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ME2121

Thermodynamics

Lecture 2 Power Cycles (for Steam Power Plants)

Sections 10.2 to 10.5 (Cengel & Boles)

The Rankine Cycle

• Water is used as the working fluid.

Readily available, of low cost, with high latent heat of vapourisation

• Many of the impracticalities of the Carnot cycle are eliminated.

Specifically heat addition and rejection processes!

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The Rankine Cycle (contd.)

Isentropic expansion Heat addition Isentropic compression, s 2 =s 1 Heat rejection
Isentropic expansion
Heat addition
Isentropic compression, s 2 =s 1
Heat rejection

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Energy Analysis of the Rankine Cycle

• All four components of the Rankine cycle may be regarded as steady-flow devices.

– For compression, expansion, heat addtion & rejection

• Applying the steady-flow energy equation to the process in each component results in:

q - w = dh, neglecting ke, pe, etc.

• Feed-pump

q 12 = 0

• Boiler

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w 23 = 0

w 12 = h 1 – h 2 ;

q 23 = h 3 – h 2 ;

w P = - w 12 = h 2 – h 1

q H = q 23

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– h 2 ; w P = - w 1 2 = h 2 – h

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Energy Analysis of the Rankine Cycle (contd.)

• Turbine

q 34 = 0

• Condenser

w 41 = 0

w T = w 34 = h 3 – h 4

q L = h 4 – h 1

• The net work and thermal efficiency of the cycle may then be calculated:

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w net = q H – q L = w T – w P th = w net / q H = 1 – q L / q H

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Power Cycles (for Steam Power Plants)

– w P  t h = w n e t / q H = 1

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles

• The actual vapour power cycle differs from the Rankine cycle because of irreversibilities in the components of the cycle viz.

of irreversibilities in the components of the cycle viz. entropy generation (a) friction in pipe flow

entropy generation

(a)

friction in pipe flow - resulting in pressure drop (esp. in boiler)

(b)

heat loss to the surroundings

more energy reqd. to compensate for given w net

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surroundings  more energy reqd. to co mpensate for given w n e t 00E1 L2:

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles (contd.)

(c) pump and turbine irreversibilities

(accounted for by device efficiencies)

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w P > w ideal, P ;

w T < w ideal, T

 

w

ideal P

,

 

h

2

s

h

1

P

w

P

h

2

h

1

T

w

T

ideal T

w

,

h

5

h

5

h

6

h

6

s

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T ideal T w ,  h 5 h 5  h 6  h 6

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Actual Vapour Power Cycles (contd.)

Actual Vapour Power Cycles (contd.) 00E1 L2: Power Cycles (f or Steam Power Plants) 8

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Increasing the Efficiency

• Lowering the condenser pressure

i.e. P 4 < P 4

For the same turbine inlet conditions, w net increases!

There is an increase in q H but it is comparatively small.

Typical P ~ 6 kPa (T s = 36°C)

H but it is comparatively small. Typical P ~ 6 kPa (T s = 36°C) 00E1

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Increasing the Efficiency (contd.)

• Superheating the steam to high temperatures

W net increases

q H also increases, but there is a net increase in th because energy is being added at a higher average temperature!

T max 620°C (at turbine inlet)

average temperature! T m a x  620°C (at turbine inlet) 00E1 L2: Power Cycles (f

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Increasing the Efficiency (contd.)

• Increasing the boiler pressure

Temperature is increased.

For a fixed turbine inlet, T max moisture content of steam at the end of expansion is increased.

This is undesirable!

Solution: Reheating!!

Typical operating P

30 MPa (for supercritical cycle)

17 MPa (for 150 MW turbines)

P  30 MPa (for supercritical cycle)  17 MPa (for 150 MW turbines) 00E1 L2:

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

• Steam is expanded in two stages, with reheating in between.

– Eliminating the problem of high moisture content at turbine exit!

• Reheating at constant P is usually to the inlet temperature of the first turbine stage.

– I.e. T 5 = T 3 = T max of cycle.

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (contd.)

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (contd.) • Reheating may affect the efficiency of the cycle either

• Reheating may affect the efficiency of the cycle either way!

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Depending on average temperatures of heat addition & rejection!

the higher the better!

of heat addition & rejection! the higher the better! Avoiding superheat! L2: Power Cycles (f or
of heat addition & rejection! the higher the better! Avoiding superheat! L2: Power Cycles (f or

Avoiding superheat!

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (contd.)

• As the no. of expansion/reheat stages is increased, the processes of expansion and reheat approach an isothermal process!

– Thermal efficiency increases, but so does capital cost!

– Usually, number of turbine stages does not exceed 3!

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Example (Ex 11.4, Rogers & Mayhew, 1992)

T (°C)

450

Given: 30 bar 3 5 4 0.04 bar saturated 2 vapour 6 1
Given:
30 bar
3
5
4
0.04 bar
saturated
2 vapour
6
1

S (kJ/kg)

Required: th & SSC

Solution:

From tables, h 2 h 1 = 121 kJ/kg h 3 = 3343 kJ/kg s 3 = 7.082 kJ/(kg.K)

As the steam is dry saturated after the first expansion,

s 4 = s 3 = s g,P4 = 7.082 kJ/(kg.K)

P 5 = P 4 = 2.3 bar (from tables)

and h 4 = 2713 kJ/kg

P 5 = P 4 = 2.3 bar (from tables) and h 4 = 2713 kJ/kg

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Example (contd.)

From the superheat table,

h 5 = 3381 kJ/kg and s 5 = 8.310 kJ/(kg.K) (after interpolation)

At the turbine outlet,

x 6 = 0.980 and h 6 = 2505 kJ/kg (after interpolation)

The total quantity of heat transferred to the steam in the boiler is

q H = q 23 + q 45 = (h 3 – h 2 ) + (h 5 – h 4 ) = 3890 kJ/kg

and the total turbine work is

w T = w 34 + w 56 = (h 3 – h 4 ) + (h 5 – h 6 ) = 1506 kJ/kg

the cycle efficiency is

th = w net / q H = 38.7% (neglecting the feed pump work)

and the specific steam consumption,

SSC = 1/w net = 3600/1506 = 2.39 kg/(kW.hr)

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consumption, SSC = 1/w n e t = 3600/1506 = 2.39 kg/(kW.hr) 00E1 sec/hr L2: Power

sec/hr

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consumption, SSC = 1/w n e t = 3600/1506 = 2.39 kg/(kW.hr) 00E1 sec/hr L2: Power

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Assignment 1

Please attempt:

Problem Set 1:

Q 1 (Imparo online tutorial) Q 2 (class discussion) (best first without looking at the Outline Solutions)

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Enjoy!!

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