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CSC 204 FINAL - Ultimate Study Guide

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> QUIZ 1
1. What is an interpreter?
a program that can analyze and execute a program line by line
2. Define translation as relates to virtual machines.
a program that translates a program written in one programming language
into a functionally equivalent program in a different language without losing
essence; binary translation is used with virtual machines so that the entire
program is translated into a binary of another architecture
3. Define hardware.
the machines, wiring, and other physical, touchable components of a
computer or other electronic system.
4. Moore's law states that (use transistors to explain answer)
observation that over history of computing hardware the # of transistors in
integrated circuit doubles about every 2 years
5. MIPS stands for?
million instructions per second
> TEST 1
1. Explain in your own terms the following terms:
a. translator: converts program in 1 language to another one
b. interpreter: carries out a program instruction by instruction
c. virtual machine: machine that does not actually exist
2. What is latency? a measure of the time delay experienced by a computer system
3. What is throughput? rate of production
4. Explain the idea behind RAID level 1 and how it is implemented. What is the
difference between RAID level 1 and RAID level 2?

RAID 1: An exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two disks. This is useful
when read performance or reliability is more important than data storage
capacity.
RAID 2: RAID2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a
Hamming code for error correction. Extremely high data transfer rates are
possible.
5. Name the special purpose register that stores the address of the next instruction to
be fetched from memory. program counter
6. Name the special purpose register that is used to store the instruction while it is
decoded and executed by the processor. instruction register
7. Explain the Hamming code algorithm and how it is used as error correction code?
Construct a Hamming code for memory 1111 0000 1010 1110 by adding the 5 clock bits.
Hamming code is a set of error-correction code s that can be used to detect
and correct bit errors that can occur when computer data is moved or stored.
Makes use of the concept of parity and parity bits, which are bits that are added
to data so that the validity of the data can be checked when it is read or after it
has been received in a data transmission. Using more than one parity bit, an
error-correction code can not only identify a single bit error in the data unit, but
also its location in the data unit.
8. List 4 of the 5 major components that are found in all computers.
Input, Output, Memory, Datapath (ALU), Control
9. In reference to Moores law, assume that in a certain point in time, a transistor on a
chip was .2 micron in diameter. How big will the transistor be in the next year model?
Moore said that the next generation computer will increase constantly with
about 4 times in terms of transistor number. So this next year chip will have 1 + .6
or 1.6 times the number of transistors. The transistor area would be 2/1.6 or 1.25
smaller than the previous years chip. Therefore, the size would be about 1.58
microns if the last chip was .2 microns.
10. Explain the concept of a stored program computer.
A stored program computer is one in which the machine language program
is stored in memory along with data, and the computer is able to manipulate both
program and data in identical ways.

11. Draw a block diagram that illustrates the concept of a memory hierarchy. What is the
fastest and most expensive memory in your hierarchy What is the slowest and least
expensive memory in your hierarchy?
Fastest, Most Expensive Memory - registers
Slowest, Least Expensive Memory - tape
Block diagram:
Fastest
Slowest
CPU Registers, Cache, Main memory, Disk memory, Tape memory
12. Consider an operation with the single pipeline Von Neumann data path machine.
Suppose that the loading ALU input registers take 10 nsec, running ALU takes 20 nsec,
and storing the result back in the register takes 10 nsec. What is the maximum number
of MIPS this machine is capable of in the absence of pipelining?
Loading into register A takes 10 nsec
Loading into register B takes 10 nsec
Computation 20 nsec
Restoring A+B into register = 20 nsec
Total = 60 nsec
1 instruction takes 60 nsec
MIPS = millions of instructions per second = (1)/((60*10-9)*(1/106)) = 16.666666667
Therefore MIPS = 17
13. On computer 1, instructions take 10 nsec to execute. On computer 2, they all take 5
nsec to execute. Can you say for certain that computer 2 is faster? Discuss?
No, because there are too many other factors that have to be taken into
consideration like memory, hardware, RAM, etc.
> Quiz 3
1. True or False
a. Exactly one output of a decoder will be asserted for any input. True
b. A 4-input multiplexer, where each input is 32-bits, can be constructed from 32
multiplexers, where each multiplexer has four 4-bit inputs. False
c. If the clock rate of a processor is too high, the memory elements (registers, etc.)
will capture incorrect values emanating from the combinational logic (e.g. the
ALU). True
d. In a rising-edge triggered flip-flop, the data will enter the first latch when the clock
rises and then enter the second latch when the clock falls. False

e. A narrow SRAM (many locations, each location containing a small number of


bits) will require fewer input pins than a wide SRAM (fewer locations, each
location containing more bits) with equivalent memory capacity. True
2. Use a diagram to show how a transistor inverter is used to implement
a. a NAND gate
b. a NOR gate

3. Can you build a device that, logically, behaves like an OR gate from only AND and
NOT gates? If so, do so. If not, explain why not.

4. Outline the derived general method on how to implement a circuit for a Boolean
function?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Write truth table for function


Provide inverters to generate complement of each input
Draw AND gate for each term with 1 in result column
Wire AND gates to appropriate inputs
Feed output of all AND gates into an OR gate

5. Applying distributive law and de-Morgans law, show equivalency of the following
functions. Show circuit and truth tables for AB + AC and A(B+C).

6. Show how the AND function can be constructed from NOR gates?

> Test 2
1. True or False
a. Exactly one output of a decoder will be asserted for any input. True

b. A 4-input multiplexer, where each input is 32-bits, can be constructed from 32


multiplexers, where each multiplexer has four 4-bit inputs. False
c. If the clock rate of a processor is too low, the memory elements (registers, etc.)
will capture incorrect values emanating from the combinational logic (e.g. the
ALU). False
d. In a rising-edge triggered flip-flop, the data will enter the first latch when the clock
rises and then enter the second latch when the clock falls. False
e. A wide SRAM (many locations, each location containing a small number of bits)
will require fewer input pins than a narrow SRAM (fewer locations, each
location containing more bits) with equivalent memory capacity. False
f. DRAM cells need to be refreshed because 1) reading changes the voltage level
of the capacitor in a cell and 2) capacitors leak current. True
g. In an ALU, subtraction is performed by changing the sign (i.e. leftmost) bit of the
second operand and then adding the operands. False
h. The fastest way to load a 32-bit constant on a MIPS 32-bit processor is to put the
constant within a single instruction. False
i. A synchronous bus has a line driven by a crystal oscillator. True
j. There are two ways to increase the bus bandwidth of a bus: decrease bus cycle
tie or increase data bandwidth. True
2. Circuits:
a. Use truth table to show that A = (A AND B) OR (A AND NOT B)

b. What is a comparator?
comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs
a digital signal indicating which is larger

c. Give a circuit diagram for a a 4-bit word comparator?

3. What is the difference between a flip-flop and a latch as it relates to memory


technology?
Flip-flops can be either simple (transparent or opaque) or clocked (synchronous
or edge-triggered); the simple ones are commonly called latches. The word latch
is mainly used for storage elements, while clocked devices are described as flipflops.
4. Outline the derived general method on how to implement a circuit for a Boolean
function?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Write truth table for function


Provide inverters to generate complement of each input
Draw AND gate for each term with 1 in result column
Wire AND gates to appropriate inputs
Feed output of all AND gates into an OR gate

5. What is an ALU? Arithmetic Logic Unit


a. List the 3 parts of an ALU?
1. registers
2. control unit
3. logic unit
b. By the use of a circuit diagram, outline a full adder and explain how it sums two
inputs and handles a carry?

6. Use diagrams:
a. tri-state device
b. non-inverting buffer

7. What is difference between:


a. SRAM, DRAM, and SDRAM?

- SRAM: Static random access memory uses multiple transistors, typically four
to six, for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell.

- DRAM:Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired


transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing.

- SDRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the


burst mode concept to greatly improve performance

b. ROMS, PROM, and EEPROM?

- The difference between a PROM and a ROM (read-only memory) is that a PROM
is manufactured as blank memory, whereas a ROM is programmed during the
manufacturing process.

- PROM - (programmable read-only memory) is a memory chip on which data can


be written only once.

- EEPROM - (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory).


Pronounced e-e-prom, an EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be
erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.

8. List at least 3 categories of bus control pins and their functions?


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

USB - universal serial bus


AGP - advanced graphics port
ISA - industry standard architecture
PCI - peripheral component-interconnector
EISA - extended ISA

9. Extra credit: Build a decoder with 3 input lines but with only 6 output lines. If the value
of the input corresponds to 6 or 7, then all output lines should be asserted to signal an
error.

> Test 3
1. A digital circuit is one which only two logical values are present. True
2. A transistor has 4 connections to the inside world collector the base and emitter
output. False
3. NOT gates are often called inverters. True
4. NAND and NOR gates require 2 transistors each, whereas the AND and OR gates
require 3 each. True
5. Boolean algebra is a new type of algebra where variables and functions can take on
only the values 0 and 1. True
6. The small circles used or part of the symbols for the inverter NAND gate and NOR
gate are called inversion bubbles. True

7. Use symbols that depict 3 circuit gates or their equivalent that form the 3 simplest
gates.
a. NOT
b. NAND
c. NOR

8. Assuming A and B as inputs and X as an output, use a truth table to specify the
output for different combination of the inputs. Adopt the convention that a high is a
logical 1, and that low is a logical 0, and express the out values..
a.
b.
c.
d.

NOT
NAND
NOR
AND

9. Outline the derived general method on how to implement a circuit for a Boolean
function?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Write truth table for function


Provide inverters to generate complement of each input
Draw AND gate for each term with 1 in result column
Wire AND gates to appropriate inputs
Feed output of all AND gates into an OR gate

10. Fill in:


a. Gates are not manufactured or sold individually but rather in units called
integrated circuits.
b. Multiplexer is a circuit with 2^n data inputs, 1 data output, and n control input
that select one of the data inputs.
c. Decoder is a circuit that takes an orbit number or inputs and uses it to select
exactly one of the 2n output lines

d. Comparator compares 2 inputs and produces a 1 if they are equal and a 0


otherwise.
e. Adder is a hardware circuit that performs addition, which is an essential part of
every CPU.
11. Use a truth table to make a circuit for a half adder to outline a 1-bit integer addition
with sum of inputs A and B, and the carry to the next position.

12. Use a truth table to show that A = (A AND B) OR (A AND NOT B)

13. What type of gates are used to implement adder with a carry. or and xor gate