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In telecommunications, the term gateway has the following meaning:

In a communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with

another network that uses different protocols.
o A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance
matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as
necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the
establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between
both networks.
o A protocol translation/mapping gateway interconnects networks with
different network protocol technologies by performing the required
protocol conversions.
Loosely, a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a
gateway. For a specific case, see default gateway.

Gateways, also called protocol converters, can operate at any network layer. The
activities of a gateway are more complex than that of the router or switch as it
communicates using more than one protocol.
Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host
nodes, while the nodes that connect the networks in between are gateways. For example,
the computers that control traffic between company networks or the computers used by
internet service providers (ISPs) to connect users to the internet are gateway nodes.
In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also
acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both a
router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway,
and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given
On an IP network, clients should automatically send IP packets with a destination outside
a given subnet mask to a network gateway. A subnet mask defines the IP range of a
private network. For example, if a private network has a base IP address of
and has a subnet mask of, then any data going to an IP address outside of
192.168.0.X will be sent to that network's gateway. While forwarding an IP packet to
another network, the gateway might or might not perform Network Address Translation.
A gateway is an essential feature of most routers, although other devices (such as any PC
or server) can function as a gateway. A gateway may contain devices such as protocol
translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal
translators as necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the
establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between both networks.
Most computer operating systems use the terms described above. Microsoft Windows,
however, describes this standard networking feature as Internet Connection Sharing,
which acts as a gateway, offering a connection between the Internet and an internal

network. Such a system might also act as a DHCP server. Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol used by networked devices (clients) to obtain various
parameters necessary for the clients to operate in an Internet Protocol (IP) network. By
using this protocol, system administration workload greatly decreases, and devices can be
added to the network with minimal or no manual configurations.

A WAP gateway sits between mobile devices using the WAP protocol and the World
Wide Web, passing pages from one to the other much like a proxy. This translates pages
into a form suitable for the mobiles, for instance using the Wireless Markup Language
(WML). This process is hidden from the phone, so it may access the page in the same
way as a browser accesses HTML, using a URL (for example,, provided the mobile phone operator has not specifically
prevented this.

is a piece of software that typically

sit on a telecoms carriers network and
perform the specific function of
translating plain text WML in binary
WML and binary HTTP requests into
plain text HTTP Requests.

WAP Gateway

Looking at it from the WAP device's side,

since a WAP device can only understand
WML in its tokenized/compiled/binary
format, the function of the WAP gateway
is to convert content into this format.
Looking at it from the HTTP server's side,
the WAP gateway can provide additional
information about the WAP device

through the HTTP headers, for instance

the subscriber number of a WAP capable
cellular phone, its cell id and even things
like location information.
WAP Gateway was the key element of any
internet system connected to the wireless
network. It ensured the connection and
conversion of information between WAP
devices and the web server. WAP
Gateways were required for this
conversion as cellphones were not
powerful enough to render and process
web-pages built for desktop browsers.
However recently with the advent of
powerful cell phones and smart-phones
having big screens, fast processors and
lots of memory, the Mobile devices,
without any sort of limitation, can directly
serve the web-pages and content in same
form as a desktop browser so WAP
gateways are quickly losing importance in
carrier networks.

Most newer cell phones don't even require

a carrier network for accessing www as
they can directly hookup to a home or
office WLAN for connecting to the
Transcoding is the direct digital-to-digital
data conversion of one encoding to
another,[1] such as for movie data files or
audio files. This is usually done in cases
where a target device (or workflow) does
not support the format or has limited
storage capacity that mandates a reduced
file size,[1] or to convert incompatible or
obsolete data to a better-supported or
modern format. Transcoding can be
performed just while files are being
searched, as well as for presentation. For
example, Cineon and DPX files have been
widely used as a common format for
digital cinema, but the data size of a twohour movie is about 8 terabytes (TB).[1]

That large size can increase the cost and

difficulty of handling movie files.
However, transcoding into a JPEG2000
lossless format has better compression
performance than other lossless coding
technologies, and in many cases,
JPEG2000 can compress images to halfsize.[1]
Transcoding is commonly a lossy process,
introducing generation loss; however,
transcoding can be lossless if the input is
losslessly compressed and the output is
either losslessly compressed or
uncompressed.[1] The process of lossy-tolossy transcoding introduces varying
degrees of generation loss. In other cases,
the transcoding of lossy to lossless or
uncompressed is technically a lossless
conversion because no information is lost,
however the process is irreversible and is
more suitably known as destructive.
List of Web Protocols

Protocols establish a mode of communication for computer systems across the

Internet. Computers use protocols as a sort of language to talk to each other
through small packets that contain data sent to and from one point. Protocols layer
on top of each other sometimes to establish much more complex communication
capabilities. Such protocols include Internet Protocol which HTTP wraps around.

Internet Protocol

Your computer has an address which identifies it in the Internet or on your

local network. To connect to the Internet without conflicts, your computer
must be assigned a unique IP address from a switch. This address
contains anywhere from four (32-bit) to 16 (128-bit) bytes, depending on
the IP version. IPv4 supports up to four billion addresses while IPv6
supports a much larger amount, accounting for the growing number of
Internet cone ctions available globally.


Not only does your computer need to identify itself on the Internet, but it
also needs to communicate. Applications that communicate across the
web use either the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram
Protocol (UDP). Using TCP, a computer connects to a server and
negotiates before establishing communication. This method has much
stricter rules than UDP. To use UDP, a computer simply transmits packets
without asking any permission for connection. This can prove dangerous
because of malicious people who wish to attack a server without
establishing any connections.

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When you open your website on your browser, your computer interprets
what it reads through the HTTP protocol. This protocol basically negotiates
with the web server what kind of browser you use and what it can transmit.
Your browser then sends replies and reads data the server sends. This
protocol wraps around TCP and IP, giving a perfect example of a wrapping


The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol gives computers an IP address

corresponding to an assignable range in the DHCP server's index. This
kind of communication occurs when your computer connects to the
Internet and requests an IP address. This configuration protocol wraps
around a form of UDP communication. Without this protocol, you wouldn't
have any ability to communicate properly on the web, as you wouldn't
have an IP address.

Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such

as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer.
Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G).
B2B (Business to Business) Branding is a term used in marketing.
The volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume
of B2C transactions.[1][2][3] The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain
there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and
only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer.
For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying
tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a
finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction.
B2B is also used in the context of communication and collaboration. Many businesses are
now using social media to connect with their consumers (B2C); however, they are now
using similar tools within the business so employees can connect with one another. When
communication is taking place amongst employees, this can be referred to as "B2B"
Business-to-employee (B2E) electronic commerce uses an intrabusiness network which
allows companies to provide products and/or services to their employees. Typically,
companies use B2E networks to automate employee-related corporate processes.
Examples of B2E applications include:

Online insurance policy management

Corporate announcement dissemination
Online supply requests
Special employee offers
Employee benefits reporting
401(k) Management


B2E (Business2Employee or Business-toEmployee)

B2E is business-to-employee, an approach in which the focus of business is the
employee, rather than the consumer (as it is in business-to-consumer, or B2C) or other
businesses (as it is in business-to-business, or B2B). The B2E approach grew out of the
ongoing shortage of information technology (IT) workers. In a broad sense, B2E
encompasses everything that businesses do to attract and retain well-qualified staff in a
competitive market, such as aggressive recruiting tactics, benefits, education
opportunities, flexible hours, bonuses, and employee empowerment strategies
A B2E portal has three distinguishing characteristics:

A single point of entry: one URL for everyone within an organization.

A mixture of organization-specific and employee-defined components.
The potential to be highly customized and easily altered to suit the particular