy < 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming
Fouriers law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive
heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 17.48 in 8.1two.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 2 q I surface .
To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for
problem 8.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.txt (for the E-surface),
x D, h 44 and beyond, is
intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

4.3761578E+01
5.5750050E+01
6.8250049E+01
8.0749990E+01
9.3214265E+01
1.0571426E+02
1.1821422E+02
1.2857137E+02

2.4529E+00
2.4391E+00
2.4335E+00
2.4314E+00
2.4305E+00
2.4302E+00
2.4301E+00
2.4301E+00

4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01
4.0000E+01

3.1990E+02
3.2535E+02
3.3104E+02
3.3672E+02
3.4239E+02
3.4807E+02
3.5376E+02
3.5847E+02

41

3.3621E+02
3.4175E+02
3.4747E+02
3.5317E+02
3.5885E+02
3.6453E+02
3.7022E+02
3.7493E+02

For the E-surface, from the ftn84.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Again, be careful, this does
not imply a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in
8.1-two.out.txt. Here we find dT dy > 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming
Fouriers law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive
heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 6.51 in 8.1two.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 2 q I surface .
To verify the solution to problem 8.1 with TEXSTAN, with the flux level for the Esurface changed to q E surface = 5 q I surface , simply change the E-surface fluxes to 100
W/m2 in the 8.1-two.dat.txt , rename it 8.1-five.dat.txt and compute this data set.
Here is the 8.1-five.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 8.1-five.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel plates - based on s516.dat data set
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800

x/d,h
1.250E-02
1.250E-01
2.500E-01
3.750E-01
5.000E-01
6.761E-01
1.018E+00
1.680E+00
2.964E+00
5.443E+00
9.012E+00
1.341E+01
1.881E+01
2.547E+01
3.367E+01
4.376E+01
5.575E+01

uclr
1.026E+00
1.075E+00
1.104E+00
1.126E+00
1.144E+00
1.166E+00
1.202E+00
1.257E+00
1.335E+00
1.422E+00
1.473E+00
1.492E+00
1.498E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00

delp
1.518E-03
4.505E-03
6.359E-03
7.799E-03
9.026E-03
1.055E-02
1.307E-02
1.707E-02
2.328E-02
3.290E-02
4.447E-02
5.746E-02
7.290E-02
9.173E-02
1.149E-01
1.434E-01
1.771E-01

cf2(I)
9.607E-02
3.816E-02
2.953E-02
2.566E-02
2.334E-02
2.123E-02
1.884E-02
1.653E-02
1.456E-02
1.311E-02
1.237E-02
1.210E-02
1.202E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

cf2(E)
9.607E-02
3.816E-02
2.953E-02
2.566E-02
2.334E-02
2.123E-02
1.884E-02
1.653E-02
1.456E-02
1.311E-02
1.237E-02
1.210E-02
1.202E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

nu(I)
1.243E+02
4.245E+01
3.193E+01
2.738E+01
2.474E+01
2.245E+01
2.004E+01
1.817E+01
1.787E+01
2.277E+01
6.687E+01
-4.500E+01
-1.697E+01
-1.121E+01
-9.024E+00
-8.054E+00
-7.631E+00

nu(E)
1.218E+02
3.959E+01
2.880E+01
2.403E+01
2.118E+01
1.861E+01
1.569E+01
1.285E+01
1.039E+01
8.491E+00
7.378E+00
6.755E+00
6.367E+00
6.115E+00
5.956E+00
5.862E+00
5.815E+00

42

850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
6.825E+01
8.075E+01
9.321E+01
1.057E+02
1.182E+02
1.286E+02

1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00
1.499E+00

2.123E-01
2.474E-01
2.824E-01
3.176E-01
3.527E-01
3.818E-01

1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02
1.200E-02

-7.471E+00
-7.411E+00
-7.388E+00
-7.380E+00
-7.376E+00
-7.375E+00

5.796E+00
5.789E+00
5.786E+00
5.785E+00
5.785E+00
5.785E+00

To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for
problem 8.1 y= -a/2) we examine abbreviated output from ftn83.txt (for the I-surface),
x D, h 44 and beyond,
intg

x/dh

750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

4.3761578E+01
5.5750050E+01
6.8250049E+01
8.0749990E+01
9.3214265E+01
1.0571426E+02
1.1821422E+02
1.2857137E+02

htc
-3.0060E+00
-2.8484E+00
-2.7885E+00
-2.7661E+00
-2.7576E+00
-2.7544E+00
-2.7531E+00
-2.7527E+00

qflux

tmean

twall

2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01
2.0000E+01

3.3980E+02
3.5070E+02
3.6207E+02
3.7344E+02
3.8478E+02
3.9615E+02
4.0751E+02
4.1693E+02

3.3315E+02
3.4368E+02
3.5490E+02
3.6621E+02
3.7752E+02
3.8888E+02
4.0025E+02
4.0967E+02

For the I-surface, from the ftn83.txt output we see Ts<Tm. Be careful, this does not imply
a heat flux out of the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.1five.out.txt. Here we find dT dy < 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming
Fouriers law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.txt). With Ts<Tm and a positive
heat flux the Nu is calculated as a negative number. For this problem Nu = -7.38 in 8.1five.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 5 q I surface . The heating on the
E-surface controls the bulk of the fluid temperature, but the Neumann boundary condition
for the I-surface ( q I surface = +20 W/m 2 ) forces the temperature gradient at this surface to
be negative, and thus the negative Nu value.
To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for
problem 8.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.txt (for the E-surface),
x D, h 44 and beyond, is
intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1092

4.3761578E+01
5.5750050E+01
6.8250049E+01
8.0749990E+01
9.3214265E+01
1.0571426E+02
1.1821422E+02
1.2857137E+02

2.1880E+00
2.1705E+00
2.1634E+00
2.1607E+00
2.1597E+00
2.1593E+00
2.1591E+00
2.1591E+00

1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02
1.0000E+02

3.3980E+02
3.5070E+02
3.6207E+02
3.7344E+02
3.8478E+02
3.9615E+02
4.0751E+02
4.1693E+02

3.8550E+02
3.9678E+02
4.0830E+02
4.1972E+02
4.3108E+02
4.4246E+02
4.5383E+02
4.6325E+02

For the E-surface, from the ftn84.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Again, be careful, this does
not imply a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in
8.1-five.out.txt. Here we find dT dy > 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming
Fouriers law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive
heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 5.82 in 8.1five.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 5 q I surface .

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

43

In summary, it is important to emphasize that the heat transfer coefficient and its nondimensional equivalent, Nu, reflect its definition based on (Ts Tm ) in Newtons law of
cooling, whereas the heat flux at the surface is governed by the local temperature
gradient and how Fouriers law is defined. We saw that Fouriers law for the E-surface
has had a sign change to make it agree with the thermodynamic-like sign convention in
TEXSTAN (heat transfer into the fluid is positive).
Note that we have the same dilemma in pipe flow. Consider thermally fully-developed
flow in a pipe. If Ts > Tm , heat is transferred into the fluid. If we define Newtons law of

cooling as h = qs (Ts Tm ) then the only way to have a positive heat transfer coefficient

is to have a heat flux. This will require a modified Fouriers law qr = + k T r , because
the only way to have heat transfer into a fluid is to have T r > 0 . The other option is
to change the signs of both Newtons law of cooling and Fouriers law. TEXSTAN uses
the sign convention qr = + k T r .
8-2 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe, ri is
the radius of the inner pipe, ro is the radius of the outer pipe, and r* is the radius ratio,
r * = ri ro . Now consider the energy equation (8-1). This equation assumes no viscous
dissipation, and it assumes constant properties for an ideal gas and steady state. Let the
temperature profile vary with x and r only. The equation becomes

cu

T
T k T
+ cv r
=
r

x
r r r r

With the assumption of a slug flow, u=V and vr=0, and with the assumption of a
thermally fully-developed temperature profile with constant heat rate, Eq. (8-8), the
energy equation becomes
1 T V dTm
r
=

r r r dx
The boundary conditions for the annulus are a constant heat rate at ri and an adiabatic
surface at ro. These two boundary conditions are very much similar to those for a
circular pipe (zero heat flux at the pipe centerline and a constant heat flux at the surface).
Thus the boundary conditions are to that following Eq. (8-10)
T
r

=0
r = ro

and

r = ri

= Ts ,ri

44

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note that any time we have a Nuemann-Neumann boundary (adiabatic surface and heatflux surface for this problem or a pipe with a heat-flux surface), we can not find the two
constants of integration when we separate variables and integrate. So, we substitute for
one of the Neumann conditions with its Dirichlet counterpart (in this case the surface
temperature) and we bring in the heat flux through the energy balance when we
determine dTm dx .
Separate variables and integrate the 2nd-order ordinary differential equation, and apply
the boundary conditions,
T = Ts ,ri

r
Vro2 dTm r 2
*2

2 r 2 ln
4 dx ro
ri

where r * = ri ro . Now compute the mean temperature using Eq. (8-5)


Tm =

ro
r
1
Vro2 dTm r 2
*2
V
T

s ,ri
2 r 2 ln ( 2 rdr )
2
2 r
4 dx ro
V ( ro ri ) i
ri

= Ts ,ri

ln ( r * )
Vro2 dTm 3 1 *2
+
r +
*2
dx 8 8
2
1
r

Now formulate the convective rate equation for the ri surface,

qri = hi Ts ,ri Tm

ln ( r * )
Vro2 dTm 3 1 *2
= h
r +
*2
dx 8 8

2
1
r

The next step can be carried out one of two ways. The first way is form an energy
balance similar to Eq. (8-15), and then equate the surface heat flux to the convective rate
equation and form a Nusselt number. The second approach is to independently formulate
the surface heat flux using Fouriers law, equate the two forms of heat flux and form a
Nusselt number. Using the first approach
qri =

(r

2
o

ri 2 )
2ri

( cV )

and form a Nusselt number and evaluate it at r*=0.6,

dTm
dx

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

( ro ri )

(r

*2
* 1 1 r
r

ro2 )

r
hD
Nu i = i h = 2 i2
=
4
k 3ro ri ro ln ( ri ro ) *2
ln ( r * )
+
r 3
2
2
8
2 ( ro ri )
2
8
2 1 r*

Nu i r* =0.6 = 6.176

45

Note, compare this solution with Table 8-1 for the Nusselt number solution for the inner
wall heated and the outer wall adiabatic, Nuii(r*), and you will find a very close
agreement for small r* between the plug-flow solution and the solution with
hydrodynamically fully-developed profiles. The profile shapes are not that dissimilar.

8-3

Tm = 10 + 45.88 x; Ts = Tm + qsD / ( k Nu ) and qs = 6410 W/m2. Nu as a function

of x is obtained from Table 8-13. The highest fluid temperature is 127C. Note, five
terms are ok.
8-4 Nu = 4.00 for both sides. Temperature profile is linear. If viscosity is a function of
temperature the velocity profile will be affected, but this has no influence on temperature
profile or Nusselt number.
2

8-5 Total heat flux from inner surface is approximately 2550 W/m . Outer tube surface
temperature is approximately 278C. 55 percent of the heat from the fluid is transferred
directly from the inner surface, and 45 percent indirectly from the outer surface.

8-6

Mean fluid temperature = 100 + 75(x/L) + 61(1-cos(x/L)) C


Surface temperature = 110 + 75(x/L) + 27sin(x/L) + 61(1-cos(x/L))
Re = 1650,

8-7

Nu = 8.24,

h = 57 W/(m K)

Let the centerline temperature be Tc. Then,

() ()

4V 2 Pr r
T = Tc +
c ro

Re = 1600, so flow is laminar.

1 r

2 ro

46

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
dT 8V Pr
=
2
dx
cr o

Axial temperature gradient:

8-8

y 1 y 2
T = Th + u
k d 2 d

where

2
j

Th is the bearing surface temperature


uj is the journal surface velocity
d is the clearance
qs =

u 2j

15500 W/m 2

d
u 2j DL
P=
d

Journal surface temperature is about 97C


8-9
qs( x + ) =

2k

2 +
2
+
+
a G n exp ( n x ) + b G n exp n ( x x1 )
rs n
n

m( x + ) = 1

8
Gn
Gn
2 +
2
+
+
a 2 exp ( n x ) + b 2 exp n ( x x1 )
a + b n n
n n

+
+
for x > x1

8-10

Ts ( x + ) Te

( rs k ) qs

Ts ( x + ) Te

( rs k ) qs

= 4x +
+

= 0.4 +
m

1 exp ( m2 x + )

Am
4
m

exp m2 ( x + 0.1) exp ( m2 x + )

Am
4
m

where q is the constant heat flux for 0 < x < 0.1

0 < x < 0.1

, x > 0.1

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
Tm ( x + Te )

( rs k ) qs

47

= 4x+ ,

0 < x < 0.1

8-11 This problem involves the same procedure as 8-10 except that the procedure is
repeated at x+ intervals of 0.02. A local Nusselt number is readily evaluated from:

Nu =

2 ( rs k ) qs
(Ts Tm )

After a few steps Nu will repeat with little change in each heated segment.
8-12

x+
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.10
0.20
1.00
5.00

Nux
4.55
4.10
3.42
3.07
2.98
2.98
2.98

Num
9.03
6.63
4.88
4.03
3.53
3.53
3.00

Nux comes within 2% of its asymptotic value at x+ = 0.118.


8-13

This problem involves substitution into Eq. (8-55) and evaluation of the infinite
series terms (an exercise in computer programming). A Nusselt number is defined as:
Nu =

2 ( rs k ) qs
(Ts Tm )

and Tm is obtained from Eq.(8-54). The Nusselt number goes to 0.0 at x = L, and the
student should explain this behavior by sketching the presumed temperature profile at x =
L.
8-14

Tm = Te +

2
cVrs

bL
x
ax + 1 cos L

48

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Ts = Te +

x
4rs ax bL
+
1 cos
+

k c c
L
1 exp ( m2 x c ) r b
rs a

+ s sin x

4
k m
Am m
k
L m
rs b c
x
cos

k L
L m

1
2 2

m4 + c 2
L

2
m

4 c 2 2
Am m + 2
L

exp ( m2 x c )
rs b c
k L

2 2

Am m2 m4 + c 2
L

where c = rsRePr
8-15

Eqs.(8-56) and (8-57) provide the basis for the procedure desired here. The first
integral in (8-56) and the second integral in (8-57) would be used. The integrations must
be carried out numerically, using the basic data from Table 8-11. Note that at each
station x+, integration must be carried out from = 0 to = x+. Note that, for example,
if x+ = 1.0 and = 0.8, then Nuii(x+ - ) = Nuii(0.2) = 6.19 for r+ = 0.5.
8-16 This problem is designed as an application of Eq. (8-23). The source of plane
radiation will produce a heat flux into the tube that varies sinusoidally around the
periphery. The re-radiation will produce a heat flux from the tube that subtracts slightly
from the inflow on one side, and results in net radiation from the tube on the other. The
complete heat flux distribution is then approximated by:
qs = qa (1 b cos )

The tube-wall temperature is evaluated from:


Ts ( ) = Tm +

2q s ( ) rs k
Nu ( )

8-17 This problem is solved by substituting the proposed expression for t0 into Eq.(8-44)
and carrying out the indicated integration (the summation term in (8-44) is not used.)
The function is supplied by Eq. (8-36). The wall heat flux is evaluated as in Eq.(8-37),
and the Nusselt number as in Eq.(8-33). For large values of x+ it will be found that
certain infinite series terms drop out leading to a result that is independent of x+. The
results are

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

49

b x+
2n x +

G
G
ne
ne
2
4 2

n ( n + b)
n ( n + b)

Nu ( x + ) =
Gn

1 b x+
b x+
2n x +
Gn

1
1
e 1 8
e
e

2
b
n2 ( n2 + b )
n
b ( n + b)

n
4b G
2
b
+
n n
Nu ( ) =
n
1 8 G
2
b
+
n n

8-18
Vrs2 dTm 8V 2

k
dx
Nu =
2
11 Vrs dTm 5 V 2

48 dx 6 k
2q s 8V
dTm
+
where
=
2
dx rs Vc crs

8-19

Nu =

1
11 1 S
+ rs
48 16 qs

T = Ts +

V dTm r 2 r 4 3 2 S 2 2
rs r

rs +
dx 2 8rs2 8 4k

2qs
S
dTm
+

=
dx Vcrs Vc

8-20

The highest temperature occurs at the wall. The energy equation may be put in the
form:
2T 1 T S r 2
+
= 2 1 1
r 2 r r k rs2

50

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

By L'Hospital's rule:
1 T 2T
= 2
lim
r 0 r r
r

Thus at r = 0,
2T
S
=
>0
2
r s 2k

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

51

Chapter 9
9-1 The stagnation point flow is part of the family of flows over flat surfaces called
wedges. Using potential flow theory, the invicid flow field over these wedge-oriented
m
surfaces is described by Eq. (9-20), u = C x . The wedge-oriented family is depicted in
m

Fig. 9-2, and for stagnation point flow, =. Using Eq. (9-20), u = C x , and Eq. (9-21)
the stagnation point flow is found to have a linear variation of free stream velocity with x,
and thus C = 4V/D, where V is the approach velocity to the cylinder.
For this problem we will assume a constant density, i.e. no density variation through the
boundary layer which forms over the wedge. Density variation throughout the boundary
layer is caused either by an imposed thermal boundary condition (wall temperature or
wall heat flux) which leads to a large wall-to-free stream temperature difference, or when
viscous heating associated with viscous work cause local temperature variation in the
region near the surface. For gases, we find experimentally that we can ignore variable
properties (including density) when 0.95 Ts T 1.05 and when M 0.4. For this
problem we have no information about the thermal boundary condition. The Mach
number for an ideal gas can be computed to be
M=

V
RT

where is the ratio of specific heats, R is the gas constant (R=R/M where R is the
universal gas constant, and M is the fluid molecular weight). For this problem, M0.03,
and the assumption of constant density is justified in the absence of thermal boundary
condition information. Thus, displacement thickness Eq. (5-5) reduces to

1 = 1
0

u
dy
u

and this equation transforms using


y
y
=
x / u
/C

and ( ) =

u
u

into

1 =

(1 ( ) ) d =
C

( )
0
C

52

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note: the function ( ) is zero at the lower limit and becomes a constant value at
the upper limit. Table 9-1 contains information only for m=0, and so another source must
be used to obtain ( ) . One source is tabulated in Schlichting1.
The other source is to solve Eq. (9-24) with the indicated boundary conditions and m=1
using traditional numerical methods such as Runge-Kutta and a shooting method. Here

Y1 =
Y2 =

Y1 = Y2
Y2 = Y3

Y3 =

Y3 = Y22 Y1Y3 1

along with Y1 ( 0 ) = 0, Y2 ( 0 ) = 0, and Y2 ( ) = 1 . The results are as follows:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

()
0
0.0060
0.0233
0.0510
0.0881
0.1336
0.1867
0.2466
0.3124
0.3835
0.4592
0.6220
0.7967
0.9798
1.1689
1.3620
1.5578
1.7553
1.9538
2.1530
2.3526
2.8522
3.3521
3.8521

()
0
0.1183
0.2266
0.3252
0.4145
0.4946
0.5663
0.6299
0.6859
0.7351
0.7779
0.8467
0.8968
0.9323
0.9568
0.9732
0.9839
0.9906
0.9946
0.9970
0.9984
0.9997
1.000
1.000

()
1.233
1.1328
1.0345
0.9386
0.8463
0.7583
0.6752
0.5974
0.5251
0.4587
0.3980
0.2938
0.2110
0.1474
0.1000
0.0658
0.0420
0.0260
0.0156
0.0091
0.0051
0.0010
0.0002
0.0000

Evaluation of this table shows ( ) 0.4379 . Note that one can also obtain this
value by carrying out the integration of the displacement equation using Simpsons rule.
The final answer is 1 = 0.096 mm.
An alternative solution for this problem is to use Eq. (9-44) with R removed (recall R is
the transverse radius of curvature, not the curvature in the flow direction).

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

2 =
Substituting u =

0.664 0.5
u2.84

u4.68 dx

53

0.5

4Vx
into the integral and carrying out the integration yields
D
D
2 = 0.664 0.5

4Vx

2.84

4V

4.68
2

x5.68

5.68

0.5

At this point, one sees that x removes itself from the equation, which is characteristic of
the stagnation point flows, namely that d, d1, and d2 are all constant values over the
stagnation region. Evaluation yields a value of d2 of about 0.041 mm. This permits the
parameter defined by Eq. (9-39) to be evaluated, l=0.078. From Table 9-4, we find the
shape factor H = 2.34, and from Eq. (9-37) d1 = 0.096 mm (the same answer obtained
from the numerical solution).
9-2 This solution proceeds from the ideas of the velocity potential and the stream
function,

=
= u and
=
=v
x y
y
x
and the fact that both functions satisfy their respective Laplace equation formulations. In
complex variable theory, potential flow solutions are greatly simplified if the flow
domain can be transformed into a semi-infinite domain. A complex potential is
constructed as F ( z ) = ( x, y ) + i ( x, y ) where F(z) is an analytical function such that
dF

=
+i
= u iv w
x
dz x
and where w = u + iv . For uniform parallel flow the complex potential function is
F ( z ) = Vo z . The domain is now transformed to the upper-half of the w-plane. Then if
the transformation w = w ( z ) is conformal and z = w = , then F ( z ) = Aw ( z )
where A is determined such that u = Vo .
Applied for the wedge geometry, the transformation is w ( z ) = Az to map the wedge
domain of opening g into the semi-infinite domain. Then, if F ( z ) = Aw ( z ) ,

54

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

dF
1
= A z
w= A
dz

From wedge-flow geometry = 2 , then


2

w=

A
z
2

= Cz m

Here, z = rei = xei . Thus,


w = u = Cx m ei m = Cx m
9-3 The applicable momentum integral equation is (5-9), rewritten as Eq. (9-31) by
substituting for the surface shear stress,

cf
2

s
u d
= 2 = 2
2
u u y s dx

This requires evaluation of the momentum thickness for the sine-function velocity
profile. From Eq. (5-6), assuming constant properties, substituting for the profile, and
integrating from the surface to the edge of the boundary layer (replacing by in the
upper limit.

2 =

u
u
u
u
2 1
1 dy = 0
1 dy =
u u
u u
2

Substitute the velocity profile into the wall-gradient term on the left-hand side (LHS) of
the momentum integral equation and the momentum thickness function into the righthand side (RHS) of the equation, separate variable and integrate, assuming (x=0)=0, to
obtain
12

x
= 4.80
u

or

= 4.80 Re x1 2

Substitute the solution for into the momentum thickness, and the result is

2
x

= 0.655 Re x1 2

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

55

Following the same procedure for evaluation of the displacement thickness from Eq. (55) gives

1
x

= 1.74 Re x1 2

For the friction coefficient, the definition is combined with the velocity profile and the
solution for d to give
cf =

s
1
2

2
u2

u
1 2
= 0.655 Re x
y s

Comparing these results with the similarity solution shows errors of +0.6% for 1, -1.4%
for 2 and for cf.
9-4

From momentum integral equation (5-7),

s
s vs d 2
1 1 du 1 d 1 dR

2
+
=
+
+
+
+

2
u2 u dx
2 u dx dx R dx

we can see that the density term is similar in form to the transverse-radius term. Thus, it
is easily added to Eq. (9-38),
u d 22 22u
+
dx

2 dR 2 d

22 du
T
H
2
(2
)
+
=

dx

R dx dx

Rearranging this equation using the ideas used in Eq. (9-40) and Eq. (9-41),
u d 22 22u
+
dx

2 dR 2 d
22 du
+

= ( a b ) = a b
dx
R dx dx

At this point the development follows that on page 144 of the 4th Edition. We need to use
the following derivative ideas,
d ( ub ) = bub 1 and d ( R 2 ) = 2 RdR and d ( 2 ) = 2 d
Move the b-term to the LHS, multiply and then multiply and divide each of the four LHS
terms with the appropriate variables to obtain terms with the same denominator,

56

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
ub R 2 2 d 22
22 R 2 2 dub
ub 22 2 dR 2
ub 22 R 2 d 2
+
+
+
=a
ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx

Now, recognize this as an exact differential of four terms, and multiply through the
denominator and separate variables,
d ( R 2 2 22ub ) = a ub 1 R 2 2 dx
From this point the integration of this equation is exactly like the procedure leading to
Eq. (9-42).
9-5 The analysis procedure for this problem is: (1) calculate d2 using Eq. (9-42); (2)
formulate l from Eq. (9-39); use Table 9-4 to find H, and the from its definition, Eq. (937), determine d1; calculate the mass flow rate using Eq. (7-3);calculate a pressure drop
using a Bernoulli equation; and finally calculate a discharge coefficient, the ratio of
actual to theoretical mass flow through the nozzle. The problem requires assumptions of
steady flow and constant properties.

The nozzle geometry is defined in terms of the transverse radius of the nozzle at the start
of the boundary layer, Ra=0.05 m at xa=0; the nozzle radius of curvature, rc=0.0375 m;
and the nozzle transverse radius at the throat, Rb =0.0125 m, at the throat location,
xb = rc 2 = 0.058905 m .
Using this geometry, the transverse radius of the nozzle wall
x
R ( x ) = Ra rc sin ( ) = Ra rc sin
rc

The invicid core flow for this problem statement is assumed to vary linearly along the
boundary layer surface of the nozzle from the sharp corner to the throat, xa x xb , with
u ,a = 0 and u ,b = 10 m/s . Using a linear variation, the free stream velocity distribution
at the edge of the boundary layer on the nozzle wall becomes
u u
u ( x ) = u ,a + ,b ,a ( x xa ) = 169.8 x m/s
xb xa

and Eq. (9-42) becomes

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

57

12

0.664 1 2 xb
x
4.86

2 ( xb ) =
168.8
x
R
r
sin
dx
(
)
a c

Rbu2.84
rc
xa

,b

= 9.65 105 m

Now, formulate l from Eq. (9-39), l=0.105, and interpolate in Table 9-4 to find H=2.27,
and the from its definition, Eq. (9-37), determine 1 ( xb ) = 2.19 104 m .
The actual mass flow rate in the nozzle will be based on the flow cross-sectional area,
corrected for the displacement thickness,
m actual = Vb ( Ab Ablock ) = Vb ( rb 1,b ) = 5.71 103 kg/s
2

and the discharge coefficient becomes


C=

m actual Vb ( Ab Ablock )
=
= 0.965
m theo
Vb Ab

The pressure drop through the nozzle, based on the Bernoulli equation, is
P = ( Pb Pa ) = (Vb2 Va2 ) = 60.2 Pa
1
2

Based on laminar boundary layer behavior, as Re increases, the displacement thicknesses


decreases, as shown in Eq. (9-19), leading to a reduced flow blockage and a nozzle
discharge coefficient that approaches unity.
There are improvements to this solution. For example, the problem statement said to
assume that the boundary layer at the start of the nozzle was zero. This does not exactly
satisfy conservation of mass. Thus, there is a finite velocity at xa and a finite momentum
(and displacement) thickness. These are mostly second-order effects, but it changes the
discharge coefficient. There are also other definitions of discharge coefficient.
This problem is appropriate for TEXSTAN. Another nice variation on this problem is to
change it into a 2-dimensional flat nozzle.

9-6
9),

Start with Eq. (9-23), and transform the dependent variables u and v using Eq. (9-

y x y

2
2
y

u2 m
3

=
+

y 3
x

58

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Now, transform the independent variables, x and y using the Blasius variable Eq. (9-11)
for y, and define the stream function using Eq. (9-10):

=x
=y

u
C ( m 1) 2
=y
x
x

( , ) = G ( ) ( ) = xu ( ) = C x ( m +1) 2 ( )
Transform the various derivatives using the chain rule:
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+
x
x x
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+
y
y y
At this point, you can do one of two procedures: the first is to transform the y equation
differential operators, keeping y as the independent variable, and then introduce its
definition to obtain an equation in G and z. Upon introducing the functional form of G,
the equation separates and Eq. (9-24) is obtained. A second procedure is to transform the
differential operators and y simultaneously. Either works.
9-7 The data file for this problem is 9.7.dat.txt and the output file is 9.7.out.txt.
TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F, and the users manual for all external laminar
boundary layer flows is s10.man, which should be helpful to the new user. Appendix G
contains a detailed printout of this particular manual. If you set up problem 9-7
following the instructions described in its problem statement, you should have a data set
similar to the s10.dat.txt file. The input file is:
### 'title of data set'
9.7.dat.txt - lam bl - flat plate - based on s10.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
1
2
4
1
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp
101325.0
1.17660 1.853E-05
00.00
1005.00
###
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
prc(4)
prc(5)
0.711
###
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)
5
1
###
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)
5
1
###
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0500000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.1000000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.1500000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2000000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

ktme
0

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
###
###

###
###
###
###
###
###

ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
0.00
0.000
295.0
15.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
15.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
15.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
15.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
15.00
0.0
0.0
xstart
xend
deltax
fra
enfra
0.0010410 0.200000
0.100
0.010 1.000E-06
kout
kspace
kdx
kent
8
100
0
1
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
0
0
50
0
k7
k8
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
00
0
0
0
0
axx
bxx
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
tstag
vapp
tuapp
epsapp
5.000E-05
0.0900
300.0
0.00
0.0
0.00

and here is the 9.7.out.txt output file


TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 9.7.dat.txt - lam bl - flat plate - based on s10.dat.txt
stepsize: const, dx= .100
entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns;
enfra= 1.00E-06 fra= .010
dpdx: not-a-knot spline curve fit
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17660E+00 vis= 1.85300E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.711
initial profiles: kstart= 4 dyi= 5.000E-05 rate= .0900
laminar flow at xstart, transition not possible
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf)
====================================================
Laminar flat plate flow benchmark
cf/2,theo = 0.332/sqrt(rex)
nux,theo = 0.332*(rex**0.5)*(pr(je,np1)**0.33)
====================================================
intg
5
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1688

rex
9.993E+02
2.168E+03
5.054E+03
9.149E+03
1.445E+04
2.096E+04
2.868E+04
3.761E+04
4.773E+04
5.907E+04
7.162E+04
8.537E+04
1.003E+05
1.165E+05
1.339E+05
1.523E+05
1.721E+05
1.905E+05

rem
2.100E+01
3.094E+01
4.726E+01
6.358E+01
7.990E+01
9.622E+01
1.125E+02
1.289E+02
1.452E+02
1.615E+02
1.778E+02
1.941E+02
2.104E+02
2.268E+02
2.431E+02
2.593E+02
2.756E+02
2.899E+02

cf2
1.050E-02
7.131E-03
4.667E-03
3.469E-03
2.760E-03
2.292E-03
1.960E-03
1.712E-03
1.519E-03
1.366E-03
1.240E-03
1.136E-03
1.048E-03
9.727E-04
9.073E-04
8.507E-04
8.003E-04
7.607E-04

nu
9.3
13.7
21.0
28.2
35.4
42.6
49.9
57.1
64.3
71.5
78.8
86.0
93.2
100.4
107.7
114.9
122.1
128.5

cfrat nurat h12


reh
1.000 .995 2.590 2.578E+01
1.000 .995 2.590 3.822E+01
.999 .994 2.590 5.862E+01
.999 .993 2.590 7.900E+01
.999 .993 2.590 9.937E+01
1.000 .992 2.590 1.197E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 1.401E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 1.605E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 1.808E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 2.012E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 2.215E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 2.419E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 2.622E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 2.825E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 3.029E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 3.231E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 3.434E+02
1.000 .992 2.590 3.613E+02

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

59

60

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

rex

Re x

x-Reynolds number, Eq.(9 14)

rem

Re 2

momentum-thickness Reynolds number, Eq.(9 16)

cf2

cf 2

friction coefficient divided by 2, Eq.(9 12)

h12

shape factor, Eq.(9 37)

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.
The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction
coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex, Eq. (9-13), and cfrat should
be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.
TEXSTAN executes include various ftn files that are suitable for cut-and-paste into
spreadsheet or plot software. These are discussed in detail in Appendix G.
To plot the developing velocity profiles, reset kout=2 and set k10=10. Then expand the
x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required. Be sure to change the two
nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition
information for each new x-location. This is explained in detail in the s10.man user
manual. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables
in the output will include
y(i)

location of the profile point

u(i)

u ( y)

velocity

eta

Blasius variable, Eq. (9-11)

f(eta)

( )

ratio u u

9-8 The data file for this problem is 9.8.dat.txt and the output file is 9.8.out.txt. If you
set up problem 9-8 following the instructions described in its problem statement, you
should have a data set similar to the s15.dat.txt file.

There needs to be a slight modification to the instructions in the problem statement


regarding the calculations of xstart and axx. For the given starting x-Reynolds number
=200, there are not unique numbers for xstart and axx, so choose xstart (=0.00195 m)
which uniquely determines the value of free stream velocity at that location (=1.615 m/s),
and then calculate A (which is the variable axx) to match this velocity, u = A xstart for
B=1, C=0 and m=1. The input file is:
### 'title of data set'
9.8.dat.txt - lam stag-pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) - based on s15.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
1
2
5
1
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)

ktme
0

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###
###
###
###
###
###

###
###

###
###
###
###
###
###

1
1
kfluid
kunits
1
1
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp
101325.0
1.17660 1.853E-05
00.00
1005.00
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
prc(4)
prc(5)
0.711
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)
5
1
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)
5
1
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000000
1.0000
0.1250
0.0736
0.0000
0.0200000
1.0000
0.1250
0.0736
0.0000
0.0400000
1.0000
0.1250
0.0736
0.0000
0.0600000
1.0000
0.1250
0.0736
0.0000
0.0872070
1.0000
0.1250
0.0736
0.0000
ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
0.00
0.000
295.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.000
295.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
xstart
xend
deltax
fra
enfra
0.0019500 0.0872070
0.100
0.010 1.000E-06
kout
kspace
kdx
kent
8
200
0
1
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
0
5
0
0
k7
k8
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
00
0
0
0
0
axx
bxx
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
8.283E+02 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
tstag
vapp
tuapp
epsapp
5.000E-05
0.0900
300.0
0.00
0.0
0.00

and here is the 9.8.out.txt output file


TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 9.8.dat.txt - lam stag pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) - based on s15.dat.txt
stepsize: const, dx= .100
entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns;
enfra= 1.00E-06 fra= .010
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17660E+00 vis= 1.85300E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.711
initial profiles: kstart= 5 dyi= 5.000E-05 rate= .0900
laminar flow at xstart, transition not possible
axx= 8.2830E+02 bxx= 1.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 1.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf)
====================================================
Laminar m=1 accel flow benchmark
cf/2,theo = 1.233/sqrt(rex)
nux,theo = 0.56863*(rex**0.5)*(pr(je,np1)**0.3748)
====================================================
intg
5
200
400
600
800
1000
1200

rex
2.034E+02
2.705E+03
9.936E+03
2.166E+04
3.796E+04
5.879E+04
8.415E+04

rem
4.169E+00
1.523E+01
2.916E+01
4.305E+01
5.698E+01
7.090E+01
8.482E+01

cf2
nu
cfrat nurat h12
reh
8.640E-02
7.1 .999 .997 2.216 1.001E+01
2.364E-02 25.9 .997 .997 2.216 3.648E+01
1.235E-02 49.7 .998 .997 2.216 6.993E+01
8.366E-03 73.4 .999 .997 2.216 1.033E+02
6.321E-03 97.2 .999 .997 2.216 1.367E+02
5.080E-03 121.0 .999 .997 2.216 1.701E+02
4.246E-03 144.7 .999 .997 2.216 2.036E+02

61

62

1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2638

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand
1.141E+05
1.485E+05
1.875E+05
2.310E+05
2.790E+05
3.316E+05
3.888E+05
4.000E+05

9.874E+01
1.127E+02
1.266E+02
1.405E+02
1.544E+02
1.684E+02
1.823E+02
1.849E+02

3.648E-03
3.197E-03
2.845E-03
2.563E-03
2.332E-03
2.139E-03
1.976E-03
1.948E-03

168.5
192.3
216.0
239.8
263.6
287.3
311.1
315.6

.999
.999
.999
.999
.999
.999
.999
.999

.997
.997
.997
.997
.997
.997
.997
.997

2.216
2.216
2.216
2.216
2.216
2.216
2.216
2.216

2.370E+02
2.704E+02
3.038E+02
3.373E+02
3.707E+02
4.041E+02
4.375E+02
4.438E+02

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
rex

Re x

x-Reynolds number, Eq.(9 14)

rem

Re 2

momentum-thickness Reynolds number, Eq.(9 16)

cf2

cf 2

friction coefficient divided by 2, Eq.(9 12)

h12

shape factor, Eq.(9 37)

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.
The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction
coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex, Eq. (9-25) and Table 9-2, and
cfrat should be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.
To plot the developing velocity profiles, reset kout=2 and set k10=10. Then expand the
x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required. Be sure to change the two
nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition
information for each new x-location. This is explained in detail in the s10.man user
manual. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables
in the output will include
y(i)

location of the profile point

u(i)

u ( y)

velocity

eta

Blasius variable, Eq. (9-11)

f(eta)

( )

ratio u u