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ME2121

Thermodynamics

Lecture 2 Power Cycles (for Steam Power Plants)

Sections 10.2 to 10.5 (Cengel & Boles)

The Rankine Cycle

• Water is used as the working fluid.

Readily available, of low cost, with high latent heat of vapourisation

• Many of the impracticalities of the Carnot cycle are eliminated.

Specifically heat addition and rejection processes!

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The Rankine Cycle (contd.)

Isentropic expansion
Isentropic compression, s 2 =s 1
Heat rejection

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Energy Analysis of the Rankine Cycle

• All four components of the Rankine cycle may be regarded as steady-flow devices.

– For compression, expansion, heat addtion & rejection

• Applying the steady-flow energy equation to the process in each component results in:

q - w = dh, neglecting ke, pe, etc.

• Feed-pump

q 12 = 0

• Boiler

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w 23 = 0

w 12 = h 1 – h 2 ;

q 23 = h 3 – h 2 ;

w P = - w 12 = h 2 – h 1

q H = q 23

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Energy Analysis of the Rankine Cycle (contd.)

• Turbine

q 34 = 0

• Condenser

w 41 = 0

w T = w 34 = h 3 – h 4

q L = h 4 – h 1

• The net work and thermal efficiency of the cycle may then be calculated:

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w net = q H – q L = w T – w P th = w net / q H = 1 – q L / q H

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles

• The actual vapour power cycle differs from the Rankine cycle because of irreversibilities in the components of the cycle viz.

entropy generation

 (a) friction in pipe flow - resulting in pressure drop (esp. in boiler) (b) heat loss to the surroundings

more energy reqd. to compensate for given w net

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles (contd.)

(c) pump and turbine irreversibilities

(accounted for by device efficiencies)

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w P > w ideal, P ;

w T < w ideal, T

 w ideal P , h 2  s h 1  P  w P  h 2  h 1  T  w T ideal T w ,  h 5 h 5  h 6  h 6 s

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles (contd.)

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Increasing the Efficiency

• Lowering the condenser pressure

i.e. P 4 < P 4

For the same turbine inlet conditions, w net increases!

There is an increase in q H but it is comparatively small.

Typical P ~ 6 kPa (T s = 36°C)

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Increasing the Efficiency (contd.)

• Superheating the steam to high temperatures

W net increases

q H also increases, but there is a net increase in th because energy is being added at a higher average temperature!

T max 620°C (at turbine inlet)

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Increasing the Efficiency (contd.)

• Increasing the boiler pressure

Temperature is increased.

For a fixed turbine inlet, T max moisture content of steam at the end of expansion is increased.

This is undesirable!

Solution: Reheating!!

Typical operating P

30 MPa (for supercritical cycle)

17 MPa (for 150 MW turbines)

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

• Steam is expanded in two stages, with reheating in between.

– Eliminating the problem of high moisture content at turbine exit!

• Reheating at constant P is usually to the inlet temperature of the first turbine stage.

– I.e. T 5 = T 3 = T max of cycle.

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (contd.)

• Reheating may affect the efficiency of the cycle either way!

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Depending on average temperatures of heat addition & rejection!

the higher the better!

Avoiding superheat!

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (contd.)

• As the no. of expansion/reheat stages is increased, the processes of expansion and reheat approach an isothermal process!

– Thermal efficiency increases, but so does capital cost!

– Usually, number of turbine stages does not exceed 3!

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Example (Ex 11.4, Rogers & Mayhew, 1992)

T (°C)

450

Given:
30 bar
3
5
4
0.04 bar
saturated
2 vapour
6
1

S (kJ/kg)

Required: th & SSC

Solution:

From tables, h 2 h 1 = 121 kJ/kg h 3 = 3343 kJ/kg s 3 = 7.082 kJ/(kg.K)

As the steam is dry saturated after the first expansion,

s 4 = s 3 = s g,P4 = 7.082 kJ/(kg.K)

P 5 = P 4 = 2.3 bar (from tables)

and h 4 = 2713 kJ/kg

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Example (contd.)

From the superheat table,

h 5 = 3381 kJ/kg and s 5 = 8.310 kJ/(kg.K) (after interpolation)

At the turbine outlet,

x 6 = 0.980 and h 6 = 2505 kJ/kg (after interpolation)

The total quantity of heat transferred to the steam in the boiler is

q H = q 23 + q 45 = (h 3 – h 2 ) + (h 5 – h 4 ) = 3890 kJ/kg

and the total turbine work is

w T = w 34 + w 56 = (h 3 – h 4 ) + (h 5 – h 6 ) = 1506 kJ/kg

the cycle efficiency is

th = w net / q H = 38.7% (neglecting the feed pump work)

and the specific steam consumption,

SSC = 1/w net = 3600/1506 = 2.39 kg/(kW.hr)

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sec/hr

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Assignment 1