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Right Angle Trigonometry I. Basic Facts and Definitions 1. Right angle – angle measuring 90

Right Angle Trigonometry

I. Basic Facts and Definitions

1. Right angle – angle measuring 90°

2. Straight angle – angle measuring 180°

3. Acute angle – angle measuring between 0° and 90°

4. Complementary angles – two angles whose sum is 90°

5. Supplementary angles – two angles whose sum is 180°

6. Right triangle – triangle with a right angle

7. Isosceles triangle – a triangle with exactly two sides equal

8. Equilateral triangle – a triangle with all three sides equal

9. The sum of the angles of a triangle is180° .

10. In general, capital letters refer to angles while small letters refer

to the sides of a triangle. For example, side a is opposite

angle A .

II. Right Triangle Facts and Examples

a

C

B

c A b
c
A
b

1. Hypotenuse – the side opposite the right angle, side c .

– the side opposite the right angle, side c . 2. Pythagorean Theorem - 3. ∠

2. Pythagorean Theorem -

3. A and B are complementary.

a

2

2

+ b = c

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2

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III.

Examples:

1. In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is 10 inches and one side is 8 inches. What is the length of the other side?

Solution:

a

8

64

b

b = 6

2

2

+ b = c

b

b =

+

+

2

2

2

2

= 10

2

100

2

= 36

a = 8

C

B

c = 10 A
c = 10
A

b = ?

2. In a right triangle ΔABC , if A = 23° , what is the measure of B ?

Solution:

The two acute angles in a right triangle are complementary.

A + ∠ B = 90°

23° + ∠B = 90°

B = 67°

IV. Similar Triangles:

B

a. Two triangles are similar if the angles of one triangle are equal to the corresponding angles of the other. In similar triangles, ratios of corresponding sides are equal.

similar triangles, ratios of corresponding sides are equal. C F A G E Conditions for Similar

C

F

A

G E
G
E

Conditions for Similar Triangles ( Δ ABC ~ ΔEGF )

1. Corresponding angles in similar triangles are

equal:

A =∠E

B =∠F

C =∠G

2. Ratios of corresponding sides are equal:

EG

EF

FG

AC =

AB

=

BC

G 2. Ratios of corresponding sides are equal: EG EF FG A C = AB =

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F

C

Example 1: A 50 E 22 50 B
Example 1:
A
50
E
22
50
B
Example 2: 45 2 a a 45 a 30 2 a 3a 60
Example 2:
45
2 a
a
45
a
30
2 a
3a
60

a

22 50 B Example 2: 45 2 a a 45 a 30 2 a 3a 60

AE = 50 meters EF = 22 m and AB = 100 m

Find the length of side BC .

Notice that ΔABC and ΔAEF are similar since corresponding angles are equal. (There is a right angle at both F and C , A is the same in both triangles and B equals the acute angle at E .)

Solution:

AE =

AB

EF

BC

so

50

22

=

100

BC

By cross multiplying we get:

50( BC ) = 22(100)

Therefore BC = 44 meters.

AE = 50 meters EF = 22 m and AB = 100 m

Find the length of side BC .

All 45° − 45° − 90° triangles are similar to one

another. Two sides are of equal length and the

hypotenuse is

2 times the length of each of the

2 times the length of each of the

equal sides.

All 30° − 60° − 90° triangles are similar to one another. The shortest side of length a is opposite

the smallest angle ( 30° ). The hypotenuse is twice the length of the shortest side. The side opposite

the 60° has a length

3 times the shorter leg. times the shorter leg.

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Problem: Find the lengths of the legs of a 30° − 60° − 90° triangle if the hypotenuse is 8 meters.

Solution: 1) If 2 a = 8 , then a = 4 meters and 2)

Solution : 1) If 2 a = 8 , then a = 4 meters and 2)

3a = 3(4) = 4 3 meters.

V. The Six Trigonometric Ratios for Acute Angles

B

c
c
 

a

 
 

C

 

b

A

sine A =

sin A =

opposite

=

a

cosecant A =

csc A =

 

1

=

hypotenuse

=

c

hypotenuse

c

sin A

 

opposite

a

cosine A =

cos A =

 

adjacent

=

b

 

secant A =

sec A =

1

=

hypotenuse

=

c

hypotenuse

c

 

cos A

 

adjacent

b

tangent A =

tan A =

opposite

=

a

cotangent A =

cot A =

1

=

adjacent

=

b

 

adjacent

b

tan A

 

opposite

a

TRIG TRICK: A good way to remember the trig ratios is to use the mnemonic SOH CAH TOA!

SOH CAH TOA

i

p

y

o

d

y

a

p

d

n

p

p

s

j

p

n

p

j

e

o

o

i

a

o

g

o

a

s

t

n

c

t

e

s

c

i

e

e

e

e

n

i

e

t

n

n

n

t

t

n

e

u

t

u

e

t

 

s

s

e

e

t n n n t t n e u t u e t   s s

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Example 1:

Find the six trigonometric ratios for the acute angle B .

Solution:

sin B =

opposite

b

=

hypotenuse c

cos B =

a

c

,

tan B =

b

a

,

. Using the above definitions, the rest are:

csc B =

c

b

,

sec B =

c

a

,

cot B =

a

b

Example 2:

In the right ΔABC , a = 1 and b = 3 . Determine the six trigonometric ratios for

B .

A c b = 3 C
A
c
b = 3
C

a =1

B

Solution:

Use Pythagorean Theorem:

2 2 c = a + b 2 2 2 c =1 +3 2 2
2
2
c
= a + b
2
2
2
c
=1 +3
2
2
c
= 10
c = ±
10

2

(Since length is positive, we will only use c = 10 .) opp 3 3
(Since length is positive, we will only use c =
10 .)
opp
3
3
10
adj
1
10
sin
B
=
=
=
cos
B
=
=
=
tan
B
hyp
10
10
hyp
10
10
hyp
10
hyp
10
csc
B
=
=
sec
B
=
=
=
10
cot
B
opp
3
adj
1
csc B = = sec B = = = 10 cot B opp 3 adj 1

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=

=

opp

3

=

adj

1

adj

1

=

opp

3

= 3

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VI.

Special Cases

a. Trigonometric values of 30° and 60° (Use the 30° − 60° − 90° triangle from pg. 3.)

a =

30 30 c = 2 3 60 60 b =1
30 30
c = 2
3
60 60
b =1

sin 30° =

1

2

cos30° =

3
3

2

 

tan 30°

=

1 3 = 3 3
1
3
=
3
3

csc30° =

2

= 2

1

sec 30°

=

2 2 3 = 3 3
2
2
3
=
3
3

cot 30° =

3 = 3
3
=
3

1

sin 60° =

3
3
 

2

cos 60° =

1

2

tan 60° =

3 = 3
3
=
3

1

csc 60° =

2 2 3 = 3 3
2
2
3
=
3
3

sec 60° =

2

= 2

1

cot 60° =

1 3 = 3 3
1
3
=
3
3

b. Trigonometric values of 45° (Use the 45° − 45° − 90° triangle from pg. 3.)

a =1

45 ° − 45 ° − 90 ° triangle from pg. 3.) a = 1 45
45 c = 2 45 b =1
45 c =
2
45
b =1

sin 45° =

1 2 = 2 2
1
2
=
2
2
1 2 = 2 2
1
2
=
2
2

csc45° =

2 = 2
2
=
2

cos45° =

sec45° =

1

2 = 2
2
=
2

1

tan 45° =

1

= 1

cot 45° =

1

= 1

1

1

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VII.

Converting Minutes and Seconds to Decimal Form

(Necessary for most calculator use in evaluating trig values)

1. To convert from seconds to a decimal part of a minute, divide the number of seconds by 60.

2. To convert from minutes to a decimal part of a degree, divide the number of minutes by 60.

Example 1:

Solution:

Example 2:

Solution:

Convert 64°47to degrees using decimals.

64 ° 47

′= °+

64

47

60

°

64°47′ = 64° + .783° = 64.783°

Convert 15°1210′′ to degrees using decimals.

15°1210′′ = 15°12′ +10′′

10

60

15 ° 12 10 ′′=

15°1210′′ = 15°12.167

15 ° 12 ′+

°

15 ° 12 10 ′′=

15

°+

12.167

60

°

15°1210′′ = 15° + .203° = 15.203°

VIII. Right Triangle Trigonometry Problems

To Solve Right Triangle Problems:

There are six parts to any triangle; 3 sides and 3 angles. Each trig formula (ex: sin A = a/c) contains three parts; one acute angle and two sides. If you know values for two of the three parts then you can solve for the third unknown part using the following method:

1. Draw a right triangle. Label the known parts with the given values and indicate the unknown part(s) with letters.

2. To find an unknown part, choose a trig formula which involves the unknown part and the two known parts.

unknown part, choose a trig formula which involves the unknown part and the two known parts.

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Example 1:

A right triangle has a = 38 and B = 61° . Find the length of side b .

Solution: A b 61° C B a = 38
Solution:
A
b
61°
C
B
a = 38

Which trig formulas involve an acute angle (B) and the side opposite (b) and the side adjacent (a) to the angle? Since both tangent and cotangent do, either could be used to solve this problem. We will use tangent.

tan B =

opp

b

=

adj

a

so,

Therefore b = 68.6 .

tan 61 °

=

b

or

1.8040 =

b

.

 

38

38

(Always check your answer by comparing size of angle and length of side; the longer side is always opposite the larger angle.)

IX. Angles of Elevation and Depression

Angle of depression Angle of elevation Example:
Angle of depression
Angle of elevation
Example:

From a point 124 feet from the foot of a tower and on the same level, the angle of elevation of the tower is 36°20. Find the height of the tower.

h 36°20′ 124 ft.
h 36°20′
124 ft.
′ . Find the height of the tower. h 36°20′ 124 ft. Solution : h 24

Solution:

h

24

= tan 36°20′ = tan(36.333)°

h = 124(0.7355)

h = 91.2 ft.

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Practice Problems:

1. In right triangle Δ ABC , if c = 39 inches and b = 36 inches, find a .

2. Find the length of side AC . Note: This problem and diagram corresponds to finding the height of a street light pole ( AC ) if a 6 ft. man ( EF ) casts a shadow ( BF ) of 15 ft. and the pole casts a shadow ( BC ) of 45 ft.

A

E 6 30 15 C F 3. Evaluate:
E
6
30 15
C
F
3. Evaluate:

B

F 13 12 G E
F
13
12
G
E

5

a)

sin E =

b) tan E =

c)

cos F =

d) sec F =

4. Evaluate: (Draw reference 30° − 60° − 90° and 45° − 45° − 90° triangles)

a)

sin 30 =

b) tan 60 =

c)

sec 60 =

d) tan 45 =

e)

csc 45 =

f)

cot 30 =

30 = b) tan 60 = c) sec 60 = d) tan 45 = e) csc

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5.

Evaluate:

C

B

8

10 A
10
A

a)

tan A =

b) csc B =

c)

cot A =

d) sec B =

6. Convert to decimal notation using a calculator:

a) 76°06

b) 45°2713′′

Evaluate, using a calculator:

c) sin 52°48

d) cot 39°42

7. Label the sides and remaining angles of right triangle ΔABC , using A , B , a , b and c . If a = 43 and A = 37° , find the values of the remaining parts.

, b and c . If a = 43 and A = 37 ° , find

C

, b and c . If a = 43 and A = 37 ° , find

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8.

Given right triangle ΔABC with b = 0.622 and A = 51°40, find c . Draw a diagram.

9. From a cliff 140 feet above the shore line, an observer notes that the angle of depression of a ship is 21°30. Find the distance from the ship to a point on the shore directly below the observer.

cliff ship
cliff
ship
the distance from the ship to a point on the shore directly below the observer. cliff

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Answers to Right Triangle Trigonometry: 1. a = 15 inches (use Pythagorean Theorem) AC =
Answers to Right Triangle Trigonometry:
1.
a = 15 inches (use Pythagorean Theorem)
AC = BC
AC
6
2.
=
AC = 18
EF
BF
45
15
12
12
12
13
3.
a) sin E =
b)
tan E =
c)
cos F =
d)
sec F =
13
5
13
12
4.
(see part E of the handout)=
1
a)
sin 30° =
b) tan 60° =
c) sec60° = 2
2
d)
tan 45° = 1
e) csc 45° =
f) cot 30° =
3

5.

b = 6 (use Pythagorean Theorem)

8 4 5 3 5 a) tan A = = b) csc B = c)
8 4
5
3 5
a)
tan A =
=
b)
csc B =
c)
cot A =
d)
sec B =
6 3
3
4 4
6.
a) 76.1°
b) 45.454°
c) .7965
d) 1.2045
7.
∠ B = 53°
b ≈ 57.06
c ≈ 71.45
B
c
a
C
A
b
b
c
8.
c ≈ 1 (Use
cos A =
or sec A =
to solve for unknown c )
c
b
140
9.
tan 21°30′ =
x
(Angle of depression)
21.5°
x = 355.41 ft.
140
21.5°
x
cliff
ship
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