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1 - Injuries of Skin and Muscle

(a) - Muscular rigidity and muscular pain


An excessive training in the early stage of Taekwondo training may bring about muscular rigidity or muscular
pain, or sometimes both. The causes are: 1 - occurance of adiabatic change between the muscular tissue and its
surrounding organ, 2 - chemical stimulation at the extremity of sensory nerves in muscular tissue due to the
accumulation of lactic acid, 3 - swelling of muscle, compressing the extremities of sensory nerves.
Muscular rigidity may be relaxed by a light massage or regular light exercises. Fomenting a swelling with hot
water is another treatment. If the muscular rigidity or pain is further developed, it may result in bringing about
muscular diseases such as spasm, adiabaitc change, etc., which require medical treatment.
(b) - Hygiene of foot and injury
1 - Blister and callus
One gets blisters on his foot or hand when organic secretion or blood stagnates between the split of epidermis
and dermis as a result of friction. Application of alcohol or mercury chrome for disinfection and a needle or
scissors to cut off the blister will do good. After that, antiseptic solution is applied. A callus can be treated for a
few days by the ointment with 10% of salicylic acid.
2 - Athlete's foot (dermatophytosis)
Lack of cleansing the foot after physical motions causes the athlete's foot. Cleaning and drying the infected
parts before wearing footwear and application of hygienic powder in the daytime must be continued for at least
a week after disapearance of athlete's foot.
(c) - Muscular sprain
This is an injury on internal organs without any damage to the skin by the impact of a strong external force.
Muscular sprain entails the destruction of capillary vessel and hemorrage, producing a bruise and a swell.
Sometimes, it accompanies a strong fever around the infected part. First aids must be given by applying a cold
compress and an elastic bandage. Passing one day, a hot compress and massage may be applied and then
administration of fomentation ointment.
(d) - Muscle inflammation
A muscle inflammation may follow the muscle sprain or excessive motions of muscle without warm-ups.
Usually it results in producing chemical inflammation. Occasionally there occur symptoms of suppuration, ague
and fever. In the early stage, a hot compress or massage can be applied and a cold compress in case of fever
may be applied. Then, a consultation with a medical doctor necessary.
(e) - Strain
Strain is meant by the state of muscle tissue which is partially cut off or split due to excessive extension of
muscle, fascia, ligament, tendon, etc. It is usually caused by the impact of external force when a maximum
exertion of force is attempted without sufficient warming up. Sometimes symptoms of adiabatic muscle or
adiabatic tendon are brought about. In a state of strain, the destruction of capillary vessel produces hematoma
which gives much pain and disables the motional function.

Strain-infected muscle or tendon is more likely, if cured one, to relapse, which discourages a player to exert his
maximum physical ability. For treatment of strain, it is necessary to apply compress bandage and a cold
compress. A towel soaked in ice water or cooling pack may also be used.
1 - Preservative treatment
The infected part must be kept stabilized until the injured muscle or tendon has been completly cured. In case of
a complete adiabatic state, a surgical operation is necessary.
2 - Active treatment
This can be applied when the injury is slight. For example, a strain in the femoral region can be treated by
simply continuing to walk, first slowly and progressively fast until it is completely normalized. On the second
day, the player with the strain is made to begin running slowly, and on the third day morning he also runs
slowly but accelerates the speed by three quarters or the normal training time. On the 4th day he may be able to
return to normal. Application of adhesive plaster or bandage is not necessary.
(f) - High jumper's strain
This usually happens in high-jumping. However, it occurs in Taekwondo too, when at the moment of delivering
a jumping kick, a sudden turning of the body with a leg opened apart gives an excessive impact on the muscle
connecting the pelvis and the thighbone. In this case, the injury occurs deep inside the muscle so that any
adhesive plaster is not effective. Only a deep heat treatment is applicable and a complete cure takes several
weeks.
(g) - Muscular spasm
A force usage of muscle or anaemia may cause muscular spasm. Sometimes, it has something to do with the
physical constitution. If one is seized with a cramp in the calf, one has to pull the toes toward the knee and
stretch the leg, giving a massage on the part.
(h) - Muscular Rheumatism
Sometimes poisonous matter is discharged from the pus produced by the inflammation of muscle. The best
treatment is to keep stabilization first. Then, the ointment of salicylic acid or warming by heat can be applied. If
it becomes chronic, consultation with a doctor is needed.
2 - Injuries of Joints
(a) - Foot-joints sprain
This is an injury occuring in joint ligament or cartillage which constitute the joint part, without any dislocation
or fracture of bone. Bleeding under the skin, swelling of joint part and strong pain follow the injury. Especially
in Taekwondo, foot joint parts are often injured. In the course of delivering dollyo-chagi (rear-foot turning kick)
in a kyorugi or stepping down after a kick, one is likely to sprain the foot joints. First, one must check the
injured foot by moving passively, comparing with the other normal foot. Its shape, location and motional
function, etc, must be examined. If there is any immediate swelling or change of shape and any frictional sound
heard, one must consult a doctor because of the possibility of dislocation or fracture of bone. First aid is to
suspend the competition or practice and apply an elastic bandage, wrapping up around 20cm from toes to the
ankle. The foot must be lifted up high and applied with a cold compress. One who has weak foot joint is advised
to attack, during exercises, bandage or adhesive plaster for prevention of foot-joint sprain.

3 - Injuries of Bones
(a) - Fracture of Bone
Any cleavage or fracture of bone happens when a sudden external force by a kyokpa or blow is inflicted on a
bone. Collar bones, ribs and arms and legs bones joint. A disarticulation may accompany injuries of ligament
and tendon and even a fracture of bone. Treatment of disarticulation is to make an X-ray check in the first step
to verify the situation of injury. If no complication is expected, the instructor pulls the peripheral tip of the joint
to make the head of bone inserted into the joint cavity. If there is a complication, one must consult a doctor.
A disarticulation of shoulder joint is largely comprised of frontward - downward dislocation by 90% and a few
cases of backward dislocation. The frontward dislocation occurs when a powerful outward turning is attempted
while the backward dislocation at the time of radical inward turning inflection affecting the shoulder joint. The
upper arm looks slightly deare likely to suffure a fracture. A fracture of bone entails a strong pain and
sometimes frictional sound is heard in case of serious injury. Also a deformation of outer look and bleeding can
be observed. Treatment is to pull the broken bone back into its original position and keep both joints fixed to be
unmovable. Then a bandage with splints is applied before consulting a doctor.
(b) - Metacarpal bone fracture
This occurs when the external force gives an impact on the metacarpus, especially at the time of performing a
kyokpa (breaking). The routing fist training is the best way to prevent from one. A fracture of metacarpus can
be treated by fixing the part for about four weeks. The fracture of phalanx is more likely to occur in baseball,
volley-ball, basket ball, etc. In a Taekwondo tzireugi kyokpa (thrust breaking), the finger tips are to be extended
or crooked due to overwork.
The knee joint is the adjoining parts of thighbone and shinbone, and its sprain comes from collision of bones in
the process of delivering foot kicks or from blocking a kick by lifting the knee, or from slipping or running.
Treatment is to keep the injured part in stability and apply a bandage and cold massage.
(c) - Dislocation of a Joint
A bone forming a joint is protruding out of the joint membranc broken by the strong impact of external force,
which is called disarticulation or dislocation of a joint. A disarticulation may accompany injuries of ligament
and tendon and even a fracture of bone. Treatment of disarticulation is to make an X-ray check in the first step
to verify the situation of injury. If no complication is expected, the instructor pulls the peripheral tip of the joint
to make head of bone inscribed into the joint cavity. If there is a complication, one must consult a doctor.
1 - Disarticulation of shoulder joint
The dislocation of shoulder joints is largely comprised of forward-downward dislocation by 90% and a few
cases of backward dislocation. The frontward dislocation occurs when a powerful outward turning is attempted
while the backward dislocation at the time of a radical inward turning or inward inflection affecting the
shoulder joint. The upper arm looks slightly deformed and the acromion protrudes out more than in the state of
normal joints. The first step of treatment is enough, but in case of accompanying a complication, the injured
part should be kept intact and the joint should not be moved for about 1 to 6 weeks.
2 - Habitual dislocation
If the shoulder joint is used before a complete normalization of the injured organs, such as joint membrane and
tendon, there is a possibility of having habitual dislocations with little pain which are subject to an orthopedic
operation for a permanent cure.

4 - Others
(a) - Training-caused Anaemia
Causes and symptoms
It frequently occurs is those competition players who undergo severe training. The red blood cell in the human
body has the life expectancy of around 120 days on an average, and about 0.85 percent of the total cells are
destructed physiologically every day and the cells are replenished by the creation in the bone marrow. However,
a severe training is known to cause an increased destruction of red blood cells. Therefore, a training-caused
anaemia must be treated or prevented by taking hematogenous agent, such as multi-amino acid tablets,
chalybeate matter, and Vitamin B12.
(b) - Spasm
In Taekwondo training, spasm occurs in the order of the leg triceps, thigh quadriceps, and interosseous muscle
of the hand and foot. Muscle fatigue by physical motions, shortage of nutritives such as salinity, calcium
natrium, vitamin, etc., are the factors of causing spasm. When spasm occurs, a light passive compression of the
muscle will help relax the spasm. Adequate repose, sufficient nutrition and warming-up exercises are the factors
to help prevent muscle spasm.
(c) - Cerebral Concussion and Visible Injury on the Head
When a person is given a powerful blow on the head, he is more likely to suffer cerebral concussion. Especially
in Taekwondo techniques, a dureo-tzikki (lift-up and pounding-down kick) is delivered on the face, the victim
often falls into cerebral concussion. Sometimes it develops into a critical injury even threatening the life. The
patient must be laid down and a doctor must be called for immediately. If his consciousness seems clouded, a
stimulent like amonia inhaler must be applied to awaken the patient and then it is necessary to cool him down
by soaking the head and face with cold water. If he appeals any dizziness or vomit after recovering
consciousness, he must be taken to the hospital immediately. A hard ground surface is to be avoided for
kyorugis and a trainee with a weakskull from birth (an X-ray check can tell it) must avoid participating in
competitions.
(d) - Nose Hemorrhage
In doing sports, one frequently suffers a nose hemorrhage, which occurs when a direct or indirect blow at the
nose destroys blood vessels there. Sometimes, the nose bleeds without infliction of any blow. First, the patient
should be advised not to be irritated because the nose bleeding is not serious. The patient will be held seated and
a towel soaked in ice or cold water will be attached to the patient's face, head, back of the neck, etc. The cotton
soaked with 1/1000 adrenalin solution will be inserted into the patient's nose and will be taken out in around 10
minutes.
(e) - Dehydration and Loss of Salinity
All physical motions are carried out by the muscular activities which require consumption of energy. The
physical motion demands an increase of calories which results in increasing times of respiration, amount of
sweating and dehydration. Sweat is mostly composed of water including 0.5 to 1 percent of salinity. A long
term duration of training brings about conditions of dehydration, causing a loss of salinity which destroys the
balance of electrolyte in the body fluids. As a result, there appear symptoms of a feeling of displeasure, spasm,
frustration, insomnia, fever, etc., which decreases the physical strength. A drink of 0.25 to 1 percent saline
solution will recover the loss of salinity. It is necessary to take sufficient salinity and water during a heavy
training in summer.