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SKELETAL SYSTEM

Bones provide the body with structure and


support

206 bones with joints and connective tissue


Divisions
Axial 80 bones
Skull
Vertebral column
Rib cage
Appendicular 126 bones
Arms and legs
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle

Bones contain various kinds of tissues, including


Osseous tissue
Blood vessels
Nerves
Osseous tissue can
appear compact or
spongy
Classification by shape
Long bones located primarily in the arms and legs
Femur (thigh bone)
Humerus (upper arm bone)

Short bones small bones located in the wrists


and ankles
Carpals (wrist bones)
Tarsals (ankle bones)
Flat bones located in the skull and rib cage
Ribs
Frontal bone
Irregular bones
Vertebrae
Bones of the pelvic girdle
FUNCTIONS OF BONES
Give shape to body parts
Support and protect soft structures
o Examples brain, lungs, heart
Allow body movement, because skeletal
muscles attach to them
o Allow for voluntary movement
Red bone marrow of bone produces
new blood cells hematopoiesis
Store calcium
Ossification process of bone growth
Intramembranous ossification

Bones begin as tough, fibrous


membrane
Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts
turn the membrane to bone (located in
skull)

THE SKULL
Two bone types:
Cranial form the top, sides, and back
of the skull
Facial form the face
Frontal anterior

Parietal top and most of the sides

Occipital back

Temporal form the lower sides of the


skull
Sphenoid and ethmoid bones floor
Ear ossicles are the smallest bones of the body
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
THE SPINAL COLUMN
7 cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic vertebrae
5 lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum
Coccyx
THE RIB CAGE
Sternum
o Breastplate
o Forms the front middle portion of the
rib cage
o Joins with the clavicles and most ribs
o Xyphoid process
Cartilaginous tip
12 pairs of ribs
All are attached posteriorly to thoracic
vertebrae
True
o First seven pairs of ribs
o Attach to sternum by costal cartilage
JOINTS
Junctions between bones
Classification based on structure
Fibrous joints
Connected together with short fibers
Between cranial bones and facial bones
Sutures fibrous joints in the skull
Cartilaginous joints
Connected together with a disc of cartilage
Between vertebrae

Synovial joints

Covered with hyaline cartilage


Held together by a fibrous joint
capsule lined with synovial
membrane
Secretes synovial fluid so bones
move easily against each other
Freely movable
Bones are also held together through
tough, cord-like structures called
ligaments

MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Muscle has the ability to contract, permitting muscles
to perform various functions
Functions:
Movement
Stability
Control of body openings and passages
Heat production
Skeletal muscles
Attached to bones by tendons
Cross joints so when they contract,
bones they attach to move
Smooth muscle
Found on organ walls
Contractions produce movement of
organ contents
Cardiac muscle
Produces atrial and ventricular
contractions
This pumps blood from the heart into
the blood vessels

Peristalsis rhythmic contraction that pushes


substances through tubes of the body
Neurotransmitters for smooth muscle contraction
Acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
Will cause or inhibit contractions, depending on
smooth muscle type
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Function

Move air in an out of lungs (ventilation)


Delivers oxygen (O2)
Removes carbon dioxide (CO2)

External respiration
Occurs in the lungs
Internal respiration
Occurs in the hemoglobin
Nasal cavity
Warms & moistens air
Glands that produce sticky mucus line the nasal
cavity
traps dust, pollen, and other materials that were not
trapped by nasal hairs
cilia sweep mucus and trapped material to the back
of the throat where it can be swallowed
Pharynx
Tube-like passageway used by food, liquid, and
air
At the lower end of the pharynx is a flap of
tissue called the epiglottis
covers the trachea during swallowing so
that food does not enter the lungs
Larynx
Voice box
The airway to which two pairs of horizontal
folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached
Vocal cords

Stretched between the thyroid cartilage


and the cricoid cartilage
Upper false cords
Lower true vocal cords
Glottis the opening between the vocal
cords
Stretch = pitch of voice

Trachea
Air-conducting tube
Connects the larynx with the bronchi
Lined with mucous membranes and cilia
Contains strong cartilage rings
Bronchial tree

Bronchi
Air-conducting tube
Connects the larynx with the bronchi
Lined with mucous membranes and cilia
Contains strong cartilage rings

Bronchioles
Tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs

Connect bronchi to alveoli

Alveoli
Tiny, thin-walled, grapelike clusters at the end of
each bronchiole
Surrounded by capillaries
Where carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange
take place
Singular - alveolus

Secrete surfactant
Fatty substance
Helps maintains the inflation of the
alveoli between inspirations
Lungs
Cone-shaped organs
Right lung three lobes
Left lung two lobes
Pleura membranes surrounding the
lungs
Diaphragm
Muscle wall between the chest and the
abdomen that the body uses for breathing
Most of the oxygen binds to hemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin
Bright red in color
Some oxygen remains dissolved in plasma
If CO2 combines with hemoglobin at O2 sites, it forms
carboxyhemoglobin

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Digestion

Mechanical and chemical breakdown of


foods into forms that body cells can
absorb
The organs of the digestive system carry
out digestion

Two categories
Alimentary canal organs
Accessory organs
Mouth
Buccal cavity
Mechanical digestion
o Takes in food and reduces its size by
chewing
Starts chemical digestion
o Saliva contains enzyme amylase, which
breaks down carbohydrates
Pharynx

Throat
Functions
o Connects nasal cavity with oral cavity for
breathing
o Pushes food into esophagus
Esophagus
Muscular tube connecting pharynx to stomach
o Esophageal hiatus hole in diaphragm
through which esophagus passes
Cardiac sphincter
o Circular band of muscle at the opening
of the stomach
o controls movement of food into
stomach
Stomach
Below the diaphragm in the upper left
quadrant of the abdominal cavity
Functions
o Receive food from esophagus
o Mix bolus with gastric juice
o Start protein digestion
o Move food into small intestine
Gastric glands stimulated by
o Parasympathetic nervous system
o Gastrin (hormone)
Cholesystokinin (hormone)
secreted by the small intestine
inhibits gastric glands
Stomach absorbs alcohol, water,
and some fat-soluble drugs
Chyme mixture of food and
gastric juices
SMALL INTESTINE
Tubular organ extending from the stomach to
the large intestine
Functions
o Digestion
o Absorption of nutrients
Lining of small intestine
o Microvilli increase surface area
o Intestinal glands
Mucus and water
Enzymes
Peptidases digest
proteins
Sucrase, maltase, and
lactase digest sugars
Intestinal lipase
digests fats
Primary controls
o Parasympathetic nervous system
o Stretching of intestinal wall
LARGE INTESTINE

Extends from the ileum to the anus


Cecum
o Beginning of large intestine
o Veriform appendix
Ascending colon
o Portion that goes up the right side of the
abdominal cavity
Transverse colon
o Crosses abdominal cavity from right to
left
Descending colon
o Down left side of abdominal cavity
Sigmoid colon
o S-shaped portion in pelvic cavity
Absorbs water and electrolytes
Feces
o Leftover chyme
o Consists of undigested solid materials,
little water, ions, mucus, cells of
intestinal lining, and bacteria
Defecation reflex
o Triggered by periodic contractions of
large intestine
o Allows anal sphincters to relax

*LIVER
Lobular organ in right upper quadrant
Large right lobe and smaller left lobe
o Hepatic lobules contain
macrophages
o Hepatocytes process nutrients
in blood and
make bile
o Part of livers function
Store vitamins and iron

*GALLBLADDER
Small sac-like structure located beneath the liver
Only function is to store bile
Cholecystokinin causes the gallbladder to
release bile
*PANCREAS
Located behind the stomach
Acinar cells produce pancreatic juice, which
contains
these enzymes:

Pancreatic amylase
digests carbohydrates

Pancreatic lipase
digests lipids
Nucleases digests
nucleic acids
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
digest proteins

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Male and female reproductive systems
o Function together to produce offspring
o Female reproductive system nurtures
developing offspring
o Produce important hormones
Testes
o Primary organs
Develop in the abdominal pelvic
cavity of fetus
Descend into scrotal sac shortly
before or after birth
o Produce the male sex cells (sperm)
o Produce the male hormone
testosterone
Scrotum sac that holds the testes
Seminiferous tubules
o On top of testes
o Filled with spermatogenic cells that
produce sperm cells
Interstitial cells produce testosterone
Sperm cells
o Head
Nucleus with 23 chromosomes
Acrosome enzyme-filled sac
Helps sperm penetrate
ovum
o Midpiece
Mitochrondria that generate
cells energy
o Tail
Flagellum that propels sperm
forward
Epididymis
o Sits on top of each testis
o Receives spermatids from seminiferous
tubules
o Spermatids become sperm cells
Vas deferens
o Tube connected to epididymis
o Carries sperm cells to urethra
Seminal vesicle
o Secrete
Fluid rich in sugar used to make
energy
Prostaglandins stimulate
muscular contractions in female
to propel sperm forward
o Seminal fluid
Released into vas deferens just
before ejaculation
60% of semen volume
Prostate gland

o
o

Surrounds urethra
Produces and secretes a milky, alkaline
fluid into urethra just before ejaculation
o Fluid protects sperm in the acidic
environment of the vagina
o 40% of semen
Bulbourethral (Cowpers) glands
o Produce a mucus-like fluid
Secreted just before ejaculation
Lubricates end of penis
Semen
o Alkaline mixture
Nutrients
Prostoglandins
o 1.5 to 5.0 ml per ejaculate
o Sperm count of 40 to 250 million / ml
Scrotum
o Holds testes away from body
o Temperature 1 below body
temperature
o Lined with serous membrane that
secrets fluid
Testes move freely
Penis
o Shaft
Erectile tissues surround urethra
o Glans penis
Cone-shaped structure on end
of penis
o Prepuce
Skin covering glans penis in
uncircumcised males
o Functions
Deliver sperm
Urination
Testosterone
Secondary sex characteristics
Maturation of male reproductive organs
Regulated by negative feedback

Ovaries (2)
Primary sex organs produce
o Sex cells called ova
o Hormones estrogen and
progesterone
Located in the pelvic cavity
Medulla
o Inner area; contains nerves,
lymphatic vessels, and blood
vessels
Cortex

Outer area; contains ovarian


follicles
Covered by epithelial and dense
connective tissues
Primordial follicles develop before birth and contain
A primary oocyte or immature ovum
(born with maximum number)
Follicular cells
Oogenesis is the process of ovum formation
At puberty, primary oocytes are
stimulated to continue meiosis
o Becomes 1 polar body (a
nonfunctional cell) and
o A secondary oocyte
Secondary oocyte released during
ovulation
If fertilized, the oocyte divides to form a
mature, fertilized ovum
Fallopian tube oviduct
Infundibulum and fimbriae
o Fringed, expanded end of
fallopian tube near ovary
o Function to catch an ovum
Muscular tube
o Lined with mucous membrane
and cilia
o Propels ovum toward uterus
Uterus
Hollow, muscular organ
Receives embryo and sustains its
development
Divisions
o Fundus domed upper portion
o Body main portion
o Cervix narrow, lower section
extending into vagina (cervical
orifice)
Vagina
Tubular, muscular organ
Extends from uterus to outside body
(vaginal introitus)
Muscular folds rugae enable
expansion
o Receive erect penis
o Passage for delivery of offspring
and uterine secretions
Wall
o Innermost mucosal layer
o Middle muscular layer
o Outer fibrous layer
Mammary glands
Secretion of milk
Structures
o Nipple

Oxytocin induces
lactiferous ducts to
deliver milk through
openings
o Areola pigmented area around
nipple
o Alveolar glands within
mammary glands
Make milk when
stimulated by prolactin
Collectively known as the vulva
Labia majora
Rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin
Protect other external reproductive
organs
Labia minora
Fold of skin between labia majora
Very vascular
Merge to form hood over clitoris
Vestibule space enclosed by labia
minora
o Bartholins glands secrete
mucus during sexual arousal
Clitoris
Anterior to urethral meatus
Contains female erectile tissue
Rich in sensory nerves
Perineum
Between vagina and anus
Area for episiotomy, if needed, during
birth process