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BIO 100

Exam 4 Study Guide

Respiration
Define cellular respiration and write the equation for cellular respiration. using mitochondria
and oxygen to produce ATP; C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (up to 38 ATP & heat)
Identify the location of glycolysis (where does it occur). cytoplasm of cells

Identify what you start with and end up with in glycolysis. start with: 1 glucose and 2 ATP (ATP
gives the glucose enough energy to get started); end up with: 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP (net gain
of 2 ATP)
Briefly describe what happens during glycolysis. 6 carbon glucose molecule is very stable; ATP
added to make unstable enough to break into 2 molecules, 3 carbons each energy (electrons and
ATP) are harvested from the 3 carbon molecules. 1 glucose (C6H12O6) + 2 ATP 2 pyruvate
(C3H4O3) + 4 ATP + 2 NADH
Explain the role of NADH and FADH 2 in cellular respiration. NADH electron carrier, saves
electrons (energy) released by reactions; FADH2 another electron carrier, saves electrons
(energy) released by reactions
Identify the location of the citric acid cycle. the matrix of the mitochondria

Identify what you start with and end up with in the citric acid cycle. start with: 1 pyruvate; end
up with: 3 CO2, 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP

Describe what happens during the citric acid cycle. cycle of reactions that converts pyruvate to
CO2 and saves the energy

Identify the location of the electron transport chain. inner membrane of mitochondria
Identify what you start with and end up with in the electron transport chain. start with: 10
NADH, 2 FADH2, 6 O2; end up with: H2O and lots of ATP

Briefly describe what happens during each of the three parts of the electron transport chain
(electron transport, H+ gradient, ATP synthesis). 1) electron transport electrons from NADH
and FADH2 are removed transferred through series of protein complexes; 2) H+ gradient energy
released by the electrons is used to move H+ transports H+ from the matrix to the space between
the membranes; 3) ATP synthesis H+ flows back into matrix through enzyme ATP synthase flow
of H+ provides energy to convert ADP to ATP
Identify the final electron acceptor. oxygen, takes electrons to form water

Determine the maximum number of ATP produced by cellular respiration. Up to 38 ATP


Describe how carbohydrate, fats, and proteins are broken down and used for cellular
respiration. carbohydrates broken down onto monosaccharides, enter glycolysis like glucose; fats
broken down into fatty acids, broken down into acetyl-CoA for citric acid cycle; proteins broken
down into different amino acids, enter glycolysis or citric acid cycle

Explain how molecules from glycolysis and the citric acid cycles are used in anabolic
reactions. Molecules from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle can be used as reactants to build
amino acids, fatty acids, even glucose

Photosynthesis
Define photosynthesis and write the equation for photosynthesis. using light energy to convert
CO2 into organic molecules (glucose) 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
Describe and make a drawing of the energy cycle, including the role of the sun, producers,
consumers, CO2, O2, H2O, glucose, and ATP.
Define and give examples of photoautotrophs (use light as an energy source; plants, some algae,
some protists, some bacteria), chemoautotrophs (use inorganic compounds as energy source (H, S,
Fe, NH3) some bacteria and archea, usually in hotile environments) photoheterotrophs ( use light
energy to make ATP, but dont use CO2; some purple and green bacteria) and chemoheterotrophs
(use chemical compounds to make STP; animals, fungi, some bacteria and protists)

Draw and describe the structure of a chloroplast, including the outer membrane, inner
membrane, thylakoids, stroma, and lumen.
Describe photosystem and explain what photosystems do . cluster of pigment molecules in the
thylakoid membrane (chlorophyll and more) absorb light, contain electrons that are excited by light
energy
Identify the location of the light reactions. chlorophyll

Identify what you start with and end up with in the light reactions. start with: H2O and light;
end up with : NADPH (electron carrier), O2, and ATP

Briefly describe the five steps of the light reactions. 1) excitement of electrons; 2) electron
transport; 3) hydrogen gradient; 4) ATP synthesis; 5) reexcitment of electrons
Identify the location of the Calvin cycle.
Identify what you start with and end up with in the Calvin cycle. start with: 3 CO2, 9 ATP, 6 NADPH
in stroma; end up with: C3H6O3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, G3P), 3 H2O G3P used to make
glucose

Briefly describe what happens during the three parts of the Calvin cycle.1) carbon fixation;
2) adding energy; 3) recreating RuBP
Determine how many ATP and NADH are required to produce a molecule of glucose. 18 ATP
+ 12 NADPH

Explain the disadvantage of most plants (C 3 plants) in hot, dry environments . Most plants

(C3) require steady supply of CO2 need to keep stomata in leaves open to get CO2 from
atmosphere lets CO2 in but also lets a lot of water out, must close stomata in hot, dry weather when
CO2 is low, Rubisco will add O2 instead of CO2 to RuBP doesnt help make glucose
Describe how C4 and CAM plants get enough CO 2 in hot, dry environments. open stomata at
night and store CO2 to use in Calvin cycle during day at night, CO2 is fixed in a 4 carbon molecule
and stored in vacuoles during the day, stomata are closed CO2 is released form vacuoles and enters
the Calvin cycle

Lab 7 Fermentation
Describe fermentation and write the equations for ethanol and lactic acid fermentation.
Alternative method of producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation= C6H12O6 2 C3H6O3 + 2 ATP.
Ethanol fermentation= C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP

List some foods and beverages produced by fermentation. Alcohol, bread, yogurt

List the factors that affect the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. detergents, temperature,
pH, and inhibitors.

Describe the relationship between the concentration of the energy source and the rate of
fermentation. The higher the concentration the higher the rate of fermentation.
Given sample data, identify the optimum temperature and pH for a reaction. Optimum pH is
8 and temperature is warm.
Explain what reduces the rate of a reaction below and above the optimum temperature . At
lower temperatures, the molecules move more slowly so they are transported into the cell more
slowly and take longer to encounter the enzymes. At higher temperatures, the enzymes begin to
denature, or lose their shape. As the enzymes lose their shape, they have reduced function.
Explain what reduces the rate of a reaction below and above the optimum pH. pH affects
protein folding. At pH values above or below the optimum, the enzymes are not folding correctly so
they do not function as well.

Lab 8 Photosynthesis
Describe the use of pH indicators to test for the use and production of CO 2.
Explain the pH changes that occur when plants are kept in the light and in the dark. When
grown in light, elodea increases the pH of a solution; When grown in dark, elodea decreases the pH
of a solution.
Explain the importance of controls and identify the controls in an experiment. Tubes
containing Elodea exposed to light will be compared with tubes containing Elodea kept in the dark
tubes containing no Elodea. The tubes that do not contain Elodea are an important part of the
experiment. They are the controls and they allow us to determine if any changes we see are due to
the activity of the Elodea or if the changes were going to occur even without the Elodea
List the common pigments in plants and identify their color. Chlorophyll a (green), chlorophyll b
(olivegreen), xathophyll (pale yellow), and -carotene (bright yellow)

Explain how paper chromatography separates mixtures and predict how far substances will
travel based on polarity. The pigments in plants can be separated by a process called paper
chromatography. In paper chromatography, a mixture is spotted onto a piece of paper and the end of
the paper is dipped in a small amount of solvent. As the solvent moves up the paper by capillary
action, the components of the mixture move up the paper with it. How quickly the substances move
up the paper depends on how much the substance is attracted to the paper and how much it is
attracted to the solvent. Since paper is made of cellulose (polysaccharide of glucose), it is very polar.
Polar substances are attracted to the paper and move more slowly than less polar substances.
Given a paper chromatograph, calculate the R f value. Distance traveled by pigment/ distance
traveled by solvent
Identify the colors of light that result in the most photosynthesis. White light should have the
most because it contains all colors of, red is second best.