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OBJECTIVE :

To investigate the variation in Coefficient of Performance (COP R) of a vapor compression

refrigeration system.

THEORY :

1. REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

1.1 Introduction

There are two type of refrigeration system viz vapor compression and vapor absorption system.

Out of these two vapors, compression system is commonly using in the buildings. Vapor Absorption

System is also becoming economically attractive where waste heat is available.

1.2 Refrigeration System

The function of the refrigeration system is to transport the heat from the lower temperature

in the conditioned space to the higher temperature outside. It is thus a heat pump. The

required energy input of a heat pump is a function not only of the amount of cooling it has to do

but also of the temperature elevation against which it is pumping. The reduction of this temperature

difference is the goal of optimization.

The isothermal processes in this cycle are also isobaric (constant pressure). The efficiency of a

refrigerator is defining as the ratio between the heat removed from the process and the work

required to achieve this heat removal.

High Temperature Reservoir, TH

QH

E

W net

QL

Ideal refrigeration system follows the theoretical Reversed Carnot cycle process. In practical

refrigerators, compression and expansion of gas and vapor mixture present in practical problems in

the compressor and expander. Therefore, in practical refrigeration, compression usually takes

place in the superheated field and a throttling process is substitute for the isentropic expansion.

Hot Region

q2-3

3

2

CONDENSER

Expansion

valve

W 1-2

Compressor

EVAPORATOR

4

q4-1

Source

Cold Region

T

Condenser

pressure

Condenser

Evaporator

Evaporator

pressure

1

4

w = h1- h2

Q4-1 = h1- h4 S

q1-2 = h3- h2

T

2

Condenser

temperature

Evaporator

temperature

S

The cycle:

1-2 isentropic compression of the vapor, from the evaporating to the condensing

pressures

2 -3 Condensation of the high pressure vapor during which heat is transferred to the high

temperature region.

3 -4 Adiabatic throttling of the condensed vapor from condensing to the evaporating

pressure.

4 -1 Evaporating of the low pressure liquid during which heat is absorbed from the low

temperature source.

Compressor

q1 2 h 2 h1 w

Power requirement, P = m (h1- h2 ), where m is the flow rate of working fluid per unit

time.

Condenser

q1-2 = h3- h2+ w

w = 0, therefore q2-3 = h3- h2, and rate of heat rejection Q2-3 = m (h3- h2 )

Expansion valve

Q3-4 = h4- h3+ w

w = 0 at the expansion valve and process is adiabatic,

therefore h4= h3

Evaporator

Q4-1 = h1- h4+ w

w = 0, therefore q4-1 = h1- h4, and rate of heat rejection Q4-1 = m (h1- h4)

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

CO Pr ef

q 4 1 h1 h 4

w

h 2 h1

EQUIPMENT

RC 713 COMPUTER LINKED REFRIGERATION UNIT (P.A HILTON)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

1. start the experiments at a condenser saturation temperature of 20C

2. Enter programmed one and increase the evaporator load to approximately 10%.

3. Return to the main menu and enter programmed two. Select no print out and display these

three parameters, 5. Condensing Temperature; 2. Refrigerant Flow Rate; and 14 Cooling water

Flow Rate.

4. By small adjustment of the cooling water, flow rate the condensing temperature of 20C may

be maintain. The system is stable when all three parameters show generally horizontal lines

(approximately 1 minutes)

5. When the system is stabilized, return to the main menu and select programmed 1 with print out

option (raw and calculated data)

6. Then, increase evaporator load (by 10%) and print out the result. Repeat until evaporator load

is at 80%.

RESULTS

By using data obtained from the experiments, for one set of data, plot the data on the Pressure

enthalpy (p-h) diagrams, and show the calculations of the parameters below using the energy

equation based on enthalpy:

a.

Refrigeration duty

Q 4-1

b.

Compressor work

W 1-2

c.

Heat rejected from condenser Q 2-3

d.

Load 0

Load 15

= 0.06061 (313.4 121.17)

= 11.65 kW

= 0.08199 (327.03 122.25)

= 16.79 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.06061 (313.4 335.22)

= - 1.32kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.08199 ( 327.03 341.85)

= - 1.22 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00865(121.17 335.22)

= -185 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00856(122.25 341.85)

= -1.88 kW

h2 h1 335.22 313.4.

= 8.81

h2 h1 341.85 327.03

= 13.82

Load 30

Load 45

= 0.08191 (326.84 123.81)

= 16.63 kW

= 0.08164 (328.97 124.03)

= 16.73 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.08191 ( 326.84 346.80)

= - 1.63 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.08164 ( 328.97 351.01)

= - 1.8 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00856(123.81 346.80)

= -1.91 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00837(124.03 351.01)

= -1.9 kW

h2 h1 346.8 - 326.84

= 10.17

h2 h1 351.01 328.97

= 9.3

Load 60

= 0.08111 (335.41 124.81)

= 17.08 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.08111 (335.41 354.12)

= - 1.52 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00837(124.81 335.12)

= -1.76 kW

COPref = h1 h4 = 335.41 124.81

h2 h1 354.12 335.41

= 11.26

Load 75

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)

= 0.08111 (337.90 125.53)

= 11.26 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )

= 0.08111 ( 337.90 357.32)

= - 1.58 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )

= 0.00856(125.53 357.32)

= -1.98 kW

COPref = h1 h4 = 337.90 125.53

h2 h1 357.32 337.90

= 10.94

Load

0

15

30

45

60

75

Q4-1

(kW)

W 1-2

(kW)

Q 2-3

(kW)

COP ref

8.56 x 10

8.56 x 10

8.56 x 10

8.37 x 10

8.37 x 10

8.56 x 10

11.65

16.79

16.63

16.73

17.08

11.26

-1.32

-1.22

-1.63

-1.8

-1.52

-1.58

-1.85

-1.88

-1.91

-1.9

-1.76

-1.98

8.81

13.82

10.17

9.3

11.26

10.94

Evaporator

Condenser

Refrigerant

Cooling water

temp (C)

exit temp

flow rate

(C)

(kg/s)

60.61 x 10

81.99 x 10

81.91 x 10

81.64 x 10

81.11 x 10

81.11 x 10

10.39

23.69

30.98

38.10

41.90

45.01

44.42

49.87

55.34

59.22

63.10

66.30

DISCUSSIONS

1. Fill in the parameters from one set of experiment data into the refrigeration

system diagram.

Load 60

Qc = -3.76 Watt

3

2

CONDENSER

4

EVAPORATOR

Wc = -1.52 Watt

Qe = 17.08

CONCLUSION

Refrigeration is the device that can work as heat rejecter or heat injector to the

working space. Refrigeration process is based on Reversed Carnot cycle process. In this

process, it will involve in input work (compression), heat rejection (condensation) and

heat absorbed (evaporation).

To determine the Coefficient of Performance of refrigeration system can be

determine by this equation

COP = _Q_ = h1 h4

W

h2 h1

Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration depends on the workability of the

refrigerant and also the load. In this experiment, as the load increase the COP will reduce

and the temperature at the condenser increase. This condition will affect the value of COP

and the workability of the refrigeration system.

The temperature of load supply must equal to the evaporation temperature of the

refrigerant in order to maximize the COP of the refrigerant system. Choosing a suitable

refrigerant also critical. Refrigerant chose must suitable to work on the load applied. The

COP of the refrigerant system also can be increased with maximizing the workability of

compressor (comp).

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