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BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TherearemanyBiblicalfigureswhichtheQur'annames.Some,however,gounnamedintheQur'an,but

arereferencedorreferredtointhehadiths,tafsirs,literatureorsira.Otherfiguresarementionedelsewhere

intraditionandinthesunnahandsayingsofprophetMuhammad.Suchfigureswhicharenotmentionedby

nameintheQur'an,areincludedbelow.

Contents

1OldTestamentContents 1.1CainandAbel 1.1.1StoryofCainandAbel 1.1.1.1CainspeakstoAbel 1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain

1.1CainandAbelContents 1OldTestament 1.1.1StoryofCainandAbel 1.1.1.1CainspeakstoAbel 1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain

1.1.1StoryofCainandAbel

1.1.1.1CainspeakstoAbelContents 1OldTestament 1.1CainandAbel 1.1.1StoryofCainandAbel 1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain 1.1.2Messageandmoral

1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel1.1.1StoryofCainandAbel 1.1.1.1CainspeakstoAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain 1.1.2Messageandmoral 1.2Sarah

1.1.1.3ShameofCain1.1.1.1CainspeakstoAbel 1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.2Messageandmoral 1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah

1.1.2Messageandmoral1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain 1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac

1.2Sarah1.1.1.2CainslaysAbel 1.1.1.3ShameofCain 1.1.2Messageandmoral 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah

1.2.1StoryofSarah1.1.1.3ShameofCain 1.1.2Messageandmoral 1.2Sarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam

1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac1.1.2Messageandmoral 1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam 1.4Jeremiah 1.5Daniel

1.2.2TombofSarah1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.3Balaam 1.4Jeremiah 1.5Daniel 1.5.1StoryofDaniel

1.3Balaam1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.4Jeremiah 1.5Daniel 1.5.1StoryofDaniel 2References

1.4Jeremiah1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam 1.5Daniel 1.5.1StoryofDaniel 2References

1.5Daniel1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam 1.4Jeremiah 1.5.1StoryofDaniel 2References

1.5.1StoryofDaniel1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam 1.4Jeremiah 1.5Daniel 2References

2References1.2Sarah 1.2.1StoryofSarah 1.2.1.1ThebirthofIsaac 1.2.2TombofSarah 1.3Balaam 1.4Jeremiah 1.5Daniel 1.5.1StoryofDaniel

OldTestament

CainandAbel

CainandAbel(Arabic:ﻞﻴﺑﺎﻗ,ﻞﻴﺑﺎﻫ;QabilandHabil)arebelievedbyMuslimstohavebeenthefirsttwo sonsofAdamandEve.ThestoryintheQur'an [1] isvirtuallythesameastheHebrewBiblenarrative,saying thatboththebrotherswereaskedtoofferupindividualsacrificestoGod.GodacceptedAbel'ssacrifice becauseofAbel'srighteousnessandCain,outofjealousy,slewAbel.Thiswasthefirsteversincommitted uponEarthbutAbelwaschronicledinhistoryasoneofthefirstbelieversandasthefirstevermartyr.A handfulofMuslimsourceshaveidentifiedAbelasaprophetlikehisfather,butthisidentificationisnot traditional. [2]

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StoryofCainandAbel

BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

OfAdam'sfirstchildren,CainwastheeldersonandAbeltheyounger.Eachofthempresentedasacrifice

toGodbutitwasacceptedonlyfromAbel,becauseofthelatter'srighteousattitudeandhisfaithandfirm

beliefinGod.

CainspeakstoAbel

Aftertheofferingoftheirsacrifices,Cain,thewickedsibling, tauntedAbeloutofenvyandtoldhimthathewouldsurelyslay him.AbeljustlywarnedCainthatGodonlyacceptedthesacrificeof thosethatarerighteousintheirdoings.Hefurtherwentontotell CainthatifCaindidindeedtrytoslayhim, [3] Abelwouldnot retaliateandslayhimbecausetheGod­fearingwouldnevermurder forthesakeofenvy.AbelthentoldCainthatinmurderinghim,he wouldcarrytheweightnotonlyofhissinbutalsoofthesinsofhis victim [4] Thevictim,asaresult,insufferingtheinjustice,wouldbe forgivenhisownsinsandthemurderer,whilebeingwarned,would consequentlyincreasehisownsin.Abelpreachedpowerfullyand remindedCainthatthepunishmentformurderwouldbethathe wouldspendtheafterlifeinthefiresofHell.

CainslaysAbel

TheinnocentpleadingandpreachingofAbelhadnoeffectuponCain,forhewasfullofarrogance,pride andjealousy.Hesubsequentlyslew [5] therighteousAbel,butindoingso,heruinedhimselfandbecameof thosewhoremainlost.Thiswouldbetheearliestexampleofthemurderofarighteousmantakingplace upontheearth.Inthefuture,manyotherevildoerswouldslaythewiseandpiousbelievers.

ShameofCain

Rightafterthemurdertookplace,GodsentaravenwhoscratchedthegroundtoshowCainhowtohidethe bodyofdeadperson.Cain,inhisshame,begantocursehimself [6] andhebecamefullofguilt.Thethought ofthecrimeatlastcametothemurderer,asherealizedindeedhowdreadfulitwastoslayanyone,themore soasthevictimwasaninnocentandrighteousman.Fullofregrets,Cainwasmarkedwithdeepsorrow. Thiswas,however,notruerepentance.

Messageandmoral

GodmakesitclearintheQur'anthatthestoryofCainandAbelwasamessage [7] fortheChildrenofIsrael, asithadtoldthemabouttheconsequencesofmurderandthatthekillingofonepersonwouldbeasif he/shehadslainthewholeofmankind.Butstillpeoplerejectedthemessage,ofthestoryandcontinuedto commitgravesins,slayingprophets,messengersaswellastherighteouspeople.

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BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AlltheprophetswhopreachedsincethetimeofAdamwerepersecuted,insultedorreviledinonewayor another.Withsomerighteousmen,however,theevildoerswentonestepfurther,inattemptingtoslaythem orindeedslayingthem.TheQur'anitselfmentionstheslayingoftherighteous,saying"Astothosewho denytheSignsofAllahandindefianceofright,slaytheprophets,andslaythosewhoteachjustdealing withmankind,announcetothemagrievouspenalty.". [8] Historicalexamplesoftherighteousslaininclude Zacharias,sonofBarachias, [9] Uriah [10] and,inlaterIslamichistory,Hamzah,AliIbnAbiTalib,Fatimah, HasanandHusayn.

Sarah

Sarah,asdepictedon Promptuarii IconumInsigniorum byGuillaume Rouillé

Sarah,asdepictedonPromptuarii

(Isaac)isanhonouredwomanintheIslamicfaith.Accordingto

Muslimbelief,shewasAbraham'sfirstwife.Althoughnot

mentionedbynameintheQur'an,sheisreferencedandalludedto

viathestoryofherhusband.ShelivedwithAbrahamthroughout

herlifeand,althoughshewasbarren,Godpromisedherthebirthof

apropheticsonandapropheticgrandsonbythenameofYa`qūb

StoryofSarah

SarahandAbrahamhadnochildren.Abraham,however,prayed constantlytoGodforason.Sarah,beingbarren,subsequentlygave himherEgyptianhandmaiden, [11] Hājar(Hagar),towedashis secondwife.HagarboreIsmā'īl(Ishmael),whenAbrahamwas

86, [12] whotoowouldbecomeaprophetofGodlikehisfather.

ThebirthofIsaac

Thirteenyearslater,GodannouncedtoAbraham,nowahundred, [13] thatthebarrenSarahwouldgivebirth toasecondson,Isaac,whowouldalsobeaprophetoftheLord.AlthoughtheQur'andoesnotmention Sarahbyname,itvividlymentionstheannunciationofthebirthofIsaac.TheQur'anmentionsthatSarah laughedwhentheangelsgaveherthegladtidingsofIsaac,whichisperhapswhythenameIsaac(inArabic Ishaq)hastherootmeaningof'laughter'. [14]

TherecameOurmessengerstoAbrahamwithgladtidings.Theysaid,'Peace!'Heanswered,

'Peace!'andhastenedtoentertainthemwitharoastedcalf.

Butwhenhesawtheirhandswentnottowardsthe(meal),hefeltsomemistrustofthem,and

conceivedafearofthem.Theysaid:"Fearnot:WehavebeensentagainstthepeopleofLut.

Andhiswifewasstanding(there),andshelaughed:ButwegavehergladtidingsofIsaac,and

afterhim,ofJacob.

Shesaid:"Alasforme!shallIbearachild,seeingIamanoldwoman,andmyhusbandhereis

anoldman?Thatwouldindeedbeawonderfulthing!"

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BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

—Qur'an,Sura11(Hud),ayat69­72 [15]

TombofSarah

SarahisbelievedbyMuslimstobeburiedintheCaveofthePatriarchs(knownbyMuslimsasthe

SanctuaryofAbraham).Thecompound,locatedintheancientcityofHebron,isthesecondholiestsitefor

Jews(aftertheTempleMountinJerusalem),andisalsoveneratedbyChristiansandMuslims,bothof

whomhavetraditionswhichmaintainthatthesiteistheburialplaceofthreeBiblicalcouples:Abrahamand

Sarah,IsaacandRebecca,andJacobandLeah.AlthoughJewsalternativelyalsobelievethistobetheburial

placeforAdamandEve,thisisaviewnotusuallyadoptedbyMuslims.

Balaam

Rembrandt 's BalaamandhisAss

Rembrandt'sBalaamandhisAss

InregardstoBalaaminIslam,itisverydoubtfulwhetherthereis

anyreferencetoBalaamintheQur'an.Oldclassicalcommentators

appliedtohim,butwithreservations:

RelatetothemthestoryofthemantowhomWesentOur

signs,buthepassedthemby:soSatanfollowedhimup,and

hewentastray.

IfithadbeenOurwill,Weshouldhaveelevatedhimwith

Oursigns;butheinclinedtotheearth,andfollowedhisown

vaindesires.Hissimilitudeisthatofadog:ifyouattackhim,

helollsouthistongue,orifyouleavehimalone,he(still)

lollsouthistongue.Thatisthesimilitudeofthosewhoreject

Oursigns;Sorelatethestory;perchancetheymayreflect.

—Qur'an,sura7(Al­A'raf),ayat175­176 [16]

Manymoderncommentators,includingAbdullahYusufAli,

however,feelthatthetaleofBalaamwasdifferentandunrelated.

Jeremiah

IbnKathirconsidersJeremiah(Arabic:ﺎﻴﻣﺭﺃ,Armaya)tobeaprophetofIslam,thoughheisnotmentioned

intheQur'an;inhisbookStoriesOfTheProphets,placesJeremiahinthepropheticpantheon,alongside

fellowOldTestamentprophetsDaniel,EzekielandIsaiah.ScholarsbelievethatJeremiahwasadescendant

ofLevi,sonofJacob,andlivedatatroubledtimewhenthereweremanyfalseprophetsspreadingfalse

messages.

Daniel

Danyal(Arabic:ﻝﺎﻴﻧﺍﺩ),knownasDanielintheBible,istraditionallyconsideredbyIbnKathirstobea

prophet,alongsidetheothermajorprophetsoftheOldTestament,namelyIsaiah,JeremiahandEzekiel.

AlthoughheisnotmentionedintheQur'an,thereareafewHadithwhichbearhisnameandwhichreferto

11/30/2014

BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

histimespentinthedenofthelions.Therearedebates,however,thatgoonaboutDaniel'stimeof

preachingandsomeMuslimsbelievethathewasnotaprophetbutasaintlyman.

StoryofDaniel

ItwashewhopreachedinBabylonian'Iraq,exhortingthepeopleto returntoGod.HelivedduringthereignofCyrus,andtaughtthis princetheunityofGodandthetruereligion.al­Tabarisays

("Chronique,"FrenchtranslationofZotenberg,i.44)thatthousands

ofpeoplewhohaddiedinacertaintownfromanepidemicwere resuscitatedathousandyearslaterbytheprayerofDaniel. [17]

WhenDanielhadbecomeanotedprophet,Cyrusmadehimthe

chiefofallhiskingdominorderthathemightteachhispeoplethe

truereligion.DanielaskedthekingtolethimgobacktoPalestine

prophetslikethee,Ishouldhavethemallstaywithme."Thereis

anothertradition,totheeffectthatDanielwaskingoftheIsraelites

aftertheirreturnfromcaptivity.

References

GustaveDore'sengraving DanielIn TheLion'sDen

GustaveDore'sengravingDanielIn

TheLion'sDen

thetruthofthestoryofthetwosonsofAdam.Behold!theyeachpresentedasacrifice(toAllah.Itwasaccepted fromone,butnotfromtheother.Saidthelatter:'BesureIwillslaythee.''Surely'saidtheformer,'(God)doth acceptofthesacrificeofthosewhoarerighteous.'

2. ^HolyQur'an:Text,Translation,Commentary,YusufAli,note.57:"Theslayingoftheprophetsbeginswiththe

murderofAbel,whowasintheancestryofIsrael."

stretchthyhandagainstme,toslayme,itisnotformetostretchmyhandagainsttheetoslaythee':forIdofear God,thecherisheroftheworlds.'"

intendtolettheedrawonthyselfmysinaswellasthine,forthouwiltbeamongthecompanionsofthefire,and thatistherewardofthosewhodowrong.'"

souloftheotherledhimtothemurderofhisbrother:hemurderedhim,andbecame(himself)oneofthelost ones."

araven,whoscratchedtheground,toshowhimhowtohidetheshameofhisbrother.'Woeisme!'saidhe.'Was

Inotevenabletobeasthisraven,andtohidetheshameofmybrother?'Thenhebecamefullofregrets."

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BiblicalfiguresinIslamictradition­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

7.

account:WeordainedfortheChildrenofIsraelthatifanyoneslewaperson­unlessitbeformurderorfor spreadingmischiefintheland­itwouldbeasifheslewthewholepeople:andifanyonesavedalife,itwould beasifhesavedthelifeofthewholepeople.ThenalthoughtherecametothemOurapostleswithclearsigns, yet,evenafterthat,manyofthemcontinuedtocommitexcessesintheland."

8.

9.

uponyoumaycomealltherighteousbloodshedupontheearth,fromthebloodofrighteousAbeluntotheblood ofZachariassonofBarachias,whomyeslewbetweenthetempleandthealtar."

10.

fetchedforthUrijahoutofEgypt,andbroughthimuntoJehoiakimtheking;whoslewhimwiththesword,and casthisdeadbodyintothegravesofthecommonpeople."

11.

^Muhammad,MartinLings,Chapter1.TheHouseofGod,SuhailAcademyPublishing

12.

wasfourscoreandsixyearsoldwhenHagarboreIshmaeltoAbram."

13.

wasahundredyearsoldwhenhissonIsaacwasbornuntohim."

14.

15.

16.

17.

^Chronigue(Frenchtransl.byZotenberg),i.44,496,503,571,ii.283;

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