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### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

Grillage analogy is used for comparison of design of T- beam girder by used for numerical study is described below:

LSM &WSM. Data

Bridge data 1:

EFFECTIVE SPAN OF Tee BEAM= 20 m

Width of carriage way= 7.5 m Thickness of wearing coat =80 mm Spacing of main girders =2.5 m Width of kerb =0.5 m Width of footpath =1 m Thickness of deck slab =250 mm Modular ratio =10 Number of main Girders = 4

Stress in concrete (compression) =10 Stress in steel (tension) = 200 M30 Grade and Fe-415 Grade HYSD bars. As width of carriage way is 7.5m, number of lanes proposed are 2. Therefore LIVE LOAD combination: ONE LANE OF 70R OR TWO LANES OF CLASS A.

38 Fig 6.1: Cross Section of Bridge- Deck Fig 6.2: Plan of Bridge -Deck

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### 6.1.1 Load calculation for grillage model

Self weight -1

(ii) SIDL

• a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2

• b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2

c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m 2

• d) Foot path load = -3.44 kN/m 2

• ### 6.1.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal members: Fig 6.3: Cross Section of End Longitudinal girder A=1.3*10 6 mm 2 , Yc=1400 mm, I xx =0.9676*10 12 mm 4 , I yy =10 8 mm 4 I zz =0.4838 *10 12 mm 4

40 Fig 6.4 Cross section of Intermediate longitudinal girder

A=1.237*10 6 mm 2 , Yc=1380 mm, I xx =0.936*10 12 mm 4 , I yy =10 8 mm 4 I zz =0.468 *10 12 mm

4

### 6.1.3 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at L/2

Table 6.1: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Table 6.2:B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

 Load type BENDING MOMENT(kN-m) BENDING MOMENT WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m) CLASS A 844 990 70R TRACKED 2420 2662 70 R WHEELED 2380 2784

41

M max = (DL +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM = 1370 + 936+ 2784 =5090 kN-m

### Design of section:

Effective depth d =

### =√

= 1854 mm.

A st

=

=

=15434 mm

2

Provide 16 # of 36 Ф

A st provided = 16286 mm 2

Effective depth provided= 1860 mm.

### Stress check:

Calculation of neutral axis

### ) =m*Ast*(d-h c) h c
= 419 mm

1)

Compressive stress in concrete:

<

10

### *

42

2)

tensile stress in steel

f st = 128

<

(200

)

### 6.1.4 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/2

Table 6.3: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Table 6.4:S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

 Load type SHEAR FORCE (kN) SHEAR FORCE WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN) CLASS A 144 168 70R TRACKED 463 510 70 R WHEELED 427 500

V max = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL) S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) S.F =192+182+510 =884 KN

Check for shear stress:

=

=

=

43

>

=

< Design of shear reinforcement for V s

=

V s =V u -

*b*d = 884 * 10 3 - 0.57 * 350* 1860 = 513kN

=275 mm 2

= Adopt 4 legged 10 Ф @200 mm c/c .

=

### 6.1.5 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at L/4:

Table 6.5: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Table 6.6: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

 Load type BENDING MOMENT(kN-m) BENDING MOMENT WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m) CLASS A 695 815 70R TRACKED 1978 2176 70 R WHEELED 1830 2141

M max = (DL +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM = 1030+ 743+ 2176 =3949 kN-m

44

Design of section:

Effective depth d =

### =√

= 1632 mm.

A st

=

=

2

=11,979 mm

Provide 12 # of 36 Ф A st provided = 12,214 mm 2 Effective depth provided= 1860 mm.

Stress check:

Calculation of neutral axis

### ) =m*Ast*(d-h c) h c
= 360 mm

1)

Compressive stress in concrete:

### =

<

10

2)

tensile stress in steel

f st = 147

<

(200

)

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### 6.1.6 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/4

Table 6.7: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Table 6.8: S.F due to live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

 Load type SHEAR FORCE (kN) SHEAR FORCE WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN) CLASS A 185 217 70R TRACKED 487 535 70 R WHEELED 537 628

V max = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL) S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) S.F =289+202+628 =1119 KN

Check for shear stress:

=

=

=

>

=

<

=

Design of shear reinforcement for V s

V s =V u - =

*b*d = 1119*103- 0.57*350*1860 =747kN

=

= 301 mm 2 , Adopt 4 legged 10 Ф @ 150 mm c/c .

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• ### 6.2.1 LOAD CALCULATION FOR GRILLAGE MODEL

Self weight -1

(ii) SIDL

• a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2

• b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2

• c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m 2

• d) Pedestrian load = -3.889 kN/m 2

• ### 6.2.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal members: Fig 6.5: End Longitudinal girder

A=1.177*10 6 mm 2 , Yc=1180 mm, I xx =0.556*10 12 mm 4 , I yy =10 8 mm 4 I zz =0.278 *10 12 mm 4

47 Fig 6.6: Intermediate Longitudinal girder

A=1.115*10 6 mm 2 , Yc=1162 mm, I xx =0.54*10 12 mm 4 , I yy =10 8 mm 4 I zz =0.27 *10 12 mm

4

### 6.2.3 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at L/2:

Table 6.9: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Table 6.10: B.M due to live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

 Load type BENDING MOMENT(kN-m) BENDING MOMENT WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m) CLASS A 1210 1419 70R TRACKED 3470 3817 70 R WHEELED 3310 3872

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M max = (DL +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM

=1670+1470+3872

=7012 kN-m Design of section:

Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

=1.2 -

=1.2 -

=0.1183

x = 171 mm < Df Neutral axis lies in the flange, assumption is ok

.

2

### mm

Provide 20 # of 32 Φ A st provided =16084 mm 2 Effective depth provided= 1496 mm

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Check for Deflection and cracking:

(i) Deflection:

• (i) =20 *0.8*1=16 Provided

=

=13.36 <16 ok

(ii) Maximum deflection in T beam girder as per grillage analysis =23 mm

Max .deflection as per IRC: 21-2011 for vehicular = 2) Cracking:

=

=25 mm.

W k = S r,max * (ε sm -ε cm )

W

k

S r,max = 1.3 *(d-x) =1.3*(1496-1213) =283 mm = 283 *6 *10 -4 = 0.01698< 0.3 mm.

Hence safe in deflection and cracking

### 6.2.4 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/2

Table 6.11: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

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Table 6.12: B.M due to live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

 Load type SHEAR FORCE (kN) SHEAR FORCE WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN) CLASS A 224 262 70R TRACKED 638 702 70 R WHEELED 662 729

V max = (DL +SIDL) S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) S.F = 253+296+729 = 1278 kN

Shear reinforcement:

 1) The design shear resistance V Rd.c >V Ed . 2) The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement V Rd.c is given by:

V Rd.c = [0.12*K*(80*p 1 *f ck ) 0.33 +0.15* cp ] *b w *d

V Rd.c = [0.12*1.365*(80*0.02*30) 0.33 + 0.15*

] *350*1496

V Rd.c = 581 kN Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force =697 kN.

V Rd.s =

### *z *

For 4 legged 10 Ф at 200mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section=703kN.

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### Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at L/4:

Table 6.13: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Table 6.14: B.M due to live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

 Load type BENDING MOMENT(kN-m) BENDING MOMENT WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m) CLASS A 1000 1173 70R TRACKED 2680 2948 70 R WHEELED 2600 3042

M max = (DL +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM

=1250+1190+3042

=5482 kN-m Design of section :

Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

=1.2 -

=1.2 -

=0.0914

52

x

= 132 mm < Df Neutral axis lies in the flange, assumption is ok

.

### A st = A st=

mm 2

Provide 12 # of 36 A st provided =12214 mm

2

### 6.2.6 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/4

Table 6.15: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

353

SIDL

330

Table 6.16: S.F due to live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

SHEAR FORCE WITH IMPACT FACTOR (kN)

CLASS A

275

304

70R TRACKED

722

794

70 R WHEELED

701

820

V

max = (DL +SIDL) S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) S.F

53

= 353+330+820 = 1500 KN

Shear reinforcement:

• 1. The design shear resistance V Rd.c >V Ed .

• 2. The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement V Rd.c is given by:

V Rd.c = [0.12*K*(80*p 1 *f ck ) 0.33 +0.15* cp ] *b w *d V Rd.c = [0.12*1.365*(80*0.02*30) 0.33 + 0.15* V Rd.c = 581 kN

] *350*1496

Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force = 919 kN.

V Rd.s =

* z *

For 4 legged 10 Ф @150 mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section =936

kN.

### 6.3.1 Design based on IRC 21:2000

Dead weight of slab = 0.25*24=6 kN/m 2 Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m 2

K=

=

= 0.8

=1,

=1

From pigeaud’s curves m 1 =0.049 m 2 =0.03

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Total dead load on the slab panel =7.84*2.5*3.17= 60.1 kN Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are M B = (0.8*60.1)*(0.049+0.15*0.03) =2.568 kN-m M L = (0.8*60.1)*(0.03+0.15*0.049) =1.792 kN-m

Dead load shear force =7.84 * [ Live load is 70R tracked u =0.84+2*0.08 =1 v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73 ] = 9.14 kN

 K= = = 0.8 =0.4, =1

From pigeaud’s curves

m 1 =0.08

m 2 =0.0425

Total load per track including impact =1.1*350 =385 kN W=Effective load on the span =385 * = 258 kN

M B =258*(0.08+0.15*0.0425) = 22.28 kN-m M L = 258*(0.0425+0.15*0.08) = 14.06 kN-m

As slab is continuous, the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity factor as

M B =22.28 * 0.8 =17.82 kN-m

55

M L =14.06 *0.8 =11.248 kN-m Shear force

Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m

Shear max at 0.75 m Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

) +b w

 =3.49m Load per metre = =100.28

Shear force = 71.62 kN Design bending moments are given by:

M B = 2.568+17.82 = 20.388 kN-m M L = 1.798+11.248= 13.046 kN-m

### Design of slab:

Effective depth of the slab =Provided 200mm. Hence safe.

=117mm

Area of steel along short span =

=566 mm

2

Spacing =

=138mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 125 mm c/c spacing.

Area of steel along long span =

=362 mm

2

56

Spacing =

=216mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing. Check for shear Design shear force =80.76 kN.

Nominal shear =

=0.403

As per IRC 21, we have

c =k 1 *k 2 *

co =0.61 N/mm 2

Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.

### 6.3.2 Design based on IRC 112

Dead weight of slab = 0.25*24=6 kN/m 2

Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m 2

K=

=

= 0.8

=1,

=1

From pigeaud’s curves

m 1 =0.049 m 2 =0.03 Total dead load on the slab panel =11.32*2.5*3.17= 89 kN Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are

57

M B = (0.8*89)*(0.049+0.15*0.03) = 3.809 kN-m M L = (0.8*89)*(0.03+0.15*0.049) = 2.659 kN-m ] = 13.15 kN

Live load is 70R tracked u =0.84+2*0.08 =1 v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73

K=

=

= 0.8

=0.4,

=1

From pigeaud’s curves

m 1 =0.08

m 2 =0.0425

Total load per track including impact =1.1*350 *1.5=577 kN W=Effective load on the span =577 * = 386 kN

M B =386*(0.08+0.15*0.0425) = 33.34 kN-m M L = 386*(0.0425+0.15*0.08) = 21.037 kN-m

As slab is continuous, the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity factor as

M B =33.34* 0.8 =26.672 kN-m M L =21.037*0.8 =16.82 kN-m

58

Shear force

Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m

Shear max at 0.75 m Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

) +b w

=3.49m

=150.42

Design bending moments are given by:

M B = = 3.809 +26.672 = 30.48 kN M L = 2.659 +16.82 = 19.472 kN Design of slab:

Effective depth of the slab required =102mm Provided 200 mm. Hence safe.

 =537mm 2 Area of steel along short span = Spacing = =146mm. Provide 10mm dia bars at 125 mm c/c spacing. =337mm 2 Area of steel along long span = Spacing = =232 mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing.

59

Check for shear Design shear force =163.6 kN. As per IRC 112 The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement V Rd.c is given by:

V Rd.c = [0.12*K*(80*p 1 *f ck ) 0.33 +0.15* cp ] *b w *d

V Rd.c = [0.12*2*(80*0.36*30) 0.33 + 0.15*

] *1000*200

V Rd.c = 551 kN Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.

### DISCUSSIONS: 1200
2
6
8
0
4
10
BM in kNm
1000
400
1400
1600
1800
200
0
800
600

span in metres

• WSM • LSM Fig 6.7

60

### Bending moment due to SIDL 0
800
600
400
200
1600
1400
1200
1000
BM in kNm
10
4
0
8
6
2

span in metres

• WSM • LSM Fig 6.8

### Bending moment due to LL 1500
2
6
8
0
4
10
BM in kNm
1000
0
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
500

span in metres

• WSM • LSM Fig6.9

61 400
350
300
250
200
WSM
150
LSM
100
50
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
span in metres
Fig 6.10
Shear Force due to SIDL
350
300
250
200
WSM
150
LSM
100
50
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
span in metres
SF in kN
SF in kN

Fig 6.11

62

### Shear Force due to LL 0
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
SF in kN
10
4
0
8
6
2

Length in metres

• WSM • LSM Fig 6.12

The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.7. The bending moments due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.8 The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.9 The shear force due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.10 The shear force due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.11 The shear force due to live load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.12 The comparison of volume of concrete and area of steel are tabulated below:

Table 17: Comparison between two methods at mid span and quarter span

 WSM LSM Volume of concrete(in mm 3 ) 2.6* 2.355* Area of steel (in mm 2 ) at L/2 16,286 16,084 Area of steel (in mm 2 ) at L/4 12,214 12,214

63

As it very visible from above comparison that LSM has found out to be more economical of the two methods. It means we can design the structure more economically by adopting ultimate strength design method rather than the WSM.

The savings of concrete and steel for B.M of 0.245 *10 10 mm 3 and 202 mm 2 .

span 20 m at the center is found to be

The main fundamental difference for working stress approach and limit state approach is that, in working stress approach service loads are used in the whole design and the strength of material is not utilized in the full extent, since stresses acting on structural members are calculated based on elastic method and they are designed not to exceed certain allowable values. In fact, the whole structure during the lifespan may only experience loading stresses far below the ultimate state. For limit state approach, for each material and load, a partial safety factor is assigned individually depending on the material properties and load properties. Therefore, each element of load and material properties is accurately assessed resulting in a more refined and accurate analysis of the structure. In this connection, the material strength can be utilized to its maximum value during its lifespan and loads can be assessed with reasonable probability of occurrence. This is the reason for LSM to be more economical than WSM.

However at quarter span there is no much significant change in the area of steel due to B.M, since we have chosen comparatively smaller section in LSM.

In the deck slab, the area of steel in LSM and WSM are found to be same, though the area of concrete is same for LSM and WSM, since the loads are multiplied by a partial safety factor in LSM there is no significant change in area of steel. In case of slab the savings of materials in slabs is almost nil.

In LSM there is a saving of 9-11 % in volume of concrete and 2% saving in area of steel due to B.M at mid span, but at the quarter span the savings in area of steel is negligible. The section in the LSM was comparatively less, but was chosen in a way to satisfy the cracking and deflection criteria, as both are the limitations of LSM.

64

But for Shear force reinforcement there is not much of change observed in both deck slab and in girder. The reinforcement is almost same since the sections taken in LSM were smaller than WSM.

The reinforcement details of end longitudinal girder at mid and quarter span designed as per IRC: 21-2000 and IRC: 112-2011 is shown below. Fig 6.13 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 21-2000)

65 Fig 6.14 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at quarter span (IRC: 21-2000) Fig 6.15 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

66 Fig.6.16 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

67