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SIROLLCIS CM

Solutions for cold rolling mills


Technology, mechanics, automation and electrical engineering
maximum plant performance to satisfy the highest demands

Metals Technologies
1

The demand for cold rolled steel continues to grow, and at the same time
requirements for product quality, mill productivity, availability and reliability
are increasing.

You expect
Leading process technology
High rolling speed and flexible
production
Complete and individual solutions that
accommodate the increasing quality
requirements for cold rolled products
Technologies that allow high-quality
products
Future safe investment by expandable
solutions
Low operating costs thanks to high
plant availability

Your challenge:
Increasing requirements for
plant productivity and quality
of rolled products

Continual growth and specialization


According to current forecasts, worldwide
demand for steel is set to grow 25% by
the year 2015. This increased demand
must be met with extended capacity,
increased rolling speeds and general
increased plant productivity. The global
market is being driven primarily by Asia.
Steady growth requires continuous
optimization of rolling processes in order
to stay competitive in the global
economy. Moreover, there is currently an
ongoing consolidation in the iron and
steel industry and a focus on high-quality
products.
Nevertheless all cold rolling mill
managers seek to optimize their
production and their operation costs. The
steel industry knows only too well that
difficult times and stagnation will return,
and that mills must be prepared to
produce successfully under extreme cost
pressure.
High mill availability will be a key
success factor for economic operation of
cold rolling mills.
Specialization is the order of the day.
Rolling mill operators are clearly focusing
on high-quality products with which they
can generate better added value on the
market. An example of this is sheet metal
for the automotive industry.

Increasing productivity
at high plant availability
Plant operators will have to continue
optimizing consumption parameters in
the future to achieve capacity increases
and quality improvements with
decreasing operating costs. This is the
only way for them to strengthen their
market performance over the long term.
Requirements for product quality are
continually growing in terms of
dimensional accuracy, flatness,
mechanical properties and surface
quality. Especially in the automotive
branch, increasingly higher steel quality
is in demand. If producers are to succeed
in this market, they have to use the most
modern technologies and develop totally
new types of steel grades.
In the future, the degree of automation
will ensure process reliability and lowmaintenance operation
The tolerance limits for cold rolled steel
are in the range of a thousandth of a
millimeter. The perfect coordination of
process parameters is decisive for
market success. The more precisely you
meet the requirements of your customers
with your expertise and your products,
the more you can improve your market
position. We invite you to work together
with us in meeting these challenges.

Flexibility in terms of product planning,


dimensional and steel grade changes
require fast and precise setup of actuator
and automation systems. To meet the
future demands of their customers, cold
steel producers will need to install their
new mills or modernize their existing
mills to be ready for the production of
modern steel grades.

Our solution:
Trendsetting technologies for
cold rolling mills

Quality and experience in rolling


technology
Benefit from our more than 80 years of
experience and expertise that made us
one of the leading suppliers for the cold
rolling industry. In every one of our
projects, we have proven ourselves the
optimal partner through excellence in
flexibility, meeting deadlines, precise
execution, top performance and short
start-up times. We have the process
knowledge to decisively increase your
rolling speeds and therefore your
capacities, and to lower your plant
operating costs and improve the quality
of cold rolled products.
Technologies from a single source
You might be seeking a complete mill or
a single section, modernization,
extension or the construction of a new
plant.
No matter what your needs are, we offer
the complete range of 4-high and 6-high
cold rolling technologies. From reversing
to tandem mills or skin pass mills, our
technology corresponds exactly to your
requirements. The range of cold mills
supplied by Siemens VAI offers
technology, allowing strip to be produced
at very tight tolerances and high
productivity levels for carbon and special
steel grades, e.g. AHSS (Advanced HighStrength Steel). SIROLLCIS CM comprises
technology, mechanics, electrics, drives
and automation from our vast Siemens
VAI resources.

Innovative technologies
The name Siemens VAI stands for a
permanent leadership in innovation.
Siemens VAI combines the traditions of
four successful companies: Clecim, Davy,
VAI and Siemens. All have achieved
remarkable developments in the field of
cold rolling technology. Many of these
achievements, which have now been
combined, were developed or introduced
with leading steel producers around the
world. The complementary solutions and
skills as well as the additional
contributions from our long lasting
cooperation with institutes and
universities lead to further advances in
cold rolling technology. We are also well
prepared to develop new mechatronic
solutions for even higher productivity and
quality targets. We look forward to
applying our innovative strength to the
optimization of your plant as well.
Life-cycle partnership
As life-cycle partner for steel producers
Siemens VAI offers the complete range of
products and services necessary for new
investments and modernization from
preliminary studies, site inspections and
feasibility studies up to and including
commissioning the new mill or the
modernized equipment. Your mill
operation can only benefit from service
and maintenance contracts with
Siemens VAI.

As a globally active full-liner, we possess expertise that is unique in the entire steel
production industry. Backed by this extensive experience, we completely focus
on process optimization for cold rolling mills starting with individual plant and
logistics design, and including proven rolling technologies as well as sophisticated
automation packages. And in everything we do, we have one goal in mind:
To increase the performance of your plant.

Good reasons for SIROLLCIS CM


cold rolling solutions:
Single source supplier for mechanical,
electrical and automation equipment
Proven experience in new plants and
modernization at leading cold band
producers
Proven low maintenance design and
intelligent control systems for
maximum plant availability and yield
Life-cycle partner making use of global
resources

Our cold rolling mills:


Tandem cold mills ..................................................... 8
Coupled pickling lines and tandem cold mills.............. 10
Reversing cold mills................................................... 12
Skin pass mills........................................................... 14
Cold mill complexes................................................... 16
Our supplies and services:
Mechatronic packages............................................... 18
Automation solutions................................................ 20
Basic automation....................................................... 22
SIROLLCIS SIAS surface inspection and allocation....... 24
Motors and drives...................................................... 25
Innovation in cold rolling........................................... 26
Life-cycle management.............................................. 28
Modernization .......................................................... 29

Siemens VAI supplies metallurgical plants for everything from iron ore processing to
production of coated steel strip (horizontal integration). And we can also deliver the
complete plant including turnkey equipment, mechanical and hydraulic equipment,
and electrical and automation systems (vertical integration). Siemens VAI is your
life-cycle partner from the initial investment idea to planning, layout, engineering and
construction and we are also there for you later, when it is time to modernize to keep
your mill at the leading edge of technology.

Tandem cold mills


Competence for your success

Principle design of a tandem cold mill

From batch to continuous mode

4-high and 6-high technology

Technical features:

Production capacities of tandem cold


mills using coil to coil operation are
typically in the range of 600,000 to
800,000 tons per year. Today many of the
existing batch mills are extended and
modernized to continuous mode
operation and new mills are installed for
continuous operation from the very
beginning. Depending on the product
mix, production capacity of these
continuous mills can than reach 1.2 m
tons per year or even more, and many of
the quality parameters can even be
improved.

Our technological and process


automation experience in 6-high and
4-high technology makes Siemens VAI a
unique partner for your cold mill. Our
goal with SIROLLCIS CM is to deliver a
solution that offers maximum added
value for your production. Advanced mill
stand actuators will bring the benefits of
improved yield, user-friendly mill
operation and high strip quality.

SIROLLCIS Smartcrown contour roll


associated with axial roll-shifting for
enhanced flatness control

Both 4-high and 6-high solution bring


specific benefits, and our analysis of the
customers overall requirements will
define the best suitable technological
solution. Our approach has been
rewarded, for example, by top steel
producers voestalpine Stahl (5-stand,
4-high, SIROLLCIS Smartcrown) and
CORUS Staal (4-stand, 6-high), which
have selected us to supply the latest
tandem mills in Europe. Both companies
are dedicated to producing AHSS
(advanced high-strength steel grades).

4-high and 6-high mill stands for high


mill flexibility for all products
Morgoil bearings or roller bearings
depending on application
Physical-based analytical online models
supported by neural networks ensure
accurate mill setup to achieve tight
tolerances right from the start
Flexible thread-in and thread-out
strategies for all kinds of materials,
such as high-strength steel grades
Patented compensation systems for
correcting periodic roll and coil
eccentricities
Use of last stand in temper mode for
smoothing or roughing strip surface
Fully automatic operation allows
operators to concentrate on product
quality; actual operator intervention is
reduced to an absolute minimum

voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria

Nonstop production possible


for any existing tandem mill
In recent years, the most newly installed
tandem cold mills have been continuous
operation mills, which indicate that this
type has displaced the traditional batch
mill. The reason is clear: the productivity
of a continuous mill is significantly higher
(up 40%) than a batch mill. One
significant factor in this improvement
was the development of laser welders.
The weld seam produced by these laser
welders and the modern control
techniques allow minimum loss of time
and material. As a result, later conversion
of a batch mill into a continuous mill is a
typical market trend of the early decade
of this century. Generally, any existing
non-continuous tandem mill of any line
layout can be converted into a
continuously operating mill with the use
of suitable strip turning units, the right
equipment and careful arrangement of all
mill and logistical facilities.

Tangshan Iron & Steel, Tangshan, China

Additions for continuous operation

Main benefits:

Siemens VAI offers the following


equipment for the continuous operation
of your mill:

High production rates

Welders (flash butt and laser welders)


Accumulators (2-, 4-, or 6-strand) at
one or two levels
Scale breakers

Optimized yield
Reduced roll consumption
Flexible production
Tight tolerances for strip thickness,
shape and high surface quality

Side trimmers

Low costs for operation, maintenance


and minimum down times

Bridles for decoupling the tension of


the different line sections

Selected references:

Exit sections with flying shear and 2


reels or carrousel coiler depending on
the strip thickness

voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria


Salzgitter Flachstahl, Salzgitter,
Germany
ArcelorMittal, Bremen, Germany
Essar, Hazira, India
SSAB, Oxelsund, Sweden
P.T. Krakatau Steel, Cilegon, Indonesia
ArcelorMittal, Sagunto, Spain
ArcelorMittal, Ferblatil, Belgium
ArcelorMittal, La Magona, Piombino,
Italy
9

Coupled pickling lines and tandem cold mills


High-capacity production for high-quality products

Example of Siemens VAI coupled pickling line...

Pickling lines and tandem cold mills

Pickling line

For a wide range of product applications,


the required strip thickness, flatness and
surface quality can be achieved more
economically by linking the pickling and
cold rolling processes. This delivers
significant improvements with regard to
mill productivity, yield and production
cost savings as a result of the elimination
of strip threading and tailing-out
operations. Reduced strip-head and tailend losses also contribute to better
overall yield. Our speed optimization
system ensures maximum throughput
rates under all operating conditions, and
maintenance, roll consumption and
manpower requirements are also
lowered. Typical production capacities of
such combined facilities are in the range
of 1.2-2 million t/a.

Pickling lines supplied by Siemens VAI are


characterized by high pickling rates, lowcost pickling operations, flexible
production, a wide range of product
sizes, qualities, reliable plant operation,
and low maintenance requirements, as
well as compliance the highest standards
for environmental safety.

10

The pickling model


SIROLLCIS Faplac
The SIROLLCIS Faplac system (Fully
Automatic Pickle Liquor Analysis and
Control) ensures an efficient operation of
the pickling process by compliance of a
proper acid and iron concentration
(waste acid).
The employment of roll and strip
temperature models ensures the
achievement of tight temperature
tolerances and the avoidance of
overheating thus prolonging the life of
the emulsion.

In addition the rolling strategies


calculated by the process models are
geared to the minimum use of electrical
energy by making the most efficient use
of the mill with respect to roll force, roll
torque and roll power.
Main benefits:
High pickling throughput rates
Uniformly pickled surfaces
Closed loops of acid, fume and rinse
circulation reduce operation cost in an
environmental-friendly manner

... and tandem cold mill

Coupling devices

Selected references:

Siemens VAI installs helical turning


devices or turning towers for coupling
existing sections or new and existing
sections for a pickling line tandem cold
mill configuration. With these solutions it
is possible to change the direction of the
strip and build a line, such as a 90
configuration, if the layout requires such
a strip turning.

SAIL Bokaro Steel Plant, Jharkand, India


Wuhan Iron & Steel, Wuhan, China
Corus, IJmuiden, Netherlands
Liuzhou ISCO, Liuzhou, China
ArcelorMittal, Mardyck, France
Tangshan Iron & Steel, Tangshan, China
Benxi Iron & Steel, Benxi, China
Panzhihua, Panzhihua, China
voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria
ArcelorMittal, Sparrows Point, MD/USA
ArcelorMittal, Ferblatil, Belgium
Ilva, Taranto, Italy
Corus, Port Talbot, UK
Angang, Anshan, China
Helical turning device

11

Reversing cold mills


Advanced technology

Principle design of a 2-stand reversing cold mill

Single-stand reversing cold mills

2-stand reversing cold mills

4-high and 6-high technology

Depending on the product mix, rolling


capacities between 200,000 and
600,000 t/a are possible in a single-stand
cold rolling mill. Rolling schedules can be
carried out with an even or uneven
number of passes to maximize mill
availability and performance. Flatnessmeasurement systems mounted on one
or both sides of the mill ensure optimum
flatness control. In addition to work-roll
bending and shifting, Siemens VAI
reversing cold mills are equipped with
multi-zone cooling to meet the highest
demands on flatness.

Following the introduction of mini mills


in North America, a new generation of
reversing cold mills has emerged which
combines the flexibility of single-stand
reversing mills with the capacity of
conventional coil-to-coil tandem mills at
substantially reduced investment costs.
Steel rolled in 2-stand reversing cold mills
from Siemens VAI is suitable for highest
quality applications, offering the best
possible performance in terms of product
quality and productivity. Ideal for rolling
capacities from 300,000 t/a of thin-gauge
products to 1,000,000 t/a and higher for
heavy-gauge products.

Depending on the product mix and the


quality requirements, Siemens VAI offers
4-high or 6-high mill stands to meet the
customers overall requirements. Both
mill stand types are equipped with
flatness control solutions using SIROLLCIS
Siflat or Planicim for measurement and
the SIROLLCIS Smartcrown roll contour for
the work or intermediate rolls.

12

Tangshan Iron & Steel, Tangshan, China

ISD Dunaferr, Hungary

Main benefits:

Selected references:

High production capacity and yield

Indian Steel, Ghandidham, India

Flexible, low-cost rolling


of a wide range of products, especially
for small order lots

Dunaferr, Dunaijvaros, Hungary

Tight strip thickness and shape


tolerances
Minimum off-gauge length
High surface quality

Borcelik, Gemlik, Turkey


Sollac Mediterranee, St. Chely, France
Angang, Anshan, China
Tangshan Iron & Steel, Tangshan, China
Taiyuan Iron & Steel, Taiyuan, China
EBG, Bochum, Germany
Haironville, Contrisson, France

Integrated automation solutions for consistently


high strip quality

Nucor Steel, Berkeley, SC, USA


Hadeed, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia
CSN, Terre Haute, IN/USA

13

Skin pass mills


For a perfect finish

Salzgitter Flachstahl, Salzgitter, Germany

Mittal Steel, Sparrows Point, MD/USA

Supply of single- and


2-stand skin pass mills

Selected references:

Tangshan Hengtong, Tangshan, China

SAIL Bokaro Steel Plant, Jharkand, India

Hadeed, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia

Siemens VAI supplies stand-alone and


inline skin pass mills of either single- or
2-stand design for adjusting the final
mechanical properties, flatness and
surface finish of cold rolled strip.

ThyssenKrupp Steel, Dortmund,


Germany

Dofasco, Hamilton/Ontario, Canada

Angang, Anshan, China

Hunan Valin Lianyuan, Loudi, China

To meet the continually increasing


demands for strip flatness, elongation
and roughness, especially for hard
material grades, a 2-stand skin pass mill
is the preferred solution because of the
higher rolling forces and torques that can
be achieved.

MaSteel, Maanshan, China

Salzgitter Flachstahl, Salzgitter,


Germany

Essar, Hazira, India

voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria

Baosteel, Baoshan, China

ArcelorMittal, Mardyck, France

Main benefits:
Tight strip elongation tolerances
Excellent flatness performance
High surface quality (roughness, peak
count, residuals)
Possibility of wet and dry skin passing
modes
Elongation control with optimized compensation, skin pass mill, Mittal Steel, Sparrows Point, USA
14

Cleaning brushes

Adjustment cylinders

Backup roll

Flatness-measurement roll

Deflector roll
Work roll

Brushes

Siemens VAI solution for dry-type skin passing

Skin pass control to meet highest


quality demands
The expectations of end customers for
steels are constantly rising. Deep-drawing
sheet steel, for example, needs to be
almost 100% flat and should not exhibit
any stretcher strains. All this makes skin
pass rolling an important process that
calls for optimization. Our skin pass
control with self-optimizing parameters
can help you safely master these
challenges in different modes to suit
different requirements:
Skin pass control via the rolling force
Skin pass control via the strip tension
Skin pass control in mixed tension-force
mode
Skin pass control on the basis of the
patented advanced mass-flow concept

This results in a uniform elongation and a


texture across the entire strip that
your customers want.
And what is more: Our process models
always have the skin pass mode under
control whether for 2-stand or singlestand and inline skin pass mills.

Main benefits:

Dry-type skin pass rolling

No disposal costs for wet skin passing


agents

For exposed automotive parts and a wide


range of household appliances, strip
producers are increasingly required to
supply final products which are skin
passed and free of wet skin passing
agents. SIROLLCIS CM improved solution
for dry-type skin passing is based on roll
cleaning which features the use of
rotating and oscillating wire brushes for
the work rolls and oscillating cleaning
brushes for the backup rolls.

Cost savings since no wet skin passing


agents are required
Improved adhesiveness of strip surface
for painting
No more brown staining during
storage

15

Cold mill complexes


Experience is the basis for optimized production roots

Hadeed, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia

Our outstanding supply record for


turnkey cold mill complexes highlights
Siemens VAIs overall process
expertise.
We have supplied tandem cold mills,
reversing mills, skin pass mills, strip
processing lines, heat treatment facilities,
layout and logistic planning, as well as all
related automation and production
control (MES) systems and auxiliary
facilities (roll shops, storage, finishing
lines such as slitting and recoiling lines,
packing and dispatch equipment).
As part of its scope of services, Siemens
VAI also trains operating and
maintenance personnel. We also offer
maintenance for the entire plant.

Main benefits:
Optimized layout solutions for
technological key equipment and
auxiliary equipment
Savings in spare parts and maintenance
cost over the entire life-cycle
Selected references:
SAIL Bokaro Steel Plant, Jharkand, India
Borcelik, Gemlik, Turkey
Essar, Hazira, India
ArcelorMittal, Sparrows Point, MD/USA
Hadeed, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia
Duferco, Saldanha Bay, South Africa
CSN, Terre Haute, IN/USA
P.T. Krakatau Steel, Cilegon, Indonesia
voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria

16

Pickling line

Single point of responsibility

Processing lines

Cold mill complex for 600,000 t/a

Tandem cold mill

Reversing cold mill

Skin pass mill

Slitting line

Packing line

Coil storage

17

Mechatronic packages
Unique solutions to improve the performance of your mill

Flash-butt welder

SIROLLCIS Siflat flatness measurement and control

Mechatronic knowledge for optimized


performance
One of our main strengths is the
combination of technology, mechanical
engineering and automation expertise. It
is the best recipe for creating mechatronic
packages, which we offer for new mills as
well as for modernization projects. Our
packages comprise proven mechanical
solutions, the optimization of all required
actuator systems, modern control systems
and optimized sensors and measurement
systems. SIROLLCIS CM mechatronic
packages are available for:
Flatness
AGC
Welders
Scale breaker
Anti-chatter
Strip inspection

18

Flatness packages

AGC package

Our flatness solution includes all required


mechanical actuators, control and
measurement systems to ensure highest
flatness performance. Depending on mill
type and product mix, the mill stands are
equipped with work roll bending and
shifting, SIROLLCIS Smartcrown work-roll
contour and multi-zone cooling. The
flatness control system features selflearning parameter optimization for
adaptation to the rolling conditions and
material properties. To complete our
package we can either use the
contactless SIROLLCIS Siflat system or the
SIROLLCIS Planicim flatness measurement
roll depending on technical and ambient
conditions.

The automatic gauge control package of


Siemens VAI combines the hydraulic
capsules, servo-valves, transducer and
the control system to create a
comprehensive solution. SIROLLCIS CMs
advanced mass flow control ensures
thickness precision to a few thousandth
of a millimeter.
Our improved REC (roll eccentricity
compensation system) also contributes to
a further improvement of thickness
performance, especially for
modernizations.

Heavy laser welder view to welding area

Heavy laser welder

Welder package

In-house manufacturing and testing

Siemens VAI supplies a range of welders


to handle the though requirements of
coupled pickling tandem mills and
continuous tandem cold mills:

Key components of our mechatronic


packages and other core equipment for
our mills are manufactured and tested in
the Siemens VAI workshop at Montbrison,
France.

LW21H: Laser welder capable of


processing grades up to 1,300 MPa with
no weld over thickness, with welding
flexibility over a large grade range.
FB21C: The flash-butt technology has
been very successful and is widespread
around the world. Our SIROLLCIS
Weldamatic process ensures the best
results and high flexibility with respect to
new grades.

AGC system

FB21S: This flash-butt welder with


integrated shear delivers perfect weld
geometry and minimization of the strip
break rate. DC current ensures very
smooth flashing and the possibility for
pre- and post-weld heating. Oxygen-free
and adapted weld confinement
guarantee good welding of high strength
and high carbon steel grades.

Our workshop in Montbrison, France

19

Process automation solution


Complete process control at every level

Main pulpit, voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria

Sophisticated automation concept


Technological controls and process
models are the core of any sophisticated
automation concept with the goal of
maximizing utilization of the mechanical,
hydraulic, and other positioning
elements. The control concepts have
evolved with the increasing performance
of the equipment from simple analog PI
controllers to highly complex and
interlinked control systems. These
controls and process models are an
integral part of SIROLLCIS CM. The value of
the SIROLLCIS CM concept is visible in the
rolled strip: improved gauge tolerances,
less off-gauge material, perfect flatness
to meet growing demands worldwide.
Setup and rolling directives
The core of the automation system is the
set-point calculation with the aid of the
process models and the rolling directives.
The advantages of online process models
in combination with neural networks for
20

adaptation in the process automation


system include the more accurate setpoints and easy matching of new
materials. Siemens VAI process
automation also optimizes product
quality by permitting a very high degree
of flexibility in the parameterization of
rolling directives. Rolling directives are
derived automatically from specific
material characteristics.
The process rolling models
The mechanical rolling model
Rolling force, rolling torque and forward
slip are among the technological rolling
parameters governed by the interaction
between elastic flattening of the work
rolls and vertical pressure distribution
along the strip/work-roll interface. The
differential equations associated with this
interaction are resolved within the
mechanical model. Siemens VAI opted to
develop a fast online model based on
Fleck/Johnsons noncircular arc roll-gap
theory meeting higher demands.

The yield-stress and friction model


The principal input variables for the
mechanical model are friction and
material hardness. The yield-stress model
describes the materials yield-stress as it
relates to chemical composition,
incoming hardness depending on hot
rolling history, and hardening caused by
cold rolling deformation.
The friction model describes the friction
between the strip and the surface of the
roll, taking into account all relevant
factors such as lubrication, roll-surface
roughness and strip speed.
The bending model
A bending model with online capability is
the central function for calculating the
roll-gap profile. Flattening between work
roll and supporting rolls, roll bend and
roll contour are all taken into account in
calculating roll-gap profile.
Siemens VAI uses a highly accurate FEM
method to verify the results of the fast
online model.

Rolling strategy

Process control models


Physical models

Set-up calculation
(pre-calculation)

Post-calculation

Neural networks
to adapt
physical parameters

Process
automation

Adaption

Basic automation

Measured data
acquisition

Analytic process models in combination with neural networks

The strip-temperature model


Strip temperature is modeled and
controlled for two reasons: to produce
specific material properties and to avoid
excessive lubricant temperatures that
could cause surface defects.
The strip-temperature model
incorporated into Siemens VAI process
control employs a finite-difference
method based on Fouriers equation of
heat conduction.
The roll-temperature and
roll-wear model
The roll-temperature and roll-wear model
calculates the time-dependent thermal
roll contours (roll contour diameter as a
function of axial position) of all the rolls
in a mill stand: the work rolls,
intermediate rolls and back-up rolls.
The roll contour is also affected by wear,
the second aspect factored into the rolltemperature and roll-wear model.

Process automation server

Siemens VAI has developed a special


online solution method to optimize the
tradeoff between precision and speed of
calculation.
The material flow and gap model
Material flow across the width of the strip
as it passes through the roll gap provides
the data for calculating strip flatness,
strip profile and edge drop.
The roll gap model calculates threedimensional deformation in the roll gap.
Small as it is in cold rolling, lateral flow is
an important factor in determining strip
shape, particularly at the edges of the
strip.
Speed optimization
Flexible production planning can result in
the necessity to run different process
speeds in the pickling plant and tandem
mill. Speed optimization aims to
maximize the production rate while

maintaining the high quality of the


finished strip. This function also covers
planned stops of mill sections, e.g. due to
trimming knife changes or roll changes;
measured values and signals from the
line; technological prescriptions;
individual strategies; and reaction to
detected strip defects.
Coil building
SIROLLCIS CM enables data management
and provides set-point for m to n coil
handling. An incoming coil consisting of
m welded sections can be rolled and
divided to n outgoing coils. At the end,
SIROLLCIS CM incorporates advanced cut
control for building coils. The options
include manual cutting, inspection
cutting, and jumbo-coil rolling by cut
criteria such as coil weight or coil
diameter. The ability to change target
gauges on the fly (flying gauge change)
is essential for cost-effective continuous
cold rolling.
21

Basic automation
Our controls for a perfectly running process

Electrical room with automation and drive systems

Setting the mill right at the right time


The material tracking function images the
movement of the strip through the plant
and automatically performs the following
tasks:
Supplies information on the sequence
of the individual coils and their
positions in the plant, keeping the
operator up to date by means of
graphics
Triggers the pass-schedule calculation
Assigns measured values to striprelated database

High performance automation system

A highlight of the Siemens VAI concept is


the structured, robust multivariable
coupling of gauge and strip-tension
control. Intelligent control replaces
expensive instrumentation.
The large number of low frequencies in
the typical entry-gauge error spectrum
results from the hot rolling process;
gauge control must compensate for these
errors. Roll- and coil-eccentricity
compensation systems counteract the
roll-stack and coil eccentricities within
the tandem mill itself.

Initiates transmission of data with


production control system

Special control modes in the mill exit


section

Technological control

The last two stands have the following


selectable gauge control modes:

The advanced mass flow control concept


for tandem mills, developed by
Siemens VAI controls reduction at the
individual stands, decouples the stands by
means of strip-tension controllers, and
achieves very close strip gauge tolerances.
22

Tension optimum mode A for soft and


thick strips
Tension limited mode B for hard and
thin strips

Surface optimum mode C, in which the


penultimate stand achieves the
specified exit gauge and the last stand,
assumes the function of a smoother or
skin pass stand
Automatic gauge control
Automatic gauge control implements the
software functions for each stand scaled
to suit to instrumentation:
Feed-forward and feed-back control
Mass-flow control by strip speed
metering
Roll efficiency compensation
Additional acceleration correction for
the entry bridle or tension reel
Corrective values for stand modulus CG
and material stiffness CM

Automation levels and functions in continuous pickling lines and tandem mills
Production
control

Order management
Production scheduling

Process
automation

Material data administration,


data acquisition and
logging, roll data processing

Material management
Job processing

Basic
electrical
equipment

Quality assurance evaluation


Statistics
Protocols

Pass schedule calculation and optimization,


flatness pre-adjustment, model adaption, neural
networks, dynamic program change models for
rolling, temperature, bending, roll-wear and
edge-drop control, pickling control model

Fast Ethernet
100 Mbit/sec.

Basic
automation

Storage management
Transport control

Resource management media


Consumables

Plant supervision
HMI operation
Visual display

Process data analysis


Quality data analysis

Global Data Memory (GDM)


Automatic
sequence
Coil tracking

Speed-master
Looper control
Strip tracking
Welding

Pickling process control


Tension leveller control
Turbulence and
temperature
processing

Mill Master Control


Flying gauge change and automatic
gauge control
Advanced mass flow control
Edge drop control, flatness control
Rolling modes

Automatic
sequence
Coil build up
and cutting

Automatic
sequence

Entry section pickling line

Pickling section

Mill section

Exit section

Media systems

Line drives
Single movements
Coil transportation

Acid concentration
Fe-control
Line drive and
sequencing

Main drive speed-, vector-, and


torque controls
Gap and inter-stand tension controls
Bending
Roll shifting
Roll eccentricity

Coiler drives
Single
movements
Inspection

Emulsion
Hydraulic
Lubrication
Auxiliaries

Automation levels and functions of continuous pickling lines and tandem cold mills

Strip tension control


The tandem mill stands are rigidly
coupled by the strip. The strip tension
controllers synchronize the inter-stand
sections without this feature the
powerful mill drives would break the strip
immediately. Strip tension control
comprises three different control
strategies:
Advanced mass flow rolling includes
the strip tension controller acting on
the screw-down system of the
downstream stand which affects the
pull-in-speed of the strip. So the pullin-speed of the downstream stand is
adjusted to the leaving strip speed of
the upstream stand. The model-based
tension controller adapts automatically
to material properties and rolling
conditions.

Usually the last stand in a tandem mill


is operated in the surface optimum
mode C. Since the last stand is
operated by constant roll force the
upstream inter-stand tension is
controlled by a separate tension
controller acting on the next-to-last
mill drive speed.
For restarting the mill a further tension
controller acts on the downstream mill
drive speed until the rolling speed is
sufficient for switching to advanced
mass flow rolling. This controller also
establishes the initial tension before
mill start. A new feature for which a
patent is pending applies a
superimposed control strategy which
selects the best matching tension
control strategy for each stand while a
weld-seam passes the mill.

Main benefits:
Fully automatic control of thread-in and
tail-out as well as restarts after
stoppages
Continuous rolling when handling
materials of different qualities, gauges
and widths by flying gauge change
Excellent tolerances for strip gauge and
strip flatness are possible in all mill
operating states
The operator only monitors the
automated production process; actual
operator intervention is reduced to an
absolute minimum. Operator guidance
through diagnosis

23

SIROLLCIS SIAS Surface inspection and allocation


Surface quality under control

Operator station(s)
Real time HMI, live
image display

SIROLLCIS SIAS cameras +


acquisition units

Live image display

Switch

Image acquisition and


processing

Off-line station(s)
SIROLLCIS SIAS server

Processing interface
management sequencing
and storage

Process network

System messages and communication

System administration,
calibration, commissioning.
result review

Intranet

Off line station(s) for result review

Coil report
Schema system (diagram)

Rounding out our portfolio,


Siemens VAI integrates its own surface
inspection solution SIROLLCIS SIAS
into the process automation concept.
As the market increasingly focuses on
strip surface quality, surface inspection
has become a must in new or existing
mills.
SIROLL SIAS offers the following
advantages:
CIS

Immediate detection of defects (scale,


roll marks)
Warnings for downstream process
(holes, edge cracks)
Improvement of surface quality control
practices and increased safety
Yield improvement by reduction of tailend inspection
Data available on 100% of the strip
surface quality studies

24

A surface inspection system could be


installed at the exit of the pickling
sections, behind the tandem mill or on
both locations. Identified defects are
directly assigned to the strip segments
and can be used for the overall sequence
control and downstream process steps.
As an example defects (e.g. edge cracks)
are divided into several classes and the
strip segment is then rolled under
restricted conditions.
Siemens VAI offers this inspection system
as a standalone package or as part of our
SIROLLCIS CM solution for complete
installations.

Main benefits:
Fast increase of production during the
start-up phase, which has been proven
in numerous projects
High accuracy, thanks to gained from
rolling hundreds of thousands of strips
Highly reproducible strip properties
over the length of the strip as well as
from strip to strip
For optimized product throughput,
setup is calculated to make maximum
use of installed power in conjunction
with dependable automatic routines for
the shortest possible tooling times (roll
changes, threading)

Motors and drives


Moving and controlling your product

Synchronuous motors for maximum mill utilization

Robust long-lasting motors


At Siemens, a wide range of motors
especially suitable for the harsh rolling
mill environment are available. Based on
decades of experience, the design of
Siemens motors has been continually
improved in order to withstand the rigid
forces in a rolling mill application.
Based on our low-maintenance and
reliable non-salient rotors we are able to
offer the most attractive synchronous
motors for main drive systems.
High availability and low maintenance
Compact design without fixing
elements and screw connections
Fewer electrical connections
Vacuum impregnation of whole rotor
Extremely rigid and robust design
Optimal to withstand extreme forces

Medium voltage source converter

SINAMICS Our latest converter


technology
With the introduction of the new
SINAMICS drive technology into the
rolling mill sector, Siemens offers
solutions for nearly all market
requirements, including special design
and layout for motor revamps, all
compliant with the above requirements.
SINAMICS is orchestrating a unique
change in drive technology. Based on a
single platform, SINAMICS drives combine
to form a complete and consistent drive
family that spans the entire performance
range with regard to flexibility,
functionality and engineering design.
For the rolling mill main drive, the
medium voltage source converter
SINAMICS SM150 is already operational
in several mill applications. The SINAMICS
SM150 uses low to high-speed
applications with regenerative supply.
This requires high output power, torque
and dynamic response.

Thanks to its modular design and


superior performance, the SINAMICS
S120 low-voltage converter meets drive
challenges in a very wide range of rolling
mil applications, including drives for
hydraulics, bridles, loopers and tension
reels. Whether synchronous or
asynchronous, all motors and
applications receive optimal support from
SINAMICS S120.
Transformers Key equipment for
reliability and energy consumption
Our holistic approach for the design and
layout of competitive mills considers
more than the process equipment alone.
The dimensioning of transformers is
calculated based on the installed motor
power and environmental conditions. The
overload requirements defined by the
operational process and production are
also considered, as is the impact of
energy conversion losses over the years.

25

Innovation in cold rolling


Continuous process performance

REC Roll eccentricity compensation system

Innovation as the driving force

REC new vitality in cold rolling

The name Siemens VAI stands for active


innovation leader along the entire addedvalue chain. We have a decisive
competitive advantage in the area of
R&D, not the least due to the location of
our headquarters near one of the most
modern steel production facilities. We
understand your technological needs and
the future expectations of your
customers.

Achieving narrow strip thickness


tolerances is particularly important.
Thickness variations of the final strip
arising from thickness variations in the
incoming strip are caused by forward slip
effects with an impact on the tension.
Eccentric rolls are frequently the cause of
strip thickness deviations and can reach
up to10 m.

26

Older cold rolling mill stands may be


often be affected by eccentricities of
back-up rolls and of work rolls. In the
case of back-up rolls, the source of these
disturbances is usually the shells of the
oil bearings adjusted asymmetrically via
drive keys. Thermal asymmetry or
grinding imprecision of the back-up or
work rolls can also cause eccentricities.
Since both the back-up and work rolls
(and also the intermediate roll on a
6-high stand) are usually not in pairs of
rolls with exactly identical diameters,
each roll creates oscillations with an
eccentricity frequency.

Up to now, compensation systems using


the rolling force or the strip thickness
were mainly used to address this
problem. The improved roll eccentricity
compensation system (REC) from
Siemens VAI uses not only control
variables such as measured thickness
deviations, rolling speed and rolling
force, but also the tension in front of the
stand.
Surveys in 5-stand tandem cold mills
have proven that using the REC function
in stands 1-4 reduce amplitudes of the
exit thickness fluctuations by about onethird. REC has become a standard feature
in our technological control package for
modernization projects.

Typical chatter record

Active chatter reduction


in cold rolling mills
Chatter, a self-excited vibration
phenomenon generated during the strip
rolling process, can mean very high
amplitudes and always leads to a
negative impact on the rolled product.
Coils have to be frequently rerouted or
repaired, involving high additional costs.
The chatter phenomenon is widespread
in cold rolling mills. It has been shown
that it can appear independently of the
mechanical equipment, the electrical
configuration, the product and the rolling
process. It is well known that chatter
negatively affects mill productivity,
product quality and mill equipment.

Recent Siemens VAI research conducted a


thorough analysis of the physical
mechanisms responsible for the chatter
phenomenon, especially focusing on 3rd
octave chatter.
The analysis delivered a clear picture of
the underlying physical effects. Efficient
computer-simulation models were
developed as a basis for the studies, and
various innovative solutions were
analyzed to reduce mill chatter.
Active control of chatter offers the
highest potential for reducing mill
chatter. A patented concept has now
been developed which offers a number of
promising possibilities for finally solving
the chatter problem.

27

Life-cycle management
Partnership never ends

Investigation/inspections & feasibility study


Design
Layout
Construction
Installation
Commissioning

Service contracts
Spare parts and components
Consulting and training
Online and offline
maintenance
Maintenance contracting

Consulting | Planning | Financing

Migration packages
Upgrading and
modernization

Siemens VAI Life-cycle Services


As a plant operator, you have conflicting
needs. On the one hand, your
performance is measured each quarter
against short-term profitability
expectations. On the other hand, you
have to think on a totally different
timescale compared with the capital
market. Depending on the lifetime of
your plant, you have to take 15 years or
more into account. At the very least,
thats 60 full quarters.

But thanks to our comprehensive


expertise and integrated approach to
solutions, you benefit both short-term
and long-term from our life-cycle
services.
In the short term: Backed by our
extensive experience with many
reference plants, we provide you with the
certainty of fast, dependable production
start-up and shorter amortization
periods.
In the long-term: Our master plan
guarantees competitive performance for
your plant in every phase of its life-cycle.
Whether we are providing 24/7 technical
support, optimizing maintenance, or
making permanent plant improvements,
we are always working to ensure the
cost-effective operation of your plant.
Before

28

Modernization
Fit for the future

Systematic approach for target-oriented modernizations

Putting our innovation to work for you


Modernizing cold rolling mills can be an
effective way to adapt to market
requirements and decrease conversion
costs. Siemens VAI approaches range
from incremental improvements to major
modernizations in one stage.
Strong increasing demands on product
quality and lower cost production force
cold strip producers to constantly seek
equipment improvements and more
efficient rolling operations. At a certain
point, this adaptation cannot be done by
the operators themselves in the course of
normal maintenance, and a comprehensive review has to be considered.
Generally, these targets can be
subdivided into the following parts:

...and after skin pass mill modernization,


Dunaferr, Dunaijvaros, Hungary

Siemens VAI has vast experience in


upgrading and modernization of cold
rolling mills. With a systematic approach,
we work closely with our customers to
develop a tailored modernization concept
based on their individual needs, taking all
boundary conditions fully into account.
The result is a solution that utilizes
components of the SIROLLCIS CM concept.
The solution may be purely electrical,
automated, mechanical or a combination.
Based on the selected concept, the
modernization can be carried out in
several steps or during a mill shutdown.
Siemens VAIs experience minimizes
down times and ensures a fast
production start-up and top quality.

Decrease operating costs (energy,


maintenance and consumables,
operation personnel)
Improvement of product quality
(thickness, flatness, surface)
Extension of the product mix in terms
of steel grades and dimensional range

29

Excellence from experience


Selected success stories with Siemens VAI cold rolling technology

New turn-key continuous tandem cold mill


For the production of high-quality AHSS advanced high-strength steel grades
Customer:

voestalpine Stahl GmbH, is an important supplier to the European automotive, household appliance and
construction industries. The most modern production plants allow the manufacture of high-quality cold
rolled steel strip with narrow thickness tolerances.

The task:

The constantly increasing demand of AHSS (such as TRIP, etc.) and quality standards require new
technological solutions which will be implemented in this new continuous cold rolling tandem mill.

Our solution:

This mill is designed to produce AHSS which are determined for the automobile industry.
Highest quality standards have to be met in terms of dimensional tolerances, strip surface, strip
cleanliness, strip roughness and peak counts. Prior to the decision, intensive studies were carried out by
the customer and Siemens VAI. As result voestalpine Stahl decided that the 4-high technology would fit
best to their product mix.

The result:

In April 2007 the start-up of the tandem cold mill took place. From the very first coil high-quality saleable
strip was produced. The annual capacity of this tandem cold mill is approx. 1,220,000 t.

Plant data:

The tandem cold mill is designed for a wide range of steel grades including also AHSS. Some of these
ultra-high-tensile steel grades are still under development and will be produced by means of special heat
treatment. To roll the complete product mix just one work-roll grinding per mill stand based on SIROLLCIS
Smartcrown system is necessary. Main focus of the technical layout of this mill and in particular in the
drives is on low vibrations during the rolling process.

Technical data: Width: 700-1,750 mm, thickness: 0.5-3.0 mm

30

The full scope of production facilities


Customer:

Essar Hazira, India

Type:

Turnkey cold rolling mill complex

Our solution:

Engineering and delivery of a new pickling line, 5-stand tandem


cold mill, electrolytic cleaning line, batch annealing line, skin pass
mill.

The result:

High-quality and cost-efficient production.


Annual capacity: approx. 1,450,000 t, start-up: 2006

Technical data: Width: 600-1,525 mm, thickness: 0.2-3.0 mm

The full scope of production facilities


Customer:

Mittal Steel, Sparrows Point, MD/USA

Type:

Turnkey cold rolling mill complex

Our solution:

Engineering and delivery of a new linked pickling and cold rolling


tandem mill, skin pass mill and tension leveler

The result:

High-quality and cost-efficient production.


Annual capacity: 1,480,000 t/a cold rolled strip, start-up: 2000

Technical data: Width: 5601,550 mm, thickness: 0.252.54 mm

Expanding product mix with SIROLLCIS CM 6-high technology


Customer:

Corus, Ijmuiden, Netherlands

Type:

New 4-stand, 6-high tandem cold mill

Our solution:

SIROLLCIS CM 6-high technology, linking new tandem cold mill to


an existing pickling line, new hot-dip galvanizing line

The result:

The SIROLLCIS CM solution allows the rolling of a wide range of


products from soft steel to high-strength steels of tomorrow
(up to 1,000 MPa). Annual capacity: 1,600,000 t, start-up: 2008

Technical data: Width: 700-1,650 mm, thickness: 0.3-3.0 mm

Automation and drive systems for maximum mill performance


Customer:

Wuhan Iron & Steel, Wuhan, China

Type:

5-stand tandem cold mill linked to a pickling line

Our solution:

Conversion to a continuous tandem cold mill. Design and supply


of mechanical equipment and SIROLLCIS CM automation solution.

The result:

Increase of production capacity up to 1,700,000 t/a.


Start-up: 2002.

Technical data: Width: 700-1,600 mm, thickness: 0.3-3.0 mm

31

Excellence from experience


Selected success stories with Siemens VAI cold rolling technology

Refurbishment and conversion to continuous mode


Customer:

Liuzhou ISCO, Liuzhou, PR China

Type:

5-stand, 4-high tandem cold mill

Our solution:

Relocation and upgrading of a second hand tandem cold mill. New


key process equipment is integrated in the continuous pickling line
and tandem cold mill.

The result:

First quality strip in terms of thickness and flatness.


Annual capacity: 1,400.000 t, start-up: 2008

Technical data: Width: 600-1,450 mm, thickness: 0.3-2.5 mm

Fit for future demands


Customer:

Salzgitter Flachstahl, Germany

Type:

5-stand tandem cold mill

Our solution:

Electric and automation, modernization of technological


equipment

The result:

High-quality and cost efficient production of 1,100,000 t/a cold rolled strip. Start-up: 2006.

Technical data: Width: 600-1,525 mm, thickness: 0.2-3.0 mm

Up-grade continuous TCM into a PLTCM


Customer:

Sollac Antlantique, Mardyck, France

Type:

5-stand tandem cold mill

Our solution:

Conversion to a linked pickling and cold rolling tandem mill

The result:

Extension of the annual capacity up to 2,100,000 t.


start-up: 2006

Technical data: Width: 600-1,955 mm, thickness: 0.17-3.0 mm

Optimized production with 6-high technology


Customer:

Tangshan Iron & Steel, Hebei province, China

Type:

5-stand tandem cold mill

Our solution:

New tandem cold mill linked to a pickling line. Stands 1 to 4 are


equipped with 4-high technology and stand 5 is equipped with
6-high technology.

The result:

Annual capacity of 1,500,000 t/a, start-up: 2005.

Technical data: Width: 820-1,650 mm, thickness: 0.3-2.00 mm

32

Siemens VAI competence and long-term support


Customer:

Dunaferr, Dunaijvaros, Hungary

Type:

New single-stand, 4-high reversing cold mill

Our solution:

Reversing cold mill along with a pickling line and acid regeneration
plant.

The result:

Increase of capacity, improved and more homogeneous quality


of the finished product. Annual capacity: 536,000 t/a,
start-up: 2008

Technical data: Width: 750-1,550 mm, thickness: 0.25-3.0 mm

New 6-high technology for increasing capacity


Customer:

Borcelik, Gemlik, Turkey

Type:

New single-stand, 6-high reversing cold mill

Our solution:

Reversing cold mill equipped with SIROLLCIS CM technology

The result:

Annual capacity: 450,000 t, start-up: 2008

Technical data: Width: 700-1,550 mm, thickness: 0.25-3.0 mm

For a perfect finish


Customer:

Hunan Valin Lianyuan, Loudi, Hunan Province, China

Type:

Skin pass mill

Our solution:

Single-stand, 4-high skin pass mill

The result:

Capacity: 850,000 t/a of cold rolled strip, start-up: 2005

Technical data: Width: 850-1,600 mm, thickness: 0.3-2.5 mm

Tailor-made solution for a unique product mix


Customer:

Salzgitter Flachstahl, Salzgitter, Germany

Type:

Skin pass mill

Our solution:

New 2-stand, 4-high skin pass mill for extremely soft to extremely
hard materials

The result:

Production of 900,000 t/a of high-quality cold rolled strip


Start-up: 2003

Technical data: Width: 800-1,895 mm, thickness: 0.3-3.5 mm

33

Completely Integrated Solutions with Siemens VAI


Integrated offerings for higher plant performance

Higher availability
Measurable process improvement

Greater productivity
Integrated information technology

Reduced life-cycle costs


Maximum protection of your investment

Optimized processes

Efficient production control

Maximized life-cycle returns

We lay the foundation for optimized


processes with proven, leading products
worldwide, including mechanical and
technological engineering for metal
production, rolling and strip processing
as well as process control engineering,
drive engineering and power supply. Integrated online and offline process models
reflect decades of practical experience
and help to ensure reliable, reproducible
quality.

A further factor for competitive production is the quality of information processing. Production data must be consolidated and compared with planning data
to ensure optimal production flow.

Services from Siemens VAI help to ensure


high profitability for your plant throughout the entire life-cycle. Reliable project
implementation by our specialists sets
the course for quick start-up and repayment of funds as scheduled.

Our process engineering expertise fuses


these products into complete plant solutions that also accommodate the upstream
and downstream processes. These solutions are the basis for optimal resource
use, minimized waiting times and reduced
maintenance and spare parts costs, as
well as wide flexibility with respect to raw
materials and the resulting products.

34

As a leading supplier for the metals industry Siemens VAI offers integrated information technology across all automation
levels from the technological equipment to the Enterprise Resource Planning
system. Patented solutions, such as for
iron and steelmaking, hot-rolling,
cold rolling mills or processing lines,
enable systematic quality assurance, efficient logistics, flexible production planning and scheduling, end-to-end tracking
and tracing from raw materials to the end
product and back, and much more.

During the operating phase, preventive


maintenance, standardized components
and component design that meets the
requirements of rolling mill operators
help keep maintenance costs low. A reliable spare parts supply with in-house
workshops for key components ensures
high availability. And modernization at
the right time guarantees a high level of
competitiveness and compliance with environmental regulations in the future.

Completely Integrated Solutions offer


a comprehensive range of products
and services, tailored and refined to the
specific requirements of your plant.
The key to this approach is the close interlinking of plant construction, process
engineering, electrical and automation
engineering, sensors and actuators, as
well as information technology and
life-cycle services, seamlessly integrated
by Siemens VAI.
Perfect integration of every aspect

Completely Integrated Solutions


from Siemens VAI your benefits
from an integrated concept:
K High quality, lower energy costs and increased
throughput by taking all process steps into account
K Reproducible high product quality and efficient
use of materials processed thanks to online
process models and sophisticated technological
controls
K High enterprise quality, low life-cycle costs and
unique investment protection through flexible
production based on intelligent plant design,
integrated production planning and maintenance
support

35

For further information,


please contact:
Siemens VAI
Metals Technologies GmbH & Co
P.O. Box 4, Turmstr. 44
4031 Linz, Austria
Phone: +43 732 6592-76809
E-mail: coldrollingmill.metals@siemens.com
The information provided in this brochure
contains merely general descriptions or
characteristics of performance which in
actual case of use do not always apply
as described or which may change as
a result of further development of the
products. An obligation to provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if
expressly agreed in the terms of contract.

Siemens AG 2008.
All rights reserved.
SIROLL is a trademark of Siemens AG
CIS = Completely Integrated Solutions

www.siemens-vai.com

Order No.: E10001-M4-A2-V3-7600


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Dispo No.: 21661 K-No.: 28104
SPS SVAI-08-00085 WS 09081.5
Subject to change without prior notice