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ARI*

Azimuthal
Resistivity
Imager

Schlumberger

ARI* Azimuthal
Resistivity
Imager

Schlumberger 1993
Schlumberger Wireline & Testing
P.O. Box 2175
Houston, Texas 77252-2175
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
without prior written permission of the publisher.
SMP-9260
An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to
denote a mark of Schlumberger.

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual laterolog resistivity measurements . . . . . .
Azimuthal resistivity measurements . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary azimuthal measurements . . . . . . . . . . . .
Orientation measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modes of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combinability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Porosity and lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Others. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Borehole correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deep invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thin-bed analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fractured formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heterogeneous formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dip estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Borehole profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Groningen effect correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common ARI curve names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ARI Azimuthal
Resistivity Imager

Introduction
The ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager, a newgeneration laterolog tool, makes directional deep
measurements around the borehole with a higher
vertical resolution than previously possible.
Using 12 azimuthal electrodes incorporated in a
dual laterolog array, the ARI tool provides a dozen
deep oriented resistivity measurements while
retaining the standard deep and shallow readings.
A very shallow auxiliary measurement is incorporated to fully correct the azimuthal resistivities for
borehole effect.
The formation around the borehole is displayed
as an azimuthal resistivity image. Although this
full-coverage image has much lower spatial resolution than acoustic or microelectrical images
those coming from the UBI* Ultrasonic Borehole
Imager tool or the FMI* Fullbore Formation
MicroImagerit complements them well because
of its sensitivity to features beyond the borehole
wall and its lower sensitivity to shallow features
(Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Combining deep ARI images with shallow


borehole surface images from the FMI tool, or even acoustic
UBI images, helps to discriminate between deep natural
fractures and shallow drilling-induced fractures.
(Courtesy of UK Nirex Ltd)

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 1

Background
The laterolog technique was introduced in 1951;
20 years later the DLL* Dual Laterolog Resistivity
tool was developed (Fig. 2). Together with induction tools, the DLL tool provided key input for
basic formation saturation evaluation.
Although anomalies such as the Delaware
and anti-Delaware effects have been overcome
by repositioning the measure and current return
electrodes, other reference electrode effects have
influenced deep laterolog measurements since their
early days. The Groningen effect, for example,
remains a particularly complex problem that
manifests itself as an increase in the deep laterolog
(LLd) reading in conductive beds overlain by
thick, highly resistive beds.

LLd

The vertical resolution of the deep and shallow


laterologs is around 2.5 ft, with a typical beam
width of approximately 28 in. With the contribution of thin beds becoming more important for
optimizing production, this vertical resolution is
increasingly recognized as insufficient for their
proper evaluation.
A need has existed for a quantitative, deepreading resistivity measurement combining better
vertical resolution with azimuthal resolution and
full coverage. This measurement, which is provided by the ARI tool, bridges the gap between
high-resolution microimaging instruments and
conventional low-resolution resistivity tools.

LLs

A2

A1
M2
M1
A0
M'1
M'2
A'1

A'2

Figure 2. Dual Laterolog sonde electrode distribution and current path shape.

Background

Principles
The ARI tool incorporates azimuthal electrodes
into the conventional DLL array. The electrodes
are placed at the center of the DLL tools A2
electrode (Fig. 3).

Dual laterolog resistivity measurements


Current from the A2 electrode focuses the LLd
current. The A2 electrode also serves as a return
electrode for the shallow laterolog (LLs) current.
The relatively small azimuthal array at the center
of the A2 electrode does not interfere with either
the LLd or the LLs measurements.
The DLL tool operates simultaneously at two
frequencies: 35 Hz for the LLd and 280 Hz for the
LLs. In both cases the survey current (I0) flows
from the A0 electrode and is controlled by the
output of a feedback loop. This loop equalizes the
potentials across pairs of monitor electrodes (M1,
M2 and M'2, M'1), focusing the current from the
A0 electrode into the formation.

Focusing current for the LLs measurement


flows from the A1 and A'1 electrodes, and both
survey and focusing currents return to the A2
and A'2 electrodes. For the LLd measurement, an
auxiliary monitor loop makes the tool effectively
equipotential at 35 Hz; focusing current flows
from both the A1, A'1 and A2, A'2 electrode pairs.
The LLd survey current is focused so that it flows
perpendicular to the tool, and all deep current
returns to electrode B at the surface.
The tool is connected to the logging cable by
the bridle, a flexible insulating connector about
80 ft long. The potential difference (V0) between
the monitor electrodes (M2 and M'2) and the cable
armor at the torpedo is recorded, as is the survey
current (I0) flowing from the A0 electrode. The
resistivity (R) is computed according to
R=k

V0
,
I0

where k is a geometric factor.

LLd
and
deep
azimuthal
resistivity

LLs
and
azimuthal
electrical
standoff

A2

A1
M2
M1
A0
M'1
M'2
A'1

A'2

Figure 3. ARI azimuthal electrodes are incorporated in the Dual Laterolog A2 electrode.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 3

Azimuthal resistivity measurements


The detailed view of the azimuthal array (Fig. 4)
shows current paths for the deep and auxiliary
measurements made with the array. The deep
azimuthal measurement operates at 35 Hz, the
same frequency as the deep laterolog, and the
currents flow from the 12 azimuthal current electrodes to the surface. They are focused from above
by the current from the upper portion of the A2
electrode; from below they are focused by currents
from the lower portion of the A2 electrode and by
currents from the A1, A0, A'1 and A'2 electrodes.
In addition, the current from each azimuthal electrode is focused passively by the currents from
its neighbors.
To overcome electrochemical effects across
the electrode/mud interface, the azimuthal array
is implemented in a monitored laterolog 3 (LL3)
configuration. These effects would degrade the
response of a simpler equipotential LL3 implementation.

A monitor electrode is set in each current electrode, and a feedback loop controls the electrode
current. The monitor electrode is thus maintained
at the mean potential of the annular monitor electrodes that lie just inside the A2 guard electrode
on either side of the array (M3 and M4 in Fig. 4).
The mud in front of the azimuthal current
electrodes is effectively equipotential. The 12
azimuthal currents (Ii) and the mean potential of
the M3 and M4 electrodes relative to the cable
armor (Vm) are measured. From these data 12
azimuthal resistivities (Ri) are computed:
Ri = k'

Vm
,
Ii

where k' is a geometric factor.


From the sum of 12 azimuthal currents, a
high-resolution resistivity measurement, LLhr, is
derived. This technique is equivalent to replacing
the azimuthal electrodes by a single cylindrical
electrode of the same height.

A2

A2

Vm
M3

M3

Figure 4. Azimuthal
electrode array and
current paths in both
measurement modes.

dV = 0

Ii

Ic

M4

M4
A2

High-resolution deep mode

Principles

dVi

A2

Auxiliary mode

Auxiliary azimuthal measurements


The azimuthal resistivity measurements are
sensitive to tool eccentering in the borehole and to
irregular borehole shape. To correct these effects, a
simultaneous auxiliary measurement is made with
the array at a frequency of 71 kHz, which is sufficiently high to avoid interference with the 35-Hz
monitor loops.
In this operating mode, current is passed
between each azimuthal electrode and the A2
guard electrode (Fig. 4). The azimuthal and
annular monitor electrodes, M3 and M4, serve as
measure electrodes. The difference between the
potential of the azimuthal monitor electrode and
the mean potential of the annular monitor electrodes (dVi) is measured.
Each azimuthal electrode passes the same
current (Ic), and 12 resistivities (Rci) are computed
as follows:
Rci = c

dVi
,
Ic

where c is a geometric factor chosen so that, in an


infinite uniform fluid, Rci gives the fluid resistivity.

The auxiliary measurement is very shallow,


with a current path close to the tool and most of
the current returning to the A2 electrode near the
azimuthal array.
Because the borehole is generally more conductive than the formation, the current tends to stay in
the mud and the measurement responds primarily
to the volume of mud in front of each azimuthal
electrode. Therefore, the measurement is less sensitive to borehole size and shape and to eccentering of the tool in the borehole.
The primary objective of the auxiliary measurement is to provide information for correcting the
azimuthal resistivity measurement for the effects
of borehole irregularities and tool eccentering. A
secondary objective is to derive an electrical standoff from which borehole size and shape can be
estimated if mud resistivity (Rm) is known or is
measured independently.

Orientation measurements
The orientation of the ARI tool is measured
with a GPIT* General Purpose Inclinometry
Tool, the device used to orient many dipmeter
and imaging logs.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 5

Specifications
The ARI tool is evolving; therefore, some
specifications in Table 1 may change.

Table 1. ARI tool specifications.

Length

33.3 ft [10.1 m]

Weight

578 lbm [263 kg]

Diameter (small sub)

3 58 in. [9.2 mm] (4 78 in. [12.3 mm] with standoff)

Diameter (medium sub)

6 in. [15.2 mm] (7 14 in. [18.4 mm] with standoff)

Vertical resolution

8 in. in a 6-in. hole

Azimuthal resolution

60 degrees azimuthal angle for 1-in. standoff

Formation resistivity range

0.2 to 100,000 ohm-m

Temperature rating

350F

Pressure rating

20,000 psi

Mud resistivity

Up to 2 ohm-m in active mode


Up to 5 ohm-m in passive mode

Specifications

Operation
The lower sections of the ARI tool contain the
dual laterolog A1, A0, A'1 and A'2 electrodes,
which are essentially identical to those used in the
DLL tool. The upper azimuthal section uses the
top and bottom parts of the dual laterolog A2
electrode as its LL3 guard electrodes. This
section can be operated independently from the
lower sections in a stand-alone configuration.
The ARI tool can be logged at 3600 ft/hr; when
dip estimation is required, however, logging speed
is reduced to 1800 ft/hr and data channels are
sampled every 0.5 in. for greater accuracy.

Modes of operation
In the principal mode of operation, the active
mode, current is emitted by each of the current
electrodes, and 12 calibrated resistivities are
available in real time. In addition, the conventional
deep and shallow laterolog measurements (LLd
and LLs) are available.

A backup, passive mode was conceived for


cases where mud resistivity is above 2 ohm-m or
in case one of the azimuthal electrode circuit loops
fails. If one of the 12 azimuthal loops fails while
the tool is operating in the active mode, the
remaining loops may not function properly. In the
passive mode, one faulty channel does not affect
the remaining channels.
LLhr measurements from active and passive
modes are identical; however, an estimate of mud
resistivity is required to obtain the individual calibrated azimuthal resistivities in passive mode.
The tool can be switched downhole from one
mode to the other by software command.

Stand-alone operation
When induction devices are preferred to laterologs
and a deep-formation resistivity image is required,
the azimuthal section can be run in combination
with an induction tool (for example, the AIT*
Array Induction Imager Tool).

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 7

Environmental corrections
Any laterolog-type measurement is subject to
a borehole correction that is a function of the
borehole diameter and of the ratio of formation

resistivity to mud resistivity. The LLhr log reading


can be corrected according to the chart in Fig. 5.
Figure 6 shows that the high-resolution LLhr

Borehole Corrections
3 5 8-in. ARI tool, active mode, tool centered, thick beds
1.3

1.2

1.1

Rcor /Ra 0.9


Hole diameter
0.8

6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.

0.7

0.6

0.5
1

10

100

1000

10,000

100,000

Ra /Rm

Figure 5. Borehole corrections applied to the LLhr log recorded in active mode.

Environmental corrections

curve reads almost as deep into the formation as a


deep laterolog LLd curve, particularly when Rt is
less than Rxo. An LLhr log can therefore replace an

LLd log for interpretation, especially when its


excellent vertical resolution is an advantage.
Individually selected azimuthal resistivities can

1
0.9

Rt = 50 ohm-m
Rxo = 10 ohm-m
Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
Hole diameter = 8 in.

0.8
0.7
0.6

Rt Ra
Rt Rxo

0.5
0.4
0.3

LLhr

0.2

LLd

0.1

LLs

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Invasion radius (in.)

1
0.9
0.8

Rt = 1 ohm-m
Rxo = 10 ohm-m
Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
Hole diameter = 8 in.

0.7
0.6

Rt Ra
Rt Rxo

0.5
0.4
0.3

LLhr

0.2

LLd

0.1

LLs

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Invasion radius (in.)

Figure 6. Depth of investigation of the LLhr curve


compared with the LLd and LLs curves in two different
resistivity environments.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 9

be used in the same way when the logged interval


is azimuthally anisotropic or includes highly dipping thin beds.
The fine vertical resolution of the LLhr curve

is shown in Fig. 7 across a formation boundary


with a resistivity step from 1 to 10 ohm-m. The
responses of the LLd and LLs curves are shown
across the same boundary for comparison.

20

10

R t 1 = 1 ohm-m
R t 2 = 10 ohm-m
Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
Hole diameter = 6 in.

Ra
(ohm-m)

LLhr
1

LLd
LLs

0.5
30

24

18

12

12

18

24

30

Distance to boundary (in.)

Figure 7. LLhr log response compared with LLd and LLs logs across a
resistivity step boundary. The significant improvement in vertical resolution is apparent.

10

Environmental corrections

Combinability
The ARI tool is combinable with a wide variety of
other tools including the following:

Auxiliary

Resistivity

Auxiliary Measurement Sonde

AIT Array Induction Imager Tool

GPIT inclinometry tool

DIL* Dual Induction Resistivity Log


MicroSFL* tool

EMS* Environmental Measurement Sonde

Others
DSI* Dipole Shear Sonic Imager

Porosity and lithology

FMI Fullbore Formation MicroImager

Gamma ray tool

ADEPT* Adaptable Electromagnetic


Propagation Tool

CNL* Compensated Neutron Log tool


Litho-Density* tool

RFT* Repeat Formation Tester

NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry tool

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 11

Applications
New applications are being developed and discovered as experience with the ARI service grows in a
variety of environments. We discuss here the more
important applications known and proven with
examples at this time.

Borehole correction
The electrical standoff measurements can be used
to correct the azimuthal resistivities for tool eccentering and variations in borehole shape and size.
The correction to be applied is a function of the
electrical standoff measurements, mud resistivity
and formation resistivity. Correction algorithms
have been derived from tool modeling.

Figure 8 shows two ARI log passes over the


same intervalone with the tool centered and one
with it eccentered. The 12 electrical standoff
measurements of each pass on the left of the log
display show that the tool is not perfectly centered,
even in the centered pass, and that the tool
rotates during logging. On the right, the 12 uncorrected azimuthal resistivity measurements of each
pass are shown with the corrected measurements
of the eccentered pass. It is obvious that the standoff measurements and corrections are good since
the corrected curves are much more coherent than
the uncorrected curves, even of the centered pass.

Figure 8. Electrical diameters and uncorrected azimuthal resistivities with the ARI tool centered
and eccentered, and borehole-corrected azimuthal resistivities.

12

Applications

Deep invasion
Figure 9 shows ARI and MicroSFL logs over a
deeply invaded zone. Conductive-invasion separation between the MSFL, LLs and LLd curves is
apparent. The LLhr curve, while showing more
detail, generally follows the LLd curve quite

closely, and its fine-detail variations reflect


movement in the MSFL curve.
This example demonstrates that the LLhr curve
has a depth of investigation close to that of the
LLd measurement and a vertical resolution
approaching that of the MSFL curve.

Figure 9. Deep conductive invasion example showing that the LLhr curve has a
depth of investigation similar to that of the LLd curve and a vertical resolution
approaching that of the MSFL curve.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 13

Thin-bed analysis
The deep, high-resolution resistivity measurements
(vertical resolution less than 1 ft) can be used to
improve the quantitative evaluation of laminated
formations. In such formations the resistivity
image helps ensure that potential hydrocarbon
zones are not missed and guides the selection of
subsequent logs.

Figure 10 is a log recorded across a series of


thin beds. The LLd and LLs curves between X662
and X677 ft have little character, while the LLhr
curve and the azimuthal measurements show thin
bedding with an average bed thickness of less than
1 ft. The conductivity image shows other details
such as azimuthal heterogeneity (X650 to X652 ft,
and X660 to X662 ft) and dipping features (X658
to X660 ft).

Figure 10. 1-ft beds barely visible on the LLd and LLs curves are
clearly seen by the azimuthal resistivity curves. Dipping beds and
azimuthal heterogeneities can also be seen on the ARI image.

14

Applications

Fractured formations
As with any resistivity device, the ARI response
is strongly affected by fractures filled with conductive fluids. Fig. 11 shows a simulated log of
the ARI tool as it passes in front of a horizontal
(perpendicular to the wellbore) fracture of infinite
extension filled with conductive fluid.
The resistivity reading in front of the fracture
drops sharply. The signal departs from the baseline
(the matrix resistivity reading) for an interval
shorter than 1 ft. The fracture signal can be
characterized by measuring the area of added
conductivity 1,2 in front of the fracture.

Figure 12 shows a fractured formation.


The azimuthal image on the left has a fixed conductivity scale, while the image on the right is
enhanced by dynamic normalization to improve
the visibility of features by locally increasing the
image contrast. The log presents several highly
dipping, darker (conductive) events (at X945,
X947, X953 and X967 m), which are interpreted
as open fractures. The log also shows a vertical
fracture from X975 to X985 m. The large separation between the LLs and LLd curves over this
zone is characteristic of vertical fractures.3

200

100
E = 1 ohm-m
Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
Rb = 100 ohm-m
Hole diameter = 6 in.

LLhr
(ohm-m)

10
24

21

18

15

12

0 3

9 12 15 18 21 24

Distance from fracture (in.)

Figure 11. LLhr log response in front of a 1-mm horizontal fracture.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 15

A dynamically normalized image does not have


a calibrated image scale because the conductivity
associated with a particular color or shade varies
along the image.
Figure 1 compares ARI, FMI and UBI images
in a fractured formation. Although the ARI images
do not have the definition and resolution of detail
of the FMI images, open fractures are clearly
identified. Some vertical fracturing seen on the

FMI image does not appear as clearly on the


ARI image. This vertical fracturing is probably
drilling-induced fracturing and cracks that are
too shallow to be detected by the deeper-reading
ARI measurement. ARI images, therefore, complement FMI borehole images by helping to
discriminate between deep natural and shallow
drilling-induced fractures.

Figure 12. Highly dipping fractures can be identified on the ARI images
at the depth of each sharp resistivity trough. Separation between LLs and
LLd curves confirms a vertical fracture below X975 m.

16

Applications

Heterogeneous formations
Resistivity readings of the LLd and LLhr logs can
be strongly affected by azimuthal heterogeneities.
In such cases the azimuthal image can greatly
improve the resistivity log interpretation. A
selected azimuthal resistivity can be used for
quantitative evaluation of the formation.
Figure 13 shows ARI and FMI images displayed with ARI resistivity curves in a formation
with dipping beds and surfaces, and with some
azimuthal heterogeneities. It is interesting to

compare the low-resistivity readings at X91.4 and


X92.2 m. The deeper low reading is due to heterogeneity, with a very low-resistivity localized
feature, and the shallower is an azimuthally continuous event. The deeper event would certainly
be misinterpreted using a standard azimuthally
averaged resistivity log reading.
A more coherent answer can be obtained if tool
orientation information is recorded with the density log. The formation resistivity in the same
azimuthal direction can be selected from the ARI
log data for saturation computation.

Figure 13. ARI and FMI images in a heterogeneous formation. Compare the low-resistivity
depths (X91.4 and X92.2); one is a heterogeneity, and the other is an azimuthally continuous
event.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 17

Dip estimation

Horizontal wells

An estimate of formation dip can be derived from


the azimuthal resistivity image. Generally, dips
computed from ARI images do not have the accuracy of those computed by a dipmeter. They can,
however, give a good estimate of the structural
dip, detect unexpected structural features (unconformities and faults) and confirm the presence of
expected features. Figure 14 shows the agreement
between sedimentary dips derived from ARI
images and dips from the SHDT* Stratigraphic
High-Resolution Dipmeter Tool.

The responses of azimuthally averaged measurementsLLd, LLs and induction logs, for exampleare influenced by beds lying parallel and
near the borehole. This situation often arises in
horizontal wells, particularly when the well is
steered to closely follow the top of the reservoir.
The quantitative azimuthal image of the ARI tool
helps to detect and identify these nearby beds so
the most representative reading can be selected
from the quantitative azimuthal deep resistivity
measurements.

Figure 14. Excellent agreement between sedimentary dips derived from ARI
images and dipmeter data.

18

Applications

Borehole profile
Figure 15 shows the 12 auxiliary-mode azimuthal
borehole curves, recorded in conductivity units.
The spread of the curves indicates some tool
eccentering or borehole irregularity such as ovality. Tracks 2 and 3 show FMI calipers recorded
with orthogonal pairs of caliper arms and an

orthogonal presentation of ARI electrical calipers.


Although agreement is generally good, the ARI
calipers are more sensitive to sharp variations,
particularly small washouts.
In this case the FMI caliper arms were partially
closed to log a sticky section of the hole. Caliper
information was recovered from the ARI log.

Figure 15. Borehole profile from ARI caliper measurements compared with measurements made
with FMI calipers. Agreement is good except where the FMI caliper arms have not been fully
opened below X770 ft.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 19

Groningen effect correction


The Groningen effect on the deep laterolog measurement is encountered in conductive formations
overlain by thick, highly resistive beds.
The LLd measurement voltage reference, taken
at the torpedo connector between the logging cable
and the top of the insulated bridle, normally represents infinity. The reference becomes negative
as the torpedo enters the resistive bed, and the
Groningen effect occurs.
In cases without Groningen effect, the out-ofphase (quadrature) voltagewith reference to the
total currentis normally zero. When the effect
occurs, the quadrature voltage becomes significant.
This phenomenon can be used to identify and,
under favorable conditions, correct for the effect.
The correction is based on the formula
dV0 = g (V90 ),
where dV0 represents the voltage shift responsible
for the Groningen effect and V90 represents the
quadrature voltage. The coefficient g depends on
the mud resistivity, the formation/mud resistivity
contrast and the borehole diameter. This coefficient
is determined from charts obtained by modeling.

20

Applications

The value of the ratio V90 /V0 is used to indicate


the presence of a Groningen effect. Figures 16
and 17 show the application of the detection and
correction schemes in a well with the casing string
set well above the resistive bed.
When casing is set in the resistive bed, this
correction method no longer applies; the onset of
the effect, however, is still detected by an increase
in the out-of-phase voltage. The Groningen effect
is stronger and the effect extends deeper in the
well, occurring even when the torpedo is well
below the resistive bed.
A second pass is made with an enlarged A2
electrode. The mass-isolation sub on top of the
A2 electrode is short-circuited by a software command, extending the electrode. This technique
alters the tools geometrical factor and the ratio
of the total to measured current. These two passes
exhibit Groningen effects of different magnitude
from which a Groningen-free LLd reading can
be computed. The second pass is only needed over
a short section below the casing.
The Groningen effect correction is applied
automatically if the well and casing configuration
permit the single-pass correction.

Figure 16. The appearance of a Groningen effect can


be flagged.

Figure 17. Correction for Groningen effect is confirmed by


the LLs and IDPH curves.

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 21

Features and benefits


The ARI tool brings such an innovative approach
to deep resistivity logging, opening new opportunities for interpretation and applications, that it is

useful to summarize here its principal features and


benefits.

Features

Benefits

Improved vertical resolution with narrow


beam width (compared to the DLL tool)

Better Rt estimation in thin beds

12 deep azimuthal resistivities,


comparable with the LLd curve

Improved evaluation of deviated and


horizontal wells

Deep azimuthal image, much


deeper than microelectrical image

Fracture detection and characterization


Differentiates between natural and
drilling-induced fractures
Adjacent (nonintersecting) bed distance

Dynamic normalization for enhanced


image with improved contrast

Detection of heterogeneous formations

Quadrature signal processing

Groningen-corrected resistivity
(no casing present)

Structural dip

Log quality control


Software-controlled
extendable electrode

Groningen-corrected resistivity
(casing present)

Electrical standoff measurement


to correct azimuthal resistivities
for individual standoff

Better deep resistivity measurement


in irregular holes
Borehole profile
Measurement not degraded by eccentering

22

Flexible system architecture with


interchangeable half-shell design

Resolution maintained in large holes

Backup passive mode

Images possible in high-resistivity muds

Stand-alone mode

Short tool string (for example, in combination


with induction tools)

Combinable with resistivity,


porosity and lithology, and
other borehole imaging tools

Significant rig time savings

Features and benefits

Common ARI curve names


The following curve names may appear on ARI
and other log presentations.

Curve name

Sample
rate

Description

AC01 to AC12

0.5 in.

Corrected azimuthal conductivity curves 1 to 12 (mmho/m)

AR01 to AR12

0.5 in.

Corrected azimuthal resistivity curves 1 to 12 (ohm-m)

CALE

0.5 in.

Borehole diameter from electrical standoff (in.)

CC01 to CC12

0.5 in.

Electrical standoff conductivity curves 1 to 12 (mmho/m)

CLLD

6 in.

Deep laterolog conductivity (mmho/m)

LDCG

6 in.

Casing Groningen-corrected deep resistivity (ohm-m)

LHCG

6 in.

Casing Groningen-corrected high-resolution resistivity (ohm-m)

LLD

6 in.

Deep laterolog resistivity (ohm-m)

LLDG

6 in.

Groningen phase-corrected deep resistivity (ohm-m)

LLG

6 in.

Standard deep Groningen-referenced resistivity (ohm-m)

LLHC

0.5 in.

High-resolution conductivity (mmho/m)

LLHG

0.5 in.

Groningen phase-corrected high-resolution resistivity (ohm-m)

LLHR

0.5 in.

High-resolution deep resistivity (ohm-m)

LLS

6 in.

Shallow laterolog resistivity (ohm-m)

RC01 to RC12

0.5 in.

Azimuthal deep conductivity curves 1 to 12 (mmho/m)

RR01 to RR12

0.5 in.

Azimuthal deep resistivity curves 1 to 12 (ohm-m)

ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager 23

References
1.

Luthi SM and Souhait P: Fracture Aperture


from Electrical Borehole Scans, Geophysics
(1990), 55, No. 7, 821833.

2.

Faivre O: Fracture Evaluation from


Quantitative Azimuthal Resistivities, paper
SPE 26434, presented at the 68th SPE Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition,
Houston, Texas, October 36, 1993.

3.

Sibbit AM and Faivre O: The Dual Laterolog


Response in Fractured Rocks, presented at
the SPWLA Twenty-Sixth Annual Logging
Symposium, June 1985.

Recommended reading
Davies DH, Faivre O, Gounot M-T, Seeman
B, Trouiller J-C, Benimeli D, Ferreira AE,
Pittman DJ, Smits J-W and Randrianavony M:
Azimuthal Resistivity Imaging: A New
Generation Laterolog, paper SPE 24676,
presented at the 67th SPE Annual Technical
Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC,
October 47, 1992.

24

References and recommended reading