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TITLE :

Variation in refrigeration coefficient of performance at various process temperatures


OBJECTIVE :
To investigate the variation in Coefficient of Performance (COP R) of a vapor compression
refrigeration system.
THEORY :
1. REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
1.1 Introduction
There are two type of refrigeration system viz vapor compression and vapor absorption system.
Out of these two vapors, compression system is commonly using in the buildings. Vapor Absorption
System is also becoming economically attractive where waste heat is available.
1.2 Refrigeration System
The function of the refrigeration system is to transport the heat from the lower temperature
in the conditioned space to the higher temperature outside. It is thus a heat pump. The
required energy input of a heat pump is a function not only of the amount of cooling it has to do
but also of the temperature elevation against which it is pumping. The reduction of this temperature
difference is the goal of optimization.
The isothermal processes in this cycle are also isobaric (constant pressure). The efficiency of a
refrigerator is defining as the ratio between the heat removed from the process and the work
required to achieve this heat removal.
High Temperature Reservoir, TH

QH
E
W net
QL

Low Temperature Reservoir, TL

1.3 The vapor Compression cycle


Ideal refrigeration system follows the theoretical Reversed Carnot cycle process. In practical
refrigerators, compression and expansion of gas and vapor mixture present in practical problems in
the compressor and expander. Therefore, in practical refrigeration, compression usually takes
place in the superheated field and a throttling process is substitute for the isentropic expansion.

Hot Region

q2-3
3

2
CONDENSER

Expansion
valve

W 1-2
Compressor

EVAPORATOR
4

q4-1
Source
Cold Region

Figure 1: Refrigeration cycle for theory


T

Condenser
pressure

Condenser

Evaporator

Evaporator
pressure

1
4

w = h1- h2
Q4-1 = h1- h4 S
q1-2 = h3- h2

T
2
Condenser
temperature

Evaporator
temperature

S
The cycle:
1-2 isentropic compression of the vapor, from the evaporating to the condensing
pressures
2 -3 Condensation of the high pressure vapor during which heat is transferred to the high
temperature region.
3 -4 Adiabatic throttling of the condensed vapor from condensing to the evaporating
pressure.
4 -1 Evaporating of the low pressure liquid during which heat is absorbed from the low
temperature source.

ENERGY TRANSFERS ANALYSIS


Compressor
q1 2 h 2 h1 w

If compression is adiabatic, q1-2 = 0 and w = h1- h2


Power requirement, P = m (h1- h2 ), where m is the flow rate of working fluid per unit
time.
Condenser
q1-2 = h3- h2+ w
w = 0, therefore q2-3 = h3- h2, and rate of heat rejection Q2-3 = m (h3- h2 )
Expansion valve
Q3-4 = h4- h3+ w
w = 0 at the expansion valve and process is adiabatic,
therefore h4= h3
Evaporator
Q4-1 = h1- h4+ w
w = 0, therefore q4-1 = h1- h4, and rate of heat rejection Q4-1 = m (h1- h4)
Coefficient of Performance (COP)

CO Pr ef

q 4 1 h1 h 4

w
h 2 h1

EQUIPMENT
RC 713 COMPUTER LINKED REFRIGERATION UNIT (P.A HILTON)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
1. start the experiments at a condenser saturation temperature of 20C
2. Enter programmed one and increase the evaporator load to approximately 10%.
3. Return to the main menu and enter programmed two. Select no print out and display these
three parameters, 5. Condensing Temperature; 2. Refrigerant Flow Rate; and 14 Cooling water
Flow Rate.
4. By small adjustment of the cooling water, flow rate the condensing temperature of 20C may
be maintain. The system is stable when all three parameters show generally horizontal lines
(approximately 1 minutes)
5. When the system is stabilized, return to the main menu and select programmed 1 with print out
option (raw and calculated data)
6. Then, increase evaporator load (by 10%) and print out the result. Repeat until evaporator load
is at 80%.

RESULTS
By using data obtained from the experiments, for one set of data, plot the data on the Pressure
enthalpy (p-h) diagrams, and show the calculations of the parameters below using the energy
equation based on enthalpy:

a.
Refrigeration duty
Q 4-1

b.
Compressor work
W 1-2

c.
Heat rejected from condenser Q 2-3
d.

Coefficient of Performance, COP ref

DATA AND RESULT

Load 0

Load 15

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)


= 0.06061 (313.4 121.17)
= 11.65 kW

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)


= 0.08199 (327.03 122.25)
= 16.79 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.06061 (313.4 335.22)
= - 1.32kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.08199 ( 327.03 341.85)
= - 1.22 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00865(121.17 335.22)
= -185 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00856(122.25 341.85)
= -1.88 kW

COPref = h1 h4 = 313.4 -121.17


h2 h1 335.22 313.4.
= 8.81

COPref = h1 h4 = 327.03 -122.25


h2 h1 341.85 327.03
= 13.82

Load 30

Load 45

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)


= 0.08191 (326.84 123.81)
= 16.63 kW

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)


= 0.08164 (328.97 124.03)
= 16.73 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.08191 ( 326.84 346.80)
= - 1.63 kW

W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.08164 ( 328.97 351.01)
= - 1.8 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00856(123.81 346.80)
= -1.91 kW

Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00837(124.03 351.01)
= -1.9 kW

COPref = h1 h4 = 326.84 123.81


h2 h1 346.8 - 326.84
= 10.17

COPref = h1 h4 = 328.97 124.03


h2 h1 351.01 328.97
= 9.3

Load 60

Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)


= 0.08111 (335.41 124.81)
= 17.08 kW
W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.08111 (335.41 354.12)
= - 1.52 kW
Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00837(124.81 335.12)
= -1.76 kW
COPref = h1 h4 = 335.41 124.81
h2 h1 354.12 335.41
= 11.26

Load 75
Q 4-1 = mR134 (h1 h4)
= 0.08111 (337.90 125.53)
= 11.26 kW
W 1-2 = mR134 ( h1 h2 )
= 0.08111 ( 337.90 357.32)
= - 1.58 kW
Q 2-3 = mH2O ( h3 h2 )
= 0.00856(125.53 357.32)
= -1.98 kW
COPref = h1 h4 = 337.90 125.53
h2 h1 357.32 337.90
= 10.94

Load

0
15
30
45
60
75

flow rate (kg/s)

Q4-1
(kW)

W 1-2
(kW)

Q 2-3
(kW)

COP ref

8.56 x 10
8.56 x 10
8.56 x 10
8.37 x 10
8.37 x 10
8.56 x 10

11.65
16.79
16.63
16.73
17.08
11.26

-1.32
-1.22
-1.63
-1.8
-1.52
-1.58

-1.85
-1.88
-1.91
-1.9
-1.76
-1.98

8.81
13.82
10.17
9.3
11.26
10.94

Evaporator

Condenser

Refrigerant

Cooling water

temp (C)

exit temp

flow rate

(C)

(kg/s)
60.61 x 10
81.99 x 10
81.91 x 10
81.64 x 10
81.11 x 10
81.11 x 10

10.39
23.69
30.98
38.10
41.90
45.01

44.42
49.87
55.34
59.22
63.10
66.30

Table 1: Result summary

DISCUSSIONS
1. Fill in the parameters from one set of experiment data into the refrigeration
system diagram.

Load 60

Qc = -3.76 Watt
3

2
CONDENSER

4
EVAPORATOR

Wc = -1.52 Watt

Qe = 17.08

CONCLUSION
Refrigeration is the device that can work as heat rejecter or heat injector to the
working space. Refrigeration process is based on Reversed Carnot cycle process. In this
process, it will involve in input work (compression), heat rejection (condensation) and
heat absorbed (evaporation).
To determine the Coefficient of Performance of refrigeration system can be
determine by this equation
COP = _Q_ = h1 h4
W
h2 h1
Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration depends on the workability of the
refrigerant and also the load. In this experiment, as the load increase the COP will reduce
and the temperature at the condenser increase. This condition will affect the value of COP
and the workability of the refrigeration system.
The temperature of load supply must equal to the evaporation temperature of the
refrigerant in order to maximize the COP of the refrigerant system. Choosing a suitable
refrigerant also critical. Refrigerant chose must suitable to work on the load applied. The
COP of the refrigerant system also can be increased with maximizing the workability of
compressor (comp).