Sie sind auf Seite 1von 92

Essay no.

1
POVERTY

One thing is sure and nothing is surer; the rich get richer and the poor get children

1. STARTING PARAGRAPH:
Poverty is an ethical concept, not a statistical one. Inherent in the term poverty, when applied to
human beings, is the notion of a life situation that should not exist. It is not only lack of roti, kapra
aur makanfood, cloth and shelter. Amartya Sen aptly sums up many dimensions of poverty as lack
of capabilitycapability to overcome violence, hunger, ignorance, illness, physical hardship,
injustice and voicelessness. The World Bank has argued that poverty often lies in the absence of
opportunity, empowerment and security, and not just the absence of food on the table.
Still, there is a hunger to have a statistic that sums up poverty, something handy both for analysis
and for comparison across groups and among time periods. For this reason there are a variety of
statistical measures of poverty. None of them do a very good job of capturing the multi-dimensional
concepts of poverty discussed above. All require severe conceptual compromises to make them
comparable either across groups or time. Nevertheless, they provide whatever is available to
monitor poverty reduction in a consistent manner.

2. DEFINING POVERTY:
Poverty is relative to richness. It is one of the foremost social problems facing by the developing and
the third world countries. John L. Gillin asserted that poverty may be regarded as that condition in
which a person, either because of inadequate income or unwise expenditure, does not maintain a
scale of living high enough to provide for the physical and mental efficiency that enable him and his
natural dependents to function usually according to the standards of society of which he is a
member.
I. Absolute poverty: It is a condition of moneylessness; therefore, it is also called Income poverty.
According to Gerald Meier, the ability to attain minimum standard of living. Poverty is also defined
as powerlessness. Poverty as powerlessness is measured in terms of lack of power as well as money.
Powerlessness in other words is the lack of control over ones own destiny. Powerlessness is a lack of
empowerment.
II. Relative poverty: The best to measure the relative poverty is to take into account the position of
various groups on a scale of income that must compare the income share of those at the bottom to
that of those at the top. With complete income equality, the top 20 per cent of people would get 20
per cent of the income available and the bottom 20 per cent would get 20 per cent also.

3. INTRODUCTION:
The fight against poverty represents the greatest challenge of our times. Considerable progress has
nevertheless been made in different parts of the world in reducing poverty. The proportion of
people living in extreme poverty on global level fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001
(on the basis of $1 a day). In absolute numbers the reduction during the period was 130 million with
most of it coming from China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the absolute number of poor actually increased
by 100 million during the period. The Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS also witnessed a
dramatic increase in poverty. While incidence of poverty declined in South Asia, Latin America and
the Middle East witnessed no change.
The recent trends in global and regional poverty clearly suggest one thing and that is, that rapid
economic growth over a prolonged period is essential for poverty reduction. At the macro level,
economic growth implies greater availability of public resources to improve the quantity and quality
of education, health and other services. At the micro level, economic growth creates employment
opportunities, increases the income of the people and therefore reduces poverty. Many developing
countries have succeeded in boosting growth for a short period. But only those that have achieved
higher economic growth over a long period have seen a lasting reduction in poverty East Asia and
China are classic examples of lasting reduction in poverty. One thing is also clear from the evidence
of East Asia and China that growth does not come automatically. It requires policies that will
promote growth. Macroeconomic stability is therefore, key to a sustained high economic growth.
Although extreme poverty on global level has declined, the gap between the rich and poor countries
is increasing, even when developing countries are growing at a faster pace than developed ones
perhaps due to the large income gaps at the initial level.
In a world of six billion people, one billion have 80 percent of the income and five billion have less
than 20 percent. In the next 25 years, two billion more people will be added in the world we live. All
but 50 million of them will be in the developing countries. In the year 2025, seven out of the eight
billion people will be living in developing countries. This issue of global imbalance is at the core of
the challenge to scale up poverty reduction.

4. CAUSES OF POVERTY:
According to Henry Gorge, the main cause of poverty is the personal ownership and monopoly of
the individual on the land. He writes, in the great cities, where land is so valuable that it is
measured by the foot, you will find the extremes of poverty and of luxury. And this disparity in
condition between the two extremes of the social scale may always be measured by the price of
land. According to Karl Marx, the main cause of poverty is the exploitation of the workers by the
capitalists.

5. THE WORLD BANK REPORT (2006):


A World Bank report says that South Asian countries can significantly reduce poverty in the next 10
years by increasing investment, improving labor quality and addressing gaps in income.

The Economic Growth in South Asia report says South Asias decade-long economic expansion has
made life better for many poor people. But, it said, without changes to economic policies, that rapid
economic growth may be difficult to keep up.
Shantayanan Devarajan, co-author of the report and World Bank chief economist for South Asia,
said the region must create the conditions and incentives necessary to sustain and accelerate
growth that benefits all. The economic well-being of several hundred millions of people depends on
it.
The report said the number of people living in poverty could drop by two-thirds if economic growth
jumps to 10 per cent a year until 2015.

6. CAUSES OF POVERTY IN PAKISTAN:


I. Large family size:
II. Skewed patterns of land ownership:
III. Disadvantageous consumption patterns:
IV. Poor educational attainment:
V. Poor health and fertility indicators: Lack of access to critical infrastructure:
VI. Vulnerability to abuses or power, weak Rule of Law:
VII. The inflation rate, which was at 5.7 per cent in 1998-99, was reduced to 3.6 percent in 19992000 and further to 3.1 per cent in 2002-03 (the lowest in the last three decades). But still standing
at 8 per cent in June 2006.

7. GOVERNMENTS POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY:


In Pakistan, Poverty Reduction Strategy was launched by the government in 2001 in response to the
rising trend in poverty during 1990s. It consisted of the following five elements:- (a) accelerating
economic growth and maintaining macroeconomic stability, (b) investing in human capital, (c)
augmenting targeted interventions; (d) expanding social safety nets and (e) improving governance.
The net outcome of interactions among these five elements would be the expected reduction in
transitory and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. The reduction in poverty and improvement in
social indicators and living conditions of the society are being monitored frequently through largescale household surveys in order to gauge their progress in meeting the targets set by Pakistan for
achieving the seven UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

1) Employment:
The strong economic growth is bound to create employment opportunities and therefore reduced
unemployment. The evidence provided by the Labour Force Survey 2005 (First two quarters) clearly
supports the fact that economic growth has created employment opportunities. Since 2003-04 and
until the first half of 2005-06, 5.82 million new jobs have been created as against an average job
creation of 1.0 1.2 million per annum. Consequently, unemployment rate which stood at 8.3
percent in 2001-02 declined to 7.7 percent in 2003-04 and stood at 6.5 percent during July
December 2005. The rising pace of job creation is bound to increase the income levels of the people.
Agriculture, housing and construction, IT and Telecom sector, and SME are the sectors, which have
created relatively more jobs.

2) Remittances:
In recent years the role of remittances in reducing poverty has been widely acknowledged1.
Remittances allow families to maintain or increase expenditure on basic consumption, housing,
education, and small-business formation. Remittances constitute one of the largest sources of
external finance for developing countries and Pakistan is no exception. Total remittances inflows
since 2001-02 and until 2005-06 have amounted over $ 19 billion or Rs.1129 billion. It has averaged
4.1 percent of GDP during the last four years.
To the extent that the poorer sections of society depend on remittances for their basis consumption
needs, increased flow of remittances would be associated with reduction in poverty and possibly in
equality.

3) Globalization:
The strategy going forward as enshrined in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for the mediumterm (2006/07 2008/09) aims at forging a broad-based alliance with civil society in the quest to
alleviate poverty and accelerate development. The complex and multi-dimensional nature of poverty
warrants that strategies for poverty reduction encompass plans for rapid pro-poor economic growth,
sound macroeconomic management, structural reforms, and social inclusion. The strategy is being
enriched by the on-going process of dialogue with civil society and the poor. The strategy places
considerable emphasis on taking advantage of the opportunities offered by globalization.

8. SUGGESTIONS & INITIATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT:


Pakistans Poverty Reduction Strategy is underpinned by the following considerations:
Continuing to ensure macro-economic stability and sustained high and broad-based economic
growth by taking advantage of the opportunities offered by globalization, while at the same time
unleashing the potential of domestic commerce, reducing inequalities and maximizing employment
generation directing public policy debate towards the needs of the poor.

Bringing about an effective transformation of society, by forging partnerships and alliances with civil
society and the private sector.
Understanding the nature of poverty, and using that as a guide for all public actions, empowering
the people, especially the women and the most deprived, by increasing access to factors of
production, particularly land and credit.

1) Maximizing the Gains from Globalization:


Globalization is a multi-dimensional process, which impacts all aspects of life, be it economic, social,
cultural, or political. For globalization to lead to poverty reduction, domestic enterprises need to be
increasingly competitive the international market. This requires increased efficiency and upgrading
skills of the labour force to improve its level of human capital. It requires the enforcement of quality
control and standards. For domestic enterprises to be competitive in the global economy, good
investment climate is essential, in which firms can start up, grow and prosper.

2) Trade Liberalization and Export Promotion:


The Government has implemented a comprehensive program of trade reforms gradually moving the
economy away from protectionism towards greater trade openness and global economic
integration. The Government has been taking a number of defensive trade measures in the context
of WTO to protect the domestic industry against the dumping of cheap and illegal imports.
Sustained export performance is a key priority. Towards this end, the Government is making efforts
in the areas of trade facilitation, WTO related issues, export promotion and diversification, and
extension of export promotion zones and industrial clusters. The Governments policy will focus on
measures to sustain textile exports and promote other sectors that are not yet capable of exporting.
The Government is committed to liberalize and deregulate Pakistans trade and widens the export
base through further strengthening of industrial activity and strong institutional supply side
measures. The trade policy continues to focus on value addition for sustainable growth in export
earnings.

3) Employment Generation and Poverty Reduction:


Economic growth has been quite robust during the last five years and particularly in the tenure of
PRSP-I (2003-06). The growth momentum is likely to continue in the medium-term. In order to
maximize the poverty reduction impact of growth it needs to be aligned with an employment
strategy that can ensure that growth is broad-based.

4) Micro-Finance:

Micro finance plays a critical role in improving the lives of the poor people. The poor use financial
services not only for business investment in their micro-enterprises but also to invest in health and
education, to manage household emergencies, and to meet the wide variety of other liquidity needs
that they encounter occasionally. Evidence from the millions of micro finance clients around the
world demonstrate that access to financial services enables poor people to increase their household
income, build assets and reduce their vulnerability to the crises that are so much a part of their daily
lives.
In the context of Pakistan, the use of micro-credit holds importance for both the agricultural and
non-agricultural sector. The need for credit is particularly important for poor farmers. Their
requirement for agricultural inputs, seeds, fertilizer, pesticide etc. tends to be cyclical, as does their
income. However the two cycles do not always coincide. Rural loans for non-agricultural purposes
include such things as micro enterprises in unorganized sectors of rural economy.

9. CONCLUSION:
Not surprisingly, the figures cited by the government for people living below the poverty line have
come to be widely questioned. With poverty alleviation being the buzzword these days in our
economic and social development and a key criterion for aid givers, it is understandable that the
policymakers are desperately trying to prove the success of their strategy in terms of falling poverty
levels. But unfortunately wishes are not horses and the government will have to do better to achieve
its goals. It now appears that the governments claim of poverty being 23.9 per cent is being
challenged not just by economists in the country but also the World Bank and the UNDP. Both these
agencies have come up with different figures 25.7 per cent by the UNDP and 28.3 per cent by the
World Bank. This is no doubt embarrassing for the government, which has repeatedly claimed that
its estimates have been endorsed by the donor agencies. But it is still not too late to rectify the error
so that our economic planning is not based on illusionary statistics.
In fact, the poor in our countries have been kept at the level of slaves who work to keep their
masters in power by their labour, providing services which nobody else would, and voting the elite
into power again and again. Every programme for relief to the poor is designed to let their
conditions climb by a small notch essentially to enhance their capacity to continue the good work
they have been doing for the affluent for generations. Thoughts contrary to this system are dubbed
as the product of the followers of the leftists led by Karl Marx, and dumped.
Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production,
population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize
the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population.
It is vital that a broader range of poverty reduction measures be utilised, including alternative
strategies that can better address deprivations of the landless poor or even the marginalised
provinces. The only way to encourage such policies would be to make development processes more
participatory.

St. Johns Gospel says, The poor, you have always with you. But the poor havent always been
treated in the same way. In sum, the poor may always be with us, but they are not always who we
think they are.

Essay no.2

INFLATION

1. INTRODUCTION:
T
he word INFLATION comes from inflate, which means to rise artificially. Inflation is a rise in the
general price level in a country, defined by Brooman. According to Shapiro, Inflation is a persistent
rise in the general price level vis--vis rise rise in the prices of goods and services. Inflation in
economics implies an increase in the supply or money, unaccompanied by a corresponding increase
in the supply for output. When output fails to increase in response to an increase in the quantity or
supply of money in circulation, inflation takes place. Therefore, it affects the overall economy of a
country on one hand and increases the expenditure of a common man on the other. There is no
blinking the fact that the living conditions of a common man deteriorate with the increasing prices of
the goods and services.
Inflation seemed to be a chronic problem in many parts of the world. There is a wide spread
recognition that inflation results in inefficient resource allocation and hence reduces potential
economic growth. Inflation imposes high cost on economies and societies; disproportionately hurts
the poor and fixed income groups and creates uncertainty throughout the economy and undermines
macro economic stability. High inflation has always penalized the poor more than the rich because
the poor are less able to protect themselves against the consequences, and less able to hedge
against the risks that high inflation poses. Lowering inflation therefore, directly benefits the low and
fixed income groups. Pakistan has witnessed a low inflation environment for the last several years
but experienced a sharp picked up last year at 9.3 percent.

2. TYPES OF INFLATION:
I. Demand Pull Inflation: When aggregate demand of goods and services exceeds the available
supply of output; there is rise in the general price level, which is called demand-pull inflation.
II. Cost Push Inflation: When there is no increase in aggregate demand, prices may rise. This may
happen because of costs, particularly the wage cost go on rise.
III. Creeping Inflation: If the general price level in a country is rising less than 3 per cent per annum.
IV. Trotting Inflation: If the general price level arises between 3 to 6 per cent per annum.
V. Running Inflation: The annual rise in inflation of about 10 per cent.
VI. Gallop or Hyper Inflation: When the average general price level increases between 20 to 30 per
cent per annum.

3. CAUSES OF INFLATION:
According to Gallop Economic Survey, which was conducted in different countries of the world,
there are following causes of inflation:
I. Increase in money supply
II. Increase in communitys aggregate spending.
III. A rise in wages.

4. EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON DIFFERENT ECONOMIC GROUPS:


I. On Businessmen: It is of positive sense. When the prices of goods and services increase, they get
more profit. They usually try their level best to increase the gap between the cost and prices. When
the price increases, the salaries or remunerations dont increase.
II. On Fixed Salary Group: Inflation has negative effect on the fixed salary groups of the country;
investors make profits in this context.
III. On Agriculturists: The agriculturists welcome the high prices of the commodities. The reason is
simple; they get more profits of their crops.
IV. On Common Man:

5. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PAKISTAN:


Historically speaking, inflation rate is on continual increase in Pakistan since its independence. From
1961 to 1972, inflation rate was 3.3 per cent per annum. From 1972-74, inflation rate was 30 per
cent, which was the highest increase in the history of the country. From 1974-77, inflation rate stood
at 17.3 per cent per annum; a little decline from the previous period. From 1977-80, rate of inflation
declined to 8.5 per cent per annum. During the years 1980-90, inflation rate on average stood at
11.4 per cent per annum. During the years 1991-97, the rate was increased to 13.9 per cent per
annum. During the years 1998-2000, inflation rate declined to 5.7 per cent. Presently, the inflation
rate has decreased from 9.3 per cent in 2005 to 8 percent in the mid of 2006.

6. CAUSES OF INFLATION IN PAKISTAN:


I. Increase in the flow of remittances: PPP increases
II. Deficit financing: gap between the revenues and expenditures
III. Rapid monitory expansion:

IV. Foreign economic aid:


V. Investment in real estate:
VI. Lavish spending habits:
VII. Excessive speculation and hoarding:
VIII. Increase in population;

7. ANTI-INFLATORY MEASURES:
I. Incentives to farmers:
II. Check on corruption:
III. Recovery of loans:
IV. Check on non-productive spending:
V. Check on hoarding:
VI. Promotion of Sunday Bazaars:
VII. Supplies by Utility stores:

8. PRESENT SCENARIO:
The flare-up in prices over the past two years had emerged as one of the biggest challenges in
macroeconomic management. On the back of the high rate of economic growth generated over the
last four years in succession and in combination with negative exogenous shocks, price pressure had
built up noticeably in the economy, especially during the preceding fiscal year (2004-05). In terms of
generating inflation, the phenomenal rise in aggregate demand in the economy, on the one hand,
was compounded by supply shocks on the other. The adverse external developments which
impacted the price level for the fiscal year under review included a continuation of the surge in
international price of oil to an all-time record of nearly US $ 75 per barrel in April this year, before
pulling back somewhat, coupled with an unprecedented rise in world prices of commodities due to
demand from fast-growing economies such as China and India. Also impacting price development in
Pakistan was the decline in the size of sugarcane crop resulting in relatively lesser production of
sugar within the country as well as significant rise in international prices of sugar owing to diversion
of large portion of sugarcane into ethanol (a petroleum substitute) by the worlds largest producer,
Brazil. These factors combined to spark inflationary pressers not just in Pakistan but also in the
global economy.

I. Price Developing during 2005-06:

A sharp pickup in the prices of essential commodities and unprecedented rise in international price
of oil have led to the re-emergence of inflationary pressure across the globe. After living in a low
inflationary environment (4%) for the last five years, Pakistan witnessed higher inflation for a verity
of reasons. The higher inflationary trend in Pakistan over the last two years has been the outcome of
pressure that emanated from demand and supply sides. Four years of strong economic growth has
given rise to the income levels of various segments of the society. The rising level of income have
strengthened domestic demand and put upward pressure on prices of essential commodities.
Supply side pressure emanated from a variety of factors, prominent among those are: increase in
support price of wheat for three years in row, shortage of wheat owing to less than the targeted
production, mismanagement in wheat operation in one of the wheat deficit province, interprovincial ban on the movement of wheat resulting in sharp increases in prices of wheat and wheat
flour. The prices of other food item such as beef, mutton, chicken, milk etc also registered sharp
increases owing to sympathy effect on the one hand and demand pressure on the other.
Lower production of sugarcane resulting in relatively lower production of sugar on the one hand
and a sharp increase in the international prices of sugar owing to significant diversion of sugarcane
into ethanol (petroleum substitute) by the largest producer, Brazil, also contributed in building
inflationary pressure in Pakistan .In recent months, prices of various kinds of pulses also registered
sharp increases owing to a significant decline in domestic production as well as shortages in
international markets, keeping the prices of pulses at record high level. Unprecedented rise in
international oil prices also contributed to the build up in inflationary pressure in Pakistan.

9. ECONOMIC SURVEY:
I. Inflation by Income Group:
Price hike affects various sections of the society differently. In most cases, the lower income group
of society becomes victim of the severity of inflation on account of their erosion of purchasing
power. To assess the impact of inflation across all income classes, the CPI is also computed for fourincome group with income limits ranging from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 12,000 per month.
II. Price Stabilization Measures:
In order to keep the prices of essential commodities under control, the government has been taking
various measures throughout the year. These measures include liberal import regime for food items
including zero rating of imports of these commodities. The government has been expanding the
supply of essential items such as sugar and wheat flour through the outlets of the Utility Stores
Corporation (USC). Furthermore, in order to provide relief to low and fixed income groups, the
government has been selling wheat flour and sugar through the outlets of the USC at much lower
prices than the market. In order to augment supplies of essential commodities at shortest time and
at lower freight charges, the government has allowed the import of various items through land
routes from neighbouring countries.

10. CONCLUSION:

Essay no.3
POPULATION EXPLOSION

1. INTRODUCTION:
R
apidly increasing population is the most gigantic, formidable and intractable problem, which the
world faces today. Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing
production, population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view
recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding
population. Achieving a world population in balance with its environmental resources is crucial to
the future of our planet and the welfare of its people. Population growth is a complex issue that
directly or indirectly impacts all aspects of our lives and the conditions under which we live from
the environment and global stability to women's health and empowerment. Population control or
population welfare, if you want to be genteel is the buzzword today. The focus has been on the
economic impact of a rapidly growing population and its implications for employment.

2. GLOBAL SCENARIO:
It took all of human history until 1830 for world population to reach one billion. The second billion
was achieved in 100 years, the third billion in 30 years, the fourth billion in 15 years, and the fifth
billion in only 12 years. Today, the world's population is approximately 6.5 billion and grows by
nearly 80 million people each year. With expanded use of modern contraceptive methods in the
developing world, the total fertility rate, or average number of births per woman, has fallen from
over six in the 1960s to under three per woman today. However, total fertility rates still remain high
in the less developed countries, at five children per woman. The median projection for world
population growth shows a 2.6 billion increase to 9.1 billion people by 2050. This increase is
approximately the size of the combined populations of China and India, the two most populous
countries in the world.
The problem of over-population becomes even more serious in context of the developing countries
like Pakistan. The population boom has not only resulted in an economic upheaval in developing
countries rather it is also the primary cause of environmental degradation. The biological threat of
ever increasing population has ushered in an era of shortage of safe drinking water, diminishing
forest resources, climate change due to depletion of ozone layer among other things. Other forms of
environmental pollution associated with population are marine pollution, noise pollution, depletion
of land resources etc. Besides these, environmental pollution has also damaged the beauty and
serenity of nature. Almost half of the world population is urbanized because of which traffic
problems have multiplied, land erosion, and solid waste disposal are the major civic problems of
today.

3. CAUSES OF OVER-POPULATION:
I. Increase in fertility rate. II. Control of the fatal diseases. III. Illiteracy
IV. Infant death rate curtailed. V. Lack of recreational facilities VI. Patriarchal societies
VII. Early marriages. VIII. Low status of women IX. Joint family system
X. Warm climate XI. False religious practices. XII. Polygamy.

4. EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH:


I. Economic development. II. Per capita income. III. Standard of living.
IV. Agricultural development. V. Employment. VI. Labour force.
VII. Conflicts & confrontations. VIII. Social infrastructure. IX. Environment.
X. Health facilities, education etc.

5. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
Pakistans population has grown at an average rate of 3 per cent per annum since 1951 and until
mid 1980s. Population growth slowed to an average rate of 2.6 per cent per annum during 1985-86
and until 1999-2000. However, since 2000-01 Pakistans population is growing at an average rate of
almost 2 per cent per annum. If Pakistan had succeeded in slowing its population growth rate to 2
per cent per annum since 1959-60, Pakistans population today would have been 103.4 million as
against 152.53 million. In other words, the countrys population would have been 49.13 million less.
Pakistan is relatively poorer today as a result of higher population growth rate in the past. Had
Pakistans population grown at an average rate of 2 per cent per annum since 1959-60, Pakistans
per capita income would have been Rs. 64366 today as against Rs. 43748. In other words, Pakistan
would have been 52.02 per cent richer than what it is today. Furthermore, Pakistans per capita
income in dollar term would have been $ 1083 rather than $ 736.
History cannot be changed; those who are already born are part of the society. What is needed now
is to educate them, to provide them skill through training and to make them productive members of
the society. This is what the government of Pakistan is trying to do. It is trying to improve the quality
of education. An extensive programme of vocational training is being developed to provide proper
skills to the people so that they can become dynamic citizens of the country. During the last 50
years, Pakistans population has increased from 33 million to 152.53 million in 2004-05. Thus making
Pakistan the 7th most populous country in the world. Although the current population growth rate
slowed to 1.9 per cent per annum, overall population has increased by 2.76 million people as
compared to last year; this is still considerably high compared to the average of 0.9 per cent for the
developed countries and 1.7 per cent for the developing countries.

According to one estimate, Pakistan's population will almost double in the next 32 years at the
current growth rate of 1.9 per cent. Higher population growth supplies more work force in the
market and given the low economic growth in the past, it creates less jobs. Thus, it puts pressure on
educational and health facilities on the one hand and gives birth to unemployment, land
fragmentation, overcrowding, katchi abadis, poverty, crime and environmental degradation on the
other.

6. POPULATION SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN & SOUTH KOREA:


The negative economic impact of high population growth over the decades is also reflected in the
following comparative statistics between Pakistan and South Korea.
During the five decades from 1950 to 2001, the population of Pakistan has increased 4.3 times from 33 million to 140.36 million, whereas the population of South Korea increased only 2.4 times from 20 million to 47.7 million. Over the same period, the per capita income in Pakistan increased by
only five times from $79 in 1950 to $503 in 2001, whereas South Korea's per capita income
increased by 129 times from $82 in 1950 to $10,550 in 2001. It may be pointed out that in 1950 the
difference in per capita income between the two countries was merely $ 3 but this difference
widened to $10,047 in 2001. While economic policies in the two countries determined these
statistics, the rate of population growth must also have played a role.

7. POPULATION RELATED ISSUES (PROBLEMS & SUGGESTIONS):


[Economic Survey (2005-06)]
Pakistan being a developing country also faces the problem of over population. During the past 25
years, cultivable land has increased by 27 per cent compared to 98 per cent increase in population,
resulting in reduced individual land holdings in Pakistan. Due to a high birth rate urban population
will double in the next 20 years causing more and more forests to be cut to make way for humanity.
Even now each year, deforestation occurs at the rate of 2.5 per cent. In addition, since only 60 per
cent of our population has sewerage facility, the remaining 40 per cent churn out wastes damaging
the environment and causing a lot of diseases. Rising levels of income on the one hand and easy
availability of loan facility/financing on the other has lead to an increase in motorization in the
country and almost 70 per cent of our on-the-road vehicles have outlived their life span and emit un
burnt monoxide gases. In fact, the total number of vehicles in Pakistan emits more noxious fumes in
the air as compared to all vehicles in the US. Finally, rapid expansions in the industrial sectors has
caused the industrial and residential areas to merge causing health hazards for the population.
I. Fertility and Mortality:
While mortality has been decreasing and fertility has shown a significant decline over the recent
years, the crude death rate (CDR) of Pakistan is estimated at 8.2 (per thousand) in 2005-06. In
Pakistan, decline in mortality rate is due to the elimination of epidemic diseases and improvement in
medical services. Despite a considerable decline in the total mortality in Pakistan, infant mortality

has still remained high at 77 per thousand live births in 2005. Maternal mortality ratio ranges from
350-400 per hundred thousand births per year leading to about seventeen thousand newborn
babies being born motherless.
II. GDP Growth:
Real GDP grew strongly at 6.6 per cent in 2005-06 as against the revised estimates of 8.6 per cent
last year and the 7.0 per cent target for the year. When viewed at the backdrop of rising and volatile
energy prices and the extensive damage caused by the earthquake of October 8, 2005 Pakistans
growth performance for the year has been impressive. The key drivers of this years growth have
been the service sectors and industry. Within industry, large-scale manufacturing grew weaker-thanexpected by 9.0 per cent as against 15.6 per cent of last year and 14.5 per cent target for the year,
perhaps exhibiting signs of moderation on account of higher capacity utilization on the one hand and
a strong base effect on the other.

III. Per Capita Income:


Per capita income is one of the main indicators of development. It simply indicates the average level
of prosperity in the country or average standard of living of the people in a country. Per capita
income defined as Gross National Product at market price in dollar term divided by the countrys
population, grew by an average rate of 13.9 per cent per annum during the last four years rising
from $582 in 2002-03 to $847 in 2005-06. Per capita income in dollar term registered an increase of
14.2 per cent over last year rising from $ 742 to $ 847. The main factor responsible for the sharp
rise in per capita income include: a sharp pick up in real GDP growth, stable exchange rate, and rise
in inflow of workers remittances.
IV. Inflation:
Among the most appreciated developments, during fiscal year 2005-06, was the significant
abatement of price pressure over the course of the year. For the first ten months of the current
fiscal year (JulyApril 2005-06), all-important barometers of price pressure in the economy indicated
a steady deceleration in inflation. Inflation during the first ten months (July-April) of the current
fiscal year is estimated at 8.0 per cent as against 9.3 per cent in the same period last year.
V. Education:
Currently, the literacy rate is 53 per cent which is much below the targets set to be achieved in 2005
and far away from reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target of 80 per cent literacy
till 2015. Looking at the gender disaggregated data for overall literacy, 65 per cent of males and 40
per cent of females were literate in the year 2004-05. The key impediments to the progress in
reaching a higher level of literacy in Pakistan are the low enrollment rates and poor quality of
education provided by the public sector.
VI. Health:

According to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Everyone has the right to a standard
of living adequate to the health and well -being of himself/herself and his/her family.
Importance of the health in the social lives of the people makes it such an important area that it
cannot be considered in isolation and it is inextricably tied to other socio economic and political
realities. The Constitution of Pakistan in its article 38 titled promotion of social and economic well
being of the people ensures the provision of basic necessities of life including health and medical
relief for all citizens, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race.
There is a considerable improvement in health care facilities over the past year as the existing vast
network of health care facilities consists of 946 hospitals, 4554 dispensaries, 5290 basic health
units/sub health centers (BHUs/SHCs), 552 rural health centers (RHCs), 907 maternal and child
health centers (MCHs) and 289 TB centers (TBCs). Available human resource for the fiscal year 200506 turn out to be 118160 doctors, 6761 dentists and 33427 nurses which makes the ratio of
population per doctor as 1310, population per dentist 25297 and population per nurse as
4636.
VII. Labour Force:
In Pakistan, labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and
the Refined Activity Rate (RAR). The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population
while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and
above. The figures both for CAR (32.8%) and RAR (46.9%) for the first half of 2005-06 fare higher
than LFS 2003-04 (30.4% and 43.7%). This phenomenon is more obvious for rural areas and women.
Augmentation of the rates for the set of economic activities carried out within the house precincts
also depicts the same scenario (42.8 Vs 38.5%).
VIII. Transport & Communication:
Road transport is a backbone of Pakistans transport system, accounting for 90 per cent of national
passenger traffic and 96 per cent of freight movement. Over the past ten years, road traffic both
passenger and freight has grown much faster than the countrys economic growth. The 9,518 km
long National Highway and Motorway network contributes about 3.7 per cent of the total road
network and carries 90 per cent of Pakistans total traffic.
IX. Energy Requirements:

X. Environment:
The key factors contributing to air pollution in Pakistan are: a) rapidly growing energy demand; b)
increasing industrial and domestic demand and c) a fast growing transport sector. In the cities,
widespread use of low-quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of vehicles
on roads, has led to significant air pollution problems.
Air pollution levels in Pakistans most populated cities are among the highest in the world, causing
serious health issues in the process. One of the major achievements during 2005-06 was the

formulation of the National Environmental Policy 2005 which addresses the sectoral issues such as
(a) water management and conservations, (b) energy efficiency and renewable, (c) agriculture and
livestock, (d) forestry and plantation, (e) biodiversity and protected areas, (f) climate change, air
quality and noise, and (g) pollution and waste management.
Water availability in Pakistan continues to decrease, both in total amount of water as well as in the
per capita water availability in Pakistan. In 1951, when population stood at 34 million, per capita
availability of water was 5300 cubic meter, which has now decreased to 1105 cubic meter, just
touching water scarcity level of 1000 cubic meter. With a present growth in population and the low
rainfall, the threshold limit of water scarcity i.e. 1000 m3 of water per capita per year may be
reached as early as the year 2010. Various mega initiatives have been planned especially under
WAPDA vision 2025. The estimates show that the current water shortage of 9 million acre feet
would aggravate to 25 MAF if all planned dams under Vision 2025 are not constructed by 2016.
XI. Housing:
Housing is one of the basic human requirements, as every family needs a roof. Providing shelter to
every family has become a major issue as a result of rapid urbanization and higher population
growth. According to the housing census 1998, the housing backlog, which stood at 4.30 million, has
been currently projected at 6.19 million. It is estimated that to address the backlog and to meet the
housing shortfall in the next 20 years the overall housing production has to be increased to 500,000
housing units annually. The present housing stock is also rapidly aging and estimates suggest that
more than 50 per cent stock is over 50 years old. It is also estimated that 50 per cent of the urban
population now live in slums and squatter settlements.
XII. Agriculture:
The performance of agriculture remained weak this year as it grew by only 2.5 per cent, as against
6.7 per cent of last year and the 4.2 per cent target for the year, with major crops and forestry
registering a negative growth of 3.6 per cent and 5.7 per cent, respectively. Agriculture, this year
was subjected to adverse weather conditions.
XIII. Manufacturing:
Manufacturing is the second largest sector of the economy, accounting for 18.2 per cent of GDP,
and registered a growth for the third year in a row, albeit at a relatively slower pace of 8.6 per cent
as against 12.6 per cent last year. Large-scale manufacturing, accounting for 69.9 per cent of overall
manufacturing, registered weaker-than expected growth at 9.0 per cent as against the target of 14.5
per cent and last years achievement of 15.6 per cent. The relatively slower pace of expansion
perhaps exhibits signs of moderation on account of higher capacity utilization on the one hand and a
strong base effect on the other.
8. POPULATION WELFARE PROGRAMME:
In 1953, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan (Non-Government Organization) initiated few
clinics to provide family planning services. During the second plan period (1960-65) the Population
Welfare Programme was started by the Ministry of Health but the programme did not show
adequate progress. Finally an autonomous Family Planning Council was created in 1965 to run the

programme independently. At that time the annual crude birth rate was around 45 per thousand
and death rate was around 18 per thousand whereas the net growth rate was 2.7 per cent per
annum. The overall execution and entire funding of this Program is the responsibility of the Federal
Government. The Ministry of Population Welfare is the main executing agency of the national
program while implementation of field activities is the responsibility of the Population Welfare
Departments in each of the four Provinces of Pakistan.

9. CONCLUSION:
With the commencement of the new millennium the population welfare programme has also taken
a new turn. This turn in policy is a shift from the focus on fertility towards a more comprehensive
approach of integrating family planning with reproductive health and also addressing wider range of
concerns, especially economic status, education and gender equality. One of the major
achievements of the Cairo Conference has been the recognition of the need to empower women,
both as being highly important in itself and as a key to improving the quality of life for everyone. It
also emphasizes that men have a key role to play in bringing about gender equality, in fostering
women's full participation in development and in improving women's reproductive health.

Essay no.4
UNEMPLOYMENT

1. INTRODUCTION:
T
he problem of unemployment is hanging like a sword of Damocles on the head of our country.
Workless people can always be dangerous to the security of the state. The fire of stomach, as it is
said, can lead them to commit any crime in the calendar. If they are not given a job by which they
may earn their living honestly, they will have no other alternative than to beg or snatch their food.
Unemployment is the mother of all ills. Idle person is a devils workshop. It is a poison, which
pollutes the society and wrecks the political fabric of the country. It turns law-abiding and honest
men into criminals and dacoits. It encourages dishonesty, patronises corruption and falsehood, and
brings into light the dark side of human character.
It is difficult to expect truth, nobility and honesty from a person who cannot have two square meals
a day, and who cannot provide a morsel of food or a dose of medicine to his sick wife or ailing
children. He can have no sense of self-dignity, for he has no sense of security, A ploughman on his
feet, says Franklin, is higher than a gentleman on his knees.

2. UNEMPLOYMENT:
Unemployment is defined as all persons ten years of age and above who during the period under
reference were, (a) without work i.e., were not in paid employment or self-employed, (b) currently
available for work i.e., were available for paid employment or self-employment and (c) seeking work
i.e., had taken specific steps in a specified period to seek paid employment or self-employment.
According to this definition about 3.32 million people were estimated to be unemployed during the
first half of the fiscal year 2005-06 as compared to 3.52 million in 2003-04. The overall
unemployment rate for the first half of 2005-06 is estimated at 6.5%. The unemployment rate in
2003-04 has been at 7.7 percent. Although it is not strictly comparable, the fact remains that
unemployment is exhibiting a declining trend. Both rural and urban unemployment rates have been
estimated at 5.7 percent and 8.4 percent in the first half of 2005-06.

3. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
Since independence, five labour policies have been announced by the government in the years
1955, 1959, 1969, 1972 and 2002, which laid down the parameters for the growth of trade unionism;
protection of workers rights; the settlement of industrial disputes; and the redress of workers
grievances. These policies also provided for compliance with international labour standards rectified
by Pakistan.

Historically, the 1960s and the 1970s were a turbulent period in the history of Industrial Relations in
Pakistan. Militant trade unions and equally intransigent managements were locked in endless
disputes conflicts over pay and working conditions. Strikes, go slows, lockouts and litigations were
the most distinctive features of employer-employee relations. The concept of employers and
employees working together in close cooperation to ensure productivity, profitability and growth of
businesses and security of employment was largely non-existent. There was no realization that job
security and appropriate wages were critically dependent on profitability and continued
competitiveness of businesses.
The atmosphere of mutual hostility and distrust, though considerably diminished, continues to
bedevil industrial relations to this day. As a consequence, both the entrepreneur and labour, in fact,
the economy of the country as a whole have suffered greatly. But, perhaps, labour has suffered most
on account of increasing unemployment and declining real wages as both public and private sector
businesses have increasingly resorted to cutbacks, relocation, closure, contract employment and
outsourcing in an effort to maintain profits and to counter pressure from trade unions. These
difficulties have been compounded by exploding population and influx of Afghan refugees, which
have further aggravated unemployment and depressed the job market.
The progressive globalization of economy is bringing forth even more formidable challenges and
pressures. Successive governments, torn between conflicting desires for promoting welfare of the
low-income classes and requirements of global competition, have had the unenviable task of
balancing demands for better wages and decent competitiveness on the other while at the same
time ensuring increased revenues.
Today, however, a different scenario is emerging. Sobered by the negative experiences of
adversarial industrial relations over the past decade, trade unions are increasingly discarding
militancy while employers are recognizing the need and benefits of co-opting labour as partners in
productivity. Both employers and trade unions are progressively getting involved in bilateral
dialogue as there is a growing realization that common interest of both employers and employees is
best served by securing business profitability and growth. Enlightened elements within labour and
employees organizations have come together to form the Workers Employers Bilateral Council of
Pakistan (WEBCOP). WEBCOP emphasizes the need for an organized and sustained dialogue
between employer and labour organizations based on bilateralism where the government adopts
the role of a facilitator.
The constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan and international labour standards render definite
obligations upon the Sate for the realization of human rights for all citizens, equally for men, women,
young and old, Muslims and non- Muslims. In acknowledgement of these obligations, a new labour
policy was formulated in 2002 (the first after 1972). This policy aims to guide administrative, legal
and judicial actions of government, employers and workers in realizing labour rights and their
welfare along with promotion of social justice. The government believes that such collective
commitment to equity is necessary to achieve and sustain rapid economic growth in a globalized
economy.

4. CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT:

I. Lack of political infrastructure. II. In-aptness in the job opportunities.


III. Lack of interest in technical education. IV. Political dominancy.
V. Education just for the sake of education, not for purpose.
VI. Transferring of rural labour to towns. VII. Child labour.
VIII. Double standards in the implementation of the merit policy.

5. IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
I. Social disorder: corruption, law and order, street crime etc.
II. Job dissatisfaction:
III. Lack of awareness about the job opportunities:

6. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:


The governments vision for a new labour policy focuses on dignity of labour, strengthening
bilateralism, elimination of animosity and antagonism by fostering a trust relationship between
employer-employee and promoting social dialogue. The government is firmly of the view that both
industrial growth and decent working conditions can be achieved only though peace and tranquility
in the industrial sector. This is only possible if there is an awareness and understanding between
workers and employers of their reciprocal rights and obligations with all-round commitment to
higher productivity.

I. Labour Force Participation Rate:


In Pakistan, labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and
the Refined Activity Rate (RAR). The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population
while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and
above. The figures both for CAR (32.8%) and RAR (46.9%) for the first half of 2005-06 fare higher
than LFS 2003-04 (30.4% and 43.7%). This phenomenon is more obvious for rural areas and women.
Augmentation of the rates for the set of economic activities carried out within the house precincts
also depicts the same scenario (42.8 Vs 38.5%).
II. Employment Situation:
The structure of employment suggests that employees and self employed respectively account for
38% and 34% of the total employed work force followed by unpaid family helpers (27%) and
employers (1%). Of the unpaid family helpers, females account for 56.9% and males account for
19.8%. More male workers are engaged in the category of self employed employees and employers.

As documented in the survey 69.7% work force is employed in rural areas. While the remaining
30.3% are employed in urban areas. It is important to note that since 2003-04 and until December
2005, 5.82 million new jobs have been created reflecting the growing pace of economic activity in
the country. In the past the economy use to create about 1 million jobs annually but the capacity to
generate more jobs has increased in recent years as a result of strong economic recovery. It is also
important to note that out of 5.82 million new jobs, 4.4 million (78%) have been created in rural
areas while 1.28 million (22%) have been created in the urban areas. Going forward the challenge
faced by the government is to sustain the growth momentum to create more jobs, increase incomes
of the people, and reduce unemployment and poverty.
III. Employed Labour Force by Sectors:
The share of agriculture in employment has increased from 43 percent in 2003-04 to almost 45
percent by mid of 2005-06. The share of remaining sectors has remained more or less stagnant with
minor fluctuations both ways. On the whole, an increase has been observed in almost all-major
industries/sectors for both genders. Sector wise break up of employed labour force shows that
female labour force participation is on the rise for most sectors especially agriculture, fishery and
telecom sectors. It is important to note that the employment of the rural females increased despite
a considerable rise in female Labour Force Participation Rate.

IV. Employment Promotion Policies:


i. The Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP) for the current fiscal year 2005-06 has been
increased to Rs. 272 billion, a 19.4 percent increase over last years PSDP of Rs 227.7 billion. Since
the focus of PSDP for 2005-06 has been on accelerating growth, increased funds for PSDP would
mean enhancing public sector investment to generate employment thus raising overall growth.
Employer-led Skill Development Councils developed by Ministry of Labour Manpower and Overseas
Pakistanis, have been established in all provinces to identify needs of geographical area, prioritize
them on market demand and to facilitate the training of workers through training providers in public
and private sectors.
These councils have met the diversified training needs of the industrial and commercial sectors and
have trained 46, 674 persons so far. Technical and vocational training enhances the employability of
the work force. There are 315 training institutes under NTB across Pakistan, which also includes all
TEVTA institutions in Punjab. They offer vocational courses in 80 trades and the net output capacity
of these institutions is 150,000 per year. At present the training capacity of 28,050 trainees is
available under the Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA) Punjab and the
other Provincial Directorates of Manpower and Training. Besides 8807 apprentices are being trained
under the Apprenticeship Training Programme in the country.
ii. A Ten Year Perceptive Development Plan for the period 2001-11 is under implementation and
accelerating GDP growth and reducing unemployment are among its major goals. This plan envisages
to create 11.3 million new job opportunities through investment of Rs. 11287 billion during the Plan
period. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) represents a signifying component of Pakistans

economy in terms of value. They are highly labour intensive and provide employment to the bulk of
the non-agricultural labour force.
iii. The growth of SMEs has mainly been hampered by the non-availability of credit in the past.
Realizing this constraint the government has opened two specialized non-credit banks namely, the
SME Bank and Khushali Bank. The Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) is
also actively developing programmes for managerial skill development and technical and informative
support to the SMEs.
iv. The housing and construction sector provide substantial additional employment opportunities as
it contributes through a higher multiplier effect with a host of beneficial forward and backward
linkages in the economy. The sector, through linkages effect with about 40 building material
industries, supports investment and growth climate and help reduce poverty by generating income
opportunities for poor households. During the last two years, the government has taken various
budgetary and non-budgetary measures, which are now yielding positive results. Construction
activity in Pakistan is booming; demand for construction-related materials has surged. Many national
and international real estate developers have launched or launching large construction projects in
Pakistan, which has further accelerated construction activity in the country.
v. Pakistan Poverty Alleviating Fund (PPAF) was set up in April 2000 with an endowment of $ 100
million, as a wholesale lender to NGOs engaged in providing micro financing. PPAF is present in 94
districts across Pakistan. Whereas, it has 52 partner organizations. So far it has made disbursements
of Rs. 8.2 billion and it has around 7 million beneficiaries. The government has so far spent over one
thousand billion rupees on pro-poor sectors in the last five years.
7. CONCLUSION:
Economic growth is the engine of employment generation and poverty alleviation. In order to
sustain this strong pace of growth and maintain healthy and vigorous macroeconomic indicators
would require a prolonged period of macroeconomic stability, financial discipline, and consistent
and transparent policies. These, along with improved governance and better quality infrastructure
would encourage private sector to play a leading role in promoting investment and growth.
The government on its part must identify and promote sectors, which are considered not only to be
the major drivers of growth but also have the greatest potential of creating more employment
opportunities.
The man in the street wants that our government sitting in Islamabad should go on issuing orders
on papers and like Aladdins Lamp great and good things should be done out of nothing. We forget
that if we do not do the work, the work will not be done. It is only through patience; untiring
constructive labour on the part of the rulers and the ruled alike that the solution of unemployment
problem in a backward country like Pakistan can come through.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING

1. INTRODUCTION:

I
n recent years the smuggling of human beings across international borders has grown rapidly from a
small scale cross border activity affecting a handful of countries into a global multi-million dollar
enterprise. Although information about human smuggling is patchy and often unreliable, current
estimates suggest that some 8,00,000 people are smuggled across borders every year.
The spread of smuggling needs to be understood in the context of the globalization and greatly
increased migration. Prospects of a better life abroad, poverty, economic marginalization, political
and social unrest and conflict are all incentives to move. Global media and transportation networks
make movement easier. As push and pull factors encourage increasing numbers of people to
migrate, they in turn collide with the many legal obstacles to entry that industrialized countries have
put in place.
Two trends are a direct consequence of this. First, as avenues for legal migration have become
increasingly restricted, the asylum system has come under pressure as one of the few options that
migrants can use. Second, migrants have increasingly resorted to the use of smugglers to facilitate
their travel. This compounds their vulnerability to ill treatment and exploitation.
Human trafficking involves forced or coerced movements. Sometimes people are kidnapped
outright and taken forcibly to another location. In other cases, traffickers use deception to entice
victims to move with false promises of well paying jobs such as models, dancers or domestic
workers. In some instances, traffickers approach victims or their families directly with offers of
lucrative jobs elsewhere. After providing transportation to get victims to their destinations, they
subsequently charge exorbitant fees for those services, creating debt bondage. What begins as
voluntary movement ends up coerced.

2. INTERNAL TRAFFICKING:
The trafficking of people for sexual exploitation and forced labour is one of the fastest growing
areas of international criminal activity and one that is increasing concern to the international
community. Generally, the flow of trafficking is from less developed to more developed regions and
countries. While mush of the attention on trafficking ahs focused on those who cross international
borders, trafficking within countries also very common. Victims of forced prostitution usually end up
in large cities, sex tourism areas or near military bases, where the demand is highest. Victims of
forced labour may be found throughout a country, in agriculture, fishing industries, mines, carpets
and sweatshops.
Internal trafficking shares many common elements with internal displacement and one could argue
that internal trafficking victims are internally displaced persons (IDPs). The Handbook for Applying
the Guiding Principles in Internal Displacement makes clear that the distinctive feature of internal
displacement is coerced or involuntary movement that takes place within national borders. The
reasons for fight may vary and include arm conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of
human rights, and natural or human made disasters.

3. THE TRAFFICKING CHILD:


Human trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labour is believed to be one of the fastest
growing areas of criminal activity. Child victims are particularly vulnerable but there is little
systematic knowledge about their characteristics and experiences. They are often subsumed under
the women and children heading without allowing for analysis of their special needs.
Extreme poverty drove many of the girls to migrate. In some situations, parental illness
compounded already dire economic circumstances and placed even more pressure on the children
to contribute to the familys income. In other cases, family breakdowns resulting from death or
divorce left the children vulnerable.
In some cases, the idea to migrate came form the girls, while the other situations a family member,
friend or trafficker pose as a trustworthy individual planted the idea. In most cases, the girls
decision to migrate resulted from their desire to help their family financially or escape a difficult
family situation.

4. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTH ASIA: by Faisal Yousaf, UNHCR


Amidst the hype of globalization-driven South Asian prosperity, the plight of the landless, illiterate
and chronically poor remains forgotten. Among the most vulnerable losers are those who migrate in
search of better livelihoods.

Trafficking in South Asia is complex and multifaceted, both a development and a criminal justice
problem. The main destination of people from SA is the Middle East but many stay within India and
Pakistan. There is extensive trafficking of women and girls from Bangladesh to India, Pakistan,
Bahrain, Kuwait and the UAE. UNICEF estimates that up to half a million Bangladeshis have been
trafficking in the recent years and that up to 200,000 Nepali women and girls are working in Indias
sex industry. A small number of women and girls are trafficked through Bangladesh from Burma to
India. Young boys from SA are trafficked to the UAE, Oman and Qatar and forced to work as camel
jockeys.
South Asian governments have been slow to acknowledge global concerns about human trafficking.
The countries in the region have repeatedly been rebuked by the US State Department for failure to
tackle human trafficking.
The problem of human trafficking in the region is not new. Millions of South Asian indentures
laboureres moved to European colonies some as far flung as Fiji in a way, which would today be
labeled as trafficking. In the colonial era, trafficking referred exclusively to the movement of white
women to the colonies to provide sexual services. In 1949, the earlier UN Convention on trafficking
didnt define it but instead relied on this previous understanding as it sought to eliminate immoral
trafficking in women. None of the South Asian countries signed or ratified this convention but their
laws have maintained this moral fervour. Persistent failure to clarify the law has often served to
legitimize police brutality against women working in the sex trade.

In the 1970s, initial concern about trafficking was linked exclusively with prostitution and sexual
exploitation. Feminists spearheaded the anti-trafficking movement, driven by concerns about sex
tourism in South East Asia, the stationing of large numbers of US military personnel, mail order
brides and women crossing borders for prostitution and for work in the entertainment industry.
When the South Asian activists started to analyse the situation in their region it was cross-border
prostitution particularly of Nepali and Bangladeshi women and girls lured to Indian brothels and
child sexual exploitation by tourists in Sri Lanka, which were cited. Womens rights and child rights
groups in the region started networking, providing assistance to trafficked women and girls and
pressing for action to address the problem.
In the 1990s, as more women migrated for work and found themselves trapped in debt bound-age
or slavery-like conditions, the need to unambiguously define trafficking as a prerequisite to ending it
became clear. Some feminists still wanted to focus only on prostitution arguing that its abolition
would stop trafficking but most analysts and activists began to conceptualize trafficking as a
broader phenomenon linked to globalization, unequal terms of trade, migration and labour.
Researchers have drawn attention to three main confusions in the literature on trafficking in South
Asia the conflation of trafficking with prostitution, trafficking with migration and women with
children and consequent implications for programmes.
In 2002, after years of discussion, the South Asian Association for Regional cooperation (SAARC) a
regional body bringing together the governments of the member states agreed a convention on
trafficking. Ignoring civil society representations, it defined trafficking solely as the enforced
movement of women and children for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. The SAARC
Convention is thus far more limited in scope than the UNs Palermo Protocol. No South Asian
countries have ratified the Palermo Protocol.
Every major anti-trafficking initiative in the region has been civil society led. NGOs have carried the
main burden in reaching out to trafficking persons, providing health and legal assistance, raising
public awareness, steering the national legislative initiatives and providing training and technical
assistance to law enforcement and border control authorities. However, civil society involvement is
quite recent and they can only provide limited services.

5. KEY CHALLENGES ARE:


I. Absence of a joint regional strategy by civil society organizations to combat trafficking.
II. Duplication in civil society programmes and activities; more agencies focus on awareness raising
than on provision of assistance or repatriation of trafficking victims.
III. Only a few organizations provide repatriation assistance to the victims of trafficking.
IV. Lack of a coherent regional donour/funding approach and existence of several parallel antitrafficking programmes.
V. Major donour supported anti-trafficking programmes in the region often only target specific
countries, ignoring others in which traffickers also operate.

6. THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO:


I. Develop new legal and institutional framework to promote regional cooperation, especially
through the SAARC.
II. Advocate for the establishment of an office of Rapporteur on Trafficking in Women and Children
in SAARC and at the national level, like the one already working in Nepal.
III. Encourage private sector involvement in regional initiatives.
IV. Promote cooperation b/w civil society organizations and national law enforcement agencies.
V. Develop policies and institutional mechanisms especially to repatriate victims of trafficking in a
dignified and safe manner.
VI. Encourage inter-regional exchanges visits and trainings, particularly with eastern European
states.
VII. Train civil servants to make government schemes more gender sensitive.

7. HUMAN TRAFFICKING & PAKISTAN:


THE trafficking of men, women and children is a bane Pakistan must firmly curb. This modern form
of slavery, which entails the trading of people for sexual exploitation and forced servitude, has
brought the country a bad name. The latest to raise a finger at Pakistan for being the source as well
as the transit area of this deplorable crime is the US department of state, which has just issued its
2006 report on human trafficking. There are other countries in the region, which have also been
identified as major traffickers and share with Pakistan the blame for this horrendous crime. The fact
that this problem exists in the whole of South Asia underlines the common socio-cultural and
economic characteristics and the weakness of governance in all these countries. Women and
children, who are the worst sufferers, constitute the weakest section of our society. Poverty also
makes them vulnerable to exploitation by vested interests. When the structures of government are
weak and the implementation of laws ineffective, it is not unusual that crime and social evils such as
human trafficking become rampant. This has been the case in Pakistan. Small wonder then that the
state department report condemns the smuggling of men and women from here to neighbouring
countries to be used as slave labour and for prostitution and little children being taken to the Gulf
states for camel races.
The pity is that despite its best efforts, Islamabad has failed to stem the flood of trafficking. There
are additionally other factors, such as unjust laws the Hudood Ordinances being one corruption
and a general contempt for women and children, which make it easier for evil elements to carry on
the slave trade with impunity. The report is appreciative of the Pakistan government for formulating
a national plan of action to combat human trafficking and setting up a cell in the interior ministry to
coordinate its efforts. One can only hope that the government will ensure the implementation of its
national plan and that its good intentions will not vanish in thin air before the cupidity and

unscrupulousness of those indulging in this immoral and inhumane trade. Many of the laws that
facilitate this evil practice will have to be changed. The law enforcement machinery must also be
spruced up to crack down on the gangs operating in this field.

8. THE UN ROLE:
The UN Convention against Transitional Organized Crime and its two protocols on Trafficking and
Smuggling adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality, these
distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those
at risk.
The Protocols distinguished b/w those who are smuggled and those who are trafficked. Trafficking is
defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of
the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the
abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits
to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of the
exploitation. By contrast, smuggling refers to consensual transactions where the smuggler and the
migrant agree to circumvent immigration control for mutually advantageous reasons. The smuggling
relationship technically ends with the crossing of the border. The two critical ingredients are illegal
border crossing by the smuggled person and receipt of a material benefit by the smuggler.

9. SUZZANNE MUBARAK WOMENS INTERNATIONAL PEACE MOVEMENT (SMWIPM):


On January 23, 2006, in Athens, corporate leaders signed up to seven Ethical Principles against
Human Trafficking:
1) Zero tolerance towards human trafficking.
2) Awareness raising campaigns and educational activities.
3) Mainstreaming anti-trafficking in all corporate strategies.
4) Ensuring the compliance of personnel.
5) Encouraging business partners to apply the same ethical principles.
6) Advocacy to urge governments to strengthen anti-trafficking policies.
7) Wider sharing of good practices.
10. CONCLUSION:
While the prime responsibility in eliminating human trafficking rests with governments, a
successful global vis--vis regional strategy requires engagement of a wide range of stakeholders,
including NGOs, the security sector, the public and the business community.
Richard Danziger:

There needs to be a common understanding of WHO the victims of trafficking are. Only then can
the international community hope to improve its record in identification and protection of such
individuals.
Human trafficking is about the plight and suffering of people and not about criminal transactions
in soulless goods. As traffickers ruthlessly exploit the lack of social and legal protection for the
victims of trafficking, the legalization of the status of the victims of trafficking is a must. For victims
to be able to free themselves from actual or threatened violence they need comprehensive social,
economic and legal assistance. This is crucial to effective victim and witness protection strategies.
More than half of trafficking victims worldwide are children, forced into pornography, prostitution
and labour servitude. Human trafficking is an unscrupulous market that generates around $ 10
billion annually.
In order to combat one of the cruelest problems in the world today, we must create alliances,
says Ricky Martin, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and twice Grammy Winner.
According to UNHCHRs Recommended Principles and Guidelines for human Rights and Human
Trafficking, human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries
mat need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide
better protection to the victims of trafficking.

Essay no.5
DRUG ABUSE

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
ince the commencement of life, it has been the desire of man to enjoy peace and avoid what is
tumultuous and tedious in order to get peace of mind and tranquility. There are legal means for this
but the hazard of ignorance leads a frustrated soul to adopt what is injurious to self-health first, and
then, pestilence to the whole society.
Drug abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is wide spread in our society and has affected Pakistan in
many ways. It contributes to crime, adds to the cost of our already over burdened health care
system and to the financially strapped social welfare system. It is also a serious threat to ones
health and also causes violence and mass crime in a society. High profitability of opium crop
combined with low risk of cultivation is the major factor for its growth. There is a very astonishing
fact that the drug trade is second to the trade after armament in the world and yet the UN budget
for drug control activities is equivalent to the value of a suitcase full of heroin.

2. SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:
According to the National Assessment Study on Drug Abuse in Pakistan 2000, there were about
500,000 chronic heroine users including 60,000 drug injectors in the age bracket of 25-35 years,
which is an alarming high rate by international standards. In order to update data regarding drug
addicts, a new project called National Assessment Study 2006 of problems of Drug Abuse in Pakistan
is in pipeline and will be completed shortly. For the prevention of the Drug Trafficking and Drug
Abuse, effective and meaning full steps have been initiated.
It is a matter of great concern that Pakistan should be witnessing a resurgence of poppy cultivation
in areas bordering Afghanistan which is expected to produce a bumper crop this year. Government
officials often try to convince the people that the acreage under cultivation is on the decrease, as
Minister for Narcotics Control Ghous Bux Mehar did the other day. However, with no end in sight to
the opium problem in Afghanistan, Pakistan has no option but to work harder at removing the
scourge from its territory. Poppy cultivation in Afghanistan witnessed a drastic reduction under
Taliban rule, a fact that no doubt helped Pakistan earn the - poppy-free - label in 2001. But with the
ongoing war on terror and the increasing lawlessness in Afghanistan, where the procurement of
illicit arms depends heavily on the narco-trade, poppy cultivation has assumed unprecedented
proportions. For Pakistan a major transit route for narcotics from Afghanistan the spillover has
been inevitable in areas that share a similar terrain with bordering Afghan villages. Political unrest,
especially along the border, has compounded the problem, making it difficult for law enforcement
agencies to crack down on those growing poppy.

In Helmand province of Afghanistan, according to the UN and American official an estimated


1,00,000 to 1,25,000 acres of poppy were planted in 2005 out of some 260,000 poppy acres nation
wide. The governor, Akhundzade, known to be involved in the drug trade was removed last year in
December under the international pressure but was then made a member of the Afghan
parliaments upper house. His successor is said to be honest but the ex-governors brother continues
to be the deputy governor, and he had inevitably involved in the drug trade.
The drug trade under the Afghan warlords and police chiefs has become organized, those involved
in it are well armed and is allied with insurgents such as the Taliban. There are ugly rumours
vehemently denied that, warlords and officials apart, even President Karzais own brother is involved
in the drug trade. In this context, President Karzai has to keep in order his own house rather than
blaming Pakistan for cross-border interference as let not the pot call the kettle black.

3. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DRUG ABUSE:


I. Afghan war.
II. Poverty.
III. Unemployment.
IV. Easy availability.
V. Organized gangs of drug mafia.
VI. Corruption among the government agencies responsible for checking smuggling.
VII. Lucrative business.
VIII. Easy money.
IX. Political instability, poor law and order situation and social backwardness.

4. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS:
I. Give rise to crimes and violence.
II. Bad image of the country.
III. Less investment.
IV. Breakup of social bindings.
V. A threat to cultural heritage.
VI. Educational institutions are being affected.
VII. Youth would be the ultimate target.

VIII. Corruption in the government agencies.

5. PRESENT GOVERNMENT STRATEGY:


The Drug Abuse Control master plan (1998-2003) is being extended by the Ministry to meet its
objectives. Under this plan, the Anti narcotics Force (ANF), a Law Enforcement Agency Under the
Ministry is being strengthened to control the trafficking of narcotics drug effectively. Similarly, the
farmers of Poppy growing areas are being provided with alternate source of income. The
development projects currently under implementation in the poppy growing areas aims to bring a
decrease in the poppy growing/cultivation areas. Four-area development project one each at Dir,
Bajaur, Mohmand and Khyber Agency areas are being implemented.
Two model Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Centers i.e., one at Islamabad and other at
Queeta have been started by ANF. Both the centers have started functioning and drug addicts are
being provided free treatment, medicine, food and stay at the centers. The total cost of both the
projects is Rs. 44.304 million. Beside these treatment and Rehabilitation centers, two other projects
i.e., NGOs Support Program in Treatment and Rehabilitation, focused drug abuse prevention for high
risk and marginalized group in Pakistan costing 55.7 million are also being implemented.
The aim of these projects is to create awareness amongst the masses particularly high-risk group
and involve the civil society in prevention as well as treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts.
Regarding kind and quantity of different drugs such as Opium, Heroine and Hashish, the total
number of the cases reported during the year 2005-06 are 31150 and the total number of
defendants are 31435 .A massive drive against drug traffickers taken during the period 2005-06 has
resulted in the seizure of 75985.500 kgs.

Essay no.6
SECTARIAN VIOLENCE & RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

1. INTRODUCTION:

Communalism, religious intolerance and the sectarian violence are scourge of any society and
repugnant to the teachings of Islam. The word Islam means peace and harmony and forbids bigotry
and religious fanaticism. It teaches generosity and tolerance even to the followers of the other
religions.
The PM, Shaukat Aziz, is also right in pointing out that a two-pronged strategy preventive as well
as curative is required to control both the manifestation and root causes of sectarian conflict, which
has claimed the lives of thousands of Pakistanis since the 1980s. The toll in 2005 alone was over 200
dead and 400 wounded. Earlier this month, Shiit cleric Allama Hasan Turabi was assassinated in
Karachi while nearly 40 Ashura-day mourners were killed in a bomb blast and related violence in
Hangu in February 2006. The sectarian scourge, in its current form, is clearly deep-rooted and cannot
be eliminated easily. It has its origins in the jihadist militancy fostered by Gen Zia ul Haq and
subsequently fanned by misguided adventurers and religious bigots. The situation as it now stands is
that an entire generation has been poisoned by the preachers of hate.

In the words of Syed Mohammad Ali in his article Pakistans sectarian problems,
Vested interests, misplaced policies and discriminatory laws have drastically reduced the scope for
a religiously tolerant state and society in Pakistan. Hate ideologies have damaged our valuable
cultural and intellectual heritage. While challenging institutionalised sectarianism is certainly not
easy, strengthening the common cultural heritage of Pakistani people offers a less-confrontational
way to reverse hate-based indoctrination.

2. Dr Hasan Askari Rizvi writes in an article Religious extremism and violence,


The government cannot contain religious extremism and violence by simply issuing executive
orders. It requires a comprehensive approach that entails monitoring supporters of the militant
groups in the civil and military administration, curtailing societal sources of support, and strict action
against the hard-core militant elements that use violence. The government must adopt measures to
address socio-economic inequities which have increased during the last six years.

3. Kamila Hyat writes,

The fact of the matter is that a problem which has taken root over two decades or so may take at
least as long to eradicate. After all, numerous studies have shown that prejudice of all kinds is an
insidious social phenomenon, which can take generations to wipe out. It is, however, essential that
the effort to tackle sectarianism begin immediately. This effort must be underpinned with far greater
commitment and a longer-term strategy than has so far been the case. Mere cosmetic measures,
revolving around policing militancy by locking up dozens in jails for weeks, or deploying security
forces in an effort to keep vigilance over every street corner, is neither feasible nor wise.

4. FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SECTARIANISM IN PAKISTAN:


1) Religious Intolerance:
2) Political factors:
3) Economic factors:
4) Indian Interference:

5. EFFECTS OF SECTARIAN VIOLENCE:


1) Social disorder:
2) The politicisation of religion:
3) Impact on religious activities:
4) Law & order situation:
5) Political instability:
6) Widens Antagonism among different sects:
7) Impact on economy:

6. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
R
epetitive negative depictions of Pakistan are fuelled largely by the many conflicts that plague our
country. Besides lingering tensions with India and the discontent among provinces, sectarian
violence continues to blemish our national image.

While the extent of sectarian violence is not large in terms of the casualties caused by it, the
problem has led to a very perturbing fragmentation of the society. There is a range of sects and subsects embroiled in sectarian violence. Understanding sectarianism requires digging much deeper
than just looking at the immediate reasons for a particular incident.
1) The politicisation of religion is a major reason for sectarian aspirations taking root in Pakistan.
The conflict between sectarian groups is not merely ideological; often it is impelled by the desire to
obtain political power. The evident patronage of the clergy by various governments has steadily
raised their public profile and influence, culminating in the current setup, in a meteoric rise of
religious parties. But the responsibility for helping religious parties into political power does not lie
with the Pakistani state alone. During the 1980s many influential players, including the US and some
Middle Eastern governments, lent support for the militarisation of religious identities for a proactive
role in the Afghan jihad. The decision to use right-wing religious parties to pursue geo-strategic goals
first in Afghanistan, and then in Kashmir, led to further politicisation on the basis of religion.
2) The International Crisis Group (ICG) blames the sectarian conflict squarely on the state policies of
Islamisation and the marginalisation of secular democratic forces. Several governments in Pakistan
are criticised for co-opting the religious right and continuing to rely on it to counter civilian
opposition rather than empowering the people. The ICG holds the state responsible for patronising
particular religious leaders who used religion as a means to create political distraction. Their pulpits
were never used to highlight peoples rights and development issues. Moreover, it is pointed out
that laws like the Hudood Ordinance created operational bias against women. The problems were
compounded by enforcement of the Islamic law of evidence in 1984 that excluded womens
testimony in cases of Hadd crimes and halved the value of their evidence in civil matters. NonMuslims were not even allowed to give evidence. There have been numerous cases of people being
victimised under these laws.
3) Peripheral theological debates provide the basis for volatile divisions in the hands of those
seeking power over people. Press reports indicate that sectarian zealots kill around 200 people a
year across the country. Analysts have pointed out that over the years sectarian violence has spread
from the more traditional rural arenas to major urban areas. The pattern of targeting high-profile
opponents has expanded to include public places even mosques and religious gatherings. Even
judges presiding over cases of sectarian militancy in anti-terrorist courts are frequently forced to
hold trials in jails.
4) Yet because of the political utility of religious leaders, the recently announced law requiring
registration of seminaries seems to have been sidelined. Whether the Hudood laws will finally be
repealed also remains to be seen. There is an evident need for government to start taking measures
that reflect the countrys religious diversity. Besides removing all forms of religious discrimination,
there is need for invoking constitutional restrictions against private armies. Hate speech needs to be
curbed to avoid extremist violence. One of the suggestions put forth in this regard is to provide
constitutional and political rights to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the northern areas
by finally deciding their constitutional and legal status and linking up courts in these areas to
Pakistans mainstream judicial institutions. The tribal lashkars need to be outlawed.
5) Human rights organisations and legal experts continue to demands such measures. There has
been a lot of loud and vocal criticism of discriminatory laws and some efforts have been made to

help victims of these repressive laws particularly minorities and women. The Human Rights
Commission for Pakistan, a notable stalwart in this regard, has been recommending that instead of
merely changing procedures, all laws that sanction discrimination against minorities and women
should be repealed outright.
6) An unfortunate combination of vested interests, misplaced policies and discriminatory laws has
drastically reduced the scope for a religiously tolerant state and society in Pakistan. Hate ideologies
have damaged our valuable cultural and intellectual heritage. While challenging institutionalised
sectarianism is certainly not easy, strengthening the common cultural heritage of Pakistani people
offers a less-confrontational way to reverse hate-based indoctrination.
7) Some civil society organisations have begun working on conflict resolution. There are already a
small number of peace activists in Pakistan. More poets, writers, artists, journalists, lawyers and
young volunteers need to lend support to this movement. To diffuse tensions between different
religious groups civil society groups can facilitate dialogue or support moves to remove
discriminatory practices exacerbating the sectarian rifts. In addition to promoting interventions to
narrow the sectarian fragmentation, more research is needed on the religious and cultural
communities of Pakistan. Debates in the mainstream media to highlight our common intellectual
heritage would also be useful.

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS:
The compulsions fuelling religious conflicts are certainly complex. They have multiple negative
implications as well. Nonetheless, this is not a problem that will go away on own its own. It needs to
be actively addressed if Pakistan is ever to become an enlightened and moderate state.
In Hasan Askaris words, The government must adopt measures to address socio-economic
inequities which have increased during the last six years. Unless poverty and underdevelopment are
addressed effectively, ideological appeals and militancy will continue to attract the alienated youth.
The government must also open up the political system to mainstream and liberal political forces so
that they can help inculcate moderate and tolerant values among the people. Internal harmony and
cultural and political tolerance cannot be promoted without establishing an equitable socioeconomic system and a participatory political process.

Essay no.7
ILLITERACY

Are those equal, those who know and those who dont know.

1. INTRODUCTION:
I
t is now a universally recognized fact that mass education is a pre-requisite for the development and
prosperity of a country. The main priority of the developing countries, in recent years has been to
foster the development and renewal of primary education and to eliminate illiteracy. Pakistan,
unfortunately, like the other under developed countries, has made little progress in this aspect.
Since independence, she continues to remain in the group of countries with the lowest literacy rate.
Half of the worlds illiterate and 22 percent of the worlds population live in South Asia. Pakistan
does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost
attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan.
India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross
Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.

2. MEANING OF ILLITERACY:
For an Adult, illiteracy means primitive manual labour in agriculture and industry, uncertain
employment opportunities and low wages, life-long miserable living conditions, and humiliating
dependence on the literates of the community for the day-to-day civic and business interactions and
deprivation in all walks of life. For adults illiteracy also means exclusion from most of economic,
social and cultural activities.
For the Out-of-school Children, illiteracy means forced labour, vagrancy, sickness and slavery.
For Women, literacy is a survival kit and symbol of status. It means emancipation, participation in
the decision making of the family and equality.

3. IMPORTANCE OF LITERACY:
Illiteracy is a small pane in a large window, opening into the world of knowledge based on reading
and writing as one of the earliest cultural activities of mankind. Mankinds civilization, and its
accumulation, sharing and transmission of knowledge over the centuries has been made possible by
written and readable words. Every Muslim knows that the first command revealed by Allah to the
Holy Prophet of Islam Muhammad (PBUH) was READ.

Literacy, over the centuries, has become the lever of human progress and the leveler of social and
economic conditions. It is a basic human need, and human right to knowledge. Illiteracy is brake on
human development, and maps of illiteracy poverty, underdevelopment, social discrimination and
disease are always co-incident. It is a challenge to human dignity and imposes a second-class status
on a person in all societies. Life without literacy is life without hope, security and freedom.

4. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE LITERACY STATUS:


The literacy status of a country is determined by the following parameters:
I. The existing level of literacy.
II. The rate on increment of new literates.
III. The volume of the education systems output.
IV. The demographic factors engage structure, mortality and birth rate.
V. The last but not the least is the percentage of budget engaged for the education.

5. RAISING THE LITERACY RATE:


Countries have succeeded in raising their literacy rates by taking the following steps:
I. Universalization of primary education.
II. Providing non-formal primary education facilities for out of school youth and dropouts.
III. Launching countrywide programmes for adults backed by political leadership.
IV. Broad involvement of various social groups, institutions, public and voluntary organizations etc.

6. ILLITERACY SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:


The picture of illiteracy in Pakistan is grim. Although successive governments have announced
various programmes to promote literacy, especially among women, but they have been unable to
translate their words into actions because of various political, social and cultural obstacles. Access to
basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important instrument in
enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic development.
Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and opportunities

and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors that act as a
counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical biases. Education
is a vehicle of nation building through which a nations shared interpretation of history and cultural
values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means strong economic
growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education is strongly
correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The emerging
global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can benefit
from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.
There are 163,000 primary schools in Pakistan, of which merely 40,000 cater to girls. According to
UNICEF, 17.6 per cent of Pakistani children are working and supporting their families.

7. CAUSES OF ILLITERACY IN PAKISTAN:


1) Half-hearted planning and management of literacy and continuing education.
2) Limited budget.
3) Lack of reliable statistics and research researchers.
4) Weak community participation.
5) Lack of multimedia material.
6) Lack of special skilled textbook writers.
7) Poor follow up of programmes.
8) In-service teachers do not take such work seriously.
9) Dependence on foreign aid.
10) Dropout rate is high.
11) Over-crowded classrooms.
12) Panacea of private sector.
13) Outdated curriculum.
14) Problems of higher education; brain drain etc.
15) Corruption.
16) Rote learning.
17) Unfair examinations.
18) Lack of adequate facilities such as clean water, electricity etc. in the rural schools.

8. EFFECTS OF ILLITERACY:
1) Over-population.
2) Low-GDP and per capita income.
3) Increase unskilled labour.
4) Infant mortality and maternal mortality.
5) Political instability.
6) Poor use of natural resources.
7) Heavy international debts.
8) Child labour.
9) Poor international image.
10) Low per acre agriculture yield.
11) Halting industrial growth and less trade activities.

9. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:


According to World Bank Report, Pakistans spending on public sector education is only 2.3 per cent
of the GDP and this is much lower than the south Asian average of 3.6 per cent and the low-income
countries average of 3.4 per cent
I. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
Pakistan has committed to all the International declaration to extend the agenda of providing the
basic right of education to all of its citizens. Pakistan is among the signatories of Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) as well as the Dakar World Education Forum 2000. The Government of
Pakistan has taken several policy and program initiatives to achieve these international goals since
then. The National Plan of Action for Education for all was initiated in response to the commitment
made at Dakar for World Summit. The Education Reform Action Plan (ESR), which is built upon the
National Education Policy 1998-2010, is a long-term plan, with three yearly action plans. The ESR
addresses the development of the overall education sector through investment in rehabilitation of
schools, improving the curriculum and assessment reform system, an adult literacy campaign,
mainstreaming the Madressahs, a pilot school nutrition program and technical stream in secondary
schools. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) views education as a strong policy instrument
in bringing poverty down.
Three main goals that are the underlying objectives of all of these programs and initiatives include
universal access to primary education by increasing the net enrollment and higher rate of survival of
children till grade 5, increase in the adult literacy rate and to attain gender equality at all levels.

Currently, adult literacy rate is 53 percent; net enrollment at the primary level is 52 per cent,
retention rate for 2004- 05 is noted as 61 per cent and significant gender gaps at all levels especially
in the rural areas persist. Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP is 2.1 per cent and
has approximately increased by less than one percentage point since 2000-01.

II. Education Institutions and Enrollment


Attainment of Universal Primary Education (UPE) has become a compelling national priority. This is
a challenge that has been accepted at the highest level in the federal and provincial governments.
UPE is anticipated to increase in access to education by 4%, reduction in gender disparity by 10% and
enhancing primary completion rate by 5% per annum. In the past year, 2187 new primary schools
were established, 1221 in the public sector and 881 in the private sector. This increase has occurred
in both rural and urban areas. Statistical annexure table 9.1 and 9.2, show the number of the girls in
the primary and middle school in year 2004-05. The expansion in the number of institutions is
inconsistent with the need to provide easy access to the half the countrys school going population.
The public sector was able to establish only 999 new primary schools for girls in 2004-05. The
responsibility of expanding the primary and middle schools for girls has been devolved to District
Governments under the devolution plan.

III. Primary education


Two main indicators that show the changes in the primary schooling are Gross Enrollment Rate
(GER) and Net Enrolment rate (NER). The last four years have witnessed 14 percentage points
increase in the gross primary enrollment which is more then 3 percentage point per annum increase
on average. This increase from 72 percent in 2001-02 to 86 percent in 2004-05 is a result of targeted
and resilient polices of the government. Adoption of free provision of universal basic education
polices in the provinces (except Balochistan) is gradually delivering the promised increase in the
enrolment rate. In the urban areas, the GER is impressive in all provinces, ranging from 84 percent in
Balochistan to 108 percent in Punjab. In the rural areas, Punjab has made a marked progress,
particularly in female GER, which increased from 61 percent in 2001-02 to 82 percent in 2004-05.
The Gender gap has also seen an improvement at the primary level in Punjab and has been modest
in Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

IV. Gender gap


Gender disparity in literacy and enrollment is one of the key concerns of the Government. Pakistans
overall record in promoting and delivering gender equality has been weak. There are, however,
areas in which significant progress has been made and indicators point to a steady though slow
improvement in the ratio of girls to boys at all levels of education, the ratio of literate females to
males, share of women in urban employment (as proxy indicator for share of women in wage
employment in non-agricultural sector) has improved marginally and improvement in participation
of women in national decision making process.

Statistics show that gender disparity has been declining since 1998-99, however the recent decline
is only marginal from 26 percent in 2001-02 to 25 percent in 2004-05. Reducing gender gap in
education at all level will ensure equality of opportunity and economic participation for females.
Gender disparity in literacy is lower in urban areas where it is 16 percent, as compared to 29 percent
in rural areas in 2004-05. In fact there has been no progress in reducing the gender gap either
between the urban and rural areas or between genders in both areas.

V. Public Private Partnership


The Community Support Rural Schools Program (CSRSP) is NEFs largest program and it encourages
pilot innovations to promote education in rural areas. Notable among them are Child Friendly School
Program and Education for Working Children. Currently, 260 schools are running under CSRSP with
an enrollment of 23300 students and another 350 schools are established in 2005 supported by
NORAD. Moreover, teacher training has been a significant component of CSRSP, with the goal to
enable in-service community teachers to re-learn modern pedagogical principles and techniques to
manage todays classrooms.

VI. Higher Education Commission


Pakistan is ranked amongst the lowest in the world in higher education enrollment rates at 2.9
percent. Other Asian developing countries, such as India and Korea, stand at 10 percent and 68
percent respectively. According to a report of the steering committee for higher education in 2001,
only 2.6 percent of the students between the ages 17-23 enrolled in universities, which have
increased to 2.9 in 2005. The target is to double enrollment in the next five years by increasing the
capacity of the existing higher education institutions and also establishing new ones. The quality of
education provided is not up to the mark, which can be gauged from the fact that not a single
Pakistani university is ranked among the top 500 universities of the world.

VII. Financing of Education in the public sector


Public expenditure on education as a percentage to GDP is lowest in Pakistan as compared to other
countries of the South Asian region. Pakistan spends 2.1 percent of its GDP on education as
compared to India which spends 4.1 percent, Bangladesh 2.4 percent and Nepal spends 3.4 percent.

VIII. National Education Assessment System


National Education Assessment System (NEAS) is a World Bank funded project with a total cost of
Rs. 319.364 million including foreign exchange component with World Bank share of Rs. 273.110
million. The government of Pakistan is committed to improve the quality of education at all levels.
The NEAS is one of the key programs of the Ministry meant to improve the quality of education at
elementary level, with the objective to measure learning achievements of grade 4 and 5 students, to

develop capacity in educational assessment related activities, to institutionalization of sustainable


monitoring system and information dissemination.

IX. Curriculum Development


The curriculum development is an on going process to respond to global challenges and emerging
trends. This process has been initiated in collaboration with the federal units and provincial and
regional governments (AJ&K, FATA). The present government realizing the importance of vibrant and
dynamic curriculum has decided to review /revise curriculum of class 1 to 8. The committee has
initiated consultative meetings to develop a curriculum reflecting the latest trends in individual
subjects as well as equipping the education of the country with the requirement of today and
tomorrow.

10. SUGGESTIONS:
1) A uniform education policy.
2) Ability and merit must be declared as corner stones of our national life.
3) Adequate educational facilities.
4) Removal of fake schools; 23000 present in whole country.
5) Fair examination system.
6) Updated curriculum.
7) High standard of academic research.
8) Removal of corruption.
9) Training of teachers.
10) Removal of rote learning.

Education makes people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern, but impossible to
enslave.

Essay no.8
CURRENT EDUCATION SYSTEM

The struggle to raise a nations living standards is fought first and foremost in the classrooms.

1. INTRODUCTION:
B
irds and animals require teaching or training to lead a successful bird or animal life. They know how
to make a home or shelter for themselves and how to keep themselves alive instinctively. The
instinct of self-preservation is implanted by nature. They are given certain faculties, which develop,
to their maximum level with their physical growth without much conscious efforts on their part or
on the part of their parents. Not so with man. His intellectual growth depends on many outside
factors and cannot attain maturity without long and deliberate efforts on his part and on the part of
his well-wishers. A forest can grow itself but a garden cannot.
A flower is pretty by itself but a diamond requires a lot of cutting and polishing before it will sparkle
and scintillate into thousand colours. Man is like a rough diamond and requires filling and polishing
before all his faculties can function fully. Inevitably, in fact, education enables one to lead a better
life physically, mentally and spiritually. Education helps iron out ones emotions, prejudices, and
idiosyncrasies to rationalize things rather objectively. This enables an individual to visualize his
position in a society he lives and the world society as a whole.
The process of education can be regarded as a function of five Ms namely Man, Money, method,
Management and Machinery. That is the short human expression of the major variables that figure
in the educational process, though social milieu, reflecting attitude of society towards education.

2. GLOBAL EDUCATION SCENARIO:


Access to basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important
instrument in enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic
development. Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and
opportunities and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors
that act as a counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical
biases. Education is a vehicle of nation building through which a nations shared interpretation of
history and cultural values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means
strong economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education
is strongly correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The
emerging global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can
benefit from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.

3. EDUCATION SCENARIO IN SOUTH ASIA:


Half of the worlds illiterate and 22 percent of the worlds population live in South Asia. Pakistan
does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost
attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan.
India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross
Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.

4. LITERACY SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:


(From page 25)

5. CAUSES OF ILLITERACY IN PAKISTAN:


(From page 25)

6. EFFECTS OF ILLITERACY:
(From page 25)

7. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:


(From page 25, 26, 27)
8. NEW SCHEME OF STUDIES:
The federal education ministry on Thursday notified a new scheme of studies for classes I to XII,
extending the number of annual academic days from 170 to 210 and making Islamiyat compulsory
from class III-instead of class IV from next year.
Non-Muslim students have been given the option to study ethics in place of Islamiyat.
Computer education has been made compulsory from class VI. Physical training, arts and crafts,
library sessions and after-school team sports have also been made compulsory.
The number of academic days in a year has been increased from 170 to 210.
The new scheme will be effective from 2007.
Science and maths would be taught in English by 2011, it was notified.

All middle schools will get computer labs within three years. Standard exams will be conducted at
the end of class VIII to grant scholarships to students at the provincial and district levels.
Under the new scheme, students of classes I and II will be taught Urdu, English, mathematics and
general knowledge, which will include short stories from Islamic history, science and social studies.
The provinces have the discretion to use their regional languages as medium of instruction and no
student will be retained in classes I and II.
From class VI onwards, science, geography, history and computer education will be taught in
addition to other compulsory subjects. Maths, science and computer education will be taught in
English, whereas, for geography and history the medium of instruction can be Urdu or English up to
2011.
For classes IX and X in humanities group, Pakistan studies and three out of 22 elective subjects will
be taught in addition to Urdu, English, maths and Islamiyat. An advanced Islamic study has been
introduced as an elective subject.
In the science group, physics, chemistry, biology and maths will be taught in English, whereas
Islamiyat and Pakistan studies will be taught in Urdu.
At the higher secondary school level, there will be five academic groups science group-I (premedical), science group-II (pre-engineering or computer science), humanities, commerce, medical
technology and home economics.
In the pre-engineering group, maths, physics, chemistry or computer science will be taught in
addition to the compulsory subjects of Islamiyat, Urdu and English.
In the humanities group, three out of 24 elective subjects, including advanced level Pakistan
studies and Islamic studies etc, will be offered in addition to the compulsory subjects.
In the commerce group, business maths and statistics, principles of accounting, computer skills or
banking, principles of economics and commercial geography will be taught in addition the three
compulsory subjects.
In the medical technology group, labs, images, operation theatre, ophthalmology, physiotherapy
and dental hygiene technologies will be taught in addition to the compulsory subjects.
In the home economics group, food and house management, food and nutrition, home farming,
clothing, child development, group behaviour, childcare and nursing will be taught in addition the
compulsory subjects.

9. SUGGESTIONS:
1) A uniform education policy.
2) Ability and merit must be declared as corner stones of our national life.

3) Adequate educational facilities.


4) Removal of fake schools; 23000 present in whole country.
5) Fair examination system.
6) Updated curriculum.
7) High standard of academic research.
8) Removal of corruption.
9) Training of teachers.
10) Removal of rote learning.

Essay no.9
HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

1. INTRODUCTION:
U
niversities are key institutions of the modern world that cradles for knowledge, particularly for
modern science, which has produced technology that has changed the world more in the past 200
years than the previous 2000-years. But universities are not like magic boxes that just churn out new
science and technology. They are dynamic and complex organizations whose building blocks are the
faculty, students, administration and physical infrastructure. The purpose of the modern university is
to effect the transmission of existing knowledge, create new knowledge, and generate employment
skills needed for a modern economy. Its organizing principle is that of a self-governing community of
scholars engaged in free inquiry, discovery and teaching.
Access to basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important
instrument in enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic
development. Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and
opportunities and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors
that act as a counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical
biases. Education is a vehicle of nation building through which a nations shared interpretation of
history and cultural values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means
strong economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education
is strongly correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The
emerging global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can
benefit from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.

2. HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN:


Half of the worlds illiterate and 22 percent of the worlds population live in South Asia. Pakistan
does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost
attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan.
India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross
Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.
Pakistan is ranked amongst the lowest in the world in higher education enrollment rates at 2.9
percent. Other Asian developing countries, such as India and Korea, stand at 10 percent and 68
percent respectively. According to a report of the steering committee for higher education in 2001,
only 2.6 percent of the students between the ages 17- 23 enrolled in universities, which have
increased to 2.9 in 2005. The target is to double enrollment in the next five years by increasing the
capacity of the existing higher education institutions and also establishing new ones. The quality of

education provided is not up to the mark, which can be gauged from the fact that not a single
Pakistani university is ranked among the top 500 universities of the world.
Public expenditure on education as a percentage to GDP is lowest in Pakistan compared to other
countries of South Asian region. Pakistan spends only 2.1 per cent of its GDP on education compared
to India, which spends 4.1 per cent, Bangladesh 2.4 per cent and Nepal 3.4 per cent.
3. HEC:
The commission began its operations in 2003 by first writing a programme for the five year period
between 2005 and 2010. The Medium Term Development Framework identified four areas for
emphasis. The first was access to the institutions providing higher education. In 2005, only 2.9 per
cent of 13 million people in the age group 20 to 24 years were enrolled in institutions of higher
learning.
The commission wrote in its programme that it would pay particular attention to increasing
enrolment in institutes of higher learning. This would be done in several ways: by encouraging
students to go for higher education by giving them stipends, by increasing the capacity of existing
institutions to take in more students, and by establishing new universities. In March 2006, President
Musharraf announced that his government would establish six new universities, each with the help
of a different donor. This would be done under the commissions auspices.
It is expected that these initiatives will help to increase enrolment in higher education from 2.9 per
cent to five per cent by 2010 and to 10 per cent by 2015. If this happens, Pakistan should have 1.8
million students attending institutions of higher learning. If the dropout rate is not more than 10 per
cent, this would mean that the country will be turning out graduates at the annual rate of 1.6
million. This, of course, will be a quantum jump in the number of graduates coming out of schools
and colleges.
However, increasing the supply of higher education facilities and the number of graduates does not
necessarily mean an improvement in the quality of human resources available to society and
economy. Pakistan does not have a programme in place for testing the quality of graduates at the
national level but that notwithstanding there is an impression that the quality of education has
suffered at all levels over the last several decades.
The commissions Medium Term Development Framework states: The present quality of higher
education is very low. Not a single university of Pakistan is ranked among the top 500 in the world.
Accordingly, the commission began to focus on improving the quality of teachers arguing that the
first step in any programme to improve the standard of education at any level was to have more
qualified teachers available to the students. This was also the part of the programme that drew the
most criticism, in particular from several members of the current faculties. This should have been
expected since any change and what the commission is intending to undertake is a colossal
change will be resisted by those who are likely to be hurt by it.
The government turned to new organisational forms that were answerable essentially to the
president whose objectives they were entrusted to achieve. The two agencies that were established
were semi-autonomous bodies with their own budgets, programmes, staffs and leadership, and
were given the mandate to raise a part of their resources by directly working with the donor

community. The two programme leaders had the direct encouragement and support of the
president. That they succeeded in bringing about some impressive change was because the
president was prepared to step in whenever the programme leaders felt that their forward
movement was being blocked by vested interests.
The two bodies that received these mandates were the Higher Education Commission working
under the leadership of Dr Attaur Rehman and the National Commission on Human Development
that was founded and is operating under the direction Dr Naseem Ashraf. If they succeed in their
two very separate missions, they will do so for the remarkable dynamism and charisma of the two
leaders made responsible for these two efforts and the fact that they were using entirely different
organisational forms and structures in order to achieve their objectives and those of a reformist
president.
Recently, the visionary decisions reached by the chancellors committee to increase allocations in
respect of development and recurring budgets for the higher education sector by 50 per cent each
year (till they reach one per cent of GNP for the higher education sector) must be strictly adhered to,
if Pakistan is to follow the path of Japan and Korea and develop into a knowledge economy,
The plan is to increase the number of PhDs in the public sector universities from 1,700 to 15,00020,000 in five years. But our public sector universities are dinosaurs, and what is desperately needed
is their restructuring. The creation of nine new engineering universities along the lines of the Indian
IITs is welcome, but what about the existing universities?
Fareed Zakaria wrote in a recent article for Newsweek, while Al Qaeda has been weakened
considerably in the last several years, the only activity that remains is by way of Al Qaeda Central by
which I mean a dwindling band of brothers on the Afghan-Pakistan border. The current western
interest in Pakistans educational sector, therefore, was prompted by some of these concerns. Not
only were the donors prepared to put money into the sector. They were also organising seminars
and workshops to understand the nature of the Pakistani malaise and possible cures for it.
The work of capacity-building at the local level was entrusted to the Human Development
Foundation of Pakistan and that of bringing about a quantum change in higher education to the
Higher Education Commission. The third was to recognize that the educational sector needed a
partnership between the public and private sectors. The government neither had the capacity or the
resources to handle the colossal task alone; it needed to work with the private sector that had
already demonstrated the imagination, passion and resolve to improve the level of education at all
levels in the country.
4. PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION:
1) Low Quality of most teachers:
2) Rote Learning:
3) Physical violence:
4) Cheating in Examinations:
5) Pathetic ethical environment:

6) Bad Intellectual environment:


7) Academic research environment is impoverished:
8) Religious elements in the Universities:
9) Role of HEC:
10) HEC has failed to stop Brain Drain:

Essay no.10
DEREGULATION & PRIVATISATION

A. DEREGULATION:
1. Introduction:
Deregulation or liberalization means to lessen the governments dominance over the private sector
i.e. the reduction of the role of the state as regulator, facilitator and welfare provider. It means that
the main object is to decrease the governments intervention. In other words, it implies a greater
role to the market forces to determine important economic parameters like foreign exchange,
prices, what to produce, how mush to produce, for whom to produce and when to produce with
minimum governments intervention.
2. Deregulation in Pakistan:
Many steps have been taken by the government of Pakistan to deregulate the public sector
industries in order to facilitate the desirous investors and business circles. The steps are to remove
bottlenecks and to encourage the investment in those areas in which the investors were reluctant
and hesitant to invest because of certain barriers and hurdles.
The government of Pakistan has taken the following steps:
I. Changes in foreign exchange regulations:
II. Relaxation of no objection certificate:
III. Declaration of negative areas:
IV. Introduction of green channel:

B. PRIVATISATION:
1. INTRODUCTION:
P
rivatisation is mainly aimed at maximization of output as well as profits with special references to
industrial sector and satisfaction of all concerned. Thus, privatisation is an economic movement for
rolling back the public sector and enhancing the status of private sector with the objective of
maximum output or production.
Historically speaking, Thatcherite Britain had taken lead in implementing with success the policy of
privatisation of industrial units in economy. In Britain, a large number of public enterprises and
corporation have already been privatised. The possibility of privatizing some huge public sector

enterprises cannot be ruled out. From Britain, the idea of privatisation has swiftly traveled to other
western European countries such as France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Turkey. Thus the idea of
privatisation was becoming popular in the world irrespective of the differences of ideology. At
present, nearly 70 countries of the world are following this idea.
From solid waste pickup to charter schools, privatisation has invaded every service that falls under
the local government umbrella. Now one of the phenomenon's leading authorities, E. S. Savas, has
published "Privatisation and Public-Private Partnerships," a book that takes a look at the changing
face of privatisation, the pros and cons of outsourcing and the elements that have influenced
privatisation from the beginning.
"Early attacks on privatisation were based on the mistaken assumption that it was antigovernment;
it was not," he notes.
"Privatisation is more a political than an economic act," Savas notes. Like any political move,
privatisation has its sources of opposition, and it is important for governments to consider the big
picture before proceeding with an action that likely will change their entire operations.

2. OBJECTIVES:
1) To discipline the nationalised industry by subjecting them to market forces.
2) To respond to the failure of government administration in controlling and monitoring the
performance of units.
3) To decrease the political interference by ministers in the management affairs.
4) To reduce government investment, relieving it to maintain law and order.
5) To increase revenue and decrease public borrowing.
6) To increase share ownership.
7) To create competitive culture.
8) To increase entrepreneurs efficiency.
9) To ease the administrative and financial burden of government.
10) To reduce the size and presence of public sector.
11) To increase rate of growth.
12) To raise money in order to reduce foreign debt.

3. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:

Pakistan seems to have entered into a new phase of economic activity where the privatisation deals
have become the in-thing. The sweetest of them all was that of the PTCL sell-off. After the deal was
done, the terms were sweetened to keep the buyer from walking away. The KESC deal also carries a
lot of sweeteners. The candy-coated steel mills deal has been annulled by the Supreme Court.
Time and again, the privatisation of state-owned enterprises has triggered criticism. The latest
disinvestment of 75 per cent of public shares in the Pakistan Steel Mills has led to a barrage of
complaints relating to the lack of transparency and the indecent haste with which the transaction
was conducted. The Supreme Court has been approached on the matter.
Almost half of the remaining 40 units in the public sector are scheduled to be privatised during the
current financial year. But the prospects of even half of these units coming on the block any time
soon have become highly doubtful in view of the Supreme Court judgment reversing the sale of the
Pakistan Steel Mills and the aftermath of KESC sell-off.
No doubt, the Council of Common Interest (CCI), a constitutional requirement (and one of the main
conditions set by the Supreme Court in the PSM case for safeguarding national interests in the
privatisation process) has been met. Still, privatisation seems to have become uncertain.
Despite selling off over 150 state-owned enterprises and collecting about Rs. 400 billion (over 75 per
cent of these funds were raised during the last four years), the countrys external debt that stood at
$37.8 billion by end June 2001 has now gone up to over $39 billion.
From an accounting perspective, this is happening because we are not working towards balancing
the two sides of the money equation. While it is easy to raise funds by selling off assets, it has been
difficult for the government to control its extravagant and unproductive expenditure. Thus while we
sell our assets to raise foreign currency resources to pay off national debts and deficits, we also incur
new ones in the areas of trade, current accounts and budget as a result of poor economic
management.
The Privatisation Ordinance 2000 stipulates that 90 per cent of the proceeds will be spent on the
reduction of debt and 10 per cent on alleviation of poverty. The government has realised more than
Rs. 270 billion from privatisation proceeds since 2000 and in the same period the domestic debt has
increased by Rs. 670 billion and foreign debt by Rs. 520 billion.
Hence, privatisation proceeds have been probably utilised for current expenditure in direct violation
of the statutory provisions of the Privatisation Ordinance 2000.
The prospective buyer, local as well as foreign would now think more than twice before even taking
a look at the list of units to be privatised. And because the risks associated with buying a privatised
unit is perceived to have gone up sharply, the offered prices may also be proportionately lower,
perhaps even much lower than the ones the government could afford to accept. All this is likely to
persuade the government finally to take a fresh look at the content and direction of its privatisation
policy and also take some decisive steps to remove the loopholes from the privatisation process that
promote corruption.

4. HISTORY OF PRIVATISATION IN PAKISTAN:


It was in 1978 that General Ziaul Haq introduced the privatisation process in Pakistan. Now that
another military ruler, General Musharraf, is holding the fort, the process has gained momentum.
Many financial writers want us to believe that the process of privatisation was initiated in 1991 and
not in 1978. The Privatisation Commission website also misinforms the public that privatisation
began from Jan 22, 1991 in the country.
In 1978, General Ziaul Haq handed over Ittefaq Foundry to the Sharifs of Lahore without inviting any
bids. In fact, two other nationalised units, Nowshera Engineering in the NWFP and Hilal Ghee in
Multan, were handed over to their original owners. Subsequently, a Transfer of Managed
Establishments Order 1978 was enacted as a law to provide legal cover for this imperial gesture of
kindness.
In 1985, the Committee on Disinvestment, Deregulation and Privatisation was constituted with the
then president of the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Aziz Zulfikar as its
head. It had a few sub-committees that did some preliminary work. In 1988, the Benazir government
also formed a privatisation committee and made a French consultant prepare a report on the
subject. A small number of PIA shares were offered to the public for the first time as a modest
beginning towards privatisation.
After obtaining ownership of the Ittefaq Foundry without getting involved in any hassle of bidding in
1978, Nawaz Sharifs business empire went on expanding with every passing day and his political
power also grew by the day. After becoming prime minister in 1990, Nawaz Sharif himself initiated
the privatisation process as per policy of his government. The first entity on his governments hit list
was the Muslim Commercial Bank. The whole process was done in indecent haste. Advertisements
for inviting bids for 26 per cent of the shares of the MCB appeared in newspapers in the third week
of December, 1990. Bidders were not allowed any due diligence. Only 11 days were given to the
bidders as the last date of submission was December 26. Five bids were received and were opened
in the conference room of the State Bank of Pakistan by a bidding committee that was headed by
the then Governor of State Bank of Pakistan, I.A. Hanfi.
Abdul Qadir Tawakul was the highest bidder who offered Rs56-a-share. The total payment came to
Rs838.8 million. Tawakul was refused and his offer was turned down on the ground that the colour
of the money he was offering was a bit black. Tawakul made a lot of noise and threatened to take
the case to the highest level of the judiciary. But, bankers say, he was promised and later given two
billion rupees bank loan to withdraw from the race. Tawakul obtained the loan entirely on bogus
documents and is now in jail because of it.
Privatisation in Pakistan has remained a controversial matter, if not a dirty game. Three of its
chairmen, retired Lt-General Saeed Qadir (1990-93), Naveed Qamar (1994-96), and Khawaja Asif
(1997-1999) were put in jail for one reason or another after the dismissal of their respective
governments.
A study of the Asian Development Bank found very little impact on the employment, to quote a
privatisation website. The ADB surveyed 21 privatised entities and found five were in a poor
condition, six were roughly neutral and 10 showed some economic benefits.

From 1991, Pakistan has to date privatised as many as 143 public sector enterprises including seven
banks, one major telecommunication corporation, one major power utility, 12 energy sector units,
five newspapers, as many hotels, one advertising agency about 100 industrial units of various kinds.
Since January 2001, it has unloaded its shares in as many as 14 enterprises through the stock
exchanges. This gigantic exercise spread over 15 years has earned for the state a paltry sum of $7.28
billion, the bulk of which (about a little over $5 billion) has come in the last seven years with more
than half of these proceeds having been contributed by one single sale (PTCL).
Major public enterprises still on the block and awaiting the hammer to fall include the Oil and Gas
Development Corporation Limited, Pakistan State Oil, Sui Southern Gas Company, Sui Northern Gas
Company, power distribution units of Jamshoro and Faisalabad, the NIT, Pakistan Petroleum Limited,
the Karachi Shipyard, National Construction Company, Peco land and the Printing Corporation of
Pakistan.
Total proceeds from privatisation since 1991 to this day amounts to Rs395.24 billion. Out of this
sum, transactions worth Rs217.91 billion were finalised in the last eight months. Under the law, 90
per cent of privatisation proceeds are for debt clearance and 10 per cent for poverty alleviation. We
instantly remit every paisa of privatisation proceeds to the finance ministry, a spokesman of the
Privatisation Commission replied when asked if he could give a breakdown of how the proceeds
were being spent.

5. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF PRIVATISATION:


The major argument for privatisation is that to privatise a company which was non-profitable when
state-owned, means taking the burden of financing it off the shoulders and pockets of taxpayers, as
well as freeing some national budget resources for something else.
Privatisation has its supporters as well as critics. Proponents of Privatisation argue that Privatisation
sets in competition and efficiency.

6. ARGUMENTS AGAINST PRIVATISATION:


Critics argue that Privatisation of key public institutions, especially those involved in basic services,
make these services vulnerable to profit making. Private companies, driven by profit, have no moral
responsibility to ensure access of basic services to the poor. While the government owned Karachi
Water Supply would have responsibility to provide water to all, the privatized Karachi Water Supply
has no such obligation. The poor thus are more easily excluded.
Globally speaking, since early 1980s the Reagan and Thatcher era, we have witnessed greater
acceptance of Privatisation processes across the world. The international development institutions
have been promoting these policies in the developing countries. Pakistan, much has a history of
importing finance ministers and advisors from Washington, has clearly bought into these policies. In
the words of PM Shaukat Aziz, The economic policies of the government is governed by the

principles of deregulation, liberalization and privatisation. But, the country is witnessing many
negative aspects of the Privatisation Process.
The key problem with privatisation is that the process of privatizing state assets is rarely clean and
publicly accountable and is marred with corruption. Assets are often sold below the market price
due to connivance between the bureaucrats incharge of the process and the bidders; also there is
little public accountability of the bidders.
In the absence of a transparent market system, privatisation leads to ownership of assets by a few
very wealthy people at the expense of the general public. Where free-market economics is rapidly
imposed, a country may not have the bureaucratic tools necessary to regulate it.
Most economists argue that if a privatised company is a natural monopoly, or exists in a market,
which is prone to serious market failures, consumers may be worse off when the company is in
private hands. This seems to have been the case with rail privatisation in the UK and New Zealand; in
both countries, public disaffection has led to government intervention.
It also needs to be remembered that the privatisation process raises problems of unemployment
given the dismissal of a large number of employees that accompanies this process. Private
companies often start overhauling of public enterprises by dramatically cutting back on the number
of employees. If many big state institutions are being privatised simultaneously, as is the case under
the current government, then this can only serve to worsen the unemployment problem.

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS:
Since its inception, privatisation has come under severe criticism because instead of creating
employment, the process has done just the opposite. Besides, some economists believe that
privatization has also led to massive corruption in many a case.

Essay no.11
GOOD GOVERNANCE

1. INTRODUCTION:
G
overnance implies control, direction, and rule with authority or administers laws to govern a system
to achieve certain objectives. Good Governance implies running administration according to the
defined laws to achieve the objective of promoting the welfare of the people in a democratic
oriented order. Bad governance means departing from the norms of laws and subjecting system of
administration to whims, idiosyncrasies of the rulers to achieve certain ulterior motives at the cost
of national interests.
The hallmark of great nations is that they learn from their past experience to become wiser in
conducting their current and future affairs. Another distinctive feature of such nations is that they
try to understand the emerging long-term trends to identify new challenges, and plan for the future
so as to take maximum advantage of the opportunities and avoid the pitfalls that may lie ahead.
On the other hand, the nations on the trajectory of decay and ultimate oblivion neither learn from
the past nor have the inclination to look ahead into the future to plan for their security, progress and
welfare. All it lacks in the context of Pakistan; socially, economically and politically as well.
In the words of Mahbbub-ul-Haq, Crisis in Governance, Human Development Report in South
Asia:
Governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage the
resources of a country. It is always based upon certain rules and laws established by the members of
a society. These laws agreed upon by the society are, in fact, to make governance pro-welfare in the
larger interest of the people. The ultimate goal of governance is human development through
decreasing human suffering and increasing opportunities.
He further writes:
Good Governance is exercising authority in accordance with the established laws, and any
digression or subversion from these laws is bad governance. Whereas Good Governance guarantees
safety and security of human beings and creates an atmosphere conducive to progress and
prosperity. Bad governance has the germs of fathering a number of crises. No state is free of all
crises but it is the quality of governance that ensures its survival through any crisis. Crises flee at the
hands of Good Governance and they are multiplied in abd governance. Crisis management requires
employment of all available resources, human, physical and technological in the best manner and it
is only possible in Good Governance. States having Good Governance are capable of fighting any
crisis even with the meager resources.
Four characteristics, namely, fairness or merit, competence, ability and integrity underline Good
Governance. As for fairness, it calls for ensuring equality of opportunity through merit, transparency

to meet the end of justice. Competence and ability are inter-related inasmuch as ability is linked to
competence of an individual. The recognition of competence through merit in employment needs to
be accorded the highest priority to lay basis for Good Governance. The worth of an individual in
functionally specific societies depends upon his competence and ability to do a job efficiently rather
than his family connections to secure a job for which he is not suited. Jobs are offered to individuals
on the basis of their competence and ability in societies that have Good Governance. In pluralistic
societies like Pakistan, it is not the suitability of an individual for a particular job but his clannish
connections plus the influence he wields in political hierarchy that could get him a job though he
may not possess the required qualifications. In such societies merit is discarded to accommodate
certain favourites and jobs particularly in public sector go to those who do not possess competence
to man them. Handling of jobs by incompetent personnel gives a set back to Good Governance for
achieving efficient-oriented results.
Good Governance stands for the strength of various types of institutions, political, economic and
legal. Institutions need to be built and sustained, which could guarantee the survival of the nation in
times of catastrophes or perils. Institutions need to be stronger than individuals. Unfortunately, a
little effort has been made to build institutions on a stable footing in Pakistan as individual shave
taken a precedence over institutions. The trend is to be reversed for achieving real stability. The
latter comes not through individuals but through institutions. We must not allow the erosion of
institutions through the idiosyncratic behaviour of rulers and this would necessitate more doses of
democracy. Good Governance is linked to the development of institutions, and through these
Pakistan can hope to meet the varied challenges of the 21st century.

2. THE CRISIS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN:


Pakistan suffers from a number of crises. Every crisis has negative effect on its polity and society.
But the foremost crisis that Pakistan is facing is that of Good Governance. It is the core of all other
problems.
Pakistan unfortunately plunged into the curse of bad governance in the early years of its life. The
blame is often laid at the door of imperial legacy we inherited from the colonial rulers. But it is the
fact that the system of governance that Pakistan inherited at the time of its birth had proved its
worth for over 100 years. Under the same system people had trust and confidence in the
government. Life and property of citizens were secured through implementation of law. After the
partition, the founding fathers of Pakistan gave best results with the same wherewithal despite
having meager resources. But as the state grew older and resources became available the quality of
governance started to decline and currently it is at the nadir. After 58 years, the dream of the father
of the nation still remains unfulfilled.
Every time a new government comes it declare the old systems an anathema, throws it away and
establishes a new one. After so many experiments with the constitution still we have not been able
to achieve the desired results, thanks to poor governance. Change in constitution and law makes
little difference if these laws are not implemented in their true spirit. The real problem is at the
implementation level. When vested interests and incompetent officials allow subversion to the
established law, even the best law cannot be of any use.

Due to the bad governance education, health, civic services, agricultural infrastructure is in the
state of paralysis. Even the most basic social needs of citizens are not fulfilled. Law and order, a
fundamental duty of state has suffered a great setback. People do not feel safe and secure. Places of
worship have to be guarded for the fear of terrorism. This sorry state of law and order scared the
investors away from the country thereby severely harming the economy.
The curse of bad governance has also enveloped the judiciary. In contemporary times there is a
great emphasis on good governance. One of the pillars of good governance is the existence of
independent, impartial and honest judiciary. Further, true democracy is the hallmark of good
governance. Therefore, until and unless a foundation for true democracy and independent, impartial
and honest judiciary is laid in this country, the prospects of elimination of the elements of bad
governance will be a tall order.
In the context of Pakistan people are increasingly losing confidence in this institution. Its working
has been severely harmed by the incompetency and insufficiency of the personnel. In some cases,
political interference in the work of judiciary also affects badly the quality of judgment. Delaying
tactics have resulted into huge backlog of cases. It consequently delays the delivery. Courts are
meant to be the watchdog in a civil society to keep effective check on all other institutions of the
state. This lofty job demands efficiency and honesty on the part of judiciary. Bad reputation of courts
as in the case of Pakistan encourages corrupt element to violate the laws.
One of the most damaging effects of bad governance is the prevalence of corruption that ultimately
results in lawlessness. The absence of impartial and independent accountability has resulted in the
growth of this monster. Corruption has become a norm in our society rather than the exception.
Another worst effect of bad governance is that it kills merit. Merit or fairness is essential for good
governance. Merit and good governance support each other. Bad governance gives birth to
nepotism and favouritism, which is anti-thesis of fairness. In a society based on merit, it is the
competence and ability of a person that is the criteria for the employment or continuity of job.

3. PRESENT SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:


The administrative structure that was left behind by the British has been labelled ad nauseam as the
legacy of the colonial rule, put in place to safeguard the interests of the Raj. To an extent no one can
deny this. But no one can also deny the fact that this system was well geared to ensure justice and
the maintenance of law and order.
The state of governance is the single most important factor that determines the quality of public
services provided to the citizens of a country. Many independent bodies and aid agencies that have
looked into Pakistans development problems have attributed the malaise in public services be
they education, health, housing, water supply, transport, or sanitation to poor administration.
1) Poverty:
Good Governance stands for poverty alleviation through long term Social Action Programme (SAP).
In Pakistan, Poverty Reduction Strategy was launched by the government in 2001 in response to the

rising trend in poverty during 1990s. It consisted of the following five elements: (a) accelerating
economic growth and maintaining macroeconomic stability, (b) investing in human capital, (c)
augmenting targeted interventions; (d) expanding social safety nets and (e) improving governance.
The net outcome of interactions among these five elements would be the expected reduction in
transitory and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. The reduction in poverty and improvement in
social indicators and living conditions of the society are being monitored frequently through largescale household surveys in order to gauge their progress in meeting the targets set by Pakistan for
achieving the seven UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
Not surprisingly, the figures cited by the government for people living below the poverty line have
come to be widely questioned. With poverty alleviation being the buzzword these days in our
economic and social development and a key criterion for aid givers, it is understandable that the
policymakers are desperately trying to prove the success of their strategy in terms of falling poverty
levels. But unfortunately wishes are not horses and the government will have to do better to achieve
its goals. It now appears that the governments claim of poverty being 23.9 per cent is being
challenged not just by economists in the country but also the World Bank and the UNDP. Both these
agencies have come up with different figures 25.7 per cent by the UNDP and 28.3 per cent by the
World Bank. This is no doubt embarrassing for the government, which has repeatedly claimed that
its estimates have been endorsed by the donor agencies. But it is still not too late to rectify the error
so that our economic planning is not based on illusionary statistics.

2) Inflation:
Inflation seemed to be a chronic problem in many parts of the world. There is a wide spread
recognition that inflation results in inefficient resource allocation and hence reduces potential
economic growth. Inflation imposes high cost on economies and societies; disproportionately hurts
the poor and fixed income groups and creates uncertainty throughout the economy and undermines
macro economic stability. High inflation has always penalized the poor more than the rich because
the poor are less able to protect themselves against the consequences, and less able to hedge
against the risks that high inflation poses. Lowering inflation therefore, directly benefits the low and
fixed income groups. Pakistan has witnessed a low inflation environment for the last several years
but experienced a sharp picked up last year at 9.3 percent.

3) Economic Growth:
Economic growth is the engine of employment generation and poverty alleviation. In order to
sustain this strong pace of growth and maintain healthy and vigorous macroeconomic indicators
would require a prolonged period of macroeconomic stability, financial discipline, and consistent
and transparent policies. These, along with improved governance and better quality infrastructure
would encourage private sector to play a leading role in promoting investment and growth. The
government on its part must identify and promote sectors, which are considered not only to be the
major drivers of growth but also have the greatest potential of creating more employment
opportunities.

4) Provincial Rivalry:
The disparity in the size and resources of the provinces has created the feeling in the smaller units
that they are being dominated and even exploited by the larger province. A way out of this
throbbing point is to allow all the provinces sufficient autonomy so that they can frame their own
policies and run their own affairs as they think fit within the broad framework of the federation. The
1973 Constitution, which was approved by a consensus, provides a small measure of autonomy for
the provinces. Even much of this has been siphoned away by the amendments and distortions that
have changed the Basic Law beyond recognition. For instance, the changes brought about in the
structure of the local government by the military-led government have enhanced the centres hold
on the administration at the grassroots level. The provinces have been unable to assert their
authority and will in many such matters because of their dependence on Islamabad for their
financial resources. Their taxation powers are limited and, according to one estimate, they cannot
generate more than 10 per cent of their revenue needs. To meet the shortfall, the provinces rely on
the federal divisible pool, subventions and grants from the centre. There is also the interference
which comes from Islamabad in the shape of appointments of senior officers in the provincial
administrations.
5) Unemployment:
6) Illiteracy:
7) Law & Order:
8) Sectarian Violence:
9) Corruption:
10) Population scenario:
11) Privatisation:
12) Political instability:
13)
4. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR GOVERNMENT REFORM:
The government has recently established still another agency whose mission appears to be similar
to that of the NRB. Called the National Commission for Government Reform (NCGR), it is to consist
of 11 members five of whom will be serving or retired civil servants, three federal or provincial
ministers, and two drawn from the corporate sector. Ishrat Husain, former governor of the State
Bank of Pakistan, will be its head.
Writing in this newspaper (July 9, 2006), Mr Husain tells us that the commission will report once
every three months to a steering committee, co-chaired by the president and the prime minister
and including the four provincial chief ministers. This committee will consult the central and
provincial cabinets, higher civil servants, politicians, and nazims regarding the commissions

recommendations. Once it has approved them, they will be deemed to have been approved by
governments at all levels.
He also says that his commission will watch the filtering down to the masses of the prosperity to be
generated by economic growth and, in the same connection, it will want to make public officials
responsive to the common mans needs. But apparently, it will not be concerned with the political
dimension of governance. This omission may render its enterprise barren, for politics and
administration are inextricably linked. The commission wants to make the bureaucracy both efficient
and responsive. The quest for efficiency may require modernisation of equipment, change in
methods and procedures, simplification of work flow (skipping unnecessary stops on the way up or
down), delegation of authority and responsibility, and mitigation, if not elimination, of corruption.
Installation of newer equipment, methods, and procedure does not require a lot more than a
modest amount of training. Delegation of authority and eradication of corruption are the more
intractable problems.

Essay no.12
AGRICULTURE SECTOR

1. INTRODUCTION:
A
griculture is the mainstay of Pakistans economy. Nearly twenty-two percent of total output (GDP)
and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated in agriculture. It also contributes substantially to
Pakistans exports. Agriculture also contributes to growth as a supplier of raw materials to industry
as well as market for industrial products. Not only that 44.8 percent of countrys work force is
employed in agriculture but also 65.9 percent of countrys population living in rural areas is directly
or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. Whatever happens to agriculture is bound to
affect not only the countrys growth performance but to a large segment of the countrys population
as well.
Over the last five years agriculture growth has witnessed a mixed trends. During the first two years
(2000-01 and 2001-02), the country experienced the crippling drought, which badly affected its
agriculture and eventually overall growth in agriculture turned negative for these two years. In the
preceding years (2002-03 to 2004-05), relatively better availability of irrigation water had positive
impact on overall agricultural growth and this sector exhibited modest to strong recovery.

2. OVERALL SITUATION:
The performance of agriculture during the fiscal year 2005-06 has been weak. Against the target of
4.2 percent and last years achievement of 6.7 percent, overall agriculture grew by 2.5 percent in
2005-06 on the back of poor showing of major crops and forestry, and weaker performance of minor
crops and fishery. Livestock has been the sole saving grace. Major corps, accounting for 35.2 percent
of value added in agriculture, registered a decline of 3.6 percent as production of two of the four
major crops, namely cotton and sugarcane has been significantly less than last year for a variety of
reasons including excessive rains at the time of sowing, high temperature at flowering stage, late
harvesting of wheat crop, strong base effect (cotton) and incidence of frost, damaging sugarcane
crop in the month of January, 2006. The production of third major crop, wheat remained more or
less at last years level at 21.7 million tons thereby registering a meager growth of 0.4 percent. The
production of rice the fourth major crop has been the sole major crop, which registered an
impressive growth of 10.4 percent but failed to turn the negative growth in major crops to a positive
one.
Pakistans agriculture has been suffering, off and on, from severe shortage of irrigation water in
recent years. The normal surface water availability at canal heads of 103.5 million-acre feet (MAF),
the overall (both for Kharif and Rabi) water availability has been less in the range of 5.9 percent
(2003-04) to 29.4 percent (2001-02). Relatively speaking, Rabi season faced more shortage of water
than Kharif during these periods.

1) Crop Situation
There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan, namely the "Kharif", the sowing season of which
begins in April- June and harvesting during October-December; and the "Rabi", which begins in
October-December and ends in April-May. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mong, mash, bajra and
jowar are Kharif" crops while wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard
are "Rabi" crops. Major crops, such as, wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane account for 90.1 percent of
the value added in the major crops. The value added in major crops accounts for 35.2 percent of the
value added in overall agriculture. Thus, the four major crops (wheat, rice, cotton, and sugarcane),
on average, contribute 31.7 percent to the value added in overall agriculture. The minor crops
account for 12.3 percent of the value added in overall agriculture. Livestock contribute almost 50
percent to agriculture much more than the combined contribution of major and minor crops
(47.5%).

a) Major Crops:
i) Cotton:
Cotton is not only an export-earning crop but also provides raw material to the local Textile
Industries. It accounts for 8.6 percent of the value added in agriculture and about 1.9 percent to
GDP. The area and production target for cotton crop during the current fiscal year were 3247
thousand hectares and 15.0 million bales, respectively. The crop was however, sown on the area of
3096 thousand hectares 4.6 percent less than the target and 3 percent less than last year (3193
thousand hectares).
ii) Rice:
Rice is an important food cash crop. It is also one of the main export items of the country. It
accounts for 6.1 percent of the total value added in agriculture and 1.3 percent to GDP. Area and
production target of rice for the year 2005-06 were set at 2533 thousand hectares and 5000
thousand tons, respectively. Area sown for rice is estimated at 2620 thousand hectares 3.4 percent
higher than the target and 4 percent higher than last year.
The size of the crop is estimated at 5547 thousand tons almost 10.4 percent higher than last year
and 10.9 percent higher than the original target. The higher production is due to favourable weather
condition. Area, production and yield of rice for the last five years
iii) Sugarcane:
Sugarcane crop serves as a major raw material for production of white sugar and gur. Their share in
value added of agriculture and GDP are 3.4 percent and 0.7 percent respectively. For 2005-06, the
area under sugarcane crop was targeted at 955 thousand hectares as against 966 thousand of last
year. However, sugarcane has been sown in the area of 907 thousand hectares 5 percent below
the target and 6.1 percent less than last year. Sugarcane production for the year 2005-06 is
estimated at 44.3 million tons against the 47.2 million tons last year. Thus sugarcane production is

estimated to be lower by 6.2 percent over the last year. Factor responsible for decline in sugarcane
production include late harvesting of wheat, farmers shifting to other competing crops and frost
affecting the crop in Punjab and NWFP. The area, production and yield per hectare for the last five
years.
iv) Wheat:
Wheat is the main staple diet of the people of Pakistan. It contributes 13.7 percent to the value
added in agriculture and 3.0 percent to GDP. Area and production target of wheat for the year 200506 were set at 8415 thousand hectares and 22.0 million tons, respectively. Wheat was cultivated on
an area of 8303 thousand hectares, showing a 0.7 percent decrease over last year and 1.3 percent
lower than target. The size of the wheat crop is provisionally estimated at 21.7 million tons which is
0.4 percent higher than last year and 1.4 percent lower than the target as the area under wheat crop
decreased due to late picking of cotton, delayed crushing of sugarcane by the sugar mills, less rains
during early stage of the crop and erratic high temperature during the month of February, 2006
when the formation of wheat grain takes place. The yield per hectare increased by 1.1 percent. The
area, production and yield for the last five years.
v) Other Major Crops
Except maize, tobacco and bajra all other major crops have decreased as compared to the last years
production.
The production of gram, jowar, rapeseed & mustered and barley is provisionally estimated to have
declined by 39.3 percent, 17.7 percent, 7.4 percent and 5.4 percent, respectively. The main reason
for decline in production as compared to last year has been the shortfall of respective area of these
crops. The production of gram is 39.3 percent lower than last year mainly because of the less rains
during crop growth period and at crop development stage.
Moreover, adequate soil moisture was not available at the time of sowing in the main gram growing
districts i.e. Bhakkar, Layyah, Khushab and Mianwali which also affected the gram crop. The
production of maize, tobacco and bajra grew by 27.3 percent, 18.8 percent and 14.5 percent
respectively.

b) Minor Crops
i) Oilseeds
The major oilseed crops include cottonseed rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and canola etc. The total
availability of edible oils in 2004-05 was 2.764 million tons. Local production stood at 0.857 million
tons which accounts for 31 percent of total availability while the remaining 69 percent was made
available through imports. During 2005-06 (July to March) local production of edible oil is
provisionally estimated at 0.809 million tons. During the same period 1.269 million tons of edible oil
was imported and 0.216 million tons edible oil was recovered from imported oilseeds. The total
availability of edible oil from all sources amounted to 2.294 million tons during (July to March) 200506 (provisional estimates). The production of oilseed crops during 2004-05 and 2005-06

ii) Other Minor Crops:


The production of all the pulses namely masoor, mung and mash are down by 13.5 percent, 12.6
percent and 9.8 percent respectively during 2005-06. The main reason for decline in production of
all these pulses as compared to last year has been the short fall of respective area of these crops,
which declined by 17.8, 15.2 and 23.7 percent respectively. The production of potato was also lower
than last year on account of frost, which affected the potato crop during the month of January,
2006. However, the production of onion and chillies increased by 29 percent and 34.8 percent,
respectively over the last year.

2) Irrigation:

3) VARIOUS LOAN SCHEMES:


a) Production and Development Loans
Agricultural loans amounting to Rs.91.2 billion were disbursed during (July-March, 2005-06) as
against Rs.73.8 billion during the corresponding period last year, thereby registering an increase of
23.5 percent.
b) Loans to Small Farmers and Priority Items:
ZTBL disbursed Rs 24.334 billion to small farmers having land holding up to 25 acres sharing 84% of
the total disbursements during 2000-06 (July-March).
c) Loan under One Window Operation:
In order to provide credit facilities particularly to small farmers to cater for input requirements at
their doorstep during peak sowing season of both Rabi and Kharif Crops, One Window Operation is
launched by ZTBL with the collaboration of Provincial Governments, Revenue Officials and Postal
Authorities.

Essay no.13
WATER & ENERGY CRISIS

1. INTRODUCTION:
W
ater is precious, use it wisely says a notice placed in the bathroom of a five star hotel in Karachi.
There could not be a sounder piece of advice but it should be given not only to the guests of the five
star hotels but also to the entire citizenry of Pakistan. Pakistan is rapidly moving to the situation
when it will begin to be ranked among the countries that have severe shortages of fresh water. Wise
use of this precious resource is one way of dealing with this crisis.
Man is a pre-eminently an animal good at gadgets. Man uses water much in the same way as other
animals; he has to drink it constantly, washes in it frequently, and drowns in it occasionally
probably oftener than other terrestrial vertebrates. Without water, he dies as miserably as any other
beast and with too much of it, as in floods, he is equally unable to cope. However, he excels other
animals in that he has learned to utilize waterpower.
There are three basic uses of water in the modern civilization agriculture, industry and human
consumption. Using water wisely in these three uses is one way of saving the country from economic
and social disaster.
Water is one of the most important natural resource and the major driving force for the economy of
Pakistan. Only a few decades ago, Pakistan was considered to have abundance of good quality
water. Now, however, in many other area of the world, population growth, economic development,
rapid urbanization and industrialization, are applying continuous pressure on the already limited
water resources of Pakistan.
Pakistan is now towards a serious shortage of water. In 1951, per capita surface water availability
for irrigation was estimated at 5650 cubic metres; this declined sharply to only 1350 cubic metres
per head in 2002. The minimum amount that should be available is 1000 cubic metres. 2012,
Pakistan will have reached the stage of acute water shortage.

2. CURRENT SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:

3. WORLD BANK REPORT:


Pakistan has exhausted its current water capability and needs to take immediate measure to
sustain its water-driven economy.
Pakistan only stores 30 days of river water. India stores 120 to 220 days, Colorado River in the US
stores 900 days.
Pakistans per capita water storage is just 150 cubic meters while that of China is 2200, Australia
5000 and the US is 5000.
Pakistans economy can only be propelled into future only through building new water projects and
canals.

4. WATER VISION 2016:


President Musharraf said,
Water and energy are matters of life and death for us. We have to build all dams. We have lagged
far behind and have to work at a fast pace to catch up with the rest of the world.
We are facing an existing water shortage by 9 million-acre feet and by 2020 this short fall will be up
to 20 maf. Constructing two to three dams is inevitable for us by the year 2020. By building mega
water reservoirs our canals will become perennial and no longer be seasonal. New reservoirs will
generate 10000 mw of power, which would certainly bring down the rate of electricity. One dam will
bring an additional 2 maf of water to Sindh, two dams will fetch 4 maf and another dam will bring
water equal to storage capacity of Mangla Dam.

Apart from Diamer-Bhasha and Kalabagh, the water vision envisages construction of Akori, Munda
and Kuram Tungi Dams by the year 2016.

5. NEED FOR THE DAMS:


Tariq Hameed, Chairman Wapda says,
Pakistan is fortunate that nature has bestowed it with abundant water reservoirs. It is now up to us
to harness these resources for the economic development and prosperity of the people of Pakistan.
1) Presently, out of total cultivable land of 77.1 million acres, we are only cultivating 54.5 million
acres because of shortage of water.
2) With the increase in population, Pakistan will have a shortfall of 11 million tons of major food
grains by 2010 and 16 million tons by 2020. This food grain deficit will increase to 28 million tons by
2025.
3) High power tariff burdening consumers can be reduced by correcting hydel-thermal generation
ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970.
4) Only 14 % of Pakistans total hydropower potential of 50,000 mw being tapped at present.
5) Average hydel generation unit cost for new projects is Rs. 1.00/KWH against Rs. 7.00/KWH for
new oil based thermal generation.
6) Pakistans electricity demand and increasing by 7 % per annum.
7) Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistans economy; 23.3 % of GDP.
8) 64 % Pakistanis depend on agriculture.
9) 60-70 % of exports depend on it.
10) Pakistan today is among one of the worlds fastest growing populations now estimated at over
150 million. Due to the lack of large river regulation capability through sizable storages, the country
is facing serious shortages in food grains. Given the present trend, Pakistan could soon become one
of the food deficit countries in the near future. Therefore, there is a dire need to build storages for
augmenting agriculture production. Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have already lost about
5 maf due to sedimentation. It is estimated that by the year 2012, this loss would increase to the
original combined capacity of Mangla and Chashma reservoirs.
11) Industrial expansion and growth essential for economic development and prosperity.
12) It will provide the better clean environment for the human beings.
13) Reduction in barren lands.
14) To control flooding and manage rivers.

15) The completion by India of Wuller, Buglihar and Krishenganga, Uri-11 Pakaldul and Burser
projects on the western rivers of Indus, Jehlum and Chenab to which Pakistan has the exclusive right
according to the 1960 Indus Basin Water Treaty, will also create serious water shortage.

6. NEED FOR RESERVOIRS:


1) Hydropower Generation
High power tariff, which is a burden on consumer, can be reduced by correcting hydel thermal
generation ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970. Only 40% of Pakistans total hydro
power potential of 50000MW is being tapped at present. Average hydel generation cost for new
projects is Rs 1.007/Kwh as against Rs 7/Kwh for new oil base thermal generation. Pakistans
electricity demands are increasing by 7% per annum.
Saving import of fuel for thermal power plants reduce cost of electrically i.e. Rs1/Kwh.
Electrification of industries of towns and villages. Reduces cost of electricity help manufacturers.
2) Agriculture
Agriculture forms the backbone of Pakistans economy. 23.3% of GDP, 64% Pakistanis depend
directly on agriculture. 60-70% exports depend on it. Water is a life line for agriculture. Average
rainfall of Pakistan is below Avg. Thus, water storage is needed for agriculture as it is a precious
resource and we should not waste a drop of it.
Out of Pakistan total geographical area only 17.1Macre is suitable for agriculture. A total of
44.4Macres of agriculture land is irrigated besides only 10Macres Barani land under cultivation. If
water is available the remaining 22.6Macres of land(29% of total suitable area for agriculture) can
turn productive if no additional water is tapped. It means that 1/3 of agriculture potential will
remain untapped.
3) Industry

4) Drinking Water And Sanitation


Pakistans population is increasing by over 2% per year requiring availability of more clean drinking
water. Cities, towns, Villages expanding requiring more water for sanitation purposes.
Implementation of clean drinking water schemes possible with availability of more water.

5) Environment
Better clean environment for humans. Reduction in barren land. Controlled rivers and canals.

More land area under cultivation, greenery and habitation to improve better water management
and cleanliness. More forests and eco system preservation and flood control.

7. KALABAGH DAM:
Public feeling that were running high on the Kalabagh dam issue have mercifully calmed down. The
president made a sensible move by announcing a change in the order of the dams to be built.
The dam site is located 210 Km downstream of Tarbela and 26 Km upstream of Jinnah Barrage on
the Indus. When completed, the rock fill dam will rise to a height of 260 feet and will be 4375 feet
long. It will create a reservoir with usable storage capacity of 6.1 maf. The entire project is estimated
to cost $ 6.1 billion and will take 6 years to complete.
ROLE:
Replacing storage lost by sedimentation in existing reservoirs at Mangla, Chasma and Tarbela and
proving additional storage of water to meet existing water storages during early Kharif period of
April/June. (Particularly critical for cotton crop in Sindh).
Providing effective regulations of Indus River to meet Kharif allocation of provinces under
WAA1991.
To control flood in the Indus to enable provisions of perennial tube well irrigation to the revering
area in Sindh.
Generation of Hydroelectric power at low cost.
Reducing dependence on imported fuel, saving foreign exchange.
I. Reservations of Sindh:
1) No surplus water is available for storage.
2) There is the fear that there is not enough water in the Indus for these mega projects to be used
optimally i.e. there would be no surplus water to fill Kalabagh reservoir.
3) The project would render Sindh into a desert.
4) Sindhs water supply which is already at low level will be reduced further since the regulation of
the flow of the river might enable the upper riparian to take away more of the water and thus starve
the lower riparian of irrigation for its agriculture (Sindh is the lower riparian).
5) Sindhs worries about possible environmental problems. Its coastal area, which has suffered as a
result of SEA water moving unto the KOTRI, need to minimum 3.6MAF of water escapade per annum
in the INDUS to offset the negative ecological impact on the river DELTA. Sindh fears that:
Sea water intrusion in Indus estuary would increase. Mangrove forest, which is already threatened,
would be further affected adversely. Fish production, drinking water supply below KOTRI would be
adversely affected.

CRITICISM:
According to experts, these apprehensions are baseless and the real issue is that of politics.
Dams dont consume water. They store water during floods and make it available for crops
demand bases for the dry period.
The share of water would be strictly governed by WAA1991.
Mangrove forests cover area of almost 0.32MA. In the forest spreading from Karachi in the west
to the Rann of Kutch in east, 95% of forest population consists of a SALT TOLERANT variety.
Similarly, a recent study has shown that instead of reduction fish production has increased.
Moreover, downstream to KOTRI barrage, ground water id saline or brackish not suitable for
irrigation or drinking. After KBD there would be drinking water available.
II. Reservations of Balochistan:
1) The supply of water from Indus, through the Pat Feeder canal, may be curtailed.
III. Reservations of NWFP:
1) It will flood Noshera and lot of fertile areas will be waterlogged, besides displacing a large no of
people.
2) It will displace 42000 people.
3) There would be water logging and salinity in Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi.
4) It is also feared that historic flooding of Peshawar Valley including Nowshera would be
aggravated in the event of recurrence of 1929 record flood.

CRITICISM:
Nowshera, Mardan and Swabi has altitude higher than that of KBD (915 feet above sea level). Thus
KBD would not result in flooding or water logging /salinity. Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi are at 970-9621000ft above MSL (Mean Sea Level)
Total cultivable land submerged would be 27500 Acres (24500 in the Punjab and 3000Acrs in
NWFP). Thus submerged irrigated land would be only 3000Acres (2900 Acres in Punjab and 100Acres
in NWFP.
As far as the displacement of people is concerned the people have in their minds the problems
faced after the construction of Tarbela new model village should be constructed to resettle the
effected families with facilities of water supply, electricity, roads, dispensaries, schools etc.

8. DIAMER BASHA DAM:


The project is located on Indus River, about 315 Km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 Km downstream
of Gilgit and 40 Km downstream of Chilas. The dam would have a maximum height of 270meters and
impound a reservoir of about 7.4 maf, with live storage of more than 6.4 maf. Mean annual
discharge of Indus River at the site is 50 maf. The dam will impound 15 % of the annual river flow.
The dam project would cover an area of 110 Km and extend 100 Km upstream of the dam site up to
Raikot Bridge on Karakoram highway.
The estimate cost is $ 6.5 billion. It will affect 30 villages and 2200 houses. It will also affect 22000
people. The total area under reservoir will be 25000 acre and it will generate 16500 Gwh/ year.
Benefits:
1) Availability of 6.5MAF annual surface water storage to supplement irrigation supplies during low
flow periods.
2) Clean and cheap energy through 4500 MW generations.
3) Deduction of dependence on thermal power thus, saving foreign exchange.
4) Employment opportunity, particularly to the locals, during the construction and operations.
5) Creation of masses infrastructure leading to overall socioeconomic uplift of the area and standard
of living of people.
6) Flood control.

9. CONCLUSION:
The government has drawn up a 25-year plan (2005-2030) for increasing energy production in the
country. That is needed to meet the demand for energy which is increasing by ten to twelve per cent
annually, says Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. That is one of the major development plans.
The energy development plan is accompanied by initial cost estimates which will be $37 billion to
$40 billion that has to come in the form of foreign aid or foreign investment. And that is a very large
sum. But the annual average expenditure works out to $1.5 billion. If Pakistan itself was to make the
investment, the total cost might be less.
Disclosing the details of the 25-year energy augmentation plan Shaukat Aziz says consumption of
power in Pakistan will increase seven fold by 2030 and the energy needs will increase by eight fold.
Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production,
population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize
the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population.

The present government needs to be appreciated that it has ended the dead lock wit inauguration
of Diamer Basha Dam. It is hoped that Govt. would make an effort to remove the apprehensions the
provinces and construct other dams too.
There should be public consensus on national issue and to look into the matters with contempt as
enemies are working against the prosperous future of Pakistan. We as a nation need to unite as one
to defeat their nefarious aims.

Essay no.14
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION &
WARM CLIMATE

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
ignificant strides have been made in Pakistan for forwarding the environmental agenda from being a
stand-alone topic to one identifying itself as an integral element of the national mainstream
development with the recently launched Mid-Term Development Framework for 2005-2010. This
also lends itself to address sustainable environmental development as a vehicle for economic
growth. Several policies, plans, programs and projects have been initiated for environmental
protection and conservation in the sectoral areas of water and air pollution control, land use, forest
management, energy efficiency, biodiversity conservation, and waste management, etc. In addition,
Pakistans role in the international community vis--vis its responsibilities for sustainable
development has also become known through the Governments show of commitment for instance
on biodiversity, drought and desertification, and climate change, etc.
Economic Survey (2005-06) stated, Sustainable development remains the cornerstone of
government policies, and the concern for environment, its protection, renewal and enrichment is
recognized as an obligation towards the betterment of all citizens. Concerns of environment
sustainability are integrated in the countrys development agenda and as a crosscutting subject, are
being addressed in all sectors of economy. The poverty-environment nexus has been of particular
interest in the recent years as poverty in Pakistan, like in many other middle-income countries, plays
an important role in increasing the vulnerability of the poor to pollution and environmental
degradation.
From formulating the National Conservation Strategy to becoming a signatory to many international
conventions/protocols/agreements, Pakistan has emerged as an active and responsible player for
environmental conservation. This responsiveness to global and national environmental challenges
has been supported through legislation, policy making and creating institutional set up. National
Environment Action Plan (NEAP) that was initiated with the approval of the Pakistan Environment
Protection Council and the UNDP funded, NEAP Support Program (NEAP-SP) remains the flagship
initiative of the Government of Pakistan in the environment area. NEAP-SP focuses on a healthy
environment and a sustainable livelihood by improving the quality of air, water and land with civil
society cooperation. In this regard, the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and the Environment
Impact Assessment (EIA) have already been made mandatory for public sector development
projects.

2. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY:

One of the major achievements of NEAP-SP during 2005-06 was the formulation of the National
Environmental Policy 2005 which has been approved by the Federal Cabinet. The countrys first
ever Environmental Policy compliments the objectives of NEAP-SP and addresses the sectoral
issues such as (a) water management and conservations, (b) energy efficiency and renewable, (c)
agriculture and livestock, (d) forestry and plantation, (e) biodiversity and protected areas, (f) climate
change, air quality and noise, and (g) pollution and waste management.
The policy also addresses other cross-sectoral issues such as (a) Population and Environment, (b)
Gender and Environment, (c) Health and Environment, (d) Trade and environment, (e) Poverty and
Environment and (f) Environment and Local Government. NEAP-SP has also launched a number of
Environment related projects in Wind Power, Energy Conservation, Micro Hydro, Juniper Forests,
Chilghoza Forests, through its partners namely the Ministry of Water and Power, AEDB, Ministry of
Science and technology and the Ministry of Education. In the water sector, Pakistan is faced with
severe water shortages and water quality issues. The orientation of the water management
institutions and experts is largely toward harnessing the resource in the service of economic growth,
and not towards its conservation or quality. In addition, severe levels of water pollution and
unchecked industrial pollutants being released in water bodies have added an immediate measure
status to water management issues. Similarly, although making headway in addressing ambient air
quality in the country, Pakistan is struggling with ineffective air quality management systems. Adding
to this burden is the fact that at present there is no continuous monitoring station present in the
country and most of the data reported is obtained from mobile monitoring units or spontaneous onsite sampling with laboratories based results. A common issue for lack of compliance to water and
air quality monitoring and maintenance has been limited resources and persistent information gap.
Other environmental sectors such as wetlands and mangroves are also faced with a similar resource
crunch and information and data inadequacies thereby negatively effecting the policy and program
implementation. Over fishing and polluted waters are contributing to the reduction of productivity
of the marine and inland fisheries. The precarious condition of mangroves in coastal zone and the
even more precarious status of certain aquatic wildlife are but a few indicators of the rate of
degradation.

3. COLLABORATION WITH INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY:


On the International front, Pakistan is a signatory to a number of Multilateral Environmental
Agreements (MEAs) and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments such as Agenda-21
Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming for sustainable development of
natural resources. Among them are the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES), United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), Ramsar Convention on
Wetlands, Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and
their Disposal, Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent for Certain Hazardous
Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs), and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Although constrained by issues such as lack of awareness, technical expertise, institutional setup/capacity, coordination among various concerned departments /organizations, and a clear cut
policy and plan of action for each MEA, yet Pakistan has taken several steps to meet its obligations
to the MEAs. Key actions include finalizing the National Implementation Plan (NIP) to eliminate
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), meeting the targets set by Montreal Protocol for the
elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances, implementing the Biodiversity Action Plan, finalizing the
Action Plan for UNCCD; finalizing the guidelines and rules for hospital waste management, and
regular reporting to UNFCCC through its National communication.

4. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANNISM (CDM):


Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2006, Pakistan has established the Designated
National Authority (DNA) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the Ministry of Environment.
National Operational Strategy for CDM has been approved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan, which
offers all support for attracting investments and capitalizing the carbon business under the CDM
initiative. The CDM Cell is working with public and private sector partners for attracting investments
in energy efficiency, renewable and alternate energy, industries, forestry and agriculture together
with technology transfer and capacity building. The government of Pakistan has enhanced budgetary
allocations for the environment sector for the period 2005-2010, which will significantly contribute
towards ensuring the environmental sustainability.

5. IMPACT OF POLLUTION:
1) Air
One of the major environmental issues is degradation of ambient air quality particularly in urban
areas. The key factors contributing to air pollution in Pakistan are: a) rapidly growing energy
demand; b) increasing industrial and domestic demand and c) a fast growing transport sector. In the
cities, widespread use of low-quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of
vehicles on roads, has led to significant air pollution problems. Air pollution levels in Pakistans most
populated cities are among the highest in the world and climbing, causing serious health issues. The
levels of ambient particulates smoke particles and dust, which cause respiratory disease are
generally twice the world average and more than five times as high as in industrial countries and
Latin America. Various surveys show that air pollution levels in cities have either crossed safe limits
or have reached the threshold values.
I. Suspended Particulate Matter:
The most serious issue of air quality in Pakistan is the presence of excessive Suspended Particulate
Matter (SPM) in the ambient air. The major sources of SPM are vehicles, industry, burning of solid
waste, brick kilns and natural dust. The origin of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) may be a
natural phenomenon, such as unpaved roads and places uncovered by green grass or trees. Fine
particles size of soil may be raised in the form of dust cloud by driven motor vehicles and by strong

wind blow. Other origins may be considered coming from artificial emission of SPM such as emission
gases including the particulate matter from the motor vehicles and industrial activities.

II. Vehicular Pollution:


The major source of CO emission and particulate matters is from motor vehicles emission. In
Pakistan, the number of vehicles have jumped from 0.8 million to about 4.0 million within 20 years
showing an overall increase of more than 400%. The average compound growth of vehicles is about
11 percent per annum. Since 1980, the maximum growth has been seen in 2-stroke vehicles such as
delivery vans, which are approximately 1,751%, followed by motorcycles 541% and Rickshaws 159%.
Diesel trucks and buses have also increased at an alarming rate of 200-300% since 1980. Diesel
vehicles due to overloading, faulty injection nozzles and weak engines, emit excessive graphitic
carbon (visible smoke). Motorcycles and rickshaws, due to their two-stroke engines, are the most
inefficient in burning fuel and contribute most to emissions.

2) Water:
Fresh water as a commodity generates concern, being an exhaustible resource and due to the
environmental issues related to its degradation. Preserving the quality and availability of freshwater
resources however, is becoming the most pressing of many environmental challenges for Pakistan.
Perhaps, because water is considered a cheap and readily available resource, there is not enough
appreciation just how much stress human demands for water are placing on natural ecosystems.

3) Land
Pakistan is predominantly a dry-land country where 80 % of its land area is arid or semi-arid, about
12% is dry sub-humid and remaining 8 % is humid. Two-third of Pakistans rapidly increasing
population depends on dry-lands to support their livelihood mainly through agro-pastoral activities.
However, like many other developing countries dry lands in Pakistan are severely affected by land
degradation and desertification due to unsustainable land management practices and increasing
demand of natural resources causing enormous environmental problems, including degradation of
dry-land ecosystems, loss of soil fertility, flash floods, loss of biodiversity, reduction in land
productivity, soil erosion, water logging, salinity, and many other associated problems. The situation
is further aggravated by scarcity of water, frequent droughts and miss-management of land
resources, contributing to expansion of deserts, reduced productivity and consequently increases in
rural poverty. Moreover, there is limited knowledge of consequences and economic implications of
land degradation, information gaps, and limited institutional capacity to address land degradation
and desertification problems through an integrated land management approach.
Some threats of land degradation are greater than others in terms of their manifestation: Water
logging and salinity as a result of poor irrigation practices affects 14 million ha, while deforestation
and overgrazing affect 11 and 24 million ha, respectively. While the former is the cause of the most

widespread land degradation in river basins (in Sindh and the Punjab), the latter combine (mostly
deforestation, water and wind erosion) to affect the greater dry land and upland areas (Balochistan,
NWFP and parts of Punjab) and do considerable damage to the integrity of ecosystems and provision
of essential ecosystem services soils, trees, water and biodiversity.

4) Forestry
Pakistan has 4.01 million hectares covered by forests, which is equivalent to about 5% of the total
land area. Eighty five percent of this is a public forest, which includes 40% coniferous and scrub
forests on the northern hills and mountains. The balance is made up of irrigated plantations and
river rain forests along major rivers on the Indus plains, mangrove forests on the Indus delta and
trees planted on farmlands. Though the forest resource is meager it plays an important role in
Pakistans economy by employing half a million people, providing 363 thousand cubic meters of
timber which constitute as one-third of the nations energy needs. Forests and Rangelands support
about 30 million herds of livestock, which contributes more than US$ 400 million to Pakistans
annual export earnings. Forestry sector plays an important role in soil conservation, regulates flow of
water for irrigation and power generation, reduction of sedimentation in water conveyances and
reservoirs, employment and maintenance of ecological balance.

6. KEY INITIATIVES UNDER THE POLICY:


I. Climate Change Initiatives:
The Government of Pakistan Ratified the Kyoto Protocol earlier this year. A high level National
Committee on Climate Change, chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan has been formed to review
policies and monitor progress on climate change initiatives in the country. An autonomous Global
Change Impact Studies Centre has been established that is engaged in research on impacts and
adaptation to climate change in the country. The Centre is now well equipped with staff and
resources and is engaged in model based research on climate change not only in Pakistan but also at
the regional level. Ministry of Environment has been designated as the Designated National
Authority (DNA) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the Ministry of Environment.
National operational strategy for CDM has been approved by the Prime Minister, offers all support
for attracting investments and capitalizing the carbon business under the CDM initiative. CDM Cell
has been established for approving and facilitating CDM projects in line with national sustainable
development goals.

II. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:


Energy efficiency and the Renewable Energy is receiving increased focus in the light of high current
and expected oil prices, Carbon Trading and Climate Change. Alternate Energy Development Board
(AEDB), the focal point of Renewable energy, has formulated an investment friendly Wind Power
Policy and already issued 32 Letters of Interests (LOI) for setting up of 50 MW wind farms in the

Sindh area. The Solar Thermal policy and the energy conservation policy have been drafted and
expected to be formalized in a few months in consultation with all stakeholders. More recently the
CDWP has approved provision of stand-alone solar electricity for 300 villages in Balochistan and 100
villages in Sindh. AEDB is also working with the UNDP, GEF and other donors, in the area of Micro
Hydro (Productive Use of Renewable Energy), Wind Mapping, and Energy Efficiency Improvements
specially in the small and medium sized industries.

III. National Land Use and Forestry Programme:


A number of Plans and Policies including the Forest Sector Master Plan, National Forest Policy,
Biodiversity Action Plan and Desertification Combat Action Plan, Maritime Policy and the Integrated
Coastal Zone management Plan has been formulated and are at different stages of approval.
National Forestry Policy has been submitted to the Cabinet for consideration. The draft policy
proposes that the State-owned forests be regenerated and protected with intimate involvement of
local communities in forests management. Local governments and union councils bring in more
private marginal lands under forest cover within a defined legal framework to avoid alienation of
land use. State-owned wastelands are leased out to tenants for expansion of forest cover from 4.8%
to 6% in 2015, in support of the commitments made by the Government of Pakistan under the
MDGs. Currently the Ministry of Environment is implementing 20 projects, including Tarbela Water
Shed Projects; Mangrove Rehabilitation Project; Ayubia National Park Management Project; Ranage
Management in Potohar track and Rachna Doab Forestry Project.

IV. Water and Sanitation:


The Ministry of Environment has formulated a draft Sanitation Policy, which will be submitted to the
Cabinet for approval after it has been deliberated upon during the 2nd South Asian Conference on
Sanitation (SACOSAN) being held in Islamabad during the third quarter of 2006. Under the WES
program the Ministry of Environment with the assistance of UNICEF is preparing a Drinking Water
for All policy. Both the policies when implemented will support Pakistan achieve the targets set for
the MDGS.

V. Water and Air quality monitoring:


Under the project Establishment of Environmental Monitoring System Environment Protection
Agency (EPA) with the collaboration of district and local governments will effectively monitor
ambient air quality, urban wastewater and industrial effluent discharge into rivers/water bodies to
check air and water pollution. ECNEC has already approved Rs 1089 Million for the project to be
implemented in 5 major cities of Pakistan with assistance from the Japanese Government.

VI. Bio-safety Guidelines:

Pakistan Bio-safety Rules- 2005 have been approved and they address the complex issue of
genetically modified living organisms (GMOs). Under the rules, specific licenses will be required for
the import, export production of experimentation with the GMO.
VII. Legislation enforcement:
Currently, two tribunals are functioning in Lahore and Karachi. During the coming three years full
financial and manpower support will be extended to make them fully functional to prosecute
environmental violations. Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and the Environment Impact
Assessment (EIA) are mandatory for the Public Sector Development Projects, and this program is
being extended to the other projects also.

VIII. Programs and Projects:


MTDF allocates Rs. 28.3 Billion in the PSDP for 147 projects to be implemented in 2005 -2010 in the
environment sector, compared with cumulated total of Rs. 5.5 Billion in the previous five years.
Flagship is the Clean Drinking Water for All 2005-2008 a three year federal program costing Rs
10.0 Billion. The program will install standardized water purification plants at convenient places in
urban and rural areas. In the Water Supply and sanitation sector the MTDF proposes a National
Drinking Water and Sanitation Policy focusing on clean drinking water for the entire population,
improving /expanding water service delivery, water conservation and efficiency, and maximizing
coverage of sanitation services. Donor projects and programs outside the PSDP include projects in
Wind Power, Micro Hydro, Energy Efficiency and Conservation, Renewable Energy Development; Dry
Lands and Desertification; Wetlands Management; indoor and outdoor air pollution controls; and
forest rehabilitation and conservation projects.

7. ENVIRONMENTAL FISCAL REFORM:


The environmental fiscal reform (EFR) project launched recently by an international NGO could lay
some misconceptions to rest. Fiscal and environmental issues are often seen to be mutually
exclusive if not contradictory. The reality is that sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction
are dependent in large part on the state of the environment. It has been noted across the
developing world that environmental degradation hits the poor the hardest. Depletion of forest
cover, land erosion and soil contamination lead to loss of livelihood, as do overfishing, destruction of
natural hatcheries and other shocks to the marine and riverine ecosystems. Water and air pollution
have a direct impact on health and overall quality of life. Social costs aside, an ailing workforce has a
bearing on urban and rural productivity, besides putting additional pressure on a cash-strapped
healthcare system that it is already bursting at the seams.
The scars of environmental degradation are already all too visible in Pakistan. Prolonged drought
and erratic weather are damaging agriculture, the mainstay of the economy. In the countrys
northern areas, ruthless logging by the timber mafia has made landslides a perennial threat to life
and property. Large-scale erosion is also silting our reservoirs and rivers at a rapid rate, hampering
irrigation as well as power generation and increasing the severity of seasonal floods. Financial

managers for whom human misery is not a priority concern should remember that all this comes at a
staggering monetary cost. If root causes are addressed, recouped revenues and funds currently tied
up in damage control could be channelled towards socially productive avenues. To do this, the
emphasis will have to shift from short-term gains to sustainable development aimed at equitable
economic growth and poverty reduction. The architects of the three-year EFR project hope to
engage government at both federal and provincial levels. That may well be their biggest challenge.

Essay no.15
SYNDROME OF CORRUPTION

Corruption destroys the moral fibre of a nation.

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
yndrome means a group of symptoms of a disease. All symptoms taken together constitute of a
disease. Corruption is a deep-rooted disease, which stands for overall rottenness prevailing in a
society. It destroys the purity of the things. Bribery, hoarding, smuggling, favouritism, jobbery are
the different forms of corruption to cause putrefaction in a society. As J. S. Mill says, Ive learnt to
seek my happiness by limiting my desires rather than attempting to satisfy them.
Happiness cannot be attained through the multiplication of human desires. It could be sought by
limiting desires. There is no blinking the fact that rising material aspirations induce an individual to
find out the necessary means to satisfy them. It is not possible to satisfy the ballooning desires
within the framework of limited resources. Hence there arising a temptation on the part of a person
to indulge in corruption to supplement his weagre resources through illegal ways.
Corruption is universal and often its echoes are heard in developing countries. Economically
advanced countries are involved in various forms of corruption. They indulge in the worst form of
corruption when they through the iniquitous, inegalitarian, international economic order, endeavour
to extract blood out of the veins of poor countries for sustaining their economies. The developed
world aims at perpetuating the rich-poor country relationship at the international plane by sticking
on the existing rotten international economic order.
Corruption is rampant in much of the developing world. It is pervasive at all levels of public
management, including deliberate mismanagement of national economies for personal gain.
Despite stringent anti-corruption laws and permanent commissions / bureaus to curb it in a number
of countries, it reigns supreme. In many parts of the third world, its sweep is so wide that the public
at large feels the battle to curb it is futile and they are tolerating it without protest.
Genesis of corruption can be explained by looking at three levels, international, national &
individual institutional levels (Goudie & Strange, 1997) Competitiveness of international market
provides multinational companies of various sizes with an incentive to offer bribes to gain an
advantage over competitors. At the national level basic development strategy of any govt. moulds
opportunities & incentives for corruption. At the same time three relationships between the
government & the civil services, also affects the nature & discussion of corruption. Corruption takes
the many forms these forms are acceptance of money and other rewards for contracts, violation of
procedures to advance personal interests, pay off for legislative support, diversion of public
resources for private use, intervening the justice process, nepotism, common theft etc.

Pakistan is an under developed country & that there had been a continuous discussion about the
progress & economic growth. Different perceptions are shard at national and international level
relating to the causes of corruption. The 2003 index of corruption (CPI) of transparency international
has ranked Pakistan at 92nd among 102 countries surveyed.

2. DEFINING CORRUPTION:
There is no single, comprehensive, universally accepted definition of corruption. Attempts to
develop such a definition invariably encounter legal, criminological and political problems.
Moreover, various defined forms of corruption and corrupt practices keep evolving and new forms
keep sprouting up making it difficult and rather unpractical to confine this phenomenon to the ambit
of one definition. Bearing this difficulty in mind, many International and National Organizations have
prepared a long list of corruption offences, thus adopting operational approach instead of seeking to
define corruption in generic terms. Etymologically the word "Corruption" comes from the Latin verb
"corruptus" (to break); it literally means broken object. Conceptually, corruption is a form of
behavior, which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. Anyhow, Corruption
can be defined as:
Corruption evolves such behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector
whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce
others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed. More simply it comprises "the
misuse of entrusted power for private benefit."
Corruption has been defined in a variety of ways by social scientists; however, for purposes of
identifying corrupt practices and comparison across systems, the most satisfactory definition is given
one by I. Nye, Corruption is behaviour which deviates from the formal duties of a public role
because of private considerations regarding personal wealth or status gains or which violates rules
against the exercise of certain types of private privileges regarding influence. Corruption is thus an
illicit form of influence employed by people and groups to get things they want from government
and its functionaries or to prevent actions they do not want.
Corruption preserves inequalities by facilitating the direct and unequal appropriation of goods and
privileges, by inhibiting changes, which could threaten the status quo, and by buying off potential
movements for a change.

3. CORRUPTION IN THE SUBCONTINENT:


Corruption and poor governance have been the main causes of regimes failures in the subcontinent. During the British period, corruption existed in the form of liberal grant of lands to the
feudals who perpetuated the British interest in the region. The public procurement and contracting
system adopted in the pre-independence era created yet another major avenue for financial
corruption that touched new peak during the World War II, thus justifying a need for enactment of
specialized anti-corruption laws for the first time in the sub- continent.

4. EMERGENCE OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN:


The refugees influx during independence gave rise to numerous settlement scams. The period of
industrialization during the Ayubs regimes, facilitated Industrialist - Bureaucrats nexus that
supported each others interest, whether moral or otherwise. The award of permits and bank loans
on political consideration basis during this era engulfed the national scene with corruption that
continued till dismemberment of East Pakistan in 1971. The new Urban Middle Business Class also
emerged during this time, which wielded tremendous influence on politics through their agitational
potentials.
The successive governments from 1972 onward did little to contain the menace. The political cum
financial corruption became the major cause of deterioration in the public and private sector
institutions. None of the governments ever attempted a serious anticorruption drive that in essence
remained elusive and cosmetic in nature. During the Eighties and Nineties, national policy of
Deregulation and Privatization gave phenomenal rise to corruption in Pakistan. Grants of business
and industrial bank loans without securing proper collaterals, privatization of state commercial
enterprises, Housing and social sector/infrastructure development scams brought the national
exchequer to the brink of collapse. The banking defaults touched an un-precedental peak in the
country. The situation since six years has however improved considerably at mega levels due to strict
enforcement operations, although the situation at the grass-root level is not enviable.

5. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN:


The following have been major causes of corruption in Pakistan: I. Flagrant abuse of power by the public office holders.
II. Lack of serious programme of combating corruption in the country. The investigative/watch-dog
agencies could not develop as per the aspirations of the public.
III. Elected governments perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business standards for the
public and private sector.
IV. Political leaders incompetence and betrayal of public trust with penchant for self-enrichment.
V. Lack of transparency in the governments decision-making process.
VI. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system.
VII. Weaknesses in the judicial system.
VIII. Poorly paid salary structure in the public sector.
IX. Illiterate, apathetic or ignorant populace, with inadequate public discernment of political
choices.

X. Absence of adequate internal / external controls to prevent bribery.

6. TYPES OF CORRUPTION:
Corruption has numerous facets and types, some of which are:
I. Extortion:
This is one of the ugliest forms of corruption, in which innocent people are forced to pay for none of
their faults.
II. Abuse of Public Office:
Such as using the advantages of a tax audit or legal sanctions to extract personal favours.
III. Bribery:
It takes two to bread corruption: giving and taking bribes.
IV. Graft:
Graft is the act of a public office holder personally benefiting from public funds in a way other than
prescribed by law.
V. Campaign Contributions and Soft Money:
In the political arena, it is difficult to prove corruption, but impossible to prove its absence.
Politicians are placed in apparently compromising positions because of their need to solicit financial
contributions for their campaigns. Often, they appear to be acting in the interests of those parties
that fund them, giving rise to talk of political corruption.

7. FACES OF CORRUPTION:
I. The Police II. Lawyers III. Doctors IV. Journalists V. Teachers
VI. Passport & Immigration officials. VII. Civil administration officials.
VIII. Armed forces officials. IX. Anticorruption officials.
X. Elected representatives. XI. Accounts General officials etc.
XII. Military Personals.

8. EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND CORRUPT PRACTICES:


The effects of Corruption and Corrupt Practices, on any society are long term and multi-directional.
Some of these effects on our society are as under:

I. Effect on Politics, Administration, and Institutions:


II. Economic Effects:
III. Effect over Rule of law:
IV. Effect on privatisation:
V. Effect over the youth:
VI. Effecting countrys image:
VII. Social & Cultural implications:

9. POLICE CORRUPTION:
"The term police corruption has been used to describe many activities: bribery; violence and
brutality; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and favoritism or nepotism."
The position is best summed up in the words of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home
Affairs in Pakistan, "Today we have a police, which is politicized and politically polarized. For it has
become a pawn in the hands of its masters. In return, the policemen get political patronage, which
has become essential for there survival."
In order to understand police corruption we will examine the basic elements involve in police
corruption. According to Police Ordinance 2002
The order deals with the duties, constitution & organization of the police, responsibilities of the
head of the district police, national, provincial, capital city, district public safety commission, police
complaint authorities, criminal justice co-ordination committee, on regulation control& discipline of
police, offenses & punishment of police officers & national Police management board etc. (Dawn:
2002)

10. CONCLUSION
Many analysts regard corruption as a mere consequence of political and economic, socio-ethnic,
and even moral reasons. From its genesis viewpoint, corruption undoubtedly owes to all these
reasons. But it is necessary to admit that at a definite stage in development of a state, corruption
itself becomes a predominant factor that defines both the state politics and economy, and even
social relations in society. In the opinion of analyst Nurbulat Masanov, corruption serves as "a
foundation on which state and political system are laid. As a result, political authoritarianism and
social demagogy of the authorities becomes an unavoidable consequence of pervasive corruption in
state system. The democratic system and freedom of speech are real mechanisms that allow to

effectively struggle against corruption. Therefore, the only method to survive for a corrupt system is
to eliminate corrupt principles from state operations.
Clearly, corruption is not something abstract; it's just a mechanism that regulates the relationship
between people in the system of state power. Or else, there are definite bearers of the corruption
philosophy in the person of state officials. These people are personally interested in operation of this
system, and their interest is quite material. Graft and bribe have become a mandatory element in
relationship among people. Bribe is a basis for those relationships. If one starts a "mutiny" against
those relations, the fate will be unenviable: and one is destined to go from one official door to
another for life. The principle is simple: to create conditions, where it is easier for the person to give
a bribe than to go through the myriad of bureaucratic tangle. But the most awful is that graft has
turned into a norm, a kind of moral imperative.
In contemporary times there is a great emphasis on good governance. One of the pillars of good
governance is the existence of independent, impartial and honest judiciary. Further, true democracy
is the hallmark of good governance. Therefore, until and unless a foundation for true democracy and
independent, impartial and honest judiciary is laid in this country, the prospects of elimination of
Corruption, Corrupt and Corrupt Practices will be a tall order.
In the words of Paul Wolfowitz, the WB President:
Corruption is not just a problem for developing countries to deal with. The developed countries
have an enormous responsibility. Indeed, every corrupt transaction has, unfortunately, at least two
parties, and often more, and very often the bribe givers are from developed countries. They need to
do more to police that. And they also need to do more to prevent stolen cash from being moved to
foreign bank accounts, and to hold private firms accountable if they export corruption to emerging
economies.
He further said:
Enforcement alone will not cure corruption. How much we do and how much progress we make
depends on the desire of both governments and civil society to create the right setting for sound,
strong, sustainable development.
Quaid-e-Azams inaugural address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August 1947 as
first President:
In Quaids words: One of the biggest curse from which India is suffering I do not say that other
countries are free form it, but I think, our condition is mush worse is bribery and corruption. That
reality is a poison we must put that down with an iron hand and I hope that you will take adequate
measures as soon as it is possible for this Assembly to do so.

Essay no.16
NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY (NACS),
New Operational Methodology of NAB (as of May 2006):

A. Transparency and Internal Accountability:


1) Transparency in investigation process:
2) Electronic Monitoring:
B. Capacity Building:
1) Restructuring:
2) Specialization is the key to a successful anti corruption strategy:
C. Disposal of Workload:
1) Clearance of Backlog:
2) Prioritization of Cases:
D. Decision- making:
Executive Boards:
E. Awareness and Prevention:
1) Awareness Measures: NAB is the first anti corruption agency to depart from the traditional
approach. Alongside strict enforcement, campaign for public awareness regarding the ill effects of
corruption is under implementation through media, both print and electronic, for quite some time
with a view to transform the societal attitude from acceptance to abhorrence against the menace.
We are also going to educational institutes to engage youth in the anti-corruption drive. For this,
NAB is striving to incorporate anti-corruption themes in the syllabi as well.
2) Special Preventive Measures:
Departmental Prevention: Instead of waiting for incidence of corruption to happen, there is a need
to nip the evil in the bud. Towards this, NAB plans to start interacting with the government
departments to identify loopholes, leakage areas in the procedures and irregularities in the flow of
money.
3) Special Inspection Teams: Special inspection teams will be activated to carry out raids and sting
operations. On-spot inspections of areas vulnerable to corruption will also be carried out.
4) Evaluation of public contracts: Arrangements for evaluation of public sector contracts involving
amounts over Rs. 50 million have also been worked out. Leading cases of corruption are being
studied to ascertain trends in corrupt practices in order to suggest corrective measures.

F. Miscellaneous:
1) Reward Policy:
2) Arrest policy:
3) ECL Policy:
4) Non-Cooperation by the Departments/Individuals:
__________________